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Abstract

The homeopathic treatment is based on the principle of therapeutic similitude, employing medicines that cause certain disorders to treat similar manifestations, stimulating a reaction of the organism against its own ailments. The occurrence of this secondary reaction of the organism, opposite in nature to the primary action of the medicines, is evidenced in the study of the rebound (paradoxical) effect of several classes of modern drugs. In this work, in addition to substantiate the principle of similitude before the experimental and clinical pharmacology, we suggest a proposal to employ hundreds of conventional drugs according to homeopathic method, applying the therapeutic similitude between the adverse events of medicines and the clinical manifestations of patients. Describing existing lines of research and a specific method for the therapeutic use of the rebound effect of modern drugs (http://www.newhomeopathicmedicines.com), we hope to minimize prejudices related to the homeopathy and contribute to a broadening of the healing art.
Teixeira MZ
100 Rev Assoc Med BRA s 2017; 63(2):100-108
POINT OF VIEW
Therapeutic use of the rebound effect of modern drugs:
“New homeopathic medicines”
Marcus Zulian Teixeira1*
1MD, PhD, Postdoctoral Student of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (FMUSP). Coordinator of the Elective Discipline Fundamentals of Homeopathy
(MCM0773), FMUSP, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
Summary
Study conducted at the Department of
Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculdade de
Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo
(FMUSP), São Paulo, SP, Brazil
Article received: 7/4/2016
Accepted for publication: 7/9/2016
*Correspondence:
Departamento de Ginecologia e
Obstetrícia, HC-FMUSP
Address: Av. Dr. Enéas de Carvalho Aguiar,
255, 10º andar, sala 10.166
São Paulo, SP – Brazil
Postal code: 05403-000
marcus@homeozulian.med.br
mzulian@usp.br
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1806-9282.63.02.100
The homeopathic treatment is based on the principle of therapeutic similitude,
employing medicines that cause certain disorders to treat similar manifestations,
stimulating a reaction of the organism against its own ailments. The occurrence
of this secondary reaction of the organism, opposite in nature to the primary
action of the medicines, is evidenced in the study of the rebound (paradoxical)
effect of several classes of modern drugs. In this work, in addition to substantiate
the principle of similitude before the experimental and clinical pharmacology,
we suggest a proposal to employ hundreds of conventional drugs according to
homeopathic method, applying the therapeutic similitude between the adverse
events of medicines and the clinical manifestations of patients. Describing existing
lines of research and a specic method for the therapeutic use of the rebound
effect of modern drugs (http://www.newhomeopathicmedicines.com), we hope
to minimize prejudices related to the homeopathy and contribute to a broadening
of the healing art.
Keywords: homeopathy, pharmacology, pharmacodynamic action of homeopathic
remedy, law of similars, rebound effect, new homeopathic remedy.
IntroductIon
The homeopathic model for the treatment of disease is
based on four assumptions: (i) the principle of healing by
similars; (ii) pathogenetic experimentation of medicines in
health humans; (iii) use of ultra-diluted (dynamized) med-
icines; and (iv) prescription of individualized medicines.
Although great importance is attributed to dynamized
medication (produced through the dilution and serial agi-
tations of the substances), incorporated secondarily to the
therapy in order to minimize possible initial symptomatic
aggravations derived from the application of the principle
of healing by similars, the rst two assumptions are the
foundation of the homeopathic episteme, with individual-
ized homeopathic medicine (chosen according to the total-
ity of characteristic signs and symptoms) holding the inher-
ent condition for awakening the organism’s healing reaction.1
In Ancient Greece, Hippocrates taught that diseases
could be treated by the principles of “contraries” (con-
traria contrariis curantur) or “similars” (similia similibus cu-
rantur), recommendations which were followed by sev-
eral exponents of subsequent medical schools.2
At present, the “principle of contraries” is applied to
a large part of conventional therapy, which uses medicines
with primary action against (anti-) the signs and symptoms
of diseases (palliative or antipathic drugs) in order to min-
imize or neutralize their manifestations. On the other hand,
the “principle of similars” is used by homeopathic therapy,
which uses medicines that cause similar signs and symp-
toms (homeo) to diseases in order to stimulate a secondary
action or reaction by the organism against its own disorders.
Since 1998, we have been scientically grounding the
principle of therapeutic similarity through the systematic
study of the “rebound effect” of modern drugs (“paradoxical
reaction” of the organism),
2-12
showing the manifestation of
this secondary and opposite reaction of the organism
after the primary action of numerous classes of drugs. At
the end of 2013, we published a review on the rebound effect
of drugs in this journal,
13
showing the extent of the phe-
nomenon and alerting health professionals about the serious
consequences that this unknown adverse event can cause.
In the last decade, exponents of modern pharmacol-
ogy have suggested a therapeutic strategy entitled “para-
TherapeuTic use of The rebound ef fecT of modern drugs: “new hom eopaThic medicines
Rev Assoc Med BRAs 2017; 63(2):100-108 101
doxical pharmacology,” similar to the one propagated by
homeopathy for over two centuries, proposing the use of
conventional drugs that cause an exacerbation of the
disease in the short term in order to treat the same disease
in the long term.
14-26
Similarly, since the beginning of our
studies, we have been suggesting the use of modern drugs
in accordance with the principle of therapeutic similar-
ity, proposing the use of drugs that cause adverse events
similar to the manifestations of diseases in order to treat
them homeopathically, using the rebound effect (para-
doxical reaction) in a curative manner. 2,3,9,10,11,13,27-33
In this study, we elaborate on this proposal in accor-
dance with the assumptions of the homeopathic model
and the fundamentals of modern pharmacology, describ-
ing existing research and a specic methodology for the
therapeutic application of the rebound effect of modern
drugs, suggesting the use of this practice in a complemen-
tary and adjuvant manner
34
in a myriad of diseases and
syndromes. As such, we hope to contribute to medical
knowledge, minimizing prejudice related to homeopathy
and encouraging an expansion of the art of healing.
the prIncIple of SImIlarIty accordIng to the
homeopathIc model
In the development of the homeopathic model, Samuel
Hahnemann (1755-1843) used the phenomenological meth-
od of qualitative research to describe the effects of drugs on
human physiology and substantiate the principle of similar-
ity. Based on the study of the pharmacological properties of
dozens of medicinal substances of his time, in which a “sec-
ondary action or reaction of the organism after primary drug
action” was observed,35 Hahnemann enunciated an aphorism
to explain the possible effects of drugs on human health:
Every agent that acts upon the vitality, every medicine, de-
ranges more or less the vital force, and causes a certain al-
teration in the health of the individual for a longer or a
shorter period. This is termed primary action. [...] To its action
our vital force endeavors to oppose its own energy. This re-
sistant action is a property, is indeed an automatic action of
our life-preserving power, which goes by the name of second-
ary action or counteraction. (Organon of medicine, § 63)36
He exemplies this principle describing the primary actions
of medicines on various physiological systems and the con-
sequent secondary actions or counteractions of the organ-
ism, with opposite effects to the primary physiological
changes, which induce the organism to return to the state
prior to the intervention (conservation force or vital reaction
or life-preserving power):
(...) Excessive vivacity follows the use of strong coffee (pri-
mary action), but sluggishness and drowsiness remain for
a long time afterwards (reaction, secondary action), if this
be not always again removed for a short time by imbibing
fresh supplies of coffee (palliative, short duration). After
the profound stupeed sleep caused by opium (primary
action), the following night will be all the more sleepless
(reaction, secondary action). After the constipation produced
by opium (primary action), diarrhea ensues (secondary
action); and after purgation with medicines that irritate
the bowels, constipation of several days’ duration ensues
(secondary action). And in like manner it always happens,
after the primary action of a medicine that produces in
large doses a great change in the health of a healthy person,
that its exact opposite, when, as has been observed, there
is actually such a thing, is produced in the secondary action
by our vital force. (Organon of medicine, § 65)36
In order to provide clarication to readers not familiar with
the homeopathic terminology, the primary actions (direct
effects) of the medicines correspond to the therapeutic and
adverse effects of modern pharmacology, and the secondary
actions (indirect effects) of the medicines or reactions of the
organism correspond to the rebound effect of drugs or par-
adoxical reaction of the organism, which we will describe in
detail below. Similarly, the terms conservation force or vital
reaction or life-preserving power correspond to the homeo-
static mechanisms described by modern physiology, that is,
the property of living organisms to maintain the constancy
of the internal environment through automatic self-adjust-
ments to physiological processes, ranging from simple cel-
lular mechanisms to complex psychological functions.
