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Abstract

We have performed the interaction analysis of cigarette smoke carcinogens with the enzymes involved in DNA repair mechanisms. Cigarette smoke’s derivatives like 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) are well known carcinogens. The binding efficiency of carcinogens with enzymes obtained from docking methods were ranging from +36.96 to −7.47 kcal/mol. Binding efficiency was characterized for the enzymes sharing equivalent or better interaction as compared to positive control. Also we have analyzed the interaction pattern of NNK and NNAL with DNA. The present study suggests that NNK and NNAL may alter the DNA repair machinery that could initiate the progression of tumor leading to cancer. Computational method explores the toxicological characteristics of these enzymes and also opening an opportunity for researchers.

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Nanotechnology, a science dealing with particles at nano scale, is currently used in many fields including environmental management and medicine for welfare of human being. The economic development and quality of life have been improved through nanotechnology. The Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other toxicants have higher affinity to scaveng by nanopartilces. The structural properties and surface chemistry of nanoparticles are the players, further, extremely high surface area to volume ratio results in multiple enhancement of many beneficial properties. Hence, we have followed a methodology to compare the binding efficiency of nanoparticles and cigarette smoke carcinogens with selected enzymes involved in DNA repair pathways. The molecular interactions have been accomplished using PatchDock server and interestingly got significant interacting results for our hypothesis. PatchDock results showed nanoparticles could be able to trap cigarette smoke carcinogens efficiently in the cellular system. The highest obtained binding efficiency between 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) versus Single wall carbon nanotube (SWcNT) is 2632 score in contrast with NNK versus Human MDC1 BRCT T2067D in complex (PDB ID: 3K05) shows 2454 score, which means NNK could interact with SWcNT more efficiently than 3K05. Another part of the study shows that the highest binding efficiency 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) versus SWcNT = 2746 score and NNAL versus Titanium dioxide (TiO2) Rutile = 2110 score in contract with NNAL versus Human Thymine DNA Glycosylase(PDB ID: 2RBA) shows 1696 score. It is also signified that NNAL interact with SWcNT and TiO2 rutile more efficiently than 2RBA. The results clearly signifying that SWcNT/TiO2 are binding with NNK/NNAL more efficiently than biomolecules.
Article
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The incidence of lung adenocarcinoma has been remarkably increasing in recent years due to the introduction of filter cigarettes and secondary-hand smoking because the people are more exposed to higher amounts of nitrogen oxides, especially 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone(NNK), which is widely applied in animal model of lung tumors. In NNK-induced lung tumors, genetic mutation, chromosome instability, gene methylation, and activation of oncogenes have been found so as to disrupt the expression profiles of some proteins or enzymes in various cellular signal pathways. Transgenic animal with specific alteration of lung cancer-related molecules have also been introduced to clarify the molecular mechanisms of NNK in the pathogenesis and development of lung tumors. Based on these animal models, many antioxidant ingredients and antitumor chemotherapeutic agents have been proved to suppress the NNK-induced lung carcinogenesis. In the future, it is necessary to delineate the most potent biomarkers of NNK-induced lung tumorigenesis, and to develop efficient methods to fight against NNK-associated lung cancer using animal models.
