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Analysis of mechanical properties of jute fiber strengthened epoxy/polyester composites

  • Haryana Engineering College

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In recent years, efforts have been made to produce advanced composite materials in order to lessen environmental impact and to extent sustainability. Traditional materials are largely substituted by composites due to their greater properties like flexural strength, low thermal expansion and high strength. Numerous studies are present that show the process of composite materials reinforcement with natural fiber to improve mechanical and thermal properties. The vital aspect of exploitation of natural fiber in composites is associated with biodegradability. An extensive range of different natural fibers has been used for reinforcement till now. In present work, mechanical properties of jute fiber reinforced epoxy and polyester composites manufactured using Taguchi optimization method are investigated, experimentally. It was found that jute reinforced epoxy composite had better mechanical properties than jute polyester composite. Also, Epoxy-jute composite had lower erosion wear rate than polyester jute composites.
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* Corresponding author.
E-mail addresses: (K. Mittal)
© 2017 Growing Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi: 10.5267/j.esm.2017.3.002
Engineering Solid Mechanics (2017) 103-112
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Engineering Solid Mechanics
Analysis of mechanical properties of jute fiber strengthened epoxy/polyester
Prabhakar Kaushika , Jaivirb, and Kapil Mittalc*
aAssociate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering,UIET, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, Rohtak, Haryana, India, 124001
bM.Tech Research Scholar, Department of Mechanical Engineering,UIET, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, Haryana, India, 124001
cAssistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, FET, Gurukul Kangri University, Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India, 249404
Article history:
Received 6 October, 2016
Accepted 3 March 2017
Available online
3 March 2017
In recent years, efforts have been made to produce advanced composite materials in order to
lessen environmental impact and to extent sustainability. Traditional materials are largely
substituted by composites due to their greater properties like flexural strength, low thermal
expansion and high strength. Numerous studies are present that show the process of composite
materials reinforcement with natural fiber to improve mechanical and thermal properties. The
vital aspect of exploitation of natural fiber in composites is associated with biodegradability.
An extensive range of different natural fibers has been used for reinforcement till now. In
present work, mechanical properties of jute fiber reinforced epoxy and polyester composites
manufactured using Taguchi optimization method are investigated, experimentally. It was
found that jute reinforced epoxy composite had better mechanical properties than jute polyester
composite. Also, Epoxy- jute composite had lower erosion wear rate than polyester jute
© 2017 Growing Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jute fiber
Epoxy resin
Polyester resin
Experimental study
Taguchi method
1. Introduction
In the history of materials, one of the most significant achievement is the evolution of composite
materials and their manufacturing processes. Composite materials are used in different areas, where
specific physical and mechanical properties are required. Composites have better impact strength,
tensile strength, and flexural strength as compared to conventional materials (Verma, 2009). Due to
these advantages, these are broadly used in the aerospace, automotive and infrastructure industries.
Composite materials are produced by mixing two or more materials containing different properties and
generally consist of a tougher and lighter material (Chow et al., 2007). The stronger or tougher material
is known as reinforcement and lighter material is known as a matrix. Main function of matrix is to
transfer stress between reinforced fibers and protect the composite from mechanical damage.
Reinforcement in the composite improves the mechanical properties like flexural strength, impact
strength, tensile strength, and stiffness (Chandramohan & Marimuthu, 2011). Based on the matrix
material used, composites are of three type metal matrix composites, ceramic matrix composites and
polymer matrix composites (Dhanasekran & Balachandran, 2008). Each type has its definite
applications. Further, in metal matrix composites, metals are used for matrix material (Girisha et al.,
2014). Another term ‘Ceramics’ are known as inorganic and non- metallic materials that have utility in
our daily lifestyle. In ceramic matrix composites, ceramic is taken as matrix material. Ceramic material
contains inorganic material such as plates, pottery, bricks, glass, titles, oxides, nitrides, carbides of
silicon, zirconium, aluminum, etc. (Khan et al., 2016). When polymer resins are used as matrix material
with any type of reinforcement agent such as composite material, these are called as polymer matrix
composites. This type of composites is mostly used because of ease of fabrication, lower cost, and good
electrical & thermal insulator and lower density (Gujjala et al., 2014). The property of such composite
material depends on three elements. These are: (i)Type of Polymer, (ii) Reinforcement Material and
(iii) Filler Material or Interface. Polymer matrix composite are considered to be the most significant
class of composite as compared with metal matrix and ceramics matrix (Onal & Adanur, 2002). These
matrices are easily fabricated and have low cost. This type of matrix is classified in to two types:
Thermosets polymers and Thermoplastic polymers. Thermosets polymers are most effective type of
matrix system. In this, resins undergo polymerization and cross linking during curing process. These
polymers do not melt on reheating, but they decompose thermally at high temperature. Examples of
thermosets are unsaturated polyesters, epoxies, polyimides and vinyl esters. Composites (especially
those made of natural fibers), due to their unique advantages have numerous application in todays’
technically advancing environment (Pujari et al., 2014; Kumar et al. 2004; Mansourian et al., 2016;
Kumar, 2016). In this paper, specimen of an Epoxy/Polyester composite consisting jute fibers has been
prepared and an analysis of their mechanical properties have been made by performing certain tests.
