Article

From pedestrianisation to commercial gentrification: The case of Kadıköy in Istanbul

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Abstract

Through the implementation of pedestrianisation projects, it is possible to create economically competitive and liveable urban areas, while the security and attractiveness of city centres are significantly increased by the improved accessibility provided by these schemes. After pedestrianisation, likely increases in property values can be interpreted positively; on the other hand, pedestrianisation, if necessary precautions are not taken, can also produce unwelcome consequences. When a pedestrianisation scheme achieves success, property prices rise, and small businesses (if they are tenants rather than owners) may fail to keep up with the inevitable rental increases. Despite increased sales, small businesses, many of whom supply distinctive goods or services, may have to leave the area because they cannot afford these increased costs. In this context, the aim of this article is to analyse the economic effects of a pedestrianisation scheme located on the Asian side of Istanbul, in Kadıköy historic centre and retail zone, by focusing on changes in retail structure during the post-pedestrianisation period. The project began in 2004 and was completed in 2009. Research in the area was conducted in 2014, and has a tripartite structure: a before and after land-use analysis to identify changes resulting from the pedestrianisation project, a survey involving pedestrians and shopkeepers, and interviews with the Association of the Retailers of the Kadıköy Historic Centre. Our research has shown that in the case of Kadıköy historic centre, the success of the pedestrianisation scheme has created a dilemma, namely the replacement of many smaller older businesses with domestic and international chain-stores or eating/drinking facilities as a result of increased shop rents, which entail particular problems for the majority of shopkeepers, who are tenants. Consequently, this has begun to introduce homogeneity into a richly diverse mixture of shops. The current situation might become a major problem if those existing shops which maintain the image and identity of the area are substantially displaced by ‘outside’ retailers who can afford the increased rents. This development is not however an immediate consequence of pedestrianisation, but rather a side-effect of improvements in the local physical environment, and increased economic activity. Awareness of this potential outcome of the pedestrianisation process should therefore oblige planning authorities to take preventive measures to protect the diversity of small individual shops, and hence save the image (and long-term economic future) of the pedestrianised area.

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... Reflection of urban heritage, commercial and social character of the port city (Samadi, Yunus, Omar, & Bakri, 2015). (Özdemir & Selçuk, 2017). ...
... al., 2018b), (Samadi et al., 2015) Public Amenities 0: absent 1: available Availability of toilets, garbage bins and security units. (Özdemir & Selçuk, 2017), (Samadi et al., 2015), (Azmi & Karim, 2012) Public open spaces 0: absent 1: available / accessible 2: available / accessible / connected ...
... The availability of creative mobility connecting the sectors. (Serra-Coch et al., 2018b), (Meetiyagoda, 2018), (Özdemir & Selçuk, 2017), (Samadi et al., 2015) Effect of informal activities 0: low effect 1: Moderate 2: extreme effect ...
Conference Paper
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The "Sabil", the historic charitable water storage outlet, is a significant building typolo-gy of particular architectural as well as urban influences upon the Medival Cairo. According to the literature review, the Sabil played a vital role in providing order and measure to the organic urban fabric. Unfortunately, most of the recent rehabilitation projects targeting Sabils were not conscious to reveal its urban role in relation to the surrounding historical settings, and in some cases, it had lost this bond after rehabilitation. The study aims to investigate this hypothesis by exploring the endogenous urban measure of the Sabil and understand its potentials in guiding the rehabilitation of the cultural landscape, in Historic Cairo. Hence, the study selected Al Muizz Street as a reference spine in order to detect this hidden urban dimension. After achieving a sequence of site visits documenting the social and physical features distinguishing the street, the study compiled a geospatial database for the pedestrian spine using the Geographic Information System (GIS). The Sabil buildings were validated as the repetitive nuclei of similar urban units of the same type, represented through nine sectors related to the distance between one Sabil to the other. Thus the study investigated these sectors by constructing an assessment matrix based on previous frameworks, models and criteria assessing the qualities of urban heritage. It includes a number of quantitative as well as qualitative parameters assessing the main features of the pedestrian spine in relation to the existing Sabils. These parameters established a GIS spatial model documenting and assessing the nine different sectors, in order to detect the optimum one succeeding in identifying the Sabil as the nucleus of an urban unit. Finally, the paper concludes by stating a number of modifications and design recommendations related to every parameter , in order to promote the selected sector as an urban unit defined by the Sabil building as its nucleus. The present research supports decision makers, heritage conservationists and experts in developing integrated approaches to heritage protection in the context of sustainable development.
... In this study, the commercial district in Yeon-nam dong, which once was a residential area, is used as a case study to understand the commercialization process in these two contexts. Moreover, there has been growing concern to explore changes in the urban environment due to gentrification based on spatial considerations, not restrained from the previous trend which is based on the existing sociodemographic perspective [6,10,13,24,25]. There is a need, therefore, for an empirical study to consider urban spatial change along with commercial gentrification. ...
... In principle, a newly commercialized area with a demonstrable emergence of commercial stores can be located in two different regions. The first one is the region where passenger volume increases through the government's urban projects, such as construction of linear green parks and the project Sustainability 2020, 12,4322 3 of 17 of pedestrianization [6,24]. The second one is regions where several trendy cafés and restaurants are located based on low property value and rent, such as an old marketplace and the neighborhood commercial areas for local residents [4,17,25]. ...
... On one hand, many scholars substantiate that an urban project provides an open space for pedestrians, increases pedestrian volumes, and also boosts the commercial activities of nearby regions [19,24,[26][27][28]. In the recent times, urban open spaces, especially linear green parks, have become a popular trend, such as New York's High line [29], Boston's Bigdig [30], Atlanta's Beltline [31], and Seoul's Cheonggye stream restoration [6]. ...
Article
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Commercial gentrification has had a significant impact on the urban environment, particularly in leading to the upscaling and expansion of food and beverage (F&B) commercial activities. F&B commercialization and proliferation has emerged from (a) the borders of newly provided urban open space and (b) seed points where small-sized commercial areas had already been formed. However, few studies have simultaneously explored the commercialization process of these different contextual sub-regions over a relatively long time period. This study of Yeon-nam district, Seoul, aims to demonstrate empirically (1) how the F&B commercial stores have been distributed over the past decade and (2) which of the factors that are the spreading center of the F&B store is the critical factor. Using kernel density estimation, the study discovered that the old–residential district has been entirely transformed to an F&B commercial district since the Gyeong-ui Line Forest Park opened in the district. Furthermore, through the analysis of standard deviational ellipses, we empirically verified that F&B commercialization was more substantial in the seed region. Based on the findings, policy recommendations for urban planning and design, especially urban gentrification management and regeneration, are provided.
... Yet, previous studies analyzing residents' perceptions have concluded that, in areas of intense tourism activity, the commercial structure shifts towards a more tourism-oriented offer (Carvalho et al., 2019;Cócola-Gant, 2018). This change is perceived as having a negative impact on residents' quality of life in several ways: by causing a lack of consumption facilities and services frequented by long-term residents (Ananian et al., 2018;Bertocchi & Visentin, 2019;Postma & Schmuecker, 2017), by eroding the social bonds between local commerce and the community (Zukin et al., 2009), and by degrading the place identity (Özdemir & Selçuk, 2017). ...
... Furthermore, the touristification of the commercial structure of a neighborhood usually yields the growth of global franchises (Cócola-Gant, 2018;Prytherch et al., 2009) and a standardization of the urban landscape. These changes convert the neighborhood in a copy of any other global tourist area (García-Hernández et al., 2017), and leads to a loss of the neighborhood's identity and sense of place (Blázquez-Salom et al., 2019;Özdemir & Selçuk, 2017). In fact, Pinkster and Boterman (2017) note that Amsterdam Canal district's residents believe that the tourism-led commercial transformation undermines their neighborhood and contributes to losing the authenticity of the area. ...