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The transplacental tumorigenicity of the tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) was assessed in three strains of mice: A/J; C3H/He x C57BL/6 F1 (hereafter called C3B6F1); and Swiss outbred [Cr:NIH(S)]. NNK (100 mg/kg) was administered i.p. on Days 14, 16, and 18 of gestation to A/J and C3H/He mice and on Days 15, 17 and 19 of gestation to the Swiss mice. The effects of postnatal treatment with tumor-promoting agents, including 0.05% sodium barbital in the drinking water until death or a single dose of Aroclor 1254 (a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls, PCB) given on Postnatal Day 8 or 56, were also examined. Progeny were sacrificed at age 24 wk (A/J) or 72 wk (C3B6F1 and Swiss). Significant incidences of tumors occurred in the lungs of strain A/J progeny and in the livers of male C3B6F1 and Swiss progeny. Lung tumor incidence was 8 of 34 (24%) in the female offspring of the A/J mice treated with NNK, compared with 1 of 39 (3%) in controls (P less than 0.05). A 2-fold difference in lung tumor incidence in male offspring of NNK-treated (4 of 23, 13%) versus control (3 of 48, 6%) A/J mice was not of statistical significance. However, the incidence of lung tumors in NNK-exposed progeny A/J mice in both sexes combined (12 of 66, 18%) was also significantly greater than in controls (4 of 87, 5%). The incidence of liver tumors in the male C3B6F1 mice exposed transplacentally to NNK was 12 of 30 (40%) compared to 8 of 46 (17%) in controls (P less than 0.05). No effects of postnatal sodium barbital or PCB were observed on transplacental NNK tumorigenicity in C3B6F1 mice. The combined incidence of liver carcinoma in male mice in all NNK-treated groups (13 of 141, 9%) was significantly greater (P less than 0.05) than in controls (5 of 144, 3%). In male Swiss mice exposed transplacentally to NNK, the incidence of liver tumors was 3 of 57 (5%) compared to 0 of 35 controls, and postnatal treatment with PCB on Day 56 caused a significant increase (5 of 26, 19%) (P less than 0.05) in the incidence of NNK-induced liver tumors. The combined incidence of liver tumors in the male offspring of the Swiss mice treated with NNK, with or without PCB, was 8 of 83 (10%) which was significantly greater (P less than 0.05) than in controls (0 of 66).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
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The devastating link between tobacco products and human cancers results from a powerful alliance of two factors - nicotine and carcinogens. Without either one of these, tobacco would be just another commodity, instead of being the single greatest cause of death due to preventable cancer. Nicotine is addictive and toxic, but it is not carcinogenic. This addiction, however, causes people to use tobacco products continually, and these products contain many carcinogens. What are the mechanisms by which this deadly combination leads to 30% of cancer-related deaths in developed countries, and how can carcinogen biomarkers help to reveal these mechanisms?
Chapter
Cigarette smoking is the major cause of lung cancer, the largest cancer killer in the world. This chapter discusses the role of cigarette smoke carcinogens as causes of lung cancer. A general mechanistic framework is presented, in which cigarette smoke carcinogens and their metabolically activated forms cause mutations in critical growth control genes, along with other effects. Evidence and unresolved issues for the role of various groups of carcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrosamines, volatile organic compounds, and metals as causes of lung cancer are discussed. An overview of inhalation studies of cigarette smoke in laboratory animals is also presented. Collectively, the massive studies on carcinogenesis by cigarette smoke and its constituents provide a firm base for understanding the mechanisms of human lung carcinogenesis.
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The molecular docking tools Autodock and Surflex accurately reproduce the crystallographic structures of a collection of small molecule ligands that have been shown to bind nucleic acids. Docking studies were performed with the intercalators daunorubicin and ellipticine and the minor groove binders distamycin and pentamidine. Autodock and Surflex dock daunorubicin and distamycin to their nucleic acid targets within a resolution of approximately 2 A, which is similar to the limit of the crystal structure resolution. However, for the top ranked poses, Autodock and Surflex both dock ellipticine into the correct site but in a different orientation compared to the crystal structure. This appears not only to be partly related to the symmetry of the target nucleic acid, as ellipticine is able to dock from either side of the intercalation site, but also due to the shape of the ligand and docking accuracy. Surflex docks pentamidine in a symmetrically equivalent orientation relative to the crystal structure, while Autodock was able to dock this molecule in the original orientation. In the case of the Surflex docking of pentamidine, the initial rmsd is misleading, given the symmetrical structure of pentamidine. Importantly, the ranking functions of both of these programs are able to return a top pose within approximately 2 A rmsd for daunorubicin, distamycin, and pentamidine and approximately 3 A rmsd for ellipticine compared to their respective crystal structures. Some docking challenges and potential pitfalls are explored, such as the importance of hydrogen treatment on ligands as well as the scoring functions of Autodock and Surflex. Overall for this set of complexes, Surflex is preferred over Autodock for virtual screening, as although the results are comparable, Surflex has significantly faster performance and ease of use under the optimal software conditions tested. These experiments show that molecular docking techniques can be successfully extended to include nucleic acid targets, a finding which has important implications for virtual screening applications and in the design of new small molecules to target therapeutically relevant morphologies of nucleic acids.