2. Materials & experimental details
2.1 Materials
For the preparation of the specimen, jute fiber is used, as reinforcement material and epoxy\polyester
are the matrix materials. Epoxy and polyester resins are supplied by ‘Saakshi dye and chemicals, New
Delhi’. The density of epoxy and polyester at room temperature are 1.16 and 1.09, respectively. Woven
jute fibers were collected from local sources (Fig. 1).
Fig. 1. Woven Jute Fiber
2.2. Composite Fabrication
To prepare the matrix material for composite, epoxy resin, polyester resin, hardener, and accelerator
are used. The epoxy resin and corresponding hardener (HY951) were mixed in a weight ratio of 10:1.
Hand lay-up technique was used for the preparation of composite. A mould having dimensions
150×30×7mm was prepared. Then jute fiber in the form of woven was reinforced with epoxy and
polyester separately in different weight proportions (11%, 22%, 33%, 44%, and 55%) to prepare
composites. Jute fiber is laid in the mould uniformly and compressed. Then the fiber seat was removed
and remover was applied to the mould. The jute fiber was kept again in mould. Resin and respective
hardener were mixed separately and uniformly poured over the compressed fiber. Then the mixture
P. Kaushik et al. / Engineering Solid Mechanics 5 (2017)
was compressed again and left for a curing period of 24 hours. After completion of the curing process,
samples were cut to required size as per ASTM standards. The composite samples of five different
composition EJ-1 to EJ-5 which have an epoxy resin as matrix material and five other composite
samples PJ-1 to PJ-5 which have polyester as matrix material were prepared. The composition of
prepared samples is shown in Table 1.
Table 1. Composition of prepared samples
Sample Composition
EJ-1 Epoxy + jute (11% by volume)
EJ-2 Epoxy + jute (22% by volume)
EJ-3 Epoxy + jute (33% by volume)
EJ-4 Epoxy + jute (44 % by volume)
EJ-5 Epoxy + jute (55% by volume)
PJ-1 Polyester + jute (11% by volume)
PJ-2 Polyester + jute (22% by volume)
PJ-3 Polyester + jute (33% by volume)
PJ-4 Polyester + jute (44 % by volume)
PJ-5 Polyester + jute (55% by volume)
2.3 Mechanical Testing
After preparation of specimen, the samples were subjected to different mechanical testing according
to ASTM standards. For each composition, five specimens were tested to evaluate the mechanical
properties, so that statistically significant results were obtained.
1) Flexural Test
Flexural test was performed on the specimen by using a universal testing machine. Flexural strength
is the ability of a material to bend before the breaking point. The test is conducted at a constant speed
of 2.38mm/min at room temperature. Dimensions of specimen for the flexural test were 150×30×7 mm3
and standard followed was ASTM 790-03. The specimen was placed between two supports of span
length 100 mm.
2) Impact Test
This test was performed on the Izod impact-testing machine. The specimen was clamped upright in
an anvil. A striker carried on pendulum, which is allowed to fall freely from a fixed height, then hits
the test specimen. The specimens were tested as per ASTM-D 256-05 standard. The dimension of the
specimen for impact test was 64×15×7 mm3.
3) Erosion testing of composite specimen:
Erosion test rig as per ASTM G76 was used for the erosion testing of the composite specimen. The
erosion test rig basically consists of an air compressor, air filter, air drying unit, hopper, mixing
chamber and a vibrator which is basically connected to mixing chamber. The erodent particles basically
consists of silica sand. With the help of the conveyer belt these sand particle were brought to the mixing
chamber where the compress air was mixed and the mixture was allowed to pass through the converging
brass nozzle of 3 mm internal diameter.