Whereas this reaction of the organism (secondary and
opposite reaction to the primary action of the medicine)
may manifest with all types of drugs, regardless of the
dose, and in any individual, Hahnemann raises the prin-
ciple of similarity to the category of “natural phenomenon”
(Organon of medicine, § 58, 61, 110-112).36
Proposing to administer substances to patients which
arouse similar symptoms in individuals submitted to “ho-
meopathic pathogenetic experimentation” (“pathogenetic
homeopathic trials,” similar to phase I pharmacological
clinical trials),
37,38
the principle of therapeutic similarity
aims to stimulate a curative homeostatic reaction, inducing
the organism to react against its own disorders.
t
he
prIncIple
of
SImIlarIty
In
the
lIght
of
modern pharmacology2-13
Building a bridge between the principle of similarity and
modern scientic rationality, hundreds of studies de-
Teixeira MZ
102 Rev Assoc Med BRA s 2017; 63(2):100-108
scribed, in recent medical literature, the occurrence of
secondary and opposite reactions of the organism after
the primary actions of different drugs, conrming the
homeopathic postulate. As mentioned previously, this
secondary action or organism’s reaction, which manifests
itself automatically and instinctively in order to maintain
the homeostasis of the system, is described by contem-
porary pharmacology and physiology as the rebound
effect of the drugs, or paradoxical reaction of the organ-
ism, respectively. Analogously, the primary action of the
drugs cited by Hahnemann corresponds to the therapeu
-
tic, adverse and collateral effects of modern drugs.
According to evidence from experimental and clinical
pharmacology,
2-13
the rebound effect of modern drugs
presents similar characteristics to the secondary action or
the reaction of the organism described by the homeo-
pathic model (Organon of medicine, § 59, 64, 69):36 (i) it
causes an opposite reaction of the organism with greater
intensity than the primary action of the drug; (ii) it occurs
after the primary action of the drug as an automatic man-
ifestation of the organism; (iii) it is independent of the
drug, dose, duration of treatment or the type of symptom
(illness); (iv) its magnitude is proportional to the primary
action of the drug; and (v) it only manifests in susceptible
individuals (idiosyncratic character).
According to the extensive literature,
2-13
several studies
illustrate the universality of the rebound phenomenon in
relation to the distinct classes of palliative drugs (antiangi-
nal, antihypertensive, antiarrhythmic, antithrombotic, and
antihyperlipidemic agents, anxiolytics, sedative-hypnotics,
neurostimulants, antidepressants, antipsychotics, anti-
-inammatory drugs, analgesics, diuretics, bronchodilators,
anti-dyspeptics, bone antiresorptive agents, and immuno-
modulators, among others), showing aggravation of the
signs and symptoms initially suppressed by the primary
and direct action of the drug, after its discontinuation.
By denition, the rebound effect presents an inten-
sity and/or frequency a few times higher than the corre-
sponding baseline symptoms suppressed by the primary
action of the antipathic drug, a characteristic that distin-
guishes the rebound phenomenon from the natural reap-
pearance of chronic symptoms after the end of treatment.
Epidemiological studies show that this magnitude can
cause severe and fatal events after the suspension of cer
-
tain classes of drugs (antithrombotics, antidepressants,
bronchodilators, anti-dyspeptics and immunomodulators,
among others).4-13
The rebound effect manifests itself at different intervals
(hours to weeks) after the exhaustion of the biological effect
(half-life) of the drug, and its duration is also variable. De-
spite the suspension or discontinuation of the drug being
a prerequisite for the manifestation of the rebound effect,
given that the primary action of the drug persists while the
receptors are being stimulated (biological half-life), studies
show that the rebound effect may also occur in the course
of treatment due to therapeutic failure or the development
of tolerance, tachyphylaxis or desensitization. On the
other hand, a slow and gradual reduction of doses (taper-
ing) to prevent abrupt discontinuation can minimize the
occurrence of the rebound effect.2-13
In analogy to the proposal to be detailed below, reports
in the literature describe the use of conventional drugs
according to therapeutic similarity. Among these, we can
cite the use of biphasic oral contraceptives to promote
ovulation and rebound pregnancy in women with func-
tional sterility and the use of central nervous system
stimulants (methylphenidate) to treat attention decit
hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).39,40
paradoxIcal pharmacology14-26
A strategy suggested by Richard A. Bond in 2001,
14
para-
doxical pharmacology proposes the therapeutic use of the
paradoxical effects of drugs (secondary reactions of the
organism with the opposite nature to the primary effects
of the drugs). Universal in nature, such paradoxical, bidi-
rectional or compensatory effects appear in several class-
es of drugs, regardless of the dose, and affect various per-
centages of individuals. Although not fully elucidated, this
paradoxical effect is manifested at different levels of the
biological self-regulation systems, increasing the func-
tional complexity of the entire organism, from subcellular
components (channels, enzymes, receptors, transporters,
organelles, etc.) to cells, tissues and organs.15-19
Present in any physiological system, these paradoxical
and bidirectional effects occur due to varying mechanisms:
different actions on the same receptor, due to temporal
effects (for example, beta-blockers with intrinsic sympa-
thomimetic activity); stereochemical effects (for example,
salbutamol); multiple receptor targets, with or without
associated temporal effects (for example, procainamide);
antibody-mediated reactions (for example, heparin-in-
duced thromboembolism); pharmacokinetic effects of
competing compartments (for example, bicarbonate);
interruption and non-linear effects on systems (for ex-
ample, dopaminergic agents); systemic overcompensation
(for example, antiretroviral therapy and immune recon-
stitution inammatory syndrome); other higher level
feedback mechanisms (for example, digoxin) and multi-
level feedback cycles (for example, isotretinoin-associated
acne fulminant), and more.19
TherapeuTic use of The rebound ef fecT of modern drugs: “new hom eopaThic medicines
Rev Assoc Med BRAs 2017; 63(2):100-108 103
As described for the rebound effect,
2-13
the authors cite
several examples of paradoxical and bidirectional effects
of drugs in different pharmaceutical classes and physio-
logical systems: immunomodulators (systemic corticoids
and TNF-a inhibitors), anticancer drugs (chemotherapy,
radiotherapy and arsenic), antiarrhythmics (procainamide
and isoproterenol), antihypertensives (methyldopa, cloni-
dine, guanabenz, moxonidine and thiazides), vasodilators
(nitrates), drugs for heart failure (beta-blockers, ACE in-
hibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers and hydralazine),
lipid modifying drugs (brates and ezetimibe), inotropic
and chronotropic drugs (isoproterenol, epinephrine, beta-
-blockers and calcium channel blockers), vasoconstrictors
(ergot alkaloids and vasopressin), anesthetics (sevourane,
ketamine and propofol), antiepileptic drugs (benzodiaze-
pines, barbiturates and hydantoin), sedative-hypnotics
(anticholinergics, antihistamines, antispasmodics, barbi-
turates, benzodiazepines, bromides, chloral hydrate, etha-
nol and opioids), psychotropic drugs (antidepressants and
antipsychotics), peripheral nervous system drugs (acetyl-
cholinesterase and capsaicin inhibitors), antidyskinetic
drugs (dopaminergic agents), acid-base agents (sodium
lactate and bicarbonate), bone metabolism agents (para-
thyroid hormone and bisphosphonates), electrolytes (hy-
pertonic saline and magnesium hydroxide), glycemic agents
(insulin and hypoglycemic agents), steroid hormones (dexa-
methasone), thyroid agents (iodine and lithium), antihy-
peruricemic agents (xanthine oxidase and urate oxidase
inhibitors), gastrointestinal agents (opiates, cholecystoki-
nin and ceruletide), hematological agents (erythropoietin,
vitamin K antagonists and adenosine diphosphate receptor
inhibitors), bronchodilators (short- and long-acting beta-
adrenergic bronchodilators), dermatological agents (his-
tamine receptor inhibitors, high-intensity long-wave ultra
-
violet light and 8-methoxypsoralen), and more.19
For Bond,14 a possible hypothesis to explain the func-
tioning of paradoxical pharmacology is the “difference
between acute and chronic effects of drugs.” Reiterating
that the acute and chronic responses to drugs may differ
substantially, often being of opposite natures, he pro-
poses that “the exacerbation of a disease can make the
compensatory and redundant mechanisms of the organ-
ism achieve a benecial long-term response.” This is par-
ticularly evident in events mediated by receptors: acute
exposure to inhibitors can produce receptor activation
and increased signaling, while chronic exposure can pro-
duce receptor desensitization and decreased signaling.
The same phenomenon occurs with receptor inhibitors.
Similar to the homeopathic method of treatment,
which uses ultra-diluted doses of medicines with the aim
of avoiding possible aggravation of the illness after ap-
plication of therapeutic similarity, as a general rule, pro-
ponents of paradoxical pharmacology suggest starting
with “very small doses, increasing them gradually over
the following weeks.”14
Exemplifying the therapeutic use of the paradoxical
reactions of the organism, the authors describe clinical
conditions which can be treated using this proposal. Con-
gestive heart failure (CHF) is a disease related to impaired
cardiac contractility, in which the acute use of beta-ad-
renergic receptor inhibitors increases cardiac contractil-
ity, improves hemodynamics and reduces related symp-
toms. However, chronic use results in increased
mortality. On the other hand, while the short-term use
of beta-adrenergic antagonists (beta-blockers: carvedilol,
metoprolol, bisoprolol, among others) decreases contrac-
tility and exacerbates the CHF, causing the worsening of
the illness, long-term use results in increased cardiac con-
tractility and decreased mortality.
