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Abstract

The successful integration of nanotechnology as a platform for food sensors offers tremendous benefits in detecting contaminants, particularly in their applications for food quality and safety. The sensors based on nanomaterials (nanosensor), both chemical sensors (chemical nanosensors) and biosensors (nanobiosensors), can be used online and integrated into existing manufacturing process and distribution line or off-line as rapid, simple, and portable, as well as disposable, sensors for food contaminants. Food contaminants could be residues of pesticides, veterinary and human drugs, microbial toxins, preservatives, contaminants from food processing and packaging, and other residues. This milieu of compounds can pose difficulties in the detection of food contaminants. Nanosensors with their novel uses are the emerging method that could be used for the detection of many food contaminants, even mycotoxins and many food allergens. Whether it used as online or off-line, the nanosensor can be integrated with wireless technology and used for real-time transmission of contaminant alarm or test results to remote servers, providing rapid screening and reporting. Thus nanosensors are more cost-effective, rapid, and more sensitive than instrumental and conventional procedures. Recent developments in nanosensors may provide more applications for their use in food contaminant detection. The future role of these nanosensors will become even more important as the food laboratory is faced with the increasing pressure to reduce cost, time, and complexity. The objective of this chapter is to give a general overview of the possible application of nanosensors in the food contaminant detection and analysis.
... The use of sensors is another important aspect related to sustainable production of food by improving the information and control during food production, especially using nanocomponents in the assembling of these devices (Kuswandi, Futra, & Heng, 2017). A sensor is a device, machine, or a system that detect quantitative or semiquantitative changes in a selected variable. ...
... A transducer converts this change in a signal that is further analyzed by an electronic device (usually a computer) where the information can be interpreted (Giraldo, Wu, Newkirk, & Kruss, 2019;Lorenzo et al., 2019). In the case of nanosensors, these devices convey information occurring in nanoscale to a macroscopic scale (Kuswandi et al., 2017). Some relevant studies exploring the use of nanosensors in food crops are displayed in Nanosensors Applied in Food Crops. ...
... The use of nanosensors in food processing follows the same approach as discussed for crop: indicate the presence or accumulation of a target compounds that can reduce the quality and lead to eventual loss (Kuswandi et al., 2017). From the information acquired from the nanosensors it is possible to evaluate the quality and safety of food products before and after processing (Table 12.3). ...
Chapter
In the last decades, the interest in new food products with improved functional properties that promote health benefits is growing. Agri-food by-products constitute an excellent bio-resource to obtain new prebiotics and functional oligosaccharides. Particularly, pectin-rich agricultural by-products are potential cost-effective sources of functional pectooligosaccharides (POS) that have been outlined in recent years as emerging prebiotics with numerous health-promoting effects. An important aspect that influences the functionalities of the POS is the extraction methods. In this sense, a variety of alternative methods have been described to obtain POS using different sources including conventional and emerging intensification technologies. Several biological activities of POS such as prebiotic, antidiabetic, anticholesterolemic, antiobesity, antitumor, antioxidant, antiinflamatory, and antimicrobial, among other, have been described. Therefore, POS could be excellent candidates to formulate functional food by the nutraceutical industry. This chapter collects the aforementioned aspects to give an overview of the potential of POS as functional compounds obtained from renewable resources.
... The use of sensors is another important aspect related to sustainable production of food by improving the information and control during food production, especially using nanocomponents in the assembling of these devices (Kuswandi, Futra, & Heng, 2017). A sensor is a device, machine, or a system that detect quantitative or semiquantitative changes in a selected variable. ...
... A transducer converts this change in a signal that is further analyzed by an electronic device (usually a computer) where the information can be interpreted (Giraldo, Wu, Newkirk, & Kruss, 2019;Lorenzo et al., 2019). In the case of nanosensors, these devices convey information occurring in nanoscale to a macroscopic scale (Kuswandi et al., 2017). Some relevant studies exploring the use of nanosensors in food crops are displayed in Nanosensors Applied in Food Crops. ...
... The use of nanosensors in food processing follows the same approach as discussed for crop: indicate the presence or accumulation of a target compounds that can reduce the quality and lead to eventual loss (Kuswandi et al., 2017). From the information acquired from the nanosensors it is possible to evaluate the quality and safety of food products before and after processing (Table 12.3). ...
Chapter
The production of minimally processed foods is a critical process as the organoleptic characteristics of the food must be maintained. However, the treatments applied to this type of food may not be enough to eliminate the pre and postharvest foodborne microbiological contamination that can occur during the irrigation, fertilization, as well as the handling up to delivery and final consumption. In addition to bacterial and parasitic foodborne pathogens, enteric viruses pose health risks to consumers as they can be resistant to many of the standard procedures in the elaboration of minimally processed foods, while remaining stable at room temperature and refrigeration, as well as in raw or lightly cooked products (for example, bivalve molluscs). This chapter reviews human and zoonotic viral contamination in minimally processed foods and the current strategies for their control.
