Article

Public Willingness to Pay and Policy Preferences for Tidal Energy Research and Development: A Study of Households in Washington State

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Abstract

Puget Sound in Washington State (WA) has significant tidal energy resources, but the industry is at a nascent stage of development. At this stage, the availability of research and development (R&D) funding plays a critical role in the success or failure of renewable energy schemes. However, information about public interest in developing marine renewable energy technology, including tidal energy technology, in WA and the U.S. has been limited. Responses to a dichotomous choice referendum question on a mail survey sent to a representative sample of WA households were used to estimate residents' Willingness to Pay (WTP) for tidal energy R&D. Public preferences for policies to support tidal energy R&D were also assessed. WA households are WTP between $29M and $127M annually for tidal energy R&D, indicating public preference for an increase in government spending on tidal energy R&D over current levels. Public perceptions of potential social, environmental, and economic risks and benefits of developing tidal energy emerged as highly significant predictors of WTP.

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... Levels of acceptance can be determined by measuring how perceived costs compare to benefits [11]. Economic approaches can be used to better understand how individuals value renewable energy development by asking them how much they would be willing to pay for hypothetical renewable energy investments [28,48,49]. These economic valuation approaches are unique from the typical psychology studies used to measure acceptance and support, because dollars values are used as metrics instead of attitudinal or behavioral scales [50]. ...
... Likewise this same pattern holds true when examining the number of studies that examine community, socio-political, and market acceptance within the current literature review. This review found that seven studies focused on community acceptance [4,5,11,15,22,23] while only four studies focused on market acceptance [11,28,48,49] and four focused on sociopolitical acceptance [11,28,48,51]. ...
... Likewise this same pattern holds true when examining the number of studies that examine community, socio-political, and market acceptance within the current literature review. This review found that seven studies focused on community acceptance [4,5,11,15,22,23] while only four studies focused on market acceptance [11,28,48,49] and four focused on sociopolitical acceptance [11,28,48,51]. ...
... Our study sheds light on public views and media representation of tidal energy. This research builds upon previous research conducted by the author team [2][3][4] and adds important qualitative analyses to existing quantitative work on tidal energy development in WA. ...
... The majority of tidal energy social acceptance research focuses on attitudes, perceptions, place attachment, and symbolic fit [2,7,8], which tap into the sociopolitical and community dimensions of social acceptance [9]. Researchers have also investigated the market acceptance dimension, overlapping with socio-political acceptance through looking at willingness to pay for tidal energy and tidal energy research development [4,10] or how support for tidal energy differs across the innovation chain from research and development (R&D) in a lab to full-scale commercial deployment [2]. ...
... Dreyer et al. [2] found that among six provided options the majority of WA residents (59.9%) indicated they could not identify the current stage of development for the tidal energy industry. A related publication found that the majority of WA residents indicated that they are "somewhat informed" or "not informed" about tidal energy issues [4]. It is important to note that respondents' lack of knowledge or information does not preclude them from having formed attitudes related to the technology. ...
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This article explores stakeholder views on tidal energy in the state of Washington. Through compiling and analyzing three qualitative datasets, we take a triangulated approach to better understand stakeholders’ positive and negative views, concerns, and needs regarding tidal energy and if and how these are represented through print and online news sources. We analyzed comments submitted during the permitting process for the Admiralty Inlet Pilot Tidal Project, comments included as part of a tidal energy mail survey sent to Washington residents, and media articles about tidal energy. We found four types of concern themes within negative views towards tidal energy: environmental, social, economic, and technical. Shared concerns between organized stakeholder groups and resident stakeholders about the project and tidal energy in general included concerns related to the harm to marine life, the loss of native fishing rights, expensiveness of development, increased electricity costs, and the engineering challenge of developing tidal energy. Concerns unique to stakeholder groups for the project included threats from scaling up, issues related to public safety and security, damage to cables, inability to stop the turbine, harm to terrestrial flora, and sediment disruption and contamination. Positive views were commonly associated with the need to address environmental issues, technological innovation and leadership, desire to have a diverse energy portfolio, and economic benefits.
... One of the best designs of tidal energy generation is a model where the tidal current obtained from the energy harnessed from tidal resources without the erection of a dam and directly serving the tidal current to produce electricity using energy conversion apparatus/ turbines. This means that the tidal currents can be used interchangeably [18], hence, the associated term: tidal current turbine (also called hydrokinetic turbine [19,20]. ...
... TCT can be used for power generation with differences in altitude between the low and high tides which generates strong currents (similar to wind power) for the generation of tidal energy [20]. TCTs are devices used in capturing tides energy resources from tidal currents via technology that is identical to that of wind turbine [7]. ...
... Polis et al. [20] 2017 Gunawan et al. [21] 2014 Markus et al [22] 2013 Priegue et al. [23] 2017 Sheng et al. [24] 2017 ...
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Tidal energy is regarded as one of the most promising modes of renewable energy generation owing to its environmental friendliness and predictability. Tidal energy system modeling and assessment also play a crucial role in leading to the choice of power capacity expansion by demonstrating different strategies for meeting environmental targets and future demands while maintaining and broadening the understanding of tidal energy development. This work is aimed at developing a systematic literature review of the different modeling methods employed in optimizing the output of tidal energy using a marine current turbine system. An analysis is also carried out based on the techniques adopted in the modeling and simulation of tidal energy. During the analysis of simulation models, two major objectives were discovered, which are the determination of performance and dynamic loads under varying operating conditions and the development of a speed-dependent turbine operation control system. Hence, it is very necessary and imperative to identify a strategy between the precision of the simulation model and the speed of the loop control. The work is useful to tidal power developers, tidal energy scientists, and engineers in evaluating and assessing key techniques and tools necessary for tidal energy generation.