3. Taguchi experimental design
For robust design, Taguchi experimental design was used. It is a very simple and organized approach
through which the design parameters can be optimized while reducing the overall testing time and
experimental cost (Kaushik et al., 2016). It consists of two important tools. These tools are:
Signal to noise ratio: - It extent quality which accentuate on variation.
Orthogonal Array: - It holds all the design parameters at the same time.
The selection of the design parameters is a very important stage in the design of experiment.
Through entire literature reconsideration of the polymer composite in case of erosion behavior, it was
conformed that parameters like filler content, impact velocity, Stand off distance, Impingent angle,
erodent temperature etc. affect the erosion rate of composite. For sophisticated planning of experiments
Taguchi approach for four factors and three levels was used. In the Taguchi approach the array which
was to be chosen was L (3). In relation to the test it contained four columns at three levels. In the
present study out of all parameters only four parameters were taken. All the four parameters were
considered at each three levels. The experimental observations were converted into signal to noise ratio.
Depending upon the type of characteristics, signal to noise ratios are of several types:
Smaller-the-better characteristic:
S/N= -10log 1/n {Ʃp²}, (1)
Nominal-the-better characteristic:
S/N= -10log {ƩP/ X²}, (2)
Larger-the-better characteristic:
S/N= -10log 1/n {Ʃ1/p²}, (3)
where n is the number of observation, p is data observed, P is the mean and X is the variance. Under
the smaller the better, the S/N ratio was minimum for erosion rate, which can be calculated from Eq.
(1). Whole scheme is elaborated in Tables (2-4).
Table 2. Parameters set for erosion test
Control factor Symbols Fixed parameters
Impact Velocity Factor A Erodent Silica sand
Impingent Angle Factor B Nozzle Diameter 3 mm
Erodent Size Factor C Stand Off Distance 100 mm
Fiber Loading Factor D Length Of Nozzle 80 mm
Table 3. Control factors for each level
Control factor Level Units
1 2 3
Impact Velocity 35 45 55 m/sec
Impingent Angle 30 60 90 Degree
Erodent Size 300 400 500 µm
Fiber Loading 22 33 44 % by volume
Table 4. Orthogonal arrays for L Taguchi design
SR. No A B C D
1 1 1 1 1
2 1 2 2 2
3 1 3 3 3
4 2 1 2 3
5 2 2 3 1
6 2 3 1 2
7 3 1 3 2
8 3 2 2 3
9 3 3 1 1
P. Kaushik et al. / Engineering Solid Mechanics 5 (2017)
4. Results and discussion
The specimens were tested for their flexural and impact strength and following results were
4.1 Flexural Test
Table 5 gives the values of flexural strength of a specimen with different fiber loading for jute-
reinforced epoxy/polyester composites.
Table 5. Flexural strength of composite specimen
le Value in n/mm²
EJ-1 25.31
EJ-2 32.47
EJ-3 36.45
EJ-4 47.67
EJ-5 33.84
PJ-1 12.77
PJ-2 14.71
PJ-3 17.03
PJ-4 20.23
PJ-5 19.91
Fig. 2 shows the flexural strength of jute polyester composite. Flexural strength increases up to 44
% of fiber loading and then start decreasing with further increase in fiber loading. It was also observed
that at 11% composite shows lower impact strength. The maximum flexural strength obtained is 20.23
N/mm2 and minimum value obtained for flexural strength is 12.77 N/mm2 with 11% fiber loading.
Fig. 2. Flexural Strength of Jute Polyester Composite
The flexural strength of jute-reinforced epoxy composites is shown in Fig. 3. For jute-epoxy
composite the maximum value of flexural strength came out to be 47.67 N/mm2 obtained at 44% fiber
volume fraction and minimum value was 25.31 N/mm2 obtained at 11%. The impact strength increases
up to 44% of fiber loading and after that starts decreasing as the fiber content increases.
Fig. 3. Flexural Strength of Jute-Epoxy Composite
11 22 33 44 55
11 22 33 44 55
Fig. 4 shows the comparison of flexural strength between jute reinforced epoxy and polyester
composites. Jute reinforced epoxy composite have more flexural strength as compared to jute-polyester
composite. For jute-epoxy composite, the flexural strength was 35.14 N/mm2 and for jute-polyester
composite was 16.93 N/mm2.