Article
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The expansion of accommodation establishments in an urban area might bring about a transformation to its commercial structure to meet tourists' needs. This can result in the loss of the area's identity, jeopardize its authenticity, and worsen the residents' quality of life. Yet, beyond some anecdotes which currently dominate the policy debate, no empirical evidence exists identifying which specific businesses abound around accommodation establishments. This paper proposes to fill this gap by estimating in Barcelona the degree to which each commercial sector appears to be geographically coagglomerated with the accommodation industry. Barcelona seems to be an appropriate case of study since it has already shown signs of the touristification of the commercial sector in neighborhoods that comprise most of the tourist accommodation offer. The results of this study allow identifying the particular commercial sectors that most and least coagglomerate with accommodation establishments; and show that tourism-oriented sectors tend to colocate with accommodation establishments, whereas residential-oriented ones do not follow this pattern. These results might help design policies aimed to preserve neighborhoods' identities and community resilience in tourist cities.
... We refer to these approaches as "critical," as they derive from critical research in urban studies (Brenner, 2009), in their explicit focus on social, political, and economic relations, as well as on urban regimes and regulatory frameworks shape particular transport policies and practices (Addie, 2013;Aldred, 2012;Farmer, 2011). This involves studying the uneven distribution of transport-related costs and benefits in economic, political or symbolic terms (Ahmed et al., 2008;Lucas, 2012;Pereira et al., 2017), identifying political economic choices that underpin "sustainable" tools such as pedestrianisation Özdemir and Selçuk, 2017). Finally, it entails studying the process in which "sustainable" transport projects are conceived and implemented. ...
... It further conforms to the logic of prioritizing supply-side interventions aimed at improving market conditions for investors, and the attempts of various urban actors to "re-brand" and "re-imagine" their cities by seeking "fast solutions" and "policies-that-work" (Marsden and Stead 2011), of which pedestrianisation is an important example. The resultant standardization of policy models and the ever-increasing mobility of transport policy "fixes" and "fads" is inversely related to the rather slow circulation of knowledge about potential socio-spatial costs they may generate Özdemir and Selçuk, 2017;Reigner et al., 2013). ...
Article
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The contemporary urban transport debate is increasingly versed in terms of “sustainable” development, placing social and environmental issues on the agenda. However, despite their heterogeneity, sustainable perspectives seldom engage with the explicitly political issues that shape the relationship between transport and urban development. In this paper, we propose to re-connect urban transport with political economic considerations, and thus to mobilise and strengthen “critical” perspectives on urban transport. We develop a framework for studying transport policies inspired by Henri Lefebvre's conceptualisation of “the right to the city”. The framework is illustrated with the empirical example of a “pedestrianisation” project in Brussels, a salient case of a “sustainable” transport policy. We demonstrate how ostensibly progressive intentions in terms of challenging local mobility paradigms do not necessarily translate into participative and transformative practices. Instead, they often embrace the established policy-makers, leave local power relations largely unaltered, support elite entrepreneurial agendas, and obfuscate the socio-spatially uneven landscapes of contemporary cities. We thus highlight the urgency of re-politicising urban transport theory and practice by seeking and revealing political economic choices, contradictions and conflicts that underpin transport policies interwoven with urban development dynamics.
... What was being measured, and how it was being measured, remained case specific. A growing number of studies on retail gentrification in the last decade (Gonzales and Waley 2003;Hall 2011Hall , 2015Hubbard 2017;Mermet 2017;Ozdemir and Selcuk 2017;Sullivan and Shaw 2011;Zukin et al. 2016) have paid increasing attention to the central role of retail in neighborhood change. They have not, however, addressed the need for developing a rubric of methods that can be deployed across various case studies to measure commercial gentrification. ...
... Utilizing city directories, both Ley (1996:301-2) and Bridge and Dowling's (2001:98-99), quoted above, traced changes in "retail types," "major goods and services," or "composition of establishments," distinguishing between categories, such as retail, food, service, vacant, entertainment, business, housing, and community. Other studies deploy tailored versions of business composition analysis to determine existing retail adaptation (Hall 2011), shifting retail mix as a measure of gentrification (Mermet 2017), and noting retail mix alongside vacancy rates (Ozdemir and Selcuk 2017). Mermet (2017Mermet ( :1167 proposed utilizing shifting retail mix as a classification of retail gentrification, similar to the idea of waves of retail change suggested by Zukin and Kosta (2004). ...
Article
This article presents the case for utilizing business directories in building commercial gentrification indexes as tools for research on neighborhood change. It reviews several existing methods of capturing retail change within the growing literature, codifies them as the boutique index, the food index, and the ethnic index, and discusses methodological issues that emerge in building them. A comparative case study of two Little Italies in NYC employs multiple indexes to reveal that the food index––rather than ethnic index––provided the key variable in understanding how consumption practices marked different trajectories of neighborhood change. Whereas the sociological literature on gentrification has primarily relied on socioeconomic indicators and housing data, changing retail landscapes have been understudied and measuring commercial gentrification remains a site‐specific, ad‐hoc endeavor. To overcome this gap, the article calls for methodological standardization across different sites to increase attention to the role of commercial spaces in accounts of gentrification.
... El principal de estos efectos secundarios surge a partir del incremento en el valor de las propiedades inmobiliarias que estas transformaciones urbanas generan (Hass-Klau, 1993;Sandahl y Lindh, 1995;Comertler, 2007). Dicho aumento provoca inexorablemente una subida en el precio de los alquileres de los locales comerciales, y consecuentemente una expulsión o desplazamiento del pequeño comercio tradicional e independiente y una permanencia o aparición de aquellos negocios que sí pueden permitirse el aumento de renta -franquicias, grandes cadenas y multinacionales- (Rankin, 2008;Wong, 2014;Özdemir y Selçuk, 2017). Este cambio en el comercio favorece, por tanto, procesos de exclusión, gentrificación y segregación socio-espacial, que terminan derivando en una pérdida de diversidad, identidad y complejidad de los centros urbanos. ...
... Como ya se referenciaba en la Introducción de este trabajo, son numerosos los autores que han identificado y estudiado los impactos negativos que también pueden implicar los proyectos de regeneración del espacio público que fomentan el desplazamiento a pie, especialmente en los casos de peatonalizaciones en los centros históricos (Hass-Klau, 1993;Sandahl y Lindh, 1995;Sanz, 1998;Comertler, 2007;Rankin, 2008;Wong, 2014;Hickey, 2015;Özdemir y Selçuk, 2017). ...