14,18-20
The same is ob-
served with calcium channel blockers.21
Similarly, beta-adrenergic agonists are the most potent
bronchodilators and play an important role in all stages
of asthma management. However, as mentioned in the
study of the rebound effect, chronic use is associated with
irreversible and fatal paradoxical bronchospasms. On the
other hand, while short-term use of beta-adrenergic an-
tagonists leads to bronchoconstriction and worsening of
asthma, long-term use leads to bronchodilation and in-
creased asthma management.14,18,22,23
Additional examples include the use of methylphe-
nidate (a central nervous system stimulant) in the treat-
ment of ADHD and the use of 5-HT1A serotonin receptor
agonists (mediators of hyperalgesia) to produce analgesia.18
Of ancient knowledge, the use of thiazide class diuretics
provides a paradoxical antidiuretic benet in the treat-
ment of diabetes insipidus, reducing polyuria and increas-
ing urine osmolality.24
Arsenic trioxide (As2O3), an important carcinogen,
has been used by homeopathy for more than two centuries
as an adjuvant drug in the treatment of several types of
cancer, and is being used by paradoxical pharmacology
as a promising anticancer drug,
25,26
mainly in the relapse
of acute promyelocytic leukemia,
41,42
including in Bra
-
zil,43,44 among other applications.19
therapeutIc uSe of the rebound effect
of modern drugS: “new homeopathIc
medIcIneS27-33
Reiterating that homeopathic treatment has the pre-
rogative of using drugs that cause pathogenetic manifes-
Teixeira MZ
104 Rev Assoc Med BRA s 2017; 63(2):100-108
tations (signs, symptoms, physiological or pathological
changes, etc.) similar to disorders requiring treatment, it
can be applied with any substance (natural or synthetic)
and at any dose (by massive or innitesimal), provided
this principle of similarity is observed. Thus, conven-
tional drugs can be employed according to the homeo-
pathic premises provided they cause primary effects
(therapeutic, adverse or collateral effects) similar to the
totality of individual characteristic manifestations.
In this proposal,
27-33
we are suggesting the use of the
rebound effect of modern drugs in a curative manner,
administering ultra-diluted doses (dynamized medicines)
to patients of the drugs that cause a set of similar adverse
events in phases I-IV pharmacological clinical trials, pro-
posing to stimulate a homeostatic response of the organ-
ism against its own disorders.
To make this project possible, a Homeopathic Materia
Medica of Modern Drugs
29
was elaborated, systematizing
all of the primary or pathogenic effects (therapeutic,
adverse and collateral effects) to 1,250 modern drugs
described in The United States Pharmacopeia Dispensing In-
formation (USPDI),
45
according to an anatomical and
functional distribution (systems or tracts) and in ac-
cordance with the dynamics used in the chapters of the
classic Homeopathic Materia Medica.46
In order to facilitate the selection of the individual-
ized medicines according to the totality of manifestations
similar to the patient-disease binomial, an essential prem-
ise for the success of homeopathic treatment, the second
stage of the project involved the elaboration of a Homeo-
pathic Repertory of Modern Drugs,29 where the pathogenetic
effects and their corresponding medicines are organized
in the same anatomical/functional distribution, following
the arrangement of the classic homeopathic repertories.
47
Titled New Homeopathic Medicines: Use of Modern Drugs
According to the Principle of Similitude,
29
this project is described
and systematized in three digital compendia (Scientic
Basis of the Principle of Similitude in Modern Pharmacology, Ho-
meopathic Materia Medica of Modern Drugs and Homeopathic
Repertory of Modern Drugs) provided on a bilingual site with
free access (http://www.newhomeopathicmedicines.com),
allowing the proposal to be known and applied by all in-
terested colleagues.
Exemplifying this possible ‘off label’ use of numerous
classes of modern drugs according to the principle of
therapeutic similarity, dozens of therapeutic drugs that
show increased blood pressure as primary effect (adalim-
umab, cyclosporine, dopamine and anti-inammatory
drugs, among others) could be used homeopathically to
treat hypertension, provided that other primary or patho-
genetic effects of the drug present similarity with the set
of signs and symptoms of the individual patient. Respect-
ing this individualization of medicine, drugs that increase
blood glucose (amprenavir, corticotropin, diazoxide and
estrogens, and more) could be employed homeopathi-
cally to treat diabetes; drugs that cause inammation of
the gastric mucosa (abacavir, anti-inammatory drugs,
carbidopa and cilostazol, among others) could be employed
homeopathically to treat gastritis and gastric ulcers; med-
icines that cause immunosuppression (cyclosporins, cor-
ticoids and immunosuppressants, and more) could be
employed to stimulate the immune system of immunosup-
pressed patients; among others. Table 1 describes some
examples of possible applications of therapeutic similar-
ity with modern drugs in disorders, diseases and syndromes,
in accordance with the adverse events caused by such on
the various systems or tracts of individuals and described
in phase I-IV pharmacological clinical trials.29,45
uSe of dynamIzed eStrogen In the
treatment of chronIc pelvIc paIn
aSSocIated wIth endometrIoSIS
Endometriosis is a chronic inammatory disease character-
ized by the implantation and proliferation of endometrial
tissue in extrauterine locations, causing chronic pelvic pain
that is difcult to control. As the main pathophysiological
aspect, it is worth mentioning that endometriosis is an
estrogen-dependent disease. Putting into practice the pro-
posal described above, we developed a clinical research
protocol to assess the effect of dynamized estrogen in the
treatment of endometriosis-associated pelvic pain (dys-
menorrhea, deep dyspareunia, non-cyclic pelvic pain, cyclic
bowel pain and/or cyclic urinary pain).
In the study of modern drugs according to the USPDI
45
and, consequently, in the Homeopathic Repertory of Modern
Drugs (Chapter “Female Genitalia”),29 we nd a description
of the specic pathological sign of endometriosis (“endo-
metrial proliferation or hyperplasia”) as an adverse event
in four classes of conventional drugs (systemic and vaginal
estrogens, tamoxifen and toremifene) (Table 2).
One of those drugs, “systemic estrogen,” presents a set
of adverse events (pathogenetic effects) that are quite sim-
ilar to the main manifestations of endometriosis syndrome
(endometrial proliferation, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia,
abdominal pain, depression, anxiety, insomnia and migraine,
among others) (Table 3), and was selected for the study
due to this particularity (individualization of the medicine).
In this randomized, double-blind and placebo con-
trolled trial (RCT), 50 patients with endometriosis, chron
-
ic pelvic pain refractory to conventional hormone thera-
TherapeuTic use of The rebound ef fecT of modern drugs: “new hom eopaThic medicines
Rev Assoc Med BRAs 2017; 63(2):100-108 105
TABLE 1 Possible applications of therapeutic similitude with modern drugs.
