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Innovative tools and techniques to ensure effective employee engagement

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Abstract

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to offer innovative tools and techniques to ensure employee engagement. Design/methodology/approach The paper outlines the reasons for employee disengagement and enlightens the advantages of employee engagement for both employees and organizations. It unfolds several research findings on employee engagement and illustrates with the examples of global companies including Cummins, DHL Express, Southwest Airlines, Google, and Virgin. Findings It concludes that employee engagement is a two-way street. Practical implications The tools and techniques adopted by leaders can be applied in any industry and in any size of organization. Social implications The social implications of this research suggest that leaders can ensure employee engagement by following these innovative tools and techniques. Originality/value It implores both employers and employees to take ownership of their roles and responsibilities to achieve organizational excellence and effectiveness.

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... However, there's a limited study on personal factors such as the employee's well-being, the perspectives on employee engagement. Once, [6] noted that to ensure employee engagement, managers need to create an exchange value to bridge the gap between the expectancies and realities. The expectation of an employee may be one of the well-being factors because every employee has his or her expectation from the organisation wherein it may expect employee well-being perspectives and employee well engagement. ...
... He brought that "humans represent themselves as a changeable material while performing given tasks and responsibilities with the presence of the cognitive, emotional and physical" by perceiving that the employees shall decide to engage or disengage from their work roles and organisational duties [12]. This is in line with [6] who once remarks that employee engagement is the ready connecting of themselves in their task role by committing physically heads, hands, and hearts with the vision and mission of the organisations. A study by [13] agrees that the employees' job engagement is a fundamental driving force for organisational success and competitive advantage. ...
... However, a crucial point for managers to not forget is that employee engagement is intangible. If employees feel happy returning to the organisation to contribute to enhancing the organisational effectiveness and efficiency it can be felt, while groups are selected as the great locations to work and are branded successfully [6]. This study believes that if employees have hedonic well-being perspectives, the employee engagement is stimulated. ...
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Nowadays, organisations are competing for talents where stiff job markets are increasingly placing their attention on preventing a turnover, to increase job satisfaction, strengthen up organisational citizenship behaviour (COB) and employee's engagement. At this point, academicians have conducted many empirical studies, yet there are lacking studies related to the well-being perspective of employee engagement on intrinsic outcomes. Employee engagement can create effects on the entire organisation performance. Limited understanding of the influence of employee engagement can disempower employers or managers to take appropriate and corrective actions that enhance their employees' well-being and work performance. By referring to the viewpoint of social exchange theory, this conceptual article discusses the roles of well-being perspectives and intrinsic outcomes by mediating employee engagement. The objective is to create a new conceptual framework to enhance the understanding of the influence of well-being perspectives (hedonia and eudaimonia) on intrinsic outcomes (Job Satisfaction, Organisational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB), and Turnover) through measuring employee engagement (Job Engagement and Organisation Engagement) as the mediating variables, and the Social Exchange Theory (SET) as the theoretical underpinning. Furthermore, the framework provides a solid basis for further research to produce results with practical implementations.
... Transformational leaders empower their employees, and provide a leader-member exchange, influence forms of engagement in the workplace (Saks & Gruman, 2014). Therefore, empower your employees and give them freedom to make decisions, respect their failures, and let them learn lessons from those failures so they can become successful leaders (Rao, 2017). ...
... Build trustworthiness. Researchers noted that without trust, employees focus on placing blame on others, miss deadlines, fail to service customers efficiently and fail to deliver positive results (Rao, 2017 Link engagement to high performance. Employee engagement is a motivational state where employees invest themselves emotionally, cognitively, and physically in their work role (Kahn, 1990). ...
... A leadership strategy with a scheme of effective nurturing and collaborative capabilities draws employees towards engagement in their work roles (Beckmann, 2017). Inspirational leaders close the gap between themselves and employees and develop positive employee engagement in the workplace (Rao, 2017). ...