Article
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Resumen Los proyectos de transformación urbana que fomentan la prioridad peatonal suponen notables mejoras en la calidad del espacio público y la movilidad sostenible, y por tanto, en condiciones ambientales, sociales y económicas. Sin embargo, si no se toman las precauciones necesarias en su implementación, también pueden terminar generando indeseables consecuencias, como la expulsión y el desplazamiento del pequeño comercio tradicional, sustituido por franquicias y multinacionales, debido principalmente al incremento de valor inmobiliario del área transformada. Este modelo consolida, inevitablemente, procesos de exclusión, gentrificación y segregación socioespacial, que impulsan la pérdida de diversidad, identidad y complejidad en los centros urbanos. Ante la inexistencia de estudios que precisen estos impactos en la ciudad de Madrid, surge esta investigación, con el fin de cuantificar y cualificar los efectos generados por las priorizaciones peatonales sobre comercio y servicios a pie de calle en los principales ejes comerciales de la ciudad. Para ello, se registran y analizan, sincrónica y diacrónicamente, las actividades económicas del zócalo comercial de nueve ejes madrileños durante el período 2008-2018. Se termina verificando que dichas transformaciones han sido determinantes en la desaparición del comercio tradicional, principalmente en condiciones de mayor centralidad y de peatonalizaciones completas. Abstract Urban transformation projects encouraging pedestrian priority represent improvements in the quality of public spaces and sustainable mobility, and therefore, in environmental, social and economic conditions. However, if preventive measures are not taken in its implementation, they end up generating undesirable results, like the expulsion and displacement of small traditional retail shops, being replaced by franchises and multinational stores, which mainly derives from the increase in value of real estate properties in transformed areas. This model inevitably consolidates processes of exclusion, gentrification and socio-spatial segregation, which drives into a loss of diversity, identity and complexity in urban centers. In the absence of studies that specify these impacts in the city of Madrid, this research emerges, in order to quantify and qualify the effects caused by pedestrian prioritization on the commercial sector and services at street level in the main commercial areas of the city. To this end, all the economic activities of nine commercial axes have been registered and analyzed, synchronously and diachronically, in the period 2008-2018. Finally, it is verified the implication of these urban transformations in the disappearance of traditional retail shops, mainly in conditions of greater centrality and full pedestrianizations.
... In this sense, the literature on the benefits of pedestrianisation in health, transport, environment and economic and social perspectives for a historical centre is very extensive, although its effect on the increased prices of housing and commercial units is also recognized. This can drive some residents away and cause the closure of more traditional shops (Özdemir & Selçuk, 2017). ...
Article
The historical centre of the city of Toledo (Spain) was declared a World Heritage City by UNESCO in 1986. Since then, it has lost almost a quarter of its population in favour of the city outskirts, outside the city walls. There are a number of reasons for this population abandonment. Like many cities around the world which share the similar characteristics of being a popular tourist attraction with a historical centre, Toledo is threatened by the same problems: gentrification, loss of shops for residents in favour of tourist shops, tourist rental properties still without effective regulations, and so on. A greater proportion of the older population live in the historical centre compared to outside the city walls and the proportion of children continues to decrease. This article analyses this situation in detail, offering alternatives for its recovery. The main novelty of the manuscript is the proposal of a higher level of citizen participation than there is to achieve the objective of population recovery, with collaboration among citizen associations, residents and local authorities.
... Other qualitative approaches are opening up the study of "emotional, affective, and experiential geographies of gentrification" (Linz, 2017, p. 138). Less commonly, mixed methods approaches combine quantitative measures of change over time with on-the-ground qualitative data (Hwang & Sampson, 2014;Özdemir & Selçuk, 2017) that expresses the complex social dynamics at play. Even mixed-methods studies, though, retain the retrospective limitations of ex post facto research designs. ...
Article
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In this paper, we link the tools of critical cartography and cognitive mapping with more traditional gentrification studies in order to capture in situ the shifts associated with nascent processes of change in bodies, environment, and minds in Vallcarca, a liminal gentrifying neighbourhood of Barcelona, Spain. We ask: How do the simultaneous and conflicting ways that people shape, perceive, and respond to gentrification processes affect how space and place are politicized within global urbanization processes? We build our maps through an analysis based primarily on listening to a diverse range of residents and constructing with them a combined cartography of the perceived type, degree, and location of changes in the neighbourhood. The results reveal an important dual role for greening and tourism, a differential geography of perceived gentrification risk across different social groups, and a limited reach in terms of who perceives gentrification. These results have important implications for how space and place are politicized and de-politicized and offer guidance useful to grassroots efforts to combat gentrification and displacement.
... Measures that are considered sustainable from a transport perspective may contribute to real estate speculation, low-income resident displacement (Lin & Chung, 2017;Sandoval, 2018) and, more widely, to gentrification (Tang, 2017b;Zukin, 2009). Specifically, pedestrianisation has been suggested as increasing the pressure on downtown working-class neighbourhoods in the case of Bruxelles (Kębłowski et al., 2019), and has been associated with the phenomenon of commercial displacement in the case of Istanbul (Özdemir & Selçuk, 2017). Recent research suggests that pedestrianisation projects in Asian cities, such as Shanghai and Taipei, mostly implemented as part of wider renewal projects, constitute means for real estate value increases (H.-C. ...
Article
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Pedestrianisation, the conversion of a vehicular street for pedestrian use, is increasingly being proposed worldwide as a sustainable measure by hegemonic powers. Pedestrianisation can bolster uneven urban development patterns, however social tensions can magnify on the pedestrianised street, where deprived social groups claim the right to the city. This study employs a mixed method approach to examine, within a de Certeausian theoretical framework, the relationship between the governmental strategies promoting pedestrianisation and the tactics of pedestrianised space informal appropriation. Within this context Hong Kong emerges as a revelatory case, it is a city where the extreme scarcity of public open space exacerbates the conflict between social groups interested in this resource. The analysis provides evidence of a discrepancy between expected and actual uses of the pedestrianised streets. Furthermore, this study highlights the need in the context of the global neoliberal city for discussing the theoretical dichotomy of strategies and tactics. This paper argues for pedestrian planning which includes stationary use as a main pedestrianisation objective, as well as for responsive urban design that carefully considers the association between behavioural patterns and spatial features of the pedestrianised street.
... Ultimately, if in-store retail 32 remains on the center, but substitution, and car induced shopping to the periphery occurs, this will lead to 33 a foreseeable problem in trying to maintain street vitality at the center. Other authors have focused on the 34 subject of maintaining street vitality while implementing pedestrianisation schemes, finding that, though 35 these measures promote safety and liveability (a more intense use of the public space), they also enhance 36 commercial gentrification (59). And even by implementing one or other version of town center revival 37 measures (Town Centre Management structures or others (60)), in historical centers like the one of Toledo, 38 ...
Article
The steady growth of online shopping in the last decades has led to an impact on personal travel and on freight transport that is yet to be fully grasped. Previous research on the subject offers mixed findings, with several studies pointing to complementarity between online and in-store shopping, while others suggest substitution, modification, or neutrality. Using data from a 7-day shopping survey in Lisbon, Portugal, which involved 400 respondents, this paper applies structural equation modeling to explore the relationships among online shopping and in-store shopping preferences, while also considering the period of the week in which the purchases took place, since it is expected that the interaction between shopping and other personal travel behavior varies between weekdays and weekends. The result shows that online shopping preference leads to more online purchases, while in-store shopping preference leads to more in-store purchases. Furthermore, online shopping on weekdays has a positive association with both online and in-store shopping on weekends, which supports a complementarity effect. This effect is linked to a younger population, which commutes by car, and lives in less central areas. Since deliveries are becoming increasingly faster, while living centrally is becoming progressively more difficult, complementarity might give way to substitution, with the foreseeable challenges to maintaining street vitality, if this issue is not addressed timely by policymakers.
... À Barcelone, par exemple, dans un secteur prochainement piétonnisé, la ville a créé une zone protégée en matière de débits de boissons. Cette prise en compte a priori des potentiels impacts économiques et temporels des opérations de piétonnisation peut limiter le développement des conflits d'usages pendant les heures nocturnes et éviter des processus de gentrification commerciale (Özdemir, Selçuk, 2017). D'autres villes développent des réflexions sur la possibilité de concentrer l'offre nocturne dans des zones non résidentielles, comme à Lisbonne, tandis que Genève développe une offre résidentielle tournée vers les étudiants dans les polarités nocturnes (Pieroni, 2017). ...