Anatomical and
functional distribution
Possible applications of therapeutic similitude (Adverse events or pathogenetic effects
caused in individuals)
Mind/Psyche
agitation, amnesia, anxiety, coma, delirium, dementia, depression, disorientation, memory lapses, hyperactivity,
irritability, lethargy, mania, nervousness, panic, schizophrenia, suicidal disposition, and more
Head
cerebral aneurysm, stroke, encephalitis, intracranial hypertension, meningitis, headache/migraine, dizziness/vertigo,
gait disorders, orthostatic hypotension, syncope, instability, and more
Eyes
astigmatism, atrophies, bleeding, cataract, chemosis, corneal diseases, dryness, glaucoma, inammation, keratopathy,
necrosis, neuritis, nystagmus, papilledema, paralysis, pupil disorders, retinal disorders, and more
Vision amblyopia, blindness, diplopia, hyperopia, myopia, presbyopia, scotoma, and more
Hearing tinnitus, deafness, hyperacusis, hearing loss, and more
Nose congestion, coryza, dryness, epistaxis, rhinitis, sinusitis, sneezing, and more
Face motor tics, heat waves, hirsutism, neuritis, paralysis, swelling, trismus, and more
Mouth severe bleeding, discoloration, dryness, gingivitis, glossitis, mucositis, sialorrhea, speech disorders, stomatitis, taste
disorders, ulcers, and more
Throat angioedema, dryness, dysphagia, esophagitis, pharyngitis, ulcers, and more
Outer throat goiter, heat waves, thyroid disorders, lymphadenopathy, parotitis, pain/stiff neck, and more
Stomach
anorexia, dyspepsia, eructation, gastritis, gastroenteritis, hemorrhage, hiccups, nausea, polydipsia, reux, ulcer,
vomiting, and more
Abdomen ascites, appendicitis, cholecystitis, cholestasis, cirrhosis, colitis, gastroenteritis, hemorrhage, liver disorders (failure,
necrosis, steatosis, hepatitis, hepatomegaly), paralytic ileus, inammatory bowel disease, intestinal obstruction or
perforation, malabsorption syndrome, pancreatitis, peritonitis, splenomegaly, tumors, and more
Rectum constipation, diarrhea, hemorrhage, hemorrhoid, mucositis, tenesmus, and more
Bladder hemorrhage, inammation, urination disorders, and more
Kidneys
calculi, edema, inammation (interstitial, glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis), renal failure, tubular disorders, and more
Urine ketonuria, albuminuria, glycosuria, hematuria, proteinuria, pyuria, sediments, and more
Male genitalia
testicular atrophy, sexual desire disorders, edema, sexual dysfunction (ejaculation, erection, infertility, orgasm),
inammation, and more
Female genitalia
abortion, cancer, contraception, sexual desire disorders, sexual dysfunction, hemorrhage, hormonal dysfunction,
endometriosis, inammation, menstrual disorders, ovarian disorders, uterine disorders, tumors, and more
Larynx and trachea inammation, laryngism, edema (glottis, larynx), and more
Breathing
types (fast, trapped, interrupted, irregular, slow), asthma, bronchitis, dyspnea, respiratory failure, wheezing, rattles, and more
Chest/thorax
acute myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, arrhythmias (atrial brillation, heart block, ventricular tachycardia),
heart failure, pericardial or pleural effusion, inammation (alveolitis, endocarditis, pneumonitis, pericarditis, pleuritis),
pulmonary disorders (edema, embolism, brosis), adult respiratory distress syndrome, and more
Extremities
arthrosis, ataxia, edema, exostosis, fracture, gout, incoordination, inammation (arthritis, myositis, neuritis, phlebitis,
tendinitis), myopathy, neuropathies, osteoporosis, paralysis, rigidity, weakness, and more
Skin
acne, allergies, alopecia, inammation (cellulitis, dermatitis, eczema), necrosis, pemphigus, psoriasis, purpura,
seborrhea, and more
General
anaphylaxis, anemia, anesthesia, seizures, demyelinating diseases, diabetes, edema, encephalopathy, fatigue,
hypertension, hyperthermia, hypotension, hypothermia, inuenza, lymphadenopathy, neuropathy, thromboembolism,
weight (gain/loss), tumors or cancer, and more
TABLE 2 Endometriosis in the Homeopathic Repertory of Modern Drugs (Chapter “Female Genitalia”)29
Endometrium
Endometriosis; disorder, endometrial; proliferation, endometrial; hyperplasia: DrosE-syst., Estro-syst., Estro-vag., Tamo-syst., Tore-syst.
DrosE-syst.: drospirenone and estradiol (systemic); Estro-syst.: estrogens (systemic); Estro-vag.: estrogens (vaginal); Tamo-syst.: tamoxifen (systemic); Tore-syst.: toremifene (systemic).
Teixeira MZ
106 Rev Assoc Med BRA s 2017; 63(2):100-108
TABLE 3 Adverse events or pathogenetic effects of estrogen (systemic).
Anatomical
and functional
distribution
Adverse events or pathogenetic effects of estrogen
(The United States Pharmacopeia Dispensing Information)45
(Homeopathic Materia Medica of Modern Drugs)29
Mind/Psyche anxiety; depression; emotional lability; dementia; irritability; nervousness
Head headache; migraine; dizziness; embolic stroke; chorea; worsening of epilepsy; hair loss
Eyes Herpes simplex; contact lens intolerance; increased corneal curvature (changes in vision); optic neuritis; retinal vein occlusion (thrombosis)
Vision visual disturbances
Nose sinusitis; nasopharyngitis; rhinitis; nasal congestion; herpes simplex
Face acne; hirsutism; herpes simplex; neuritis; chorea
Tongue chorea
Teeth abscesses
Throat nasopharyngitis; pharyngitis
Outer throat neck pain
Stomach anorexia; dyspepsia; nausea; gastroenteritis; vomit; changes in appetite
Abdomen bloating, atulence and abdominal cramps; gastroenteritis; biliary obstruction; pancreatitis; liver changes (hemangioma; enzymes)
Rectum constipation; diarrhea
Bladder urinary tract infection
Kidneys urinary tract infection
Female genitalia
amenorrhea; dysmenorrhea; vaginitis; fungal vaginosis; metrorrhagia; dyspareunia; vaginal hemorrhage; candidiasis; herpes simplex;
increased libido; menorrhagia; stains; endometrial atrophy; endometrial or ovarian cancer; cervical ectropion; endometrial hyperplasia; uterine
leiomyoma; changes in cervical mucus
Breathing bronchitis; asthma exacerbation
Coughing increase in coughing
Chest/Thorax
bronchitis; increased breast size, sensibility or pain; gynecomastia; pleural infection; chest pain; breast cancer; broadenomas;
pulmonary embolism; galactorrhea; myocardial infarction; palpitation; arrhythmias; coronary artery diseases
Back pain
Extremities peripheral edema; cramps; muscle spasms; osteoarthritis; neuritis; chorea; worsening of varicose veins
Sleep insomnia
Skin
irritation; pruritus; rashes; redness; acne; hirsutism; chloasma; hemorrhagic rash; erythema multiforme; erythema nodosum; melasma
General
asthenia; u syndrome; hypersensitivity reactions; infections; pain; weight gain; fatigue; hepatitis; hypertension; hypoesthesia;
thromboembolism; hypocalcemia; cholestatic jaundice; worsening of systemic lupus erythematosus; worsening of porphyria; sodium retention;
diabetes or reduced glucose tolerance; thrombophlebitis; increased triglycerides
Markdown text (font/letter style) to describe adverse events corresponds to their incidence frequency (%) within the population (USPDI, phase I-IV clinical trials): score 4/bold (≥ 4%); score 3/italic
and underlined (1-4%); score 2/italic (< 1%); score 1 / normal (overdose).
py and a set of signs and symptoms similar to the adverse
events or pathogenetic effects of estrogen (Table 3) were
recruited at the Endometriosis Sector of the Clinical Gy-
necology Division of the University of São Paulo Medical
School’s Hospital das Clínicas (HC-FMUSP). The selection
process was carried out through an analysis of patient
records and responses to structured questionnaires. After
meeting the inclusion criteria, the patients were distrib-
uted randomly to receive dynamized estrogen or placebo,
while maintaining conventional hormone therapy. The
primary clinical outcome was the severity of the chronic
pelvic pain after 24 weeks of intervention.
48,49
The results
of this recently published RCT showed that dynamized
estrogen was signicantly more effective than placebo for
reducing endometriosis-associated pelvic pain (dysmen-
orrhea, non-cyclic pelvic pain and cyclic bowel pain), im-
proving quality of life (bodily pain, vitality and mental
health) and reducing depressive symptoms.50
In a similar proposal described in another recently
published paper
51
that demonstrated worsening of pso-
riasis (rebound psoriasis) after discontinuation of im-
munomodulatory drugs (T-cell modulators and TNF
inhibitors), we suggest the treatment of psoriasis with
drugs that cause psoriasis as an adverse event (beta-ad-
TherapeuTic use of The rebound ef fecT of modern drugs: “new hom eopaThic medicines
Rev Assoc Med BRAs 2017; 63(2):100-108 107
renergic blocking agents, lithium and antimalarial agents,
among others) corresponding with the use of dynamized
estrogen to treat endometriosis.
concluSIon
Describing the undesirable effects of the indiscriminate
use of drugs that act according to the principle of contrar-
ies, opposite to the principle of similars, Hahnemann
warned of the risks of secondary action (rebound effect
or paradoxical reaction) of the organism, validating the
principle of similarity through the Aristotelian syllogism
(modus tollens, denying the consequent or indirect proof):
If these ill-effects are produced, as may very naturally be
expected from the antipathetic employment of medicines,
the ordinary physician imagines he can get over the dif-
culty by giving, at each renewed aggravation, a stronger dose
of the remedy, whereby an equally transient suppression is
effected; and as there then is a still greater necessity for giv-
ing ever-increasing quantities of the palliative there ensues
either another more serious disease or frequently even dan
-
ger to life and death itself, but never a cure of a disease of
considerable or of long standing. (Organon of medicine, § 60)
36
With modern drugs, a large number of iatrogenic events
could be avoided if health professionals paid attention
to the possible occurrence of the rebound effect or par-
adoxical reaction of the organism,13 minimizing the
aggravation of clinical conditions with the slow and
gradual decrease of doses. Although not included in
conventional adverse events of drug, “effects from the
discontinuation of drugs are part of the pharmacology
of the drug
52
and should be incorporated into the teach-
ing of modern pharmacology.
On the other hand, by employing the rebound effect
of conventional drugs in a curative manner, we can ex-
pand the spectrum of therapeutic similarity with hun-
dreds of “new homeopathic medicines,” including signs
and symptoms that are absent in classic homeopathic
pathogenetic trials and allowing the application of ho-
meopathic treatment for a multitude of diseases, disor-
ders and syndromes.