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Research suggests that 70% of North American employees are disengaged in the workplace. Some small retail managers lack strategies for engaging employees. Using the employee engagement framework, the purpose of this descriptive case study was to explore successful strategies that small retail managers use to engage employees. The target population was small retail leaders, purposefully selected because of their success with engaging employees at an Orlando, Florida, company. Data collection was through face-to-face interviews with 5 leaders; and a review of archived organizational documents, including company memorandums, central email software, and online customer reviews through social media websites such as Google, Yelp, and Facebook posts. Data were analyzed using inductive coding of phrases and words from participant interviews, whereas secondary data were collected from participant memorandums, the company website, central email software, and online social media posts supporting the theme interpretation through methodological triangulation. The findings on these Orlando leaders revealed that supportive leaders improved employee engagement, direct communication improved employee engagement, and training improved employee performance. Improving employee engagement contributes to social change because small retail managers can use the findings to improve employee engagement through the implementation of effective strategies, direct communication, and training initiatives.
... Soft skills refer both personal qualities and interpersonal skills that make individual emotionally intelligent and engaged with other in order to bring desired state of affairs (Zaman at al., 2018). Soft skills are the human skills such as assertiveness, behavioural competency, creativity, engagement, leadership, work ethics, self-control and openness (Alam et al., 2010;Rao, 2017;Szilárd et al., 2018). It is also known as personal skills that include communication, team work, creativity and problem solving. ...
... Capacity in effective team building and working as team make people more empowered and connected. Rao (2017) has mentioned about teamwork for the employees that can achieve organizational goal more smoothly. Work ethics and morale are enhanced when people work in a team. ...
... Some concepts that have been adopted to describe the application of AI to manage workforces include algorithm management [3]. AI dates back to the 1950s and has been applied in various industries including the financial institutions as a way to achieve competitive advantage and to increase market share [25]. The financial institutions which are inclusive of banks have become one of the largest adopters of AI into their systems and processes. ...
... The competencies of highly skilled workers will perhaps be enhanced when their work performance is integrated with AI. One of the techniques that can be adopted to improve the worker's commitment, motivation, and engagement to AI is to provide them with continuous training and access to advanced technology [25]. The AI framework is based on the expectation hypothesis, which recommends that the workforce is certain to be inspired to perform well when they have noticed that there are futuristic factors that are associated with their work, which may improve their professional career and development of skills [26]. ...
... If well managed, the performance measurement process can exert positive and direct impact on employee job involvement and organisational outcomes through enhancing the overall organisational climate (Albrecht et al., 2015). Previous research has suggested that performance appraisal and feedback is one of the factors that improve job involvement (e.g., Mone and London, 2010;Abutayeh and Al-Qatawneh, 2012;Menguc et al., 2013;Rao, 2017;Aktar and Pangil, 2018): ...
... Performance appraisal was found as a predicting factor of job involvement. This outcome is supported by previous research (e.g., Mone and London, 2010;Abutayeh and Al-Qatawneh, 2012;Menguc et al., 2013;Rao, 2017;Aktar and Pangil, 2018). The results support the hypothesis that assumes that career management has a positive effect on job involvement. ...
Article
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of human resources management practices on job involvement in a non-profit organisation in Palestine. Most of the previous studies that examined the HRM-job involvement relationship were conducted in the business setting and were investigated from a HR officers’ points of view. This study examines this relationship from employees’ perspective in the non-profit sector. The study employed descriptive and analytical methods to examine the topic of the study. The population of this study included all the employees working in a Palestinian non-profit ‘Maan Development Center’. 400 questionnaires were distributed, and 267 questionnaires were returned and were usable for statistical purposes. Multiple regression results showed that of seven HRM practices, only five practices were significant and influenced job involvement (job analysis, recruitment, performance appraisal, career management and job security). Job security was found to be the most predicting factor of job involvement. The paper recommends non-profits managers and policymakers to invest in HRM practices as they promote positive employee’s attitudes and higher job involvement. This study is the first of its type in the non-profit sector and contributes to the empirical body of HRM practices in general and non-profits research in particular.