... The use of sensors is another important aspect related to sustainable production of food by improving the information and control during food production, especially using nanocomponents in the assembling of these devices (Kuswandi, Futra, & Heng, 2017). A sensor is a device, machine, or a system that detect quantitative or semiquantitative changes in a selected variable. ...
... A transducer converts this change in a signal that is further analyzed by an electronic device (usually a computer) where the information can be interpreted (Giraldo, Wu, Newkirk, & Kruss, 2019;Lorenzo et al., 2019). In the case of nanosensors, these devices convey information occurring in nanoscale to a macroscopic scale (Kuswandi et al., 2017). Some relevant studies exploring the use of nanosensors in food crops are displayed in Nanosensors Applied in Food Crops. ...
... The use of nanosensors in food processing follows the same approach as discussed for crop: indicate the presence or accumulation of a target compounds that can reduce the quality and lead to eventual loss (Kuswandi et al., 2017). From the information acquired from the nanosensors it is possible to evaluate the quality and safety of food products before and after processing (Table 12.3). ...
Chapter
Sustainable food production is crucial part of human development. Nanotechnology is one of the main technological advances that can greatly support the progress of current food system towards a more sustainable level. This chapter aims to present current applications of nanotechnology in terms of sustainable use of nanotechnology as well as discuss these solutions in view of the three domains of sustainability (environmental, social, and economic). Several technological advances in terms of crop (nanofertilizers, nanopesticides, and nanosensors) and animal (nanonutrients) production as well as in food processing (nanoencapsulated ingredients and nano-size ingredients) and packaging materials (nanosensors, nanoencapsulated components, nanocomposite, and biodegradable materials) have been made that support the use of nanotechnology to produce food. Although major technological advances have been made with nanotechnology in the context of sustainability, the assessment in terms of sustainable indicators require more efforts.
... The analysis of pesticides have been carried out by the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, generally used in biosensors designing. The binding of pesticides is included in the operational mechanism of this enzyme such as the serine moiety within the enzyme active site is bounded to the carbamates and organophosphates, which cause the deacetylation of acetylcholine (Kuswandi et al., 2017). Pesticide has distinct affinity for various enzyme types. ...
... However, it was prohibited to use in United States due to its role in fatal fever onset. The DNP losses energy in the protein gradient in the heat instead of ATP synthesis due to its over dosage that led to death by intensive increased in body temperature (Kuswandi et al., 2017). The chromogenic effect of latex microsphere hybridization with AuNPs has been used for the development of a colorimetric nano-biosensor (Ko et al., 2010). ...
Article
Food spoilage and safety are key concerns of the modern food sector. Among them, several types of polluting agents are the prime grounds of food deterioration. In this context, nanotechnology-based measures are setting new frontiers to strengthen food applications. Herein, we summarize the nanotechnological dimension of the food industry for both processing and packaging applications. Active bioseparation, smart delivery, nanoencapsulation, nutraceuticals, and nanosensors for biological detection are a few emerging topics of nanobiotechnology in the food sector. The development of functional foods is another milestone set by food nanotechnology by building the link between humans and diet. However, the establishment of optimal intake, product formulations, and delivery matrices, the discovery of beneficial compounds are a few of the key challenges that need to be addressed. Nanotechnology provides effective solutions for the aforementioned problem giving various novel nanomaterials and methodologies. Various nanodelivery systems have been designed, e.g., cochleate, liposomes, multiple emulsions, and polysaccharide-protein coacervates. However, their real applications in food sciences are very limited. This review also provides the status and outlook of nanotechnological systems for future food applications.
... Carbofuran can cause health problems such as diarrhea, increased blood pressure, breathing difficulty, vomiting, sweating. at high doses, deaths have been reported due to respiratory problems (Kuswandi et al., 2017;Shanthamma et al., 2022). ...