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DNA was isolated from tissues of K344 rats 24 h after treatment by s.c. injection with [5-3H]4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone ([5-3H]NNK) or [5-3H]N′-nitrosonor-nicotine ([5-3H]NNN) It was hydrolyzed with acid or at pH 7,100°C, and the hydrolysates were analyzed by HPLC. The major product in each case was Identified as 4-hydroxy-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone, formed by hydrolysis of a DNA adduct. It was detected in DNA from the livers of rats treated with [5-3H]NNK or [5-3H]NNN, and in DNA from lungs of rats treated with [5-3H]NNK. These results demonstrate that 4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobutylation of DNA occurs in rats treated with NNK or NNN, and are consistent with the hypothesis that these nitrosamines are metabolically activated by α-hydroxylation.
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Damaged DNA can be repaired by three different mechanisms: photoreactivation, excision repair and postreplication repair. Each mechanism is regulated by a highly specific set of enzymes. Defects within these systems result in diseases which have one common feature: affected individuals are cancer prone. Recently, newly developed methods not only make it possible to diagnose affected patients but also to detect individuals at risk. Furthermore, the results obtained elucidate some mechanisms of carcinogenesis. Clinical applications are discussed.
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In the U.S., there has been a steeper rise of the incidence of lung adenocarcinoma than of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung among cigarette smokers. Since 1950, the percentage of all cigarettes sold that had filter tips increased from 0.56 to 92% in 1980 and to 97% in 1990. The tobacco of the filter cigarettes is richer in nitrate than that of the nonfilter cigarettes manufactured in past decades. Because the smoker of cigarettes with lower nicotine yield tends to smoke more intensely and to inhale the smoke more deeply than the smoker of plain cigarettes, the peripheral lung is exposed to higher amounts of nitrogen oxides, nitrosated compounds, and lung-specific smoke carcinogens. It is our working hypothesis that more intense smoking, deeper inhalation of the smoke, and higher smoke delivery of the organ-specific lung carcinogen NNK to the peripheral lung are major contributors to the increased risk of cigarette smokers for lung adenocarcinoma. Bioassay data and biochemical studies in support of this concept are discussed.
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AutoDock 2.4 predicts the bound conformations of a small, flexible ligand to a nonflexible macromolecular target of known structure. The technique combines simulated annealing for conformation searching with a rapid grid-based method of energy evaluation based on the AMBER force field. AutoDock has been optimized in performance without sacrificing accuracy; it incorporates many enhancements and additions, including an intuitive interface. We have developed a set of tools for launching and analyzing many independent docking jobs in parallel on a heterogeneous network of UNIX-based workstations. This paper describes the current release, and the results of a suite of diverse test systems. We also present the results of a systematic investigation into the effects of varying simulated-annealing parameters on molecular docking. We show that even for ligands with a large number of degrees of freedom, root-mean-square deviations of less than 1 A from the crystallographic conformation are obtained for the lowest-energy dockings, although fewer dockings find the crystallographic conformation when there are more degrees of freedom.
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The complexity of tobacco smoke leads to some confusion about the mechanisms by which it causes lung cancer. Among the multiple components of tobacco smoke, 20 carcinogens convincingly cause lung tumors in laboratory animals or humans and are, therefore, likely to be involved in lung cancer induction. Of these, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone are likely to play major roles. This review focuses on carcinogens in tobacco smoke as a means of simplifying and clarifying the relevant information that provides a mechanistic framework linking nicotine addiction with lung cancer through exposure to such compounds. Included is a discussion of the mechanisms by which tobacco smoke carcinogens interact with DNA and cause genetic changes--mechanisms that are reasonably well understood--and the less well defined relationship between exposure to specific tobacco smoke carcinogens and mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Molecular epidemiologic studies of gene-carcinogen interactions and lung cancer--an approach that has not yet reached its full potential--are also discussed, as are inhalation studies of tobacco smoke in laboratory animals and the potential role of free radicals and oxidative damage in tobacco-associated carcinogenesis. By focusing in this review on several important carcinogens in tobacco smoke, the complexities in understanding tobacco-induced cancer can be reduced, and new approaches for lung cancer prevention can be envisioned.