... This attitude is needed in improving the quality of education, especially SMK because teachers will give their best efforts in carrying out each job and think of new ways to solve problems in learning activities. High employee engagement will encourage teachers to have dedication, commitment, and high enthusiasm to work beyond organizational expectations, and have a high concern for the future of their organization (Rao, 2017). In addition, teachers who have high engagement in their work will have positive emotions that direct them to improve their quality through creative and exploratory thinking, including making innovations in learning activities. ...
Article
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One of the competitiveness of vocational high school graduates depends on the quality of teachers who teach so that they can improve the skills and insights of vocational high school students. For this reason, the government seeks to improve the quality, integrity, and innovation of vocational high school teachers so that graduates produced by vocational high schools can become ready to use workers and can reduce unemployment. The research aims to examine The effect of self-efficacy and job satisfaction on employee engagement teachers of state vocational high schools. This study uses a survey approach and quantitative method. Data collection in this study was conducted using a Likert scale questionnaire. Questionnaires are arranged based on indicators from research variables. The validity test was done by using the Pearson Product Moment formula, while the reliability test was done by using the Cronbach Alpha formula. The data analysis technique in this study used path analysis. Data from the research instruments were analyzed by descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. The result of the study reveals that Self-efficacy has a direct effect on employee engagement; Job satisfaction has a direct effect on employee engagement teachers; and; Self-efficacy has a direct effect on job satisfaction
... Currently, there are numerous and growing literature regarding the study of Collective Organizational Engagement (COE). Some research that are worthy of mention are those on engaging employees in disengaged organization (Holger Sieverta & Scholzb, 2017); innovation method to leverage employee engagement (Borkowska & Czerw, 2017;Rao, 2017); how to stimulate employee engagement (Eldor & Vigoda-Gadot, 2016); international communication to encourage engagement (Holger Sieverta & Scholzb, 2017); how to encourage voluntary engagement (Jiang & Men, 2015); the character of employee engagement (Eldor & Vigoda-Gadot, 2016); organizational culture engagement (Jordi & Trullen Joana Story 2016); justice on job engagement (Özer, Uğurluoğlu, & Saygılı, 2017); terms of engagement (Smith & Gallicano, 2015); translating the engagement (Saks, 2017); organizational roles and engagement (Borkowska & Czerw, 2017); cultures of engagement (Bloemraad & Terriquez, 2017); creating engaged employees (Jiang & Men, 2015); investigating the organizational engagement (Verčič & Vokić, 2017); and the impact of bureaucracy on good governance (Arwanto & Anggraini, 2022). ...
Article
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To increase the awareness on the role of employee engagement besides the individual analysis level and a lack of studies focused on the employee’s involvement at the level of organizational, the study aims at investigating the antecedents of COE as mediating variable to increase the organizational performance. The study was conducted for 6 months to enable a deep understanding and evaluation on organizational performance. A non-purposive sampling with purpose sampling technique deployed with multi resources respondent represented organizations method (top manager, middle managers, head department and selected employee). Data analyzed for 380 respondents with Structural Equation Modeling with AMOS 22. Statistical outputs described that the green work design, OCB Organizational Resources, and Innovative Concordance Culture highly considered as the antecedent of COE in developing the organizational performance. The findings also claimed that all hypotheses proposed are accepted. This study strengthens the relationship between the COE and HRM and Enbridge the gaps existed which is informed and extended the area of field research. In another hand, this research contributed on engagement in some ways, such as extending the study on the engagement in the level of organization and provided the solutions secondly, investigating the COE as a main mechanism of the most crucial human resources. This research also developed the antecedents of COE and also highlighted how the top management could strategically increase the performance based on the organizational resources and the leverage the collective engagement continuously pursuit the strategic organizational goals.
... The employees, who are the organization's most valuable resource, are mostly responsible for the effective completion of the tasks (Wagen and Harter, 2011). The reason for this achievement is that it has been commonly understood that the overall performance of people ultimately builds or ruins a firm (Rao, 2017). ...