Fig. 4. Comparison between Flexural Strength of Jute Reinforced Epoxy/Polyester Composite
4.2 Impact Test
Table 6 shows the values of impact strength for different specimens. Fig. 5 shows the results of impact
strength of jute reinforced polyester composites. From the values obtained, it was observed that at 44%
of fiber loading maximum value of impact strength was achieved. Moreover, with an increase in the
fiber loading impact strength increases up to 44% fiber content. A further increase in the fiber loading
relatively decreased the impact strength. The minimum value of impact strength was 81.74 J/m2
observed at 11% fiber loading and maximum strength was 148.58 J/m2 at 44 % fiber loading.
Table 6. Impact strength of different specimens
Sample Value in j/m
EJ-1 20.39
EJ-2 46.55
EJ-3 73.33
EJ-4 110.74
EJ-5 99.42
PJ-1 81.74
PJ-2 108.54
PJ-3 132.83
PJ-4 148.58
PJ-5 119.7
Fig. 5. Impact Strength of Jute-Polyester Composite
Similarly, in case of jute-epoxy composite, impact strength changes with the fiber volume fraction
as shown in Fig. 6. Impact strength of epoxy composite was minimum at 11% fiber loading and
maximum at 44%. A further increase in fiber loading subsequently decreased the impact strength.
Polyster Epoxy
11 22 33 44 55
P. Kaushik et al. / Engineering Solid Mechanics 5 (2017)
Fig. 6. Impact Strength of Jute-epoxy Composite
A comparison between the impact strength of jute reinforced epoxy-polyester composites is shown
in Fig. 7 in form of a graph. It explains that polyester based composites have better impact strength as
compared to epoxy-based composites. Impact strength of polyester based composite was 118.28 J/m2
and for epoxy based composite was 70.04 J/m2. It was also observed that for both epoxy and polyester
based composites 44% fiber volume fraction was best to obtain maximum impact strength.
Fig. 7. Comparison between Impacts Strength of Jute Reinforced Epoxy/Polyester Composite
4.3 Erosion Test
Part 1: Jute-Polyester Composites
The analysis of Taguchi experiment was performed using MINITAB 17 software. Using Taguchi
approach and orthogonal array L9 an experiment was designed for all possible combination of control
factors and corresponding levels before measuring the performance of composites. The calculated
erosion rate of jute fiber reinforced polyester composite for 9 different combination over 4 important
factors (discussed earlier in Table 2) is as follows (Table 7):
Table 7. S/N Ratio and Erosion Rate for Jute-Polyester Composite
1 35 30 300 22 196.987 -45.8888
2 35 60 400 33 237.689 -47.5202
3 35 90 500 44 251.231 -48.0015
4 45 30 400 44 264.852 -48.4601
5 45 60 500 22 238.124 -47.5543
6 45 90 300 33 226.481 -47.1006
7 55 30 500 33 267.157 -48.5353
8 55 60 300 44 298.364 -49.4947
9 55 90 400 22 257.743 -48.0536
It is evident from the table that the most significant factor is the impingement angle which is
followed by impact velocity and then fiber loading while the factor erodent size is the least significant
factor in erosion of jute reinforced polyester composite. For the erosion rate the mean of the S/N ratio
is -47.8454 db. The effect of each factor is shown in Fig. 8 and Table 8.
11 22 33 44 55
Polyster Epoxy
Fig. 8. Effect of Control Factors
Table 8. Response Table for S/N Ratios (smaller is better)
Level A B C D
1 -47.14 -47.63 -47.49 -47.17
2 -47.70 -48.19 -48.01 -47.72
3 -48.69 -47.72 -48.03 -48.65
Delta 1.56 0.56 0.54 1.49
Rank 1 3 4 2
Part 2: Jute Epoxy Composite
The calculated erosion rate of jute epoxy composite for 9 different combinations over 4 important
factors (discussed earlier in Table 2) is as follows (Table 10):
Table 9. S/N ratio and erosion rate for different test conditions
1 35 30 300 22 151.810 -43.6260
2 35 60 400 33 166.465 -44.4265
3 35 90 500 44 182.345 -45.2179
4 45 30 400 44 196.765 -45.8790
5 45 60 500 22 172.879 -44.7545
6 45 90 300 33 191.463 -45.6417
7 55 30 500 33 204.879 -46.2299
8 55 60 300 44 227.980 -47.1579
9 55 90 400 22 198.678 -45.9630
From Table 9 it is clear that the most significant factor among all the factors is the impact velocity
which is followed by fiber content and then impingement angle while the factor erodent size is the least
significant factor in erosion of jute reinforced epoxy composite. For the erosion rate the mean of the
S/N ratio is -47.8454 db. The effect of each factor is as shown in Fig. 9 and Table 10.