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The enormous amount of data available on the internet today has reached unpredictable volumes; therefore, it is not possible using human power in order to efficiently sift useful information from it now. The demand for automated tools that can understand, index, classify and present text documents clearly and concisely has increased greatly in recent years. One solution to this problem is to use automatic document summarization techniques. Automatic document summarization is one of the Natural Language Processing (NLP) research fields that extracts important information in an input document and is actively studied as well as machine translation. In this study, a Helmholtz-based extractive summarization approach is proposed to create an automatic extractive summarization system. CNN Daily/Mail data set was used to evaluate the proposed approach. This data set includes both the original full-text documents and the summary documents of these original documents produced by human summarizers. First of all, the original documents in the data set that the user wanted to summarize were taken into the data preprocessing process. After data preprocessing, inferential summaries of the original documents were created using well-known techniques in the literature, BertSum (Bidirectional Encoder Representation from Transformer), Luhn and SumBasic, and the proposed Helmholtz principle based model. The ratio of the summary to be extracted was obtained from the division of the word count of the document in the summary in the data set to the word count of the original document. Using this ratio, the similarity of the summary document obtained from each algorithm and the original summary document in the CNN Daily/Mail data set was calculated using the Spacy text similarity algorithm. When the summary documents obtained were examined in terms of average Spacy text similarity rates, it was seen that the proposed Helmholtz principle based model achieved acceptable results. The obtained results are shared in detail in the Experiments section. The main purpose of this study is to create an automatic document summarization system without requiring human intervention on a specialized problem.
... Similarly, antibody-treated rare-earth-doped NaYF4 (sodium yttrium fluoride) up-conversion NPs acted as multicolor signal probes. The fluorescent intensity was highest in the absence of mycotoxins, but when the amounts of AF B1 and OTA were increased, the fluorescent signals of the nanocomposites decreased slowly [342]. Similarly, organophosphorus pesticides can also be detected by liposome-based nanobiosensor [343]. ...
Article
Thanks to their unique attributes, such as good sensitivity, selectivity, high surface-to-volume ratio, and versatile optical and electronic properties, fluorescent-based bioprobes have been used to create highly sensitive nanobiosensors to detect various biological and chemical agents. These sensors are superior to other analytical instrumentation techniques like gas chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and capillary electrophoresis for being biodegradable, eco-friendly, and more economical, operational, and cost-effective. Moreover, several reports have also highlighted their application in the early detection of biomarkers associated with drug-induced organ damage such as liver, kidney, or lungs. In the present work, we comprehensively overviewed the electrochemical sensors that employ NMs (NPs/colloids or quantum dots, carbon dots, or nanoscaled metal-organic frameworks, etc.) to detect a variety of biological macromolecules based on fluorescent emission spectra. In addition, the most important mechanisms and methods to sense amino acids, protein, peptides, enzymes, carbohydrates, neurotransmitters, nucleic acids, vitamins, ions, metals, and electrolytes, blood gases, drugs (i.e., anti-inflammatory agents and antibiotics), toxins, alkaloids, antioxidants, cancer biomarkers, urinary metabolites (i.e., urea, uric acid, and creatinine), and pathogenic microorganisms were outlined and compared in terms of their selectivity and sensitivity. Altogether, the small dimensions and capability of these nanosensors for sensitive, label-free, real-time sensing of chemical, biological, and pharmaceutical agents could be used in array-based screening and in-vitro or in-vivo diagnostics. Although fluorescent nanoprobes are widely applied in determining biological macromolecules, unfortunately, they present many challenges and limitations. Efforts must be made to minimize such limitations in utilizing such nanobiosensors with an emphasis on their commercial developments. We believe that the current review can foster the wider incorporation of nanomedicine and will be of particular interest to researchers working on fluorescence technology, material chemistry, coordination polymers, and related research areas.
Chapter
In current years, due to the growing global population and speedy environmental changes, various types of pathogens, microbes and extensive use of chemicals in agriculture has become the main reason for ensuring the safety of food. The presence of unsafe levels of pesticides, pathogens and microbes in food represents a serious threat to the safety of the food supply and public health. Thus, understanding the concept of biosensing has enabled researchers to develop nano biosensors with different nanomaterials and composites to improve the sensitivity as well as the specificity of pathogen, pesticides and microbe's detection. A biosensor is an automated technology that overcomes the drawbacks by presenting a rapid, non-destructive, label-free and cost-effective detection. Present day nanotechnology-based biosensors offer the capacity to be compact devices for regulatory bodies and the food business to check the safety use of items proposed for consumer utilization along the food supply chain.
Chapter
The globalization and diversification in food industries and demand for the proliferation of food products result in the global flow of raw material, ingredients, and products. This necessitates technological development which can govern food safety, quality, and traceability in the food supply chain. Micro- and nanosensors with the application of biological, chemical, and electrical signals are proving its potential in quality, safety, and traceability of food from farm to fork. The specificity, accuracy, rapid attributes make nanosensors to be advantageous over others throughout the food supply chain. This chapter covers the overall applications of nanosensors in different sectors of food supply chain like crop cultivation, food processing, packaging, and traceability of food.