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By distributing a well-structured questionnaire to 200 employees chosen at random, this descriptive research assesses and understand the depth of task performance and job satisfaction that is predominant among employees in the Software Industry, as well as investigate the impact of task performance on job satisfaction. Numerous statistical techniques such as the Mean, Independent samples t-test, ANOVA, and Regression Analysis were utilised to examine the acquired data using inferential statistics. When IT personnel incorporate task performance in the course of their work, the study found that they are quite happy with their jobs. Employees with less education, lower income levels, and those in lower job cadres report lower levels of job satisfaction, whereas those with less work experience, age, education, income, job cadre, and male employees report lower levels of task performance. Task Performance has a substantial beneficial influence on job satisfaction, according to the findings of the study.
... Engagement principle is of interest for many academic fields like psychology (Higgins, 2006), organizational behavior (Rao, 2017), management (Tranfield, Denyer, & Smart, 2003), and marketing (Bowden, 2009, Cabiddu, De Carlo, & Piccoli, 2014. Some scholars identified engagement as an umbrella of many certain cognitive, emotional, and behavioral dimensions (Hollebeek & Chen, 2014). ...
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The purpose of this article is to study the relationships between brand community engagement of customers on social media networks and customer behavioral intentions with regard to visiting restaurants where the theory of planned behavior was applied. A conclusive-descriptive, cross-sectional research design was selected in order to determine the degree to which Brand Community Engagement, Attitude (ATT), Subjective Norms (SN), Perceived Behavioral Control (PBC), Restaurant's Visit Intentions (INT) and Visit Behavior (B) are interrelated and associated. The results indicated that BCE does affect customers attitude towards dining out and visiting restaurants and that SN cannot moderate the strong relationship between ATT and intention. In addition, customer intention can weakly predict their behavior of visiting restaurants. The results of this study suggest that management of restaurants should pay attention to their marketing communication strategies through social media restaurant's communities and should focus on how to increase the engagement levels of customers beside understanding and may be changing their attitudes towards experiences in restaurants. This study examined the relationship between Restaurants Brand Community Engagement on social media and customer intentions to dine out and visit restaurants.
... Commitment refers to the intellectual, emotional attachment, and loyalty of an employee with her/his organization and links his objective and success with that of the organization (Al-Sada et al., 2017;Blau, Chapman, & Neri, 2016;Kang, Stewart, & Kim, 2011;Rao, 2017). It positively affects the relative strength of the association of employees with the organization (Hoppe, 2017;Horwitz & Horwitz, 2017;Kaur, 2017;Sahinidis & Bouris, 2008). ...
Article
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The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of Training need assessment (TNA) on training effectiveness and explore the moderation effect of training framing on the relationship of TNA, employees learning, employees' motivation, and employees' commitment. Data has been collected from 635 respondents of KPK government employees working in BPS-17 and above who have completed training in the last two years. The Structural equation modeling technique has been used for data analysis. Findings revealed that TNA, employees' learning, employees' motivation, and employees' commitment have a positive association with training effectiveness, while training framing moderate only the relationship between employee commitment and training effectiveness. This study is the first study in the target departments with large sample size. The study is expected to help researchers to understand the relationship in more depth and for further exploring these variables in other settings and with different combinations. The results are also expected to help policymakers, administrators, and practitioners regarding important factors of the training system and get the maximum output of invested resources. Future studies may look into these relationships from qualitative perspectives to delve deep into the strength of the subject relationship.
... Notengaged employees are sleepworking who work without energy and passion, and actively disengaged employees are unhappy at work who also undermine the achievement of coworkers. Even with several efforts to assist employees to grow, develop, and get them engaged; evidence has shown that there are more employees who are disengaged or not engaged than there are engaged employees (Rao, 2017). ...