As has been suggested by the propagators of homeo-
pathic therapy for more than two centuries,
28,33
Bond and
Giles
18
encourage researchers to examine the paradoxical
phenomenon (rebound effect) without prejudice and to
challenge the dogma of current treatment paradigms with
new therapeutic approaches, despite the difculty in ac-
cepting new ideas by our peers.
reSumo
Uso terapêutico do efeito rebote dos fármacos modernos:
“Novos medicamentos homeopáticos”
O tratamento homeopático está fundamentado no prin-
cípio da similitude terapêutica, empregando medicamen-
tos que causam determinados distúrbios para tratar ma-
nifestações semelhantes, estimulando uma reação do
organismo contra seus próprios transtornos. A ocorrên-
cia dessa reação secundária do organismo, de natureza
oposta à ação primária dos medicamentos, está eviden-
ciada no estudo do efeito rebote (paradoxal) de inúmeras
classes de fármacos modernos. Neste trabalho, além de
fundamentar o princípio da similitude perante a farma-
cologia clínica e experimental, sugerimos uma proposta
para empregar centenas de drogas convencionais segundo
o método homeopático, aplicando a similitude terapêu-
tica entre os eventos adversos dos medicamentos e as
manifestações clínicas dos pacientes. Descrevendo linhas
de pesquisa existentes e um método especíco para o uso
terapêutico do efeito rebote dos fármacos modernos
(http://www.novosmedicamentoshomeopaticos.com),
esperamos minimizar preconceitos relativos à homeopa-
tia e contribuir para uma ampliação da arte de curar.
Palavras-chave: homeopatia, farmacologia, ação farma-
codinâmica do medicamento homeopático, lei dos seme-
lhantes, efeito rebote, medicamentos homeopáticos novos.
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... Quando utilizado segundo o princípio da similitude terapêutica, a magnitude deste efeito rebote também (reação vital) pode despertar respostas curativas proporcionais. Assim sendo, desde 2003, vimos propondo uma sistematização para a utilização do efeito rebote curativo de 1.250 fármacos modernos, administrando aos indivíduos doentes, em doses infinitesimais (medicamento dinamizado, potencializado ou ultradiluído), as mesmas drogas que causaram eventos adversos semelhantes, com o intuito de estimular uma reação homeostática ou paradoxal do organismo contra os seus próprios distúrbios [44][45][46][47][48][49][50]. ...
... Em projeto de pós-doutorado concluído em 2017, evidenciamos a eficácia e a segurança dessa proposta no emprego do estrogênio (17-beta estradiol) potencializado no tratamento homeopático da dor pélvica crônica em pacientes com endometriose refratária aos tratamentos convencionais, por meio de ensaio clínico randomizado, duplo-cego e placebo-controlado [50][51][52][53][54]. Isso foi possível pelo fato de que a endometriose é uma síndrome estrogênio-dependente e o 17beta estradiol apresenta como efeitos patogenéticos (eventos adversos) um conjunto de sinais e sintomas muito semelhante à síndrome da endometriose (ansiedade, depressão, insônia, enxaqueca, dor abdominal, dismenorreia, dispareunia e hiperplasia endometrial, dentre outros) [55]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In addition to the recognized application in chronic diseases, individualized homeopathy can also act in a resolutive or complementary way in acute cases, including epidemic diseases. However, to achieve this intent, it presents a specific semiologic and therapeutic methodology that must be followed and respected, with the risk of not presenting the desired efficacy and safety. In the case of epidemic diseases, which due to the virulence of their agents causes a common symptomatological picture in most susceptible individuals, the individualized homeopathic medicine (homeopathic medicine of the epidemic genius) should present similarity with the set of characteristic symptoms and signs of the patients affected in the different stages of each epidemic outbreak. Studies show the efficacy and safety of this therapeutic and/or prophylactic practice in several epidemics of the past. Therefore, after the survey of possible individualized homeopathic medicine from the epidemic genius of each epidemic, its therapeutic and/or large-scale prophylactic application should be supported by previous clinical trials that demonstrate its effectiveness and safety, in line with the ethical and bioethical aspects of research involving human beings. Fulfilling these premises of good clinical practice, we developed, in March 2020, this research protocol to investigate, in a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial, the effectiveness and safety of possible individualized homeopathic medicines of epidemic genius of COVID-19. If effectiveness and safety are confirmed, and only in this condition, the medicine may be used in a generalized and collective manner in the treatment and prevention of the current epidemic. To this end, we refer this project to physicians, researchers and managers of several public and private hospitals, requesting an opportunity to apply this proposal to patients hospitalized in wards and/or intensive care units for the treatment of COVID-19. // Resumo - Além da reconhecida aplicação nas doenças crônicas, a homeopatia individualizada também pode atuar de forma resolutiva ou complementar nos casos agudos, incluindo as doenças epidêmicas. No entanto, para atingir esse intento, apresenta uma metodologia semiológica e terapêutica específica que deve ser seguida e respeitada, com o risco de não apresentar a eficácia e a segurança desejada. No caso das doenças epidêmicas, que pela virulência dos seus agentes provoca um quadro sintomatológico comum na maioria dos indivíduos suscetíveis, o medicamento homeopático individualizado (medicamento homeopático do gênio epidêmico) deve apresentar semelhança com o conjunto de sinais e sintomas característicos dos pacientes acometidos nos diferentes estágios de cada surto epidêmico. Estudos evidenciam a eficácia e a segurança desta prática terapêutica e/ou profilática em diversas epidemias do passado. Assim sendo, após o levantamento dos possíveis medicamentos homeopáticos individualizados do gênio epidêmico de cada epidemia, sua aplicação terapêutica e/ou profilática em larga escala deve ser sustentada por ensaios clínicos prévios que demonstrem sua eficácia e segurança, em consonância com os aspectos éticos e bioéticos da pesquisa envolvendo seres humanos. Cumprindo essas premissas da boa prática clínica, elaboramos, em março de 2020, esse protocolo de pesquisa para investigar, em ensaio clínico randomizado, duplo-cego e placebo-controlado, a eficácia e a segurança de possíveis medicamentos homeopáticos individualizados do gênio epidêmico da COVID-19. Caso a eficácia e a segurança se confirmem, e tão somente nessa condição, o medicamento poderá ser utilizado de forma generalizada e coletiva no tratamento e na prevenção da atual epidemia. Com esse intuito, encaminhamos este projeto a médicos, pesquisadores e gestores de diversos hospitais públicos e privados, solicitando uma oportunidade para aplicar essa proposta em pacientes internados em enfermarias e/ou centros de terapia intensiva destinadas ao tratamento da COVID-19.
... Primary action (therapeutic effect) of modern drugs followed by secondary action and opposite (rebound effect or paradoxical reaction) of the body. suggesting the homeopathic use of modern drugs employing the rebound effect in a therapeutic way, [16][17][18][19][20][21][22] proposing to prescribe drugs, in dynamized doses, which present a similar set of signs and symptoms in their primary action to the manifestations of sick individuals. ...
... Such new homeopathic medicines cover signs and symptoms absent in the classical homeopathic pathogenetic trials and will allow treating countless modern disorders, diseases, and syndromes with homeopathy. [16][17][18][19][20][21][22] ...
... Our results showed that supplementation with fish oil or sunflower oil, despite their anti-inflammatory properties, not only aggravated the inflammatory conditions after endotoxemia but also increased the pro-inflammatory status by inducing platelet-leukocyte aggregation. This could be attributed to the rebound effect of fish oil or sunflower oil that might have suppressed the anti-inflammatory effects of these oils, or non-responsiveness of the rats after LPS injection due to the aggravated negative symptoms (34). The increased platelet-monocyte aggregation in group C than in group D could be explained by the stronger anti-inflammatory effect of fish oil than sunflower seed oil; therefore, leading to more pronounced rebound effect, and as a result a higher level of platelet-monocyte aggregation in the fish oil group than sunflower seed oil group. ...
... The increased platelet-monocyte aggregation in group C than in group D could be explained by the stronger anti-inflammatory effect of fish oil than sunflower seed oil; therefore, leading to more pronounced rebound effect, and as a result a higher level of platelet-monocyte aggregation in the fish oil group than sunflower seed oil group. The rebound effects of drugs are well documented in several studies (34)(35)(36). For instance, atorvastatin withdrawal led to a rebound increase in inflammatory mediators, as a result, patients with myocardial infarction might have adverse rebound effect after cessation of statin therapy (36). ...