Chapter
Recent developments in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and their functionalities have produced AgNPs targeted for specific applications in the agriculture and food sector, including AgNPs-based sensors, all of which help farmers maximize crop yield and minimize the use of resources such as water and fertilizer. AgNPs also provide precise information to achieve precision farming and decision making. The rapid development of AgNP synthesis technologies and their resourceful, selective, and sensitive agri-food-specific characteristics make the development and use of AgNPs-based sensors a reality. Because of its continuous stability, enhanced sensitivity, and promising selectivity, the AgNPs has been considered extensively as an ideal on-site sensing superiority candidate. Compared with other nanostructured materials, AgNPs-based sensors have been more successfully mined and, via their functionalization, have shown greater control of contaminants, swift electron transfer kinetics, accurate tracking, rapidly tuned signal multiplication, and point-of-care analysis. This chapter covers the performance and application of engineered AgNPs with a focus on smart nanosensing-adapted detection technologies, target analytes, and the economic benefits of using AgNPs in the agriculture and food sector.
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Abstract The use of chemometrics to analyse infrared spectra to predict pork adulteration in the beef jerky (dendeng) was explored. In the first step, the analysis of pork in the beef jerky formulation was conducted by blending the beef jerky with pork at 5–80 % levels. Then, they were powdered and classified into training set and test set. The second step, the spectra of the two sets was recorded by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy using atenuated total reflection (ATR) cell on the basis of spectral data at frequency region 4000– 700 cm−1. The spectra was categorised into four data sets, i.e. (a) spectra in the whole region as data set 1; (b) spectra in the fingerprint region (1500–600 cm−1) as data set 2; (c) spectra in the whole region with treatment as data set 3; and (d) spectra in the fingerprint region with treatment as data set 4. The third step, the chemometric analysis were employed using three class-modelling techniques (i.e. LDA, SIMCA, and SVM) toward the data sets. Finally, the best result of the models towards the data sets on the adulteration analysis of the samples were selected and the best model was compared with the ELISA method. Fromthe chemometric results, the LDA model on the data set 1 was found to be the best model, since it could classify and predict 100 % accuracy of the sample tested. The LDA model was applied toward the real samples of the beef jerky marketed in Jember, and the results showed that the LDA model developed was in good agreement with the ELISA method.
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The use of chemometrics to analyse near infrared (NIR) spectra to determine pork adulteration in beef meatball was developed. Since, the adulteration of pork in beef meatball is frequently occurring. This study was aimed to develop a fast and simple technique for the determination and quantification of pork adulteration in beef meatball using NIR spectra and chemometrics. Both partial least-squares (PLS) calibration and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) model were developed to determine pork adulteration in beef meatballs. The models using the first derivative spectra, accurately classified 100 % of the pork adulterated beef meatballs samples using training set and test set. The PLS and LDA models were subsequently used for the determination of pork adulteration in real beef meatball samples. The results showed that the PLS and LDA models developed were in good agreement with the immunochromatographic method. Therefore, the potential of NIR spectra and chemometrics as a rapid method for halal authentication and identification of pork adulteration in beef meatball have been successfully developed.
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A rapid and facile visual method for the detection of melamine (MA) in whole milk based on aptamer-modified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was described in this paper. This strategy combined aptamer as a MA recognition element with AuNPs as the color indicator, providing a rapid and on-site detection of MA by naked eyes or UV-Vis spectrometer. The whole analytical process could finish in 30 min without any assistance of any instrument. Under the optimized condition, the proposed method could be used to detect MA in whole milk with a detection limit of 1.5 mg/L in naked eyes and 0.5 mg/L with UV-Vis spectrometer. The simple rapid technique provided a promising tool for on-site screening of MA adulterant in milk as well as in-house diagnosis.
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A 27-nucleotide AluI fragment of swine cytochrome b (cytb) gene was integrated to a 3-nm diameter citrate- tannate coated gold nanoparticle to fabricate a species specific nanobiosensor. The biosensor was applied to authenticate pork adulteration in autoclaved pork-beef mixtures. The sensor was found to be sensitive enough to detect 0.5 pork in raw and 2.5-h autoclaved mixed samples in a single step without any separation or washing. The hybridization kinetics of the hybrid sensor was studied with synthetic targets from moderate to extreme target concentrations and a sigmoidal relationship was found. The kinetic curve was used to develop a convenient method for quantifying and counting target DNA copy number. The biosensor probe was hybridized with a target DNA that was several-folds shorter than a typical PCR-template. This offered the detection and quantitation of potential targets in highly processed meat products or extensively degraded samples where PCR-based identification technique might not work due to the degradation of comparatively longer DNA. The assay was a viable alternative approach of qPCR for detecting, quantifying and counting copy number of shorter size DNA sequences in degraded samples to address a range of biological problems such as food analysis, biodiagnostics, environmental monitoring, genetic screening and forensic investigations. KeywordsSpecies specific nanobiosensor–hybrid nanobioprobe–hybridization kinetics–sigmoidal relationship–synthetic oligo-targets
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