Conference Paper
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Tibb Unani a holistic traditional approach to the way of living incorporating Tibb Nabawi Ghiza. An upsurge of the medicinal system among other alternative systems of medicine in India. This research paper provides an insight into four physical humours which lead to an imbalance of equilibrium in health. The quality of temperament and behavioral aspects of senses of humour can be rectified through Tibb Nabawi Ghiza which is widely used in USM. A methodology of mixed mode with semi-structured interviews with Unani physicians and SDC (Secondary Data collection) determined the list of Ghiza and Dawa which can be utilized. Hence, paving way for advancements in labelling Unani as Muslim Friendly medical service across the globe.
... First, several scholars have highlighted employee engagement as the gateway to an organisation's success and competitiveness (Cheema, Akram, & Javed, 2015;Levene, 2015;Nazir & Islam, 2017;Sheng, Wang, & Amankwah-Amoah, 2021). In reality, it has been claimed that companies with engaged workers have higher shareholder returns, productivity, and customer satisfaction (Barik & Kochar, 2017;LePine, Zhang, Crawford, & Rich, 2016;Rao, 2017;Turner, 2019). However, it has been repeatedly documented that employee engagement is on the decline and that today's workers are increasingly disengaged (Richman, Civian, Shannon, Jeffrey, & Brennan, 2008;Sheng, Amankwah-Amoah, Wang, & Khan, 2019;Sheng et al., 2021;Wei, Wagner, Hudson, Yu, & Shattuck, 2015). ...
Article
The main purpose of this paper is to explore the performance of white-collared gig workers using three theoretical perspectives: knowledge-based view theory, employee engagement theory, self-determination theory. The study investigates the relationship between intellectual capital, collective cognitive engagement, intrinsic motivation, and knowledge management as antecedents to the performance of gig workers. Furthermore, it investigates whether a moderation effect of intrinsic motivation using game elements can improve the performance of gig workers. This study uses primary data collected over 8 weeks from January 2020 to Feb 2020. This study collects self-administered cross-sectional primary data from an online platform that currently engages white-collar gig workers or has engaged them in two previous years (2018 and 2019) in either one or more platforms. This study also develops a conceptual model to measure the performance of white-collared gig workers using an extension of the three theoretical perspectives.
... The concept of engagement has gained interest from both organizational practitioners and scholars (Quinones, Van den Broeck & De Witte, 2013), who have globally been vocal on the need for organizations to devise strategies of ensuring employees are engaged at the workplace for organizational performance excellence (Gichochi, 2014). Employee engagement either makes or breaks organizations (Rao, 2017) and therefore engaged employees are described as an organization's greatest resource (Wagner & Harter, 2011). Engaged employees display a positive emotional connection with their work by being optimistic, energetic, focus highly on work, and willing to work for the development of the organization (Jose &Mampilly, 2012). ...
... Another definition is focusing primarily on behavioral outcomes, regardless of causes. Rao (2017) refers to commitment as the willingness of the employee to make discretionary efforts at work. Bandura and Lyons (2017) focus on the employee's commitment to stay with her/his business. ...
Article
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One of the critical aspects of an individual’s life is career choice as this will determine the role pattern needed to be played by the individual in the society in the future,andit is one of the important processes in life. This study aimsto investigate the factors influencing the career choice of the students. This study focusedon undergraduate students in the Universityof Aden. Undergraduate students were chosenbecause right upon graduation, they are the ones who will be decidingon their career choices. The findings of the study largely supported the hypothesizedrelationships proposed in the theoretical model and showed that the family, self-efficacy and economic considerations exerted significant influence on the choice of a career among students. Moreover, the results showed that the influence of family, self-efficacy and economic considerations was positive on career choices. Toinvestigatingstudent’s career choice that isaffected by other important factors, further studies are strongly recommended.