Fig. 9. Effects of Control Factors
321 321 321
Mean of S N ratios
Main E ffects Plo t for SN ratios
Data Means
Signal-to-noise: Smaller is better
321 321 321
Mean of SN ratios
Main Effects Plot for SN ratios
Data Means
Signal-to-noise: Smaller is better
P. Kaushik et al. / Engineering Solid Mechanics 5 (2017)
Table 10. Response table for S/N ratios (smaller is better)
Level A B C D
1 -44.42 -45.24 -45.48 -44.78
2 -45.43 -45.45 -45.42 -45.43
3 -46.45 -45.61 -45.40 -46.08
Delta 2.03 0.36 0.07 1.30
Rank 1 3 4 2
5. Conclusions
In current work, experiments were carried out to find the flexural and impact strength of jute
reinforced epoxy and polyester composites for different fiber loadings. The following conclusions
could be obtained from the experimental results.
1. The flexural and impact properties of jute fiber reinforced epoxy and polyester composite have been
considerably enhanced with the various fiber volume fractions.
2. It was found that with the increase in the fiber volume fraction, flexural strength also increases.
Maximum flexural strength was achieved at 44 % volume fraction of fiber for both jute reinforced
epoxy and polyester composites.
3. Impact strength increased with an increase in the fiber volume fraction and was maximum at 44 %.
Overall, it was obtained that at 44% volume fraction of the jute fiber composite showed the
maximum mechanical properties.
4. Maximum flexural strength obtained for jute-reinforced epoxy composite was 47.67 N/mm2, while
for jute reinforced polyester composite it was 20.23 N/mm2. Thus jute reinforced epoxy composite
have better flexural strength as compared to jute reinforced polyester composites.
5. Maximum impact strength obtained for jute-reinforced epoxy composite was 110.74 J/m2. While
for jute-reinforced polyester composite it is 148.58 J/m2. So jute-reinforced polyester has better
impact strength.
6. The results obtained by this research indicate that jute reinforced epoxy composite have better
mechanical properties than jute polyester composite.
7. Erosion behaviors of composite have been successfully analyzed by Taguchi experimental design.
Significant control factors affecting the erosion rate have been identified through this technique.
8. Results showed that impact velocity is highly influencing control factor for erosion rate. After that
fiber loading and impingent angle are most contributing factors. Least influencing control factor
for erosion rate is erodent size.
9. Epoxy- jute composite have lower erosion wear rate than polyester jute composites.
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In this study, Carbon, Glass, and Aramid fiber reinforced composite and their hybridized forms were fabricated using five different stacking sequences of the fabrics. Using the Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) procedure, epoxy resin was injected into these fabrics and allowed to cure at room temperature. From these five stacking sequences, a standard specimen with four different orientations viz. 0/90°, 15/75°, 30/60°, 45/-45° orientations were obtained using the Abrasive Water Jet Machining(AWJM) Process. The influence of stacking order and fiber orientation on tensile and flexural properties of composite was investigated. From the result of tensile testing, the highest and lowest tensile strength values were observed for neat carbon fiber reinforced composite at 0/90° orientation and at 45/-45° orientation respectively. The highest flexural strength was achieved in a hybrid combination of two layers of carbon, glass and aramid fabric for 0/90° whereas the lowest flexural strength was found in glass reinforced composite for the 45/-45° orientation.
... It was shown that the mechanical and thermal properties of jute fibers in epoxy composites decreased after exposure to moisture; however, the chemically modified samples showed greater interfacial adhesion than untreated jute fiber samples. A study done by [5] discovered that jute fiber in epoxy composite was found to be superior to fiber reinforced polyester resin in terms of mechanical qualities, as well as wear resistance. Jute fiber was combined with 304 steel wire mesh, and dynamic characteristics were evaluated, with superior tensile and flexible strengths with 45 orientation wire mesh, according to [6]. ...
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In this study, a polymer composite is made using chemically treated jute fiber and waste floor tile powder as an alternative source for roof tile application. The wear qualities were examined at various ages, and the outcomes were optimized. In order to improve the wetting properties of the jute fiber, it was chemically treated. MINITAB software was used to develop Taguchi method parameters such as jute fiber percentage, waste tile powder percentage, and NaOH chemical treatment using the MINITAB software. It was determined that hardness was the most important characteristic in terms of wear properties after the specimens were subjected to ageing and abrasion wear testing and hardness tests were carried out as per normal protocols. As a result of the waste tile powder addition, the surface and core pore formation rates were reduced and the wear index rates were low. Jute fiber with 15%, 9% tile powder, and 5% NaOH treatment were found to have the lowest wear index of the other specimen compositions tested, according to the wear index. Specimen made with 5% jute fiber addition, 9% tile powder inclusion, and 10% NaOH treatment, on the other hand, had more hardness. Degradation of the fibers and delamination are side effects of the ageing process. The wear resistance of the surface was increased by the use of waste tile powder.