Article
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L’évolution des loisirs nocturnes a été explorée dans sa relation avec les processus de déréglementation des activités commerciales et avec des évolutions des modes de vie. Cependant, le rôle joué par les transformations dans la production de la matérialité de la ville, et en particulier de l’espace public, reste relativement peu interrogé. À partir des cas de Montpellier et de Lisbonne, cet article montre que les conflictualités associées au développement des loisirs nocturnes relèvent de plusieurs impensés et ambiguïtés dans la prise en compte des usages et de leurs temporalités dans la production urbaine, notamment des espaces publics. Ce faisant, l’article montre comment la nuit peut être un espace-temps privilégié pour analyser certaines des ambi- guïtés et contradictions qui caractérisent les politiques de revitalisation des centres historiques des villes européennes.
... Despite policy language that promotes sustainability as a way to increase equity, however, governments tend to exclude social justice from the implementation process, instead favoring economic growth when selecting locations for investment (Agyeman, Bullard, and Evans 2002). Therefore, livable streets investment is primarily made in affluent city neighborhoods or, when made in poorer areas, tends to contribute to gentrification by attracting economic development and the economically privileged (Özdemir and Selçuk 2017;Stehlin 2015). ...
Article
Mexico City is rapidly building livable streets (i.e., streets redesigned to accommodate pedestrians, cyclists, and public space users). Livable streets are justified by decision makers as investments to increase urban equity yet tend to reinforce socioeconomic stratification through their location in wealthy and/or gentrifying neighborhoods. Using semi-structured interviews, policy reviews, and participant observation, this article documents Mexico City’s livable streets investments from 2007 to 2018 focusing on their uptake through global networks of knowledge. It argues that livable streets are part of a competitive city economic development strategy fitting comfortably into a planning system that favors neighborhoods with the most economic potential.
... ] so can be defined as a government-assisted gentrification project", or Lim et al. (2013) that uncovered how an urban regeneration project in Seoul's central business district led to an increase of prices and to retail gentrification. A similar conclusion was drawn by Ozdemir and Selçuk (2017) in their study of the impacts of pedestrianisation and other improvements performed in the district of Kadıköy, in Istanbul. ...
Article
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This article explores recent transformations in retail in Lisbon. We analyse a gentrified traditional retail market located in Campo de Ourique, Lisbon and study the relationship between this retail precinct and the surrounding commercial fabric. Through a set of enquiries on local retailers, our findings show an absence of relationship between the market and the remaining shopping district, insofar as Campo de Ourique market can be designed as a fortress. There is a social implication of this finding in the sense that the gentrification of the traditional retail market is severely detrimental to the local population quality of life. In terms of policy implication, this article demonstrates that this kind of project produces different results from some well-known retail-led urban regeneration projects and, as such, should not be used as a benchmarking for other areas.
... Proposals like the creation of green roofs, green walls and the pedestrianization of small side roads are suggested so as to create a homogenous acoustic environment (Castillo-Manzano et al. 2014). According to recent findings, the proposed pedestrianisation is beneficial for both, the local physical environment, and the local economic activity (Özdemir and Selçuk 2017). As seen in Image 5, the implementation of green roofs and green walls are proposed in order to minimize the structural barrier effects, regarding the movement of the avifauna. ...
Article
The degree of functional and structural connectivity of landscapes is a critical issue that could be associated with numerous ecological processes at various scales, in rural and urban environments. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the ecological connectivity of two quiet areas in the city of Mytilene (Greece), using the DPSIR (Driving force-Pressure-State-Impact-Response) framework, which focuses on the description of environmental problems. The application of the DPSIR framework provided feedback regarding the urban acoustic environment of the two quiet areas. Two maps were created with the purpose of assessing impact of road traffic noise on the two quiet areas: a noise map, using the CadnaA software and an acoustic complexity map using the free open source QGiS software. The noise level measurements and the Acoustic Complexity Index were statistically analyzed. The results showed a strong negative correlation due to background traffic noise, diminishing the complexity of the acoustic environment. Furthermore, the results are exploited to develop plans addressing the structural and functional connection of Mytilene's quiet areas. In conclusion, recommendations are provided so as to preserve urban quiet areas, promoting ecological connectivity and limiting the negative effects of noise on human health and the environment.
... However, with redevelopment and new urban form come new social patterns and relationships. For example, mom-and-pop retail might be replaced by larger and more upscale condos with franchise retail and posh eateries serving a small subset of the population (Özdemir and Selçuk 2017) and catering principally to a consumptive culture (Zukin 1993). The imperfectbut relatively affordableliving spaces in older buildings might be replaced by modern, standardized and much more expensive apartments or lofts. ...
Article
Evolution of the urban planning and historic preservation disciplines has resulted in an “uneasy alliance” in practice, one further complicated by the back-to-the-city movement and increased development pressure in older urban neighbourhoods. In Seattle, as in other U.S. cities, the pace, intensity and scale of redevelopment has caused dramatic spatial and social transformations. Although research has shown that older built fabric provides economic and social benefit for cities, neither regulations created by planners for guiding redevelopment nor strategies created by preservationists for retaining urban heritage have been successful in reconciling these different, yet interconnected, sets of values. We engage three Seattle neighbourhood case studies to clarify and evaluate policies, programs and strategies used by planners and preservationists for reimagining neighbourhood transformations. This work suggests a need for more creative, integrative collaboration between the two fields to simultaneously engage – and reconcile – social and economic tensions caused by urban redevelopment.
... In the Soviet and Russian context this has been referred to as the "ecology of culture" (Likhachyov 2014(Likhachyov /1984Chertkovskaya 2019). Because urban planning produces uneven development, the pedestrianisation of streets and investment in urban mobility infrastructures can lead to, or mirror, existing injustices (Pearsall and Anguelovski 2016;Özdemir and Selçuk 2017;Trubina 2020). Furthermore, blending the language of economic growth with sustainability can obscure political-economic tensions and conflicts embedded in urban planning regimes (Kębłowski, Van Criekingen, and Bassens 2019). ...
Article
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The city of Moscow has been going through a transformation of its surface transport network during the past decade as part of a broader policy of urban beautification. Despite a renewed interest in public transport, this policy has led to the dismantling of the trolleybus system. This was met with resistance from various groups. Bringing together scholarly discussions on urban growth coalitions and on degrowth, we repoliticise urban mobility policies and put the entangled issues of ecological sustainability and social justice at the centre of the analysis. To do this, we outline a degrowth vision of urban mobility and introduce the concept of ecosocial justice, through which the case is analysed. Our results show that the trolleybus dismantlement increases biophysical throughput, compromises Moscow’s ecology of culture, and is rooted in injustices, not least because Moscow authorities have ignored the many objections and alternative proposals put forward by residents. However, opposition groups paid limited attention to procedural injustices and to the configuration of Moscow’s political economy. This was a limitation of the campaign, but suggests possibilities for repoliticising urban mobility policies at other sites of resistance.
Article
With this research, we aim to identify built environmental components of retail districts that affect pedestrian behaviors and influence their shopping behavior. We conducted GPS experiments to observe visitors' choice of walking route—pedestrian volume and visit duration—and the questionnaire survey to obtain their records of shopping on where and how much they spent in the Sinchon retail district of Seoul, South Korea. We then employed a path analysis to assess the causal relationship between the built environment, walking behavior, and shopping behavior. We found that pedestrians prefer streets with safety from vehicles, high design quality; higher hierarchy, centrality, and provision of resting places or other street amenities; and that all of these variables also increase pedestrian's visit duration and induce spending at stores on the street. This study would provide design guidelines to municipalities or private retailers looking to revitalize retail districts through environmental improvements.