... Although there is extant literature from the members' perspective on the engagement of employees (Saks 2006;Rao 2017) and volunteers (Manuel et al. 2011;Vecina et al. 2012), as well as the antecedents (Oostlander et al. 2014;Hyde et al. 2016) and consequences of volunteer engagement on intention to stay and retainment (Cuskelly et al. 2006;Hyde et al. 2016), there are few studies exploring the practices of volunteer resource management (Intindola et al. 2016). We intend in this study to fill this gap by enlisting formal strategies for volunteer engagement combined with practices for financial sustainability that the leaders of successful NPOs have chosen to make their NPOs growth-oriented, thus unfolding the gems of success for NPOs. ...
Article
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The strategies that non-profit organizations choose for volunteer engagement and financial sustainability are of the utmost importance for successful work. The main purpose of this study was to investigate feasible strategies for volunteer engagement and financial sustainability. Interviews were conducted to obtain data on the experience of volunteer managers in dealing with volunteers and financial matters together. Qualitative data analysis methods were used to code and analyze the data. Significant themes emerged from the data gathered through interviews that highlighted the strategies for volunteer engagement and financial sustainability chosen by the managers of non-profit organizations. From the manager's perspective, the following strategies were considered important for engaging volunteers at non-profit organizations (NPOs): 'building the skill sets of volunteers', 'fulfilling ulterior motives', and 'administering a culture of administrative support'. Moreover, 'local fundraising preference', 'transparency', and 'building trust' were regarded as successful strategies for maintaining financial sustainability. The findings of this study showed that, to function smoothly, non-profit organizations need to follow certain strategies to be cautious about volunteers as well as finance. The findings provide fruitful implications for practitioners and policy makers, and these are discussed in the paper. Furthermore, the limitations addressed in the study suggest a future direction for research in terms of study design and more focus on study informants.
... The successful fulfilment of these responsibilities depends largely on engaged employees who are described as an organization's greatest resource (Wagner & Harter, 2011). This is because the level of engagement of employees either makes or breaks organizations (Rao, 2017). ...
Article
Engaged employees play significant roles toward organizational success. They exhibit different characteristics—dedicated, absorbed, and work with vigor. This paper explains the complex relationship between employee engagement (EE) and task performance in Ghana, a developing country with its unique collectivist and high‐power distance culture. Electricity Company of Ghana was purposively selected and its employees were quantitatively surveyed. Structural equation modelling, partial least squares, was used to examine the relationship. Results show that EE has a positive and significant effect on employee task performance (ETP). Results increase the level and confirmed generalizability of the findings that when employees are engaged, they perform better. Vigor, a dimension of EE, has significant impact on ETP than dedication and absorption.
... So, the lack of employees' job satisfaction will affect the supposed organization in negative ways. More importantly, due to the upcoming transformation that this studied organization will implement, it is important for them to understand the factor that will contribute towards employees' job satisfaction to keep the employees satisfied and focused on their job as one of the important assets of the organization is an employee and the cooperation between both parties, employers and employees will help the organization to achieve their vision and mission (Rao, 2017). ...
... Employee Engagement (EE) has attracted a great deal of interest for the past decade in organisations due to the role such employees play towards improved performance. Employee engagement either makes or breaks organisations (Rao 2017) and therefore engaged employees are described as an organisation's greatest resource (Wagner and Harter 2011). Engaged employees display a positive emotional connection with their work by being optimistic, energetic, focus highly on work, and willing to work for the development of the organization (Jose and Mampilly 2012). ...
Article
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The study aimed at identifying if engaged employees mediate the relationship between leader behaviour and employee task performance within the public sector in a developing country with unique cultural characteristics. Data gathered from 411 permanent employees was analysed using partial least square-structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) technique. Results showed that employee engagement mediates partially the relationship between transformational leader behaviour and employee task performance unlike the relationship between transactional leader behaviour and employee task performance. Transformationqal leader behaviour was identified as the key leader behaviour that causes employees to be engaged. Practical and managerial implications are discussed.
... It has become a new trend to look for soft skills among the candidates while hiring new employees (Taylor, 2016). Soft skills help one to get and keep a job as well as successfully influence and lead others at work (Rao, 2017). Job characteristic theory by Hackman and Oldham (1976) also mentioned that when a job has skill variety then individual tends to enjoy the work and perform better due to high internal work motivation. ...