Article
Full-text available
Sepsis causes platelet activation, systemic inflammation, organ dysfunction, and mortality. Endotoxins play an important role in the manifestation of the symptoms of septic shock. As fish oil exert well known anti-inflammatory effects and sunflower seed oil exert less anti-inflammatory properties than fish oil, both oils are widely used. We aimed to test the hypothesis that dietary supplementation of these two oils before endotoxemia modulates the consequences of illness. Nine- to ten-week-old male Wistar rats (N = 55) were divided into four groups: group A (N = 6), control; group B (N = 17), saline + lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin); group C (N = 17), fish oil + lipopolysaccharide; and group D (N = 15), sunflower seed oil + lipopolysaccharide. After 28 days of feeding the designated diet, the rats in all groups were intraperitoneally injected with lipopolysaccharide. After 24 h, survival rate, endotoxemia severity, levels of platelet activation markers, organ function and biochemical variables were evaluated. Platelet-leukocyte aggregation was significantly high in group C (p = 0.005), and platelet-monocyte aggregation was significantly high in groups C (p = 0.003) and D (p = 0.016) than in group B. The survival rate, endotoxemia severity, expression of platelet P-selectin, CD40L, and TLR4, pulmonary function, renal function, liver function, or biochemical variables did not significantly differ among groups B, C, and D. Instead of an anti-inflammatory effect, the dietary supplementation of fish and sunflower seed oils exerted a pro-inflammatory effect, especially via platelet-monocyte aggregation, suggesting a rebound effect of the dietary supplementation of the oils. The oils did not affect other inflammatory platelet markers or improve the outcome of endotoxemic rats. However, further studies are required to understand the underlying mechanisms of such effects and to elaborate the clinical significance of these findings.
... Since 2003, we advocate the use of the rebound effect of modern drugs with curative intent [8][9][10][11][12][13] . For this purpose, patients are given drugs in ultra-diluted doses, which caused a similar set of adverse events aiming at stimulating the homeostatic reaction of the body against its own disorders. ...
... The proposal entitled "New Homeopathic Medicines: use of modern drugs according to the principle of similitude" [8][9][10][11][12][13] was described and systematized in a database composed of three distinct works: ...
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Homeopathy employs the so-called ‘principle of similars’ as therapeutic method - which consists in administering medicines that cause certain primary symptoms in healthy individuals to treat similar symptoms in sick individuals (similia similibus curantur) – in order to induce a secondary and healing reaction of the body against its own disorders. This secondary (vital, homeostatic or paradoxical) reaction of the body is based on the ‘rebound effect’ of modern drugs, a type of adverse event that occurs following discontinuation of several classes of drugs prescribed according to the ‘principle of contraries’ (contraria contrariis curantur). Since 1998, we have been bridging the gap between homeopathic and conventional pharmacology through the systematic study of the rebound effect of modern drugs, scientifically confirming the homeopathic postulate (primary action of the drug followed by secondary and opposite reaction of the organism) and the homeopathic healing principle. Following the homeopathic premises, conventional drugs can be employed according to the therapeutic similitude principle provided they cause primary symptoms (therapeutic, adverse and collateral effects) similar to the symptomatic manifestations of sick individuals. Since 2003, we are proposing the use of the rebound effect of modern drugs in a curative manner, administering to patients, in ultra-diluted doses, the drugs that cause a set of similar adverse events. Entitled “New Homeopathic Medicines: use of modern drugs according to the principle of similitude”, this proposal are been made available in a database composed of three free-access bilingual digital books.
... As per our understanding this is the most appropriate hypothetical way to express the mechanism of action. A group of examples of modern medical drugs (Anti-depressant, Anti-psychotic, Antimaniac, Anti-hypertensive, Anti-arrhythmic, Sedative & Hypnotics etc.) show rebound effect [38]. In recent medical literature, thousands of studies described the secondary counter actions of organism after primary actions of different drugs or chemical moiety. ...
... In recent medical literature, thousands of studies described the secondary counter actions of organism after primary actions of different drugs or chemical moiety. Studies say that the secondary actions produced itself automatically and instinctively to maintain the homeostatic balance of organism [38]. There is hundreds of Figure 1. ...
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Homoeopathy, being effective in various disease conditions, is a very popular choice of treatment among patients after conventional therapies. Despite that, the scientific community always tuned down its adoption due to the unexplored mechanism of action of homeopathic medicines. Unexplained working principles of Post-Avogadro dilutions and lack of molecular existence has always interfered with the acceptance of homoeopathy in the modern world. In the secondary action, homeopathic medicines show the reciprocal activity of its primary action. It seems that along with body homeostasis, it also acts on receptor level as an inverse agonist and after binding with a receptor at the resting phase it acts by reducing basal activity. As a result of this effect, it ends up producing an opposite biological effect known as a secondary action. Homeopathic drugs in its ultra–dilution probably show effects due to paradoxical activity which is generated at a definite time which can prove that secondary action is not due to the placebo effect. Paradoxical pharmacology clearly provides a basis for the concept of homeopathic drug dynamics as various drugs of modern medicines also have shown their paradoxical activity in high dilution. It is a complex receptor-mediated action which can alter the cell signaling pathway and can bring significant change in host adaptive response. In this review, we have exemplified the relation between the concepts of homeopathic drug dynamics with the rebound effect of drug substances to minimize the fallacy associated with homeopathic pharmacodynamics.
... Los bifosfonatos causan de 1 a 3 episodios de fracturas atípicas paradojales por cada 1.000 años-paciente de uso 11 . Asumiendo que el principio de la similitud terapéutica es una "ley natural de curación", desde 2003 venimos sugiriendo el uso homeopático de fármacos modernos, empleando el efecto rebote de forma terapéutica [15][16][17][18][19] , proponiendo administrar, en dosis ultradiluidas, fármacos que presentan, en su acción primaria, un conjunto de signos y síntomas similares a las manifestaciones de individuos enfermos. ...
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The vitalist philosophical conception considers vital force dystonia as the primary cause of diseases, while the return to health status would occur by vital rebalancing. The homeopathic model expands understanding of the etiopathogenic dynamics, and also considers the manifestation of chronic miasmas (manifest psora) as a fundamental cause of chronic diseases in general, while health restoration would occur through modulating this miasmatic manifestation (latent psora). According to the biomedical etiopathogenic process, the primary cause of diseases is the expression of genes responsible for the respective physiological disorders, considering the manifestation of disease-promoting epigenetic alterations as a fundamental cause of chronic diseases in general. The return to health status would occur through modulating these epigenetic manifestations and consequent inhibition of pathological gene expression. Due to presenting similar characteristics and properties, we have suggested in recent studies the philosophical-scientific correlations between vital force and genome (exome plus epigenome) and between chronic miasms and disease-promoting epigenetic alterations, meaning that the genome would be the biological representation of organic vital force, and disease-promoting epigenetic alterations would be the biological representation of chronic miasms. The properties and functions of the telomere-telomerase complex expand understanding of the gene expression mechanism at the chromosome level (DNA molecule or genomic unit), and reiterate the philosophical-scientific correlations between the vital principle and the genome in view of its recognized role as a biomarker of cellular vitality, biological aging and the health-disease process. In this context, telomere length would indicate the organic vital force state and could be used in the diagnosis and prognosis of diseases according to the vitalist approach, expanding the spectrum and scope of classical homeopathic semiology. In accordance with these hypotheses, the isopathic use of auto-sarcode of DNA (auto-isotherapic of DNA) could act on the imbalance of the vital principle or genome and in the chronic miasmas or disease-promoting epigenetic alterations as homeopathic therapeutic modulator of gene expression in the management of chronic diseases.
... Assuming that the principle of therapeutic similitude is a "natural law of cure," since 2003, we have been suggesting the homeopathic use of modern drugs employing the rebound effect in a therapeutic way [15][16][17][18][19] , proposing to administer, in ultra-diluted doses, drugs that present, in their primary action, a set of signs and symptoms similar to the manifestations of sick individuals. ...
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When Samuel Hahnemann systematized homeopathy and the effects of drugs on the state of human health, he described the primary action of drugs and the following secondary and opposite reaction of the body. Seeking to apply this secondary action or vital reaction of the body as therapeutic method, he postulated the “principle of cure by similars”, i.e. the prescription to ill individuals of drugs that cause similar symptoms in the healthy (similia similibus curentur). In modern pharmacology, this secondary action (vital reaction) of the body is known as rebound effect or paradoxical reaction. It has been observed after discontinuation of several classes of palliative drugs, namely those that act according to the “principle of cure by contraries” (contraria contrariis curentur). Since 1998, we have been bridging the gap between homeopathic and conventional pharmacology through the systematic study of rebound effect of modern drugs, scientifically confirming the homeopathic postulate (primary action of the drug followed by secondary and opposite reaction of the body) and the homeopathic healing principle. Following the homeopathic premises, conventional drugs can be employed according to the principle of therapeutic similitude provided they cause primary symptoms (therapeutic, adverse and side effects) similar to the symptomatic manifestations of sick individuals. Since 2003, we are proposing the use of the rebound effect of modern drugs in a curative manner, administering to patients, in ultra-diluted doses, drugs that cause a set of similar adverse events. Since 2021, these two decades of studies are made available in three free-access digital books.