Article
Introduction This article proposes a low-cost approach that transport authorities can use to evaluate small-scale active travel interventions, including estimating health economic benefits from uptake of walking and/or cycling. Methods Themethod combines post-intervention intercept surveys with the re-use of routinely collected count data. While inferior to more robust, longitudinal methods, the approach represents good value use of primary and secondary data at a far lower cost, for interventions unlikely otherwise to be evaluated at all. It makes use of government-supported tools that estimate physical activity health benefits from increased active travel. Findings The article describes an example in which a residential street was closed to through motor traffic, which led to a decline of 90% in motor traffic volume and uplift in pedestrian and cycle counts. This example is exploratory in nature due to sample size (124 respondents). The intercept survey of pedestrians and cyclists found uplift in perceived quality of the local environment across various indicators. Results suggested that around a third of the increase in pedestrian and cycle counts post-scheme represents new journeys, mainly via mode shift, with most of the remaining two-thirds being diverted journeys. This information is used alongside the before-and-after count data to estimate new cycling and walking trips induced by the route improvement. Finally, the article estimates the health economic benefit resulting from increased physical activity, of approximately £500,000 over 20 years. Conclusions The article demonstrates a method for estimating active traveluptake and associated health benefits for smaller schemes. If applied over a number of schemes, the results could then be used to create an evidence base that could be used in assessing possible benefits of future schemes.
Article
Ever since the Gezi Park protests in Istanbul in the summer 2013, defending and reclaiming the city parks, market gardens, public squares, and urban forests has become a mainstream act of defiance and a symbolic rejection of an intensifying authoritarianism, neoliberal urbanism, and exclusionary planning practices. Growing interest in the mobilizing capacity of the emerging urban-environmental imaginary, however, has not remained exclusive to the opposition. Rather than dismissing the critique entirely, the governing Justice and Development Party (AKP) has most recently embraced the politics of urban greenery and strived to mold it in its own image. This article focuses on the contentious politics of urban greenery in Istanbul and examines how the city's green public spaces have come to proxy a larger struggle over the future of Turkey. By discussing the possibilities, challenges, and limits of the politics of urban greenery, this article examines how the government has attempted to absorb an emerging urban-environmental objection into its fold. To do so, the article traces the genealogy of Istanbul's park politics in the last decade and most specifically focuses on the latest iteration of the urban greenery frenzy: the Gardens of the Nation. By studying how this nationwide urban greenery drive has been designed, promoted, discussed, inaugurated, and used, this article provides an account for the critical role green aesthetics play in conjuring up alternative environmental imaginaries and communities against the backdrop of a populist authoritarian climate.
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With the rapid growth of automobile transport over the last century, conflicts between automobile and pedestrian transport have been viewed as a major concern in urban and transport planning. Elevated and underground pedestrian networks, which compensate for sidewalks at the street level and provide alternative options for pedestrians, have been developed in many cities. Elevated and underground pedestrian networks offer pedestrian–car separation in a vertical dimension and efficient connections between transit services and cities for subway passengers. This study aims to provide a balanced understanding of the development of underground pedestrian networks and propose supportive strategies for decision makers, planners, and designers concerned with the future implementation of underground pedestrian networks and the building of three-dimensional pedestrian networks in cities. The study applied textual analysis to examine the topic. The study indicated that three-dimensional pedestrian systems were developed based on historical precedents. It highlighted important considerations (such as dense cities, disaster mitigation and protection, and urban functions) in developing underground pedestrian networks in cities. Furthermore, it discussed significant aspects in planning and designing such networks, including safety, ease of orientation, and convenience. The paper also discussed policy implications in developing underground pedestrian networks and the building of three-dimensional pedestrian networks in cities.
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This study adopts two levels of comparative urban analysis to investigate the current role played by Sabil buildings as nuclei for sustainable urban rehabilitation in Al-Muiz Street, Fatimid Cairo, Egypt. The study is tackled from an urban touristic approach to promote linear and diffused mobility. Hence, Linear Urban Mobility Analysis divided the linear spine into nine sectors based on Sabil locations. These varied in densities, activities, services, social behaviour and opportunities. They were compared based on a matrix including quantitative and qualitative parameters reflecting the existing urban conditions, and were added to an ArcGIS ModelBuilder to develop a spatial assessment model. Then, for a Diffused Urban Mobility Analysis, three proposed itineraries were compared using validated software programs to scrutinise their urban and environmental qualities. The results present a pilot study for promoting sustainable urban mobility in historic cities based on Sabil buildings contextual settings.
Article
Walkable places are valuable assets in cities. They have advantages over vehicle-oriented spaces in terms of economic, social, health, energy and environmental perspectives. Walk-only precincts (WoP) have been built in various parts of the world with different degrees of success. City size, and all the urbanization and planning implications that it brings, is not the main determinant to build WoP, as these can be found in large as well as small and medium size cities in Asia, Europe and the Americas. However, small and medium size cities are increasingly burdened by the appearance of new commercial centers elsewhere, a lack of funding for urban design and programmatic improvements, and limited spirit of initiative by current precincts' stakeholders. Using the Commercial Revitalization Vibrancy (CRV) theory, this paper compares and contrasts WoP in three pair-wise large and small cities: Shanghai (China) and Macau (SAR of PRC), Lisbon and Figueira da Foz (Portugal), and New York City and Miami Beach in the United States. Field work was conducted in all cities during the last decade and a half. Three conclusions and key findings for the success of this type of precincts are distilled.
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This chapter investigates walking mobility as an element of modal split on the example of cities of Warsaw and Gdynia (Poland). Research methodology presents a real challenge in trying to establish the precise share of walking in urban modal split. Whilst the methods applied in defining and measurements of mechanised trips have an established presence in the transport economics, the measurement of walking mobility is not as simple. The results vary not only because of the nature of cities (their size, spatial, demographic and socio-economic and natural features) but also because of methodology being used to measure walking trips. The chapter identifies main challenges of measurement of walking mobility, focusing on results of different research methods. The comparison was made using the case study of two cities in Poland conducted in 2015. Conclusions are of practical and methodological importance for future research of sustainable mobility policy.
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Transport users frequently face the dilemma of maximizing the utility of usage of two resources—time and money in relation to the transport services. The perceived value of the transport services for passengers is the result of what they have received in relation to the costs of transport service. It expresses the concept of generalized cost, which includes financial costs, time costs, discomfort, and other elements that can be perceived in general by the user as costs. The chapter presents the generalized cost on the example of selection of private car and public transport. Car users, while comparing the ability to move by car or by public transport, often do not take into account the full cost of car ownership and usage. While in urban transport homogeneous rates for different tariffs are adopted, whereas in the case of individual transport costs are not limited to the fuel price. The concept of generalized cost is presented in the chapter, based on market research carried out in Szczecin and the proposed method of calculating these costs in transport.
Article
Asian cities have increasingly been promoting the creation of walkable built environments as a catalyst for local economic development in global competition. However, the economic influences of pedestrianization are still debatable without sufficient quantitative assessments in Asia's commercialized cityscape along with mega-rail projects, high-rise buildings, and traffic-choked streets. This research examines the net capitalization effects of skywalk network and pedestrian zone schemes on office towers and retail streets using the case of Hong Kong. The sets of hedonic regression models in a quasi-experimental research framework show mixed results. The expansion of skywalk networks produced positive capitalization effects on podium-level office units connected by footbridges near metro rail exits, while having insignificant impacts on street-level retail units. The models also reveal that the implementation of pedestrian zone schemes generated insignificant capitalization effects on street-level retail units regardless of rail proximity. The evidence gives some credence to the notion that the creation of walkable built environments in Asian cities would contribute to capital accumulation through mega-rail plus international office tower projects. However, the findings also infer that pedestrianization initiatives in global competition would lead to neither commercial revitalization nor gentrification on local retail streets around metro rail stations.