Article
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Soft skills are essential tools in maintaining employment relations as well as achieving high job performance. The purpose of this study is to explore the contribution of soft skills practiced by manager towards employee job performance specifically at RMG sector in Bangladesh. Data have been collected through two Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and five in-depth interviews. Thematic analysis yielded four most commonly practiced soft skills in RMG which are communication, leadership, team work and critical thinking. This study reveals that there is a direct positive relationship between soft skills practiced by managers and employees' job performance. This study has three significant contributions. Firstly, this study is one of the very few studies on soft skills practice set on production based industry from non-western context. Secondly, this study facilitates future comparative studies on service sector as well as on cross-cultural perspective. The findings of this study has created further opportunity to conduct study on other production based industries available in Bangladesh and around the globe. Thirdly, the HR practitioners in Bangladesh specifically in production based industry will be more concerned from now about the practice of soft skills.
... Engagement principle is of interest for many academic fields like psychology (Higgins, 2006), organizational behavior (Rao, 2017), management (Tranfield, Denyer, & Smart, 2003), and marketing (Bowden, 2009, Cabiddu, De Carlo, & Piccoli, 2014. Some scholars identified engagement as an umbrella of many certain cognitive, emotional, and behavioral dimensions (Hollebeek & Chen, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this article is to study the relationships between brand community engagement of customers on social media networks and customer behavioral intentions with regard to visiting restaurants where the theory of planned behavior was applied. A conclusive-descriptive, cross-sectional research design was selected in order to determine the degree to which Brand Community Engagement, Attitude (ATT), Subjective Norms (SN), Perceived Behavioral Control (PBC), Restaurant's Visit Intentions (INT) and Visit Behavior (B) are interrelated and associated. The results indicated that BCE does affect customers attitude towards dining out and visiting restaurants and that SN cannot moderate the strong relationship between ATT and intention. In addition, customer intention can weakly predict their behavior of visiting restaurants. The results of this study suggest that management of restaurants should pay attention to their marketing communication strategies through social media restaurant's communities and should focus on how to increase the engagement levels of customers beside understanding and may be changing their attitudes towards experiences in restaurants. This study examined the relationship between Restaurants Brand Community Engagement on social media and customer intentions to dine out and visit restaurants.
... by Gallup Management Journal reveals that 29% of employees are actively engaged, 54% are not engaged, and 17% are disengaged (Rao, 2017). In light of these issues compounded by the introduction and integration of new technologies such as AI into the workplace, focusing on best practices and tools that enable employees to bring a full range of cognitive, emotional, and physical energies into their work roles is of critical importance (Shuck, Adelson, & Reio, 2017). ...
Chapter
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Chapter 5, “Artificial Intelligence, Employee Engagement, Fairness and Job Outcomes,” defines AI as the ability of a computer system to sense, reason, and respond to the environment. Computer systems with advanced AI can engage in sensing, reasoning, and responding in the most complex and dynamic environments. AI systems are being adapted rapidly by organizations to help manage their workforce. The reason for the popularity of AI is twofold. One, organizations now have access to huge amounts of data (i.e., big data) about their business operations which can be leveraged to make more efficient and effective management decisions. Two, advances in AI now afford organizations the ability to capture and process this data in real time. Organizations can now incorporate the latest information into their decision making even in the most complex and dynamic competitive markets. Despite this, management through AI also presents new challenges to employees who are now both directed and held accountable by AI.
... The public sector organisations in Ghana have systems in place, that ensure employees receive feedback on their performance and this ensures employees performance is managed well. Giving adequate feedback has been cited as an antecedent to EE (Osborne, S., &Hammoud, 2017;Rao, 2017;Shantz, et al., 2013). Giving feedback is one characteristic in organisation that indicate the extent to which HR mechanism is implemented within an organisation (Mishra & Bhardwaj, 2002). ...