... JFs bonded with the material matrix affect the properties of the composite. Kaushik [56] [58].; (c) 15 mm [59]; (d) 20 mm [57]. Mechanical properties of fibers, such as elongation, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, and moisture absorption capacity, have a significant influence on the properties of CCs [60]. ...
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Natural fibers are eco-friendly, cost-effective, lightweight, renewable, have better thermal properties and corrosion resistance capabilities. The addition of natural fibers in cementitious composites (CCs) will be a sustainable step to enhance their mechanical properties as well as encouraging green construction. Jute fibers are cheap among all the natural fibers and are abundantly available in several developing countries. This study describes the impact of utilizing jute fibers in CCs for sustainable construction. The influence of jute fiber on the mechanical strength of CCs is reported, including compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength. Additionally, the microstructure of jute fiber is discussed, and jute fiber-matrix interaction is explained. The effect of varying jute fiber length and content on the mechanical strength of CCs has been described, and optimum jute fiber length and content have been reported. The current research initiative expects to promote understanding of the concerns and difficulties encountered during the production of jute fiber reinforced CCs. It was concluded that incorporating jute fibers can enhance the strength properties of CCs if used in shorter lengths and lower volume contents, while higher volume content of jute fibers degraded the strength properties of CCs. In addition, the current research is quite limited in terms of practical applications of jute fiber reinforced CCs, and more research is needed in the future to determine their applications in civil engineering construction. Future research has been recommended in light of the different parameters discussed in this study. Moreover, this review will be helpful in promoting the use of jute fiber for the green construction of CCs.
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Composites are composed of two or more physically distinct phases whose combination produces aggregate properties. Ethiopia is very rich in natural fibers such as palm trees, sisal, water hyacinth, and newly formed water lilies. However, so far little attention has been paid to the study of the mechanical properties of most fiber composites, such as water lily cut fiber composites. Also, like water hyacinths, water lilies adversely affect water surfaces by covering them and reducing water content, as in Lake Tana in Ethiopia. The analysis of the mechanical properties of this reinforced composite is of great importance in the study of structural properties and industrial production. Mechanical properties such as tensile strength, flexural strength, and hardness properties are important factors and play a key role in determining those properties. In this publication, fiber-reinforced polyester resin composites were prepared by cutting water lilies by varying the weight concentration of fibers (20 F/80 wt%, 40 F/60 wt%, 60 F/ 40P wt%). Physical properties were evaluated according to ASTM standards in both tensile and bend tests. Experimental test results are validated with results obtained by analytical methods. Analytical techniques such as the law of mixtures and the geometric mean method have been used to evaluate the properties of composite materials. Experimental results show that shredded water lily fiber-reinforced polyester composites are suitable for various applications. The results show that the newly formed composites have harder and more brittle properties.
Concrete, as one of the most widely used construction materials, has brittle behavior. Adding fiber to concrete affects the latter’s ductility behavior as well as some of the mechanical properties. Hence, experimental research was conducted to study the effect of fiber type and content on the flexural performance of fiber-reinforced concrete. In this study, the concrete samples were made and evaluated in accordance with ASTM C1609, ASTM C1399 and ASTM C79 standards, with three different types of polymer fibers, including twisted, barchip and fibrillated, and three contents of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 volume percentages. The results showed that by adding fibers to concrete samples, the flexural strength and flexural toughness increased by 19.6–81.69% and 3.98–79.89%, respectively. Furthermore, adding the fibers to the concrete sample increased the postcracking flexural strength by 16.63–30.14%. The concrete containing twisted and broken fibers, despite their different fiber types, had similar flexural performance.
The composite material is made up of a combination of materials with distinct chemical and physical properties. The utilization of jute fiber and epoxy resin composites is very extensive in the fields of aircraft and automobiles. These composites have a huge strength-to-weight ratio. Even so, modern applications require a significant increase in strength. The addition of Nano fillers had resulted in considerable changes in the mechanical properties of the composite. The present work aims at finding out the effects on mechanical properties of composites due to the addition of titanium oxide. The specimens are prepared for tensile testing and hardness testing according to the ASTM standards by Hand Layup process with the combinations of jute fiber and epoxy resin. The composite is prepared by three variables with (0%,5%,10%)filler and three orientations (0°-90°,45°-45°, random). The specimens are tested on the Universal Testing Machine of model UTE-10 and shore hardness-'A' the comparison process is laid down.