Article
New York, like many US cities has recently seen gentrification in previously industrial dominated neighborhoods. As a result, urban streets in the affected neighborhoods must now accommodate a range of street uses, including walking, cycling, and commercial vehicle trips. Through mapping, spatial analysis, and development of collision frequency models in two case study areas located in the Brooklyn and Queens Boroughs of New York City, this project aims to identify the built environment factors that affect collision frequencies and to understand if gentrification has any significant effect on local street safety. Results of this project can inform policy and planning decisions for street design, land use decisions, traffic control, and curb management decisions.
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Urban spaces on ware a response to the transcendent human need in the city. In recent decades, the idea of pedestrian orientation has been proposed in order to make cities viable and help improve the quality of urban spaces. These movements were an idea to make cities more humane, revitalize the centers and revitalize the city. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the pedestrian characteristics in the Saf (Sepahsalar) as an objective example of an urban pedestrian with 30Tir Street, which has a quasi-pedestrian nature in the central district of Tehran. Two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to compare the difference in satisfaction with the pedestrian status. Other methods include non-parametric comparison of two independent groups and Croxall-Wallis test. Sequential regression was used to measure the satisfaction of pedestrian status. The results showed that the level of citizens' satisfaction with the studied indicators on the 30 Tir is higher than the Saf pedestrian. Men were also more satisfied with pedestrian status than women. However, no significant difference was observed for the gender group on the 30 Tir . Pedestrian status for age groups in both cases did not show a significant difference. The results showed that among the studied variables the 30Tir is weak only in the human scale variable, which is due to the car crossing this pedestrian. While Saf pedestrian is weak in variables such as nightlife, urban furniture, diversity and aesthetics, and due to the commercial nature of its use, its economic situation is declining.
Article
Making retail areas stable and sustainable is critical for all stakeholders. Stability can be indicated by the survival rate defined as the percentage of not closed stores out of the total stores in the retail area. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the spatial characteristics of retail areas on their stability. To achieve this aim, we calculated the survival rate of businesses for retail areas in Seoul and established the ordinary least squares and spatial regression model to simulate stability. The analysis was conducted by dividing the model into survival rates for all stores, franchise stores, and nonfranchise stores, assuming that retail area characteristics could be applied differently, depending on whether the store was a franchise store. The explanatory variables were the official types of retail area, the retail diversity index difference, franchise proportion difference, daytime population ratio, business duration, change in official land price rate from 2015 to 2019, and the Seoul district dummy variables. The study shows the following three results. First, spatial autocorrelation exists at the Gu level of Seoul, indicating a tendency to cluster but having a mutually competitive pattern at a smaller regional unit. Second, except for the change in the official land price, all explanatory variables show a significant correlation with the dependent variable. Third, we confirm that the retail area characteristics have a more significant influence on the stability of the nonfranchise store, and the entry of franchise stores reduces the stability of the nonfranchise store. This study is valuable, as the cross-sectional analysis reveals the characteristics that make a retail area a more stable urban space.
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For decades, the human dimension has been omitted from and haphazardly applied in urban planning. While the city has accommodated daily increases in the number of vehicles and the low prioritization of public spaces, efforts have been made to design it as a meeting place for people. Recently, city planning has begun to devote great attention to the human dimension, social aspects, and the efficiency of urban places. Different cities have made huge efforts to rediscover their public spaces and high-quality environments for people by reducing parking and traffic in central areas and calling for “pedestrianization.” In 1975, Monheim first defined “pedestrianization” by describing it as limiting a street to pedestrians’ use. Thus, the pedestrianization process can be defined as removing/restricting vehicles from/in a specific area and devoting it to pedestrian use only. It is worth mentioning that selecting a suitable area for a successful pedestrianization project is a critical and sensitive task. It involves a large number of different overlapping criteria. Ignoring such criteria would lead to unsatisfactory results and wasted funds. Three perspectives influence the selection of streets for pedestrianization. First is the architectural view of the street as a physical structure that makes possible a better space environment; second is the commercial view of the street as a place for commercial activities and shops; last is the social view of the street as a place for social meetings and interactions. Thus, two types of aspects contribute to the performance of pedestrianized spaces: spatial and social aspects. These types of aspects can be involved in formulating the new term, “place syntax,” to replace “space syntax.” This highlights the two common types of aspects instead of focusing solely on the spatial one. The present research considers the new term in its proposal of a comprehensive methodology to help upgrade the selected area (space) into a place. The proposed methodology brings together in an entire framework appropriate measures that correspond to each aspect. It employs space syntax with spatial analysis and different social measures of place theory. “Port Said city,” an old heritage sample, is chosen for the application of the proposed methodology. Afterwards, the methodology requires the addition of a new measure, “availability of implementation,” if the results are equal at the end of the basic stages of analysis.
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This paper focused on place attachment and its significance in defining place identity with reference to three main shopping streets in the city center of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Place identity refers to the identification of emotion and feelings to a particular place and the distinctive characteristics of the place in which human-place bonding is developed. The weakening of place identity has been identified as one of the urban design issues for contemporary cities. This paper identified the issues concerning place identity; concepts of place and place attachment constructs, the identification of place attachment constructs and place attributes that could be used as assessment indicators for future redevelopment of local urban places. A questionnaire survey and interviews were conducted to examine place attachment and to identify the characteristics of the places that exerted influence and would then benefit in terms of securing place identity which in turn sustained attraction and thus brought greater economic and tourism advantages to the city. Keywords: Place, Attachment, Identity, Kuala Lumpur City Centre. © 2017 The Authors. Published for AMER ABRA by e-International Publishing House, Ltd., UK. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). Peer–review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers), ABRA (Association of Behavioural Researchers on Asians) and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, UniversitiTeknologi MARA, Malaysia.
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Earlier studies found that the implementation of traffic calming measures, including pedestrianisation, will reduce traffic speeds and accidents and thus make the streets safer and more pleasant places to be. The current study, conducted in Khao San Rd, Bangkok, Thailand, has shown that traffic calming can also have a positive economic benefit for the retailing and commercial community by increasing sales volumes. Furthermore, as indicated by increased property/rental values and business activity as well as by the preference of consumers as expressed in surveys, the liveability of the area is also improved. The current study also found that retailers were positively inclined towards further pedestrianisation in the area.
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Building activities in urban centres involving pedestrianisation are never bereft of controversy. In this paper we shall look at the methodology applied by the Authors in the Valdemoro case (a town of around 60,0)0 inhabitants located within the metropolitan area of Madrid) in order to evaluate the economic impact on the local area of the pedestrianisation programme which has been planned and is currently being carried out in stages as part of the Sustainable Mobility Plan to which the town adheres. Firstly, a benchmarking was undertaken in which different experiences of pedestrianisation were assessed, and through the application of a Delphi method results analysis, management and expert groups were able to decipher the responses. Secondly, a specific market study was undertaken in the Valdemoro area through contacts with local trading associations, people from the business world to quantify the specitic impact which this type of constmction might have. Contacts were made with conunercial representatives in the town: trade associations and guilds, business centres, the local Chamber of Commerce, The Central Traders' Association, and which are others as yet unspecified. Taking into account what has been mentioned beforehand and the benchmarking results, an assessment is made using a model which allows us to: Perform recommendations on which businesses to develop. Evaluate the impact on the area as a whole. Detect the most widely affected businesses. To fix the conditions to guarantee success from the economic vi point of the pedestrianisation programme. The application and results of this innovative methodology are shown below. (C) 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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There are ways to quantify the value of walking (the activity) and walkability (the quality of walking conditions, including safety, comfort, and convenience). Walking and walkability provide a variety of benefits, including accessibility, consumer cost savings, public cost savings (reduced external costs), more efficient land use, community livability, improved fitness and public health, economic development, and support for equity objectives. Yet current transportation planning practices tend to undervalue walking. More comprehensive analysis techniques are likely to increase public support for walking and other nonmotorized modes of travel.