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The purpose of the paper is to identify the specific dimensions of Human Resource Development Climate (HRDC) that significantly affect Employee Engagement (EE). It places the importance of HRDC in enhancing EE within the public sector in a developing country and finds answer to the question on the dimension of HRDC that causes employees to be engaged. The paper uses a self-designed questionnaire, made up of Rao and Abraham (1990) HRD Climate survey and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale by Schaufeli et al., (2002) to gather data from 355 respondents and analysed using multiple regression. Based on the data analysed, results showed that HRDC has a positive and significant effect on employee engagement. Additionally, it was found that employees are highly engaged in situations where their organisation exhibits the HR Mechanism dimension of HRDC. The limitation is, it did not focus on the entire public sector but focused on civil servant. It is therefore recommended that further studies could be carried out with focus on other public sector organisations to confirm or refute the findings. This study adds to the limited literature on HRDC and EE in public sector organisations in a developing country. This finding brings to bear the major dimension of HRDC that managers should focus on to improve employee engagement in a developing country where there exist a high power distance culture.
... Engagement principle is of interest for many academic fields like psychology (Higgins, 2006), organizational behavior (Rao, 2017), management (Tranfield, Denyer, & Smart, 2003), and marketing (Bowden, 2009, Cabiddu, De Carlo, & Piccoli, 2014. Some scholars identified engagement as an umbrella of many certain cognitive, emotional, and behavioral dimensions (Hollebeek & Chen, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this paper is to study the relationships between brand community engagement of customers on social media networks and customer behavioral intentions with regard to visiting restaurants where the theory of planned behavior was applied. A conclusive-descriptive, cross-sectional research design was selected in order to determine the degree to which Brand Community Engagement, Attitude (ATT), Subjective Norms (SN), Perceived Behavioral Control (PBC), Restaurant's Visit Intentions (INT) and Visit Behavior (B) are interrelated and associated. The results indicated that BCE does affect customers attitude towards dining out and visiting restaurants and that SN can't moderate the strong relationship between ATT and intention. In addition, customer intention can weakly predict their behavior of visiting restaurants. The results of this study suggest that management of restaurants should pay attention to their marketing communication strategies through social media restaurant's communities and should focus on how to increase the engagement levels of customers beside understanding and may be changing their attitudes towards experiences in restaurants. This study examined the relationship between Restaurants Brand Community Engagement on social media and customer intentions to dine out and visit restaurants.
... Employee Engagement defined as concept to connecting the hands, heads, and hearts of the employees with the vision and mission of their organizations [1]. Oehler and Adair [2] argue that employee engagement as psychological investment by employee to the organization that will diving work performance. ...
... Work engagement is a win-win for both the employees and the organization, and hence both these stakeholders must take ownership of their roles and responsibilities to achieve organizational excellence and effectiveness (Rao, 2017). For the organization, this study will help to find the nature of engagement of employees on their work through the most suitable measure. ...
Article
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to study the psychometric properties of different versions of Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) in the Indian context in terms of factorial validity, scale reliability, descriptive statistics and construct validity. Design/methodology/approach The data collected through a cross-sectional survey among 467 women employees from banking sector in India and structural equation modeling has been performed for the analysis. Findings Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a better fit for the three-factor model of UWES-9 than the other versions. Work engagement is positively related to in-role performance and negatively related to turnover intention. Research limitations/implications The study recommends further longitudinal studies in this area. Practical implications More studies and practical investigations can be conducted in organizations, academics and societies since the current study explored the appropriate version of UWES in the Indian context. Originality/value This is a key study which analyses psychometric properties of UWES in Indian banking sector by considering all its versions.
... Volpone et al. (2012) stated that favorable performance feedback can create favorable psychological climate which will improve the level of employee engagement. Similarly, Rao, (2017) suggested that providing adequate feedback on their performance enable them to identify their strengths and anxiety that helps to overcome their weaknesses and engrossed them towards their work. Ugwu & Okojie (2016) found a positive and significant relationship between feedback oriented appraisal and employee engagement among the banking employees in Nigeria. ...
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