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Background The objective of this study was to summarize the published literature concerning the epidemiology of lung cancer. Methods A narrative review of published evidence was conducted, identifying and summarizing key reports that describe the occurrence of lung cancer in populations and factors that affect lung cancer risk. Results In the United States, lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death in both men and women, even though an extensive list of modifiable risk factors has long been identified. The predominant cause of lung cancer is exposure to tobacco smoke, with active smoking causing most cases but passive smoking also contributing to the lung cancer burden. Conclusions The reductions in smoking prevalence in men that occurred in the late 1960s through the 1980s will continue to drive lung cancer mortality rates downward in men during the first portion of this century, but rates in women have not yet begun to decrease. Fortunately, exposures to major occupational respiratory carcinogens have largely been controlled, but the population is still exposed to environmental causes of lung cancer, including radon, the second leading cause of lung cancer death.
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In the United States, the 20th century witnessed the emergence of a lung cancer epidemic that peaked and began to decline by the century's end, a decline that continues today. However, lung cancer continues to be an unabating pandemic. In research carried out over the last half of the 20th century, many factors were causally associated with lung cancer and studies were implemented to identify determinants of susceptibility to these factors. Cigarette smoking was identified as the single most predominant cause of the lung cancer epidemic, but other causes were found, including workplace agents (eg, asbestos, arsenic, chromium, nickel, and radon) and other environmental factors (passive smoking, indoor radon, and air pollution). Contemporary epidemiologic research on lung cancer now focuses on a new set of issues, primarily related to susceptibility to the well-identified causal factors, particularly smoking, and on the consequences of changes in tobacco products for risks to smokers. Diet and the possibility of reducing risk through chemoprevention remain a focus of research emphasis through experimental and observational approaches. Questions have also been raised about possible differences in susceptibility to lung cancer by sex and race. Population patterns in smoking prevalence will continue to be the most powerful predictor of the future occurrence of lung cancer. Evaluation of recent US patterns in smoking prevalence indicates that for the next approximately 10 to 15 years, lung cancer rates will decrease, but will then level off starting in approximately 2030. Unless further reductions in the prevalence of cigarette smoking are achieved over the next decade, lung cancer will remain as an all too common, but avoidable, disease.
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The authors describe the development and testing of a semiempirical free energy force field for use in AutoDock4 and similar grid-based docking methods. The force field is based on a comprehensive thermodynamic model that allows incorporation of intramolecular energies into the predicted free energy of binding. It also incorporates a charge-based method for evaluation of desolvation designed to use a typical set of atom types. The method has been calibrated on a set of 188 diverse protein-ligand complexes of known structure and binding energy, and tested on a set of 100 complexes of ligands with retroviral proteases. The force field shows improvement in redocking simulations over the previous AutoDock3 force field.
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The JC virus (JCV) infects a large proportion of the population world wide and can cause progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy in the context of immunodeficiency. Recent reports provide evidence that it may also be oncogenic. Here, JCV was examined by targeting its T-antigen in lung carcinomas (n=103) and normal lung tissues (n=18) by nested-PCR followed by Southern blot, real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and in situ PCR. Additionally, expression of Ki-67, caspase-3, beta-catenin, p53, and Rb was analysed by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays of lung carcinomas. Copy numbers of JCV were compared with clinicopathological features. Normal lung tissue was positive significantly less frequently, and contained a lower copy number of JCV than lung carcinomas (p<0.05), and copies were lower in lung adenocarcinomas than in squamous, small or large cell carcinomas (p<0.05). In situ PCR and immunolabelling revealed JCV positivity in the nuclei of lung carcinoma cells. The JCV copy number correlated closely with sex, and expression of Ki-67 and membrane beta-catenin (p<0.05), but not with age, tumour size, pleural invasion, lymph node metastasis, expression of caspase-3, cytoplasmic beta-catenin, p53 or Rb, prognosis, smoking or cancer family history (p>0.05). Age and UICC staging were independent prognostic factors for lung carcinoma patients. These data suggest that JCV may be involved in lung carcinogenesis, especially in tumour types other than adenocarcinoma. Lung carcinomas with higher JCV copy numbers display high proliferation and down-regulation of cell adhesion mediated by membrane beta-catenin.
Epidemiology of lung cancer: looking to the future
  • Aj Alberg
  • Mv Brock
  • Jm Samet
Evaluation of the transplacental tumorigenicity of the tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone in mice
  • L N Anderson
  • S S Hecht
  • D E Dixon
  • LN Anderson