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Place attachment contributes to the making of place identity. This paper focuses on place attachment and its significance in defining place identity of the main shopping streets in the city centre of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A questionnaire survey and interviews were conducted to examine place attachment and place characteristics that influence it. This paper contributes in identification of place attachment constructs and place attributes that can be used as assessment indicators for future redevelopment of local urban places. It will benefit in securing place identity therefore, sustain attraction that will bring greater economic and tourism advantages to the city.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to study empirically the effect of a pedestrianisation scheme on retail rent, in a case study in Hong Kong. Design/methodology/approach – Most of the previous studies on the impacts of pedestrianised areas on the environment were qualitative ones, and without controls. This study, in contrast, uses panel market data in Hong Kong to estimate the effect in a two-street-two-period controlled model. Findings – The results show a net 17 per cent increase in rental value of retail shops in the pedestrianised area is achieved, ceteris paribus. Research limitations/implications – Sample size and number of case study are not large enough to make robust conclusions; some other uncontrollable variables may well be attributed to the increase in rents. Practical implications – Retail rent is found empirically to be dependent of the external environment. Social implications – Shoppers' preference for pedestrianisation schemes can be indirectly quantified by the change of retail rent. Originality/value – This paper presents the first two-street-two-period panel empirical test on the effect of pedestrianisation scheme on retail rent.
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Pedestrian mobility and the regeneration of the European city centre. Cities can be chaotic and confusing places at the best of times – even for local people! Spatial Metro, a project largely funded by the EU, aims to make city visits more enjoyable for pedestrians by making cities easier to navigate, easier to walk around and easier to understand and appreciate. This is achieved in various ways, including illuminating characteristic buildings, providing ‘metro style’ maps as well as appropriate information and signposting for pedestrians and the application of GPS technology. Together with municipalities and universities, five cities (Norwich, Bristol, Rouen, Koblenz and Biel/Bienne) in North West Europe have carried out pilot studies and exchanged experiences. In this publication, their findings are shared with the reader.
Article
With the rapid increase in numbers of private vehicles on the road, many transportation related issues like congestion, crashes and injuries, pollution, noise etc. have grown very rapidly. Urban settlements like core CBD and heritage town, which were planned for NMT and pedestrians, are worst affected. Environment, in such areas, has degraded to the extent that people do not wish to visit these areas anymore. On another hand, these areas have very significant role in economy and identity of the city. Due to unavailability of space and socio-economic system, only feasible way to upgrade mobility and environment in such special areas is to pedestrianize them. Pedestrianization of the congested street is a very effective, low-cost and sustainable solution. Other than congestion reduction, Pedestrianization has numerous benefits. These list of benefits can be used to advocate Pedestrianization of any street. It can also help in estimating the cost to benefit ratio of such schemes. The first part of this paper summarize various benefits of Pedestrianization from the experience of Pedestrianization scheme around the globe and various researches conducted on its impact. These Benefits can be separated in various categories based on impacts on Transportation, Society, Environment, Economics, and Health. The second part of the paper list down various warrants that can be used as the indicators for the need of Pedestrianization in an area. These warrants can also be used as justification to pedestrianize an area. This paper will help various urban policy makers, land-use and transportation planner, environmentalists and citizens etc. in decision making to solve various urban issues related to transportation.
Article
Transportation is one of the most fundamental challenges of urban development in contemporary world. On the other hand, sustainable urban development has received tremendouspublic attention in the last few years. This trend in addition to other factors such as energy cost, environmental concerns, traffic congestion and the feeling of lack of belonging have contributed to the development of pedestrian areas. The purpose of this paper is to study the role of walkable streets in sustainable development of cities. Accordingly, a documentary research through valid sources has been utilized to substantiate this study. The findings demonstrate that walking can lead to sustainable urban development from physical, social, environmental, cultural, economic and political aspects. Also, pedestrian areas -which are the main context of walking- act as focal points of development in cities and have a great effect on modifying and stimulating of their adjacent urban spaces.
Article
Germany has implemented many ambitious pedestrianization and traffic-calming schemes over the last 20 years, and has carried out quite large-scale research studies on their effect on retailing. The schemes implemented in the UK and the research carried out on them have been more modest. However, they broadly show the same picture. There is generally a positive effect on retailing, with shops inside pedestrian areas being more successful than those outside. Part of the increased turnover is transferred to the landlord, in the form of higher market rents. More extensive schemes have more substantial positive effects. However, there can be a reduction in turnover during a transition period of 1–2 years, and the effects can be unfavourable for fringe shops just outside the developed area, unless the scheme is carefully designed.
Article
This study investigates the revitalisation of the main street of Beyoglu, which was the westernised part of Istanbul's CBD in the nineteenth century. Beyoglu started to develop in the sixteenth century with the introduction of embassy buildings of European countries. Its development reached a climax during the nineteenth century as a result of increased European trade and cultural influence, remaining the most distinguished quarter of Istanbul until the 1960s. Thereafter, it suffered from decay, disinvestment and abandonment as a result of later suburbanisation and the multi-centre development of Istanbul. Revitalisation of the quarter started with the pedestrianisation of the main street. This study investigates the functional transformation and changes in land prices along the main street and surrounding neighbourhoods after the pedestrianisation. The factors which effect land prices are investigated by the use of regression analysis. According to the results, access to mass transit is the most important factor. Besides its convenient central-city location, with easy access to the city's main transportation arteries, no doubt also its distinguished architectural character contributed to its revitalisation. Although the revitalisation of the main street as a cooperative movement of public and private sectors, effectively, it was a market-lead restructuring afterwards. At the same time, international companies opening up stores reflecting the globalisation movement increased the attractiveness of the main street. The results of the study can be used by urban planners, policy-makers and investors for the revitalisation of other historical neighbourhoods in Istanbul and other cities. For further research, hierarchical analysis of spatial impacts of revitalisation areas is suggested.
Article
The streets and spaces that constitute the majority of our public realm play an increasingly important role in the economic and social foundations of towns and cities. Simultaneously, public dissatisfaction with the clutter and barriers associated with conventional traffic engineering is growing. There is also growing recognition of the links between health and the quality of the built environment. New approaches to reconciling the relationship between traffic and the public realm represent a significant challenge to long-standing assumptions underpinning the conventional segregation of traffic from civic space associated with established policy and practice. Often labelled ‘shared space’, such schemes raise important questions about risk and safety, the role of government in regulating and controlling behaviour and the conventional professional boundaries of urban designers and traffic engineers. A radical review of the role of government in regulating and controlling street design, combined with decisive changes in the organisational structure and processes employed by highway authorities is implied if the benefits for safety, traffic capacity, health and economic vitality from shared space are to be realised. This paper outlines the background and principles underpinning shared space, and describes some of the significant examples in the UK and mainland Europe.URBAN DESIGN International (2008) 13, 130–138. doi:10.1057/udi.2008.13
Article
Road transport is by far the major source of environmental degradation in urban centres. Hence, transport schemes like pedestrianization can have significant impacts on local environmental conditions, by provoking changes in the characteristics of traffic flows and on the patterns of traffic emissions. This paper analyses the extent to which the implementation of a pedestrianization scheme in Chester (a medium-sized historic city situated in northwest England) can influence the total vehicle exhaust emissions and local levels of air pollution concentration and noise from traffic. The analysis is based on the application of a road traffic assignment model in conjunction with models for the estimation of environmental degradation. This approach provides decision-makers with valuable information about the environmental implications from changes in the characteristics of the transport system.