Natural fibers have an important role to play. Because of their constructive properties, reinforced polymer composite materials are increasing at a faster rate in the field of engineering and commercial application. Natural fibers have advantages over synthetic reinforcement composite. This experimentation was to investigate the mechanical behaviors such as tensile and flexural strength of natural fiber composite consist of jute and banana fiber as reinforcement and epoxy resin as matrix for two different fiber orientation (0°, 90°). From the investigation, it was examined that 0° orientation fiber had higher tensile and flexural strength compared to 90° orientation fiber. Also, it could be drawn from the experimentation that mechanical properties of composite material depend on orientation of fiber and the direction of application of load.
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Industries, nowadays, are concerned about energy consumption and ever narrowing rules of emissions by the governments. Therefore, a race to clean; green and less energy consuming manufacturing is going on throughout the world. But in authors’ perspective, the major part of energy exploitation lies in the production of a rejected product. Therefore alongside the use of energy saving processes and machinery, industry should primarily look for rejection reduction. This, apart from energy saving and profitability, will add to the moral responsibility of every person toward nature. Here in this paper, authors describe a case study in which the increased rejection rate of a part of cycle chain assembly is controlled by the application of Six Sigma. Six Sigma, from many years has proved to be an ultimate solution when it comes to the application part in manufacturing industries. It’s very generic and easily applicable methodology has drawn tremendous positive results throughout the world. A financial gain of INR 0.267 million was yielded by implying six-sigma approach. In a move toward energy saving, the money saved by the project was used for green manufacturing to promote energy conservation.
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Petroleum based epoxy and polyester based thermoset resins can be used to produce high-quality polymer concrete. However, petroleum based resources are finite and this has necessitated the development of thermoset bioresins to be used as polymer concrete. Furfuryl alcohol (FA), a thermoset bioresin, is derived from lignocellulosic biomass and it can be polymerized into polyfurfuryl alcohol (PFA) in the presence of an acid catalyst. The highly exothermic polymerization reactions involving conversion of FA to PFA can be used to fabricate PFA based concrete with rock-like structure. The PFA based polymer concrete offers the broadest range of chemical resistance against acid and alkali over all other types of polymer concrete which are based upon different thermoset polymeric systems. In this review paper, we have discussed the formulations (incorporation of aggregates, fillers, and resin) and properties (especially compressive and flexural) of epoxy and polyester based polymer concrete. In another section, we have given the mechanical, thermal, and water resistance properties of PFA based biopolymer, biocomposites, nanocomposites, and polymer concrete. Lastly, we have tried to explore whether PFA can be used successfully as biopolymer concrete or not.
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Last few decades have seen composite materials being used predominantly in various applications.Many types of natural fibers have been investigated for their use in plastics including Flax, hemp, jute, straw, wood fiber, rice husks, wheat, barley, oats, cane (sugar and bamboo), grass reeds, kenaf, ramie, oil palm empty fruit bunch, sisal, coir, water pennywort, kapok, paper-mulberry, raphia, banana fiber, pineapple leaf fiber and papyrus. Their volume and number of applications have grown steadily. Natural fibers offer both cost savings and reduction in density when compared to glass fibers. Natural fibers are an alternative resource to synthetic fibers,as reinforcement for polymeric materials for the manufacture is cheap, renewable and environment friendly. This paper discusses in detail about the uses & applications of jute and banana fiber composites.
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Development of ecofriendly biocomposites to replace non-biodegradable synthetic fiber composites is the main objective of this study. To highlight the biocomposites as a perfect replacement, the plain woven jute fabric (WJF) reinforced poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) composites were prepared by the hot press molding method. The influence of woven structure and direction on the mechanical properties i.e. tensile, flexural and impact properties was investigated. The average tensile strength (TS), tensile modulus (TM), flexural strength (FS), flexural modulus (FM), and impact strength (IS) of untreated woven jute composite (in warp direction) were improved about 103%, 211%, 95.2%, 42.4% and 85.9%, respectively and strain at maximum tensile stress for composite samples was enhanced by 11.7%. It was also found that the strengths and modulus of composites in warp direction are higher than those in weft direction. WJF composites in warp and weft directions presented superior mechanical properties than non-woven jute fabric (NWJF) composites. Chemical treatment of jute fabric through benzoylation showed a positive effect on the properties of composites. Morphological studies by SEM demonstrated that better adhesion between the treated fabric and PLLA was achieved.