... O efeito rebote está confirmado em centenas de estudos da farmacologia clínica e experimental. 9,10 Apesar do caráter idiossincrásico desse fenômeno rebote, que se manifesta em pequena proporção dos indivíduos, evidências científicas alertam para a ocorrência de eventos iatrogênicos graves e fatais em decorrência da reação paradoxal do organismo, após a administração de fármacos modernos: anti-inflamatórios seletivos e não seletivos das ciclooxigenases ocasionando eventos trombóticos (infarto agudo do miocárdio e acidente vascular encefálico), secundariamente à ação primária antitrombótica; broncodilatadores de longa duração causando broncoespasmos irreversíveis; antidepressivos inibidores da recaptação de serotonina exacerbando a depressão e as ideações suicidas; imunobiológicos desencadeando formas graves de esclerose múltipla e psoríase; dentre inúmeras outras classes de drogas. 9-14 ...
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A homeopatia é um modelo terapêutico empregado mundialmente, que vem despertando, nas últimas décadas, juntamente com outras abordagens da medicina integrativa, o interesse crescente de usuários, estudantes de medicina e médicos. A homeopatia propicia uma prática médica segura e eficiente, propondo-se a compreender e tratar o binômio doente-doença segundo uma abordagem antropológica vita-lista, globalizante e humanística, valorizando os diversos aspectos da individualidade enferma.
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In view of homeopathy being based on scientific assumptions different from those employed by conventional medical practice, it is often the target of unfounded criticism spread by individuals who systematically deny the homeopathic principles and any scientific evidence that proves them, because they are wrapped in dogmatic negationism that prevents a correct and prejudice-free analysis. They are ‘pseudosceptics’ disguised as ‘pseudoscientists’. To clarify physicians, researchers, health professionals and the general population, demystifying culturally entrenched dogmatic postures and the pseudosceptic fallacy that “there is no scientific evidence for homeopathy”, in 2017, the Technical Chamber of Homeopathy of the Regional Council of Medicine of the State of São Paulo (CT-Homeopathy, Cremesp) elaborated and published the “Special Dossier: Scientific Evidence for Homeopathy”, freely available in the Revista de Homeopatia (São Paulo), scientific journal of São Paulo Homeopathic Medical Association (Associação Paulista de Homeopatia, APH). Encompassing nine narrative reviews in several lines of homeopathic research (historical-social, medical education, pharmacological, basic, clinical, patient safety and pathogenetic) and two randomized and placebo-controlled clinical trials developed by members of the CT-Homeopathy, containing hundreds of scientific articles published in numerous indexed and peer-reviewed scientific journals, this dossier highlights for the medical and scientific class, as well as for the general public, the ‘state of the art’ of the research in homeopathy. Troubled by the excellence of this vast body of evidence, in November 2020, a group of pseudosceptics who make up the Instituto Questão de Ciência (IQC) published a derisory and fallacious manuscript entitled “Counter-dossier of Evidence on Homeopathy”, in order to evaluate the articles published in the “Special Dossier: Scientific Evidence for Homeopathy” according to “the best scientific rigor” and “inform the population about what science says about the supposed efficacy of homeopathy”. Unfortunately, none of this occurred in the aforementioned manuscript. Unlike the advertised “better scientific rigor” in the analysis of articles, what is observed throughout the text is a set of criticisms based on known “pseudosceptic strategies” to disqualify certain scientific work: tendency to deny, rather than doubt; use of personal attacks; attempt to disqualify proponents of new ideas by pejoratively taxing them from pseudoscientists, promoters or practitioners of pathological science; conducting judgments without a thorough and conclusive investigation; insufficient or unconvincing evidence (absence of evidence); presentation of unsubstantiated or evidence-based evidence based solely on plausibility, rather than based on evidence; tendency to disqualify any and all evidence; suggestion that unconvincing evidence is sufficient to assume that a theory is false; vitrionic, slanderous or derogatory tone in the comments; non-specific and superficial comments; dissemination in mass media (non-scientific); among others. In the current digital book (Falácias pseudocéticas e pseudocientíficas do “Contradossiê das Evidências sobre a Homeopatia” / Pseudosceptic and pseudoscientific fallacies of the “Counter-dossier of Evidence on Homeopathy”), we highlight these pseudosceptic strategies in the counter-dossier and respond to the authors’ criticisms. In view that these indications of pseudoscepticism contaminate the entire manuscript, denoting the despicable scientific quality of the same, we leave it up to each author of the dossier, cited or not in the counter-dossier, the initiative to respond or not to the authors’ criticisms.
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The homeopathic method of healing is grounded on the application of the principle of therapeutic similitude (similia similibus curentur) by using medicines that cause effects similar to the symptoms of disease in order to stimulate the reaction of the organism against its own disturbs. Such vital, homeostatic or paradoxical reaction of the organism can be scientifically explained on the basis of the rebound effect of modern drugs. This article presents the conclusion of a study aiming at a method to use modern drugs with homeopathic criteria. This claim is epistemologically justified by the fact that a definite class of adverse events described by experimental pharmacology represents actual pathogenetic symptoms of drugs. On these grounds it was possible to elaborate a homeopathic materia medica and repertory comprising 1,251 modern drugs to be employed according to the principle of similitude and the individualizing symptomatic totality. Besides supplying a basis for homeopathy as a medical rationality regarding scientific pharmacology, this study makes available a method that may broaden the scope of intervention of homeopathy in present day diseases. (www.newhomeopathicmedicines.com)
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Using the empirical or phenomenological research method by observing the effects of drugs in the human physiology, Samuel Hahnemann proposed the homeopathic treatment. He synthesized modern pharmacodynamic in the ‘primary action’ of the drugs and in the consequent and opposite ‘secondary action’ or ‘vital reaction’ of the organism. Noting that drugs with ‘contrary’ primary action to the symptoms of the diseases caused worsening of the symptoms after its withdrawal, as a result of secondary action of the organism, Hahnemann proposed using this vital reaction (secondary action) in a curative way, administering to sick individuals the drugs that caused ‘similar’ symptoms in healthy individuals (therapeutic use of the similitude principle). According to the clinical and experimental pharmacology, this secondary action (vital reaction) of the organism is observed in the ‘rebound effect’ or ‘paradoxical reaction’ of several classes of drugs, which is the scientific basis of the ‘homeopathic pharmacology’. In the last decade, exponents of modern pharmacology have suggested the therapeutic use of the paradoxical reaction (‘paradoxical pharmacology’), proposing the use of drugs that cause an exacerbation of the disease in the short term to treat these same diseases in the long-term. In this review, we compare the various aspects between the ‘homeopathic pharmacology’ and the ‘paradoxical pharmacology’, reinforcing the validity of homeopathic assumptions and expanding the knowledge to optimize both proposals.
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A experimentação ou ensaio patogenético homeopático (EPH) é o método de investigação clínico-farmacológica utilizado pela homeopatia para conhecer as manifestações patogenéticas (sinais e sintomas) que as substâncias despertam nos seres humanos, possibilitando a aplicação do princípio da similitude terapêutica. Instrumento indispensável na assistência, na pesquisa e no ensino da homeopatia, apresenta modelos de aplicação diversos ao longo destes dois séculos de prática homeopática, através dos quais milhares de substâncias foram experimentadas em indivíduos humanos sadios e tiveram suas manifestações sintomáticas descritas nas Matérias Médicas Homeopáticas. Apesar da sua importância no desenvolvimento da episteme homeopática, a Homeopatia Brasileira carece, na atualidade, de protocolos de pesquisa patogenética condizentes com as exigências da metodologia científica moderna, que tornariam os testes mais confiáveis e facilitariam sua aprovação perante os comitês de ética em pesquisa das instituições que pretendam executá-los. Este protocolo de experimentação patogenética homeopática foi desenhado com o intuito de suprir esta demanda, seguindo os passos e as exigências necessárias à elaboração de um projeto de pesquisa clínica em humanos, a fim de disponibilizar uma sistemática que permita a uniformização do procedimento e sua aplicação nas diversas instâncias que se proponham a realizar pesquisa patogenética homeopática. A possibilidade da publicação deste protocolo numa revista indexada e de livre acesso, permitindo a ampla divulgação de um tema imprescindível ao entendimento e ao progresso da homeopatia, facilita o esclarecimento da racionalidade científica homeopática perante a classe médica e a disseminação da proposta perante o movimento homeopático brasileiro.