Article
Shopmobility provides a vital link in the community transport chain. It has been designed to secure for mobility-impaired people equality of access to shopping facilities and `barrier-free' movement within town centres. This agenda is important in the UK given the growing incidence of age-related disability, the spread of pedestrianisation to smaller shopping centres, and publicised development of wayfinding technologies to help disabled people navigate in unfamiliar surroundings. The recent millennium audit of Shopmobility schemes furnishes a national data-base highlighting the demand for services, operating practices in contrasting built-environments, stockholding of equipment, financial management and planning intentions. This report overviews the key findings of that audit within the context of a government commitment to an `inclusionary' and integrated transport policy. It concludes that an adequate and secure stream of financial support is essential for the sustained development of Shopmobility in local contexts, and recommends that Local Transport Plans should ensure that Shopmobility schemes are effectively linked to community and public transport services, and accessible car parking provision for disabled motorists.
Article
The process of improving the attractiveness of town centres is by nature more complex than simply improving, for example, everyday commuting by public transport. Drawing on knowledge from a variety of fields this paper will propose a ranking scheme to indicate the economic and other effects of improving the attractiveness of town centres including the introduction of town centre management and pedestrianization. The ranking scheme is applied to six Swedish town centres. The aim is to provide a richer framework on which to base predictions of the effect on property values of the suggested improvements. The results may form a background for more elaborate policy decisions. Sweden implemented schemes, which included pedestrianization, for improving about 50-60 Swedish towns. The more extensive an improvement scheme the more substantial is its positive effect. The most important aspect has turned out to be pedestrianization and the subsequent improved accessibility.
Article
This paper is concerned with the link between urban quality improvements and economic activity. A key question is whether improvements in the urban environment which might be achieved, for instance, through pedestrianisation, will affect business location choices--for example, are office or retail businesses particularly keen to locate in more pleasant urban places? The paper outlines the current state of development of the literature with respect to the influence of urban quality on economic activity, and proposes a framework for forecasting economic impacts based on three communities of reference: customers, employees, and the businesses themselves. The results from original modelling of a case study area in Manchester, England are reported and suggest that the positive uplifts that may be expected from environmental improvement programmes may well be on a scale which is significant. The research is obviously important for the urban regeneration and renaissance agendas which posit attractive and well-designed environments as a way to create the right conditions for promoting economic growth.
De-spatialized space as neoliberal utopia: Gentrified Istiklal Street and commercialized urban spaces
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Adanalı, Y. A. (2011). De-spatialized space as neoliberal utopia: Gentrified Istiklal Street and commercialized urban spaces. Red thread(3), 1-13. http://www.red-thread.org/ en/article.asp?a=50 (accessed at 01.10.2016).
Shared space -The next step in urban development? An interview with Ben Hamilton-Baillie
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Bettum, O., & Lillebye, E. (2011). Shared space -The next step in urban development? An interview with Ben Hamilton-Baillie, Architecture Norway, published 05 Sep, 2011. http://www.architecturenorway.no/stories/people-stories/hamiltonbaillie-11/ (accessed at 01.10.2016).
The determinants of street level retail shop prices in Hong Kong. paper presented at the Pacific Rim Real Estate Society conference
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Chau, K. W., Pretorius, F., & Yu, C. K. (2000). The determinants of street level retail shop prices in Hong Kong. paper presented at the Pacific Rim Real Estate Society conference, 23-27 January 2000, Sydney, Australia.
The impact of pedestrianization on residential property rental values. Izmir Institute of Technology, Izmir: Graduate School of Engineering and Sciences
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Cömertler, S. (2007). The impact of pedestrianization on residential property rental values. Izmir Institute of Technology, Izmir: Graduate School of Engineering and Sciences (submitted to; PhD thesis).
Sürdürülebilir ulaşımın teşvikinde kentsel tasarım uygulamalarının rolü
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Çubukçu, E., Hepgüzel, B., Tumer, B., & Önder, Z. (2013). Sürdürülebilir ulaşımın teşvikinde kentsel tasarım uygulamalarının rolü. TMMOB, 2. İzmir Kent Sempozyumu, 28-30 November 2013.
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What is shared space?
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Hamilton-Baillie, B. (2006). What is shared space? www.hamilton-baillie.co.uk/_files/_ publications/6-1.pdf (accessed at 15.04.2016).
Everyone loves pedestrianisation-But what if it made all retail districts look the same? http://www.citymetric.com/skylines/everyone-lovespedestrianisation-what-if-it-made-all-retail-districts-look-same-1549
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Hickey, E. (2015). Everyone loves pedestrianisation-But what if it made all retail districts look the same? http://www.citymetric.com/skylines/everyone-lovespedestrianisation-what-if-it-made-all-retail-districts-look-same-1549 (accessed at 22.01.2017).
Impacts of pedestrian schemes on the types of retailers
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Hon-Yip, W. (2014). Impacts of pedestrian schemes on the types of retailers. University of Hong Kong: Department of Urban Planning and Design (unpublished Masters thesis).
Pedestrianisation, a great necessity in urban designing to create a sustainable city in developing countries
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Iranmesh, N. (2008). Pedestrianisation, a great necessity in urban designing to create a sustainable city in developing countries, paper presented at the 44th ISOCARP congress, Dailan.
The effect of passing pedestrian characteristics on retail rents paper submitted to the 12th AsRES International Conference
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Jeong, S. Y., & Kim, J. (2007). The effect of passing pedestrian characteristics on retail rents paper submitted to the 12th AsRES International Conference, 9-12 July, 2007, Macau, China.
Kadıköy tarihi Çarşı tarihe karışıyor (Kadıköy Historic Marketplace is becoming a thing of the past)
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Karakaş, G. (2016). Kadıköy tarihi Çarşı tarihe karışıyor (Kadıköy Historic Marketplace is becoming a thing of the past), April 2016. http://www.milliyet.com.tr/kadikoycarsisi-tarihe-karisiyor-gundem-2219231/ (accessed at 25.06.2016).
Britain's longest clutter-free street is unveiled to make things safer
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Massey, R. (2012). Britain's longest clutter-free street is unveiled to make things safer. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2094939/Britains-longest-clutter-freestreet-unveiled-make-things-SAFER.html (Accessed at 15.05.2016).
Inner cities from the perspective of their pedestrians-More than just commercialism, paper presented at the Walk21 Conference in Munich
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Re-imagining the high street: Escape from clone town Britain
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Great streets -Gehl architects, paper presented at Liveable Cities Symposium in Istanbul
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The responses given to the claim that 'restaurants and cafes numbers are increasing
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Fig. 11. The responses given to the claim that 'restaurants and cafes numbers are increasing'.
Pedestrianisation: Are we reading from the same page? Perspective from key stakeholders in Takapuna
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Everyone loves pedestrianisation -But what if it made all retail districts look the same?
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Inner cities from the perspective of their pedestrians -More than just commercialism
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