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Hybrid composites are susceptible to accidental low energy impacts from hazards such as tools dropping during maintenance, transportation debris and hailstones. These impacts can cause significant strength reduction and localized damage which is potentially a source of mechanical weakness especially for graphite composites. The effect of stacking sequence on mechanical properties of stitched composites is studied for low velocity impact damages. Tests were performed for the same volume fraction (Vf) with different hybrid sequence and ply angle. The incorporation of glass fibers in carbon reinforced structures improved impact properties and increased the strain to failure. The addition of carbon fibers to the surface of glass-reinforced composites increases the flexural modulus for undamaged samples. Tensile failure mechanism of damaged plies seems to be affected by the interaction of reinforcement property, hybrid order and ply angle.
Synthetic fibres are conventionally used in the construction of Stone Matrix Asphalt (SMA) in bituminous pavements. The synthetic fibres are not manufactured in India and are imported at a higher cost. As an alternative to synthetic fibre, coated jute fibres were used and its properties were studied. The paper presents details of the laboratory investigations carried out to determine the feasibility of use of natural fibre vis-a-vis synthetic fibre in bituminous gap graded mix. The performance of these mix were evaluated by conducting moisture susceptibility test, rutting test, accumulated strain and creep modulus and stiffness modulus. The test results indicated that the natural jute fibre can replace synthetic fibres in SMA mixture. A slightly higher accumulated strain and subsequently slightly lower creep modulus were observed as compared to SMA with synthetic fibre at 40°C and 50°C temperatures. However, Hamburg wheel test results indicated that permanent deformation is same in both fibres. The stiffness modulus of the SMA with natural fibre is slightly lower as compared to SMA with synthetic fibre at 25°C and 35°C temperatures. The tensile strength ratio for both mixes is more than the prescribed limits. However, the construction cost of the SMA with natural fibre per metric ton is comparatively lower.
Natural fiber composite is an emerging material for structural applications in automobile sector. Jute fiber is one of the important natural fibers that exhibit high strength and stiffness. Jute fiber has several advantages over other natural fibers [sisal, coir, cotton etc.] due to its low density, high tensile properties, Young's modulus and lower cost. The specific modulus of jute fiber is higher than that of glass fiber and modulus per cost of jute fiber is also high. In addition, the jute fiber production is less energy intensive than glass fiber composites. The present paper reports jute fiber characteristics and performance of jute fiber composite. The processing, structure and mechanical properties of the jute fiber composites are discussed.
As major historical periods such as Stone Age, Bronze Age, and Iron Age, the development of new materials was the fundamental to all the periods. In the present investigation, a new hybrid composite with epoxy as a resin and reinforcing both biowaste (jute) and traditional fiber (glass) as continues layered mat composites and also study experimentally the effect of the stacking sequence on tensile, flexural, and interlaminar shear properties. Composites were prepared by using hand lay-up technique. All the laminates were prepared with a total of four piles, by varying the position of glass and jute. One group of all jute and glass laminate was also fabricated for comparison purpose. Specimen preparation and testing were carried out as per ASTM standards. Tests were conducted on INSTRON H10KS Material Test System at room temperature using automatic data acquisition software. The results indicated that the jute fiber and hybrid composite give encouraging results when compared with the neat epoxy. The morphologies of the composites are also studied by scanning electron microscope.
In this research, sisal fibre reinforced polypropylene (SF/PP) composites were prepared by injection moulding using a pre-coating technique that we have developed earlier. The composite specimens were subjected to hot water immersion treatment at 90 °C for different durations. The effects of the immersion treatment on the tensile and impact fracture characteristics were investigated. The apparent weight gain and weight loss curves were constructed. From the weight loss curves for the individual composites, the weight loss within the induction period was negligible. At the end of the induction period, the weight loss increased sharply. Due to the weight loss and the formation of additional moisture diffusion paths as immersion treatment proceeds, the apparent weight gain was non-Fickian. Both the tensile modulus and tensile strength of the SF/PP composites decreased continuously with increasing water immersion time. On the contrary, the Izod impact strength increased initially with immersion treatment. After reaching the maximum impact strength, the impact strength was found to decrease with further increase in immersion time. These contradictory behaviours between the tensile and impact properties were explained by the plasticization of the SF/PP interface and the swelling of the reinforcing sisal fibres.