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When Samuel Hahnemann systematized homeopathy and the effects of drugs on the state of human health, he described the primary action of drugs and the following secondary and opposite reaction of the organism. Seeking to apply this secondary action or vital reaction of the organism as therapeutic method, he postulated the principle of similitude, i.e. the prescription to ill individuals of drugs that cause similar symptoms in the healthy (similia similibus curentur). In modern pharmacology, secondary action (vital reaction) of drugs is known as rebound effect or paradoxical reaction of the organism. It has been observed after discontinuation of several classes of palliative (enantiopathic) drugs, namely those that act according to the principle of contraries (contraria contrariis curentur). Although in this case it is associated with severe and fatal iatrogenic events, rebound effect might awaken a healing reaction when the very same drug is employed according to the principle of similitude. The validity of the principle of similitude is proved by scientific evidence on rebound effect, whereas conventional drugs primary (therapeutic, adverse and side) effects might be equated to pathogenetic manifestations and thus be homeopathically applied. For this purpose a homeopathic materia medica and repertory comprising 1,251 modern drugs was elaborated using the monographs described in The United States Pharmacopeia Dispensing Information as source (www.newhomeopathicmedicines.com). Thus, the therapeutic range of homeopathy is broadened through the addition of hundreds of new medicines that might be employed in every kind of disease including countless modern clinical syndromes.
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The homeopathic model applies the secondary action or vital reaction of the organism as a therapeutic method and thus prescribes treatment by similitude, which consists in administering to ill individuals substances that cause similar symptoms in healthy individuals. The vital, homeostatic or paradoxical reaction of the organism might be explained scientifically by means of the rebound effect of modern drugs, which might cause fatal iatrogenic events after discontinuation of antipathic (a term used in alternative medicine for palliative treatment, also known as enantiopathic) treatment. Although the rebound effect is studied by modern pharmacology, it is poorly communicated to and discussed among healthcare professionals, who are thus deprived of information needed for the safe management of modern drugs. This article presents an up-to-date review on the rebound effect of modern drugs that grounds the homeopathic principle of healing and calls the attention of doctors to this type of adverse effect that is usually unnoticed. The rebound effect of modern palliative drugs, which was pointed out by Hahnemann more than two centuries ago, might cause fatal adverse events and is illustrated by the examples of acetylsalicylic acid, anti-inflammatory agents, bronchodilators, antidepressants, statins, proton-pump inhibitors, etc. Although the rebound effect is expressed by a small fraction of (susceptible) individuals and might be avoided by gradual tapering of antipathic drugs, it exhibits epidemiologic importance as a function of the massive use of such palliative drugs and the lack of knowledge in its regard.
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Apesar da secular eficácia terapêutica da homeopatia, fator imprescindível na manutenção deste método de tratamento até os dias atuais, o meio acadêmico e científico exige comprovações segundo os seus parâmetros de pesquisa e avaliação. Essa é sempre a tônica das discussões entre homeopatas e 'alopatas', pois esses dois métodos de tratamento estão fundamentados em paradigmas opostos, possuindo metodologias distintas e divergindo sobre inúmeros fatores: verificação dos poderes curativos das drogas utilizando a experimentação em indivíduos humanos sadios ou em doentes (animais); valorização de aspectos psíquicos, emocionais e gerais nessas experimentações; escolha do medicamento através dos princípios da semelhança ou dos contrários; utilização de doses infinitesimais ou ponderais; administração de medicamentos únicos ou combinados, etc. Essa obra foi idealizada na tentativa de aproximar o modelo homeopático à racionalidade médica atual, buscando nas publicações e pesquisas científicas modernas o substrato para fundamentar os principais conceitos da homeopatia, em especial, o princípio terapêutico pela similitude. Em diversas áreas do conhecimento humano, da física à fisiologia humana, assim como em centenas de medicamentos empregados pela farmacologia clássica, encontramos a confirmação dos pressupostos homeopáticos, semelhantemente ao citado por Hahnemann há mais de dois séculos. Buscando a aproximação científica da medicina homeopática com a medicina convencional, esperamos num futuro próximo poder participar conjuntamente na formação de uma Medicina única, na qual o benefício ao paciente esteja acima de qualquer outro objetivo. Principais tópicos O método de cura homeopático reiterado pelo conhecimento científico moderno. O princípio terapêutico homeopático observado na história da medicina. Relatos de curas homeopáticas por médicos de todas as épocas. Estudo minucioso dos pilares fundamentais da homeopatia: lei dos semelhantes e experimentação no homem são. O princípio da similitude segundo a racionalidade científica dos séculos XVI a XIX: lei dos semelhantes como lei natural. O princípio da semelhança evidenciado em outras áreas do conhecimento humano (física, psicoterapia). Conceitos homeopáticos abordados segundo os fundamentos da fisiologia moderna. O mecanismo de ação das drogas homeopáticas evidenciado pela farmacologia clínica e experimental: fundamentação dos preceitos homeopáticos na observação dos efeitos secundários de centenas de fármacos modernos. Sugestões de pesquisa homeopática com drogas convencionais.
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Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of potentized estrogen compared to placebo in homeopathic treatment of endometriosis-associated pelvic pain (EAPP). Study design: The present was a 24-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that included 50 women aged 18-45 years old with diagnosis of deeply infiltrating endometriosis based on magnetic resonance imaging or transvaginal ultrasound after bowel preparation, and score ≥ 5 on a visual analogue scale (VAS: range 0 to 10) for endometriosis-associated pelvic pain. Potentized estrogen (12cH, 18cH and 24cH) or placebo was administered twice daily per oral route. The primary outcome measure was change in the severity of EAPP global and partial scores (VAS) from baseline to week 24, determined as the difference in the mean score of five modalities of chronic pelvic pain (dysmenorrhea, deep dyspareunia, non-cyclic pelvic pain, cyclic bowel pain and/or cyclic urinary pain). The secondary outcome measures were mean score difference for quality of life assessed with SF-36 Health Survey Questionnaire, depression symptoms on Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and anxiety symptoms on Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Results: The EAPP global score (VAS: range 0 to 50) decreased by 12.82 (P < 0.001) in the group treated with potentized estrogen from baseline to week 24. Group that used potentized estrogen also exhibited partial score (VAS: range 0 to 10) reduction in three EAPP modalities: dysmenorrhea (3.28; P < 0.001), non-cyclic pelvic pain (2.71; P = 0.009), and cyclic bowel pain (3.40; P < 0.001). Placebo group did not show any significant changes in EAPP global or partial scores. In addition, the potentized estrogen group showed significant improvement in three of eight SF-36 domains (bodily pain, vitality and mental health) and depression symptoms (BDI). Placebo group showed no significant improvement in this regard. These results demonstrate superiority of potentized estrogen over placebo. Few adverse events were associated with potentized estrogen. Conclusions: Potentized estrogen (12cH, 18cH and 24cH) at a dose of 3 drops twice daily for 24 weeks was significantly more effective than placebo for reducing endometriosis-associated pelvic pain. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02427386.
Article
Background: Employing the secondary action or adaptative reaction of the organism as therapeutic response, homeopathy uses the treatment by similitude (similia similibus curentur) administering to sick individuals the medicines that caused similar symptoms in healthy individuals. Such homeostatic or paradoxical reaction of the organism is scientifically explained through the rebound effect of drugs, which cause worsening of symptoms after withdrawal of several palliative treatments. Despite promoting an improvement in psoriasis at the beginning of the treatment, modern biological therapies provoke worsening of the psoriasis (rebound psoriasis) after discontinuation of drugs. Method: Exploratory qualitative review of the literature on the occurrence of the rebound effect with the use of immunomodulatory drugs [T-cell modulating agents and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors drugs] in the treatment of psoriasis. Results: Several researches indicate the rebound effect as the mechanism of worsening of psoriasis with the use of efalizumab causing the suspension of its marketing authorization in 2009, in view of some severe cases. Other studies also have demonstrated the occurrence of rebound psoriasis with the use of alefacept, etanercept and infliximab. Conclusion: As well as studied in other classes of drugs, the rebound effect of biologic agents supports the principle of similitude (primary action of the drugs followed by secondary action and opposite of the organism).
Article
Background: Endometriosis is a chronic inflammatory disease that causes difficult-to-treat pelvic pain. Thus being, many patients seek help in complementary and alternative medicine, including homeopathy. The effectiveness of homeopathic treatment for endometriosis is controversial due to the lack of evidences in the literature. The aim of the present randomized controlled trial is to assess the efficacy of potentized estrogen compared to placebo in the treatment of chronic pelvic pain associated with endometriosis. Methods/design: The present is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a homeopathic medicine individualized according to program 'New Homeopathic Medicines: use of modern drugs according to the principle of similitude' (http://newhomeopathicmedicines.com). Women with endometriosis, chronic pelvic pain and a set of signs and symptoms similar to the adverse events caused by estrogen were recruited at the Endometriosis Unit of Division of Clinical Gynecology, Clinical Hospital, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo (Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo - HCFMUSP). The participants were selected based on the analysis of their medical records and the application of self-report structured questionnaires. A total of 50 women meeting the eligibility criteria will be randomly allocated to receive potentized estrogen or placebo. The primary clinical outcome measure will be severity of chronic pelvic pain. Statistical analysis will be performed on the intention-to-treat and per-protocol approaches comparing the effect of the homeopathic medicine versus placebo after 24 weeks of intervention. Discussion: The present study was approved by the research ethics committee of HCFMUSP and the results are expected in 2016. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02427386.