... Wiersma and Devine-Wright [27] note that public knowledge of new energy technologies may be limited. This is supported by a related publication to this study in which Polis et al. [44] found that the majority of WA residents indicated that they are somewhat informed or not informed on tidal energy issues. However, lack of knowledge or information does not mean that individuals have not formed opinions or attitudes related to the technology. ...
... See Polis et al.[44] for other results from the survey, including residents' willingness to pay for tidal energy research and development and policy preferences. ...
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Tidal energy is a renewable energy source that could be used to help mitigate climate change. Tidal energy technology is in the early stages of development and views towards this technology and energy source are not well understood. Through a representative mail survey of Washington State residents, we assessed attitudes and behaviors related to tidal energy, perceived benefits and risks, and climate change beliefs. Higher levels of perceived benefits and climate change beliefs were associated with increased acceptability of and support for tidal energy whereas greater perceived risks were associated with decreased acceptability and support (acceptability being an attitudinal construct, support a behavioral construct). Coastal residents reported higher levels of acceptability and support than non-coastal residents. Pulling from innovation theory, we show that levels of support depended upon the development lifecycle stage of the technology. Support declined once the project moved into the water from the lab, however, grid-connected pilot projects were more likely to be supported than those without grid-connection. Policies developed to encourage the development of tidal energy may be more accepted and supported if they include incentives for pilot phases with grid-connection.
... Finally, Chapter 5 carries the conclusions, policy implications and recommends areas of future research. (Liu, Wang, & Mol, 2013) and other Pro-Environmental Behavior theories (Oliver, Volschenk, & Smit, 2011)& (Polis, Dreyer, & Jenkins, 2017). ...
... (Rogers, Simmons, Convery, & Weatherall, 2008) found that in the UK, while local people were interested to participate in project development, no one identified with the role of the project leader -citing reasons of lack of technical knowledge. (Polis, Dreyer, & Jenkins, 2017). Forest Biomass promises freedom from noise issues or landscape distortions and meets with high social welcome and WTP (Solino, Vazquez, & Prada, 2009). ...
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... Generally, there are three systems of catching force from marine tidal sources: the primary is by building up a tide over a bay, an estuary or stream, the second is by exploiting the kinetic energy from tidal marine flows using different sorts of turbines and the third is by using a hybrid application of tidal systems. The latter one has excellent potential if its concept and foundation can be combined with the arrangement and design of new framework for seaside towns [29]. Moreover, one prevalence thought about the TCT technologies is the utilisation of tidal floods by using adaptable gadget versatility and because of their exceptional predictability, could result in a significant source of electricity production [30]. ...
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With global and regional communities outlining their goals for RES use, such as the European Union issuing the Renewable Energy Directive mandating its member countries to achieve a 20% overall share of renewable energy by 2020, it is undoubtedly an important source of energy in the near future. Ultimately however, it boils down to how willing households are in migrating to its use from conventional energy sources. Numerous valuation studies have been done to estimate the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for RES, but these studies do not seem to reach a reasonable consensus on how much households are actually willing to pay. Their findings vary considerably due to differences in, among others, sampling designs, valuation techniques, and types of renewable energy. To address this issue, the main objectives of our paper are to calculate a summary WTP estimate from the many reported estimates, and to explain the determinants of variations in WTP. Using a random-effect meta-analytic approach, we obtain a summary WTP estimate of USD7.16. On average, households are willing to pay an increase of this amount per month over the price of energy they are currently paying for, to shift to RES use. We then specify a random-effect meta-regression model to explain the variations in the households’ WTP. From our model, we find metropolitan residents and North American households to have higher WTP than their rural and Asian counterparts. We also find evidence of genuine underlying empirical effects that more and more households are increasingly willing to pay for RES use. The types of RES do not appear to have any impact on WTP.
Article
Ocean energy is a type of renewable energies and is considered as having a potential power of providing a substantial amount of energy. Although some forms of ocean energy are developed, there is a need for further technological advances to better utilize ocean energy. Government should take observable actions to compensate for the costs of developing the technology. This paper attempts to apply a contingent valuation (CV) method to obtaining at least a preliminary evaluation of the benefits that ensue from the development of the technology that commercializes ocean energy in the Republic of Korea. Overall, the CV survey was successfully carried out to elicit the willingness to pay (WTP) for ocean energy. The WTP was statistically significantly estimated from one-and one-half bounded spike model and the monthly mean WTP estimates was KRW 1003 (USD 0.9) per household. The estimates of the annual benefits to relevant residents amounted to KRW 206.4 billion (USD 183.8 million).
Article
The 2013 Pacific Coast Action Plan on Climate and Energy signed by the Governors of California, Oregon, and Washington and the Premier of British Columbia launched a broadly announced public commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through multiple strategies. Those strategies include the development and increased use of renewable energy sources. The initiative recognized that citizens are both a central component in abating greenhouse gas emissions with regard to their energy use behaviors, and are important participants in the public policymaking process at both state and local levels of government. The study reported here examines whether either support or opposition to state government leadership in the development of alternative energy technologies can be explained by environmental values as measured by the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP). The research results are based on mail surveys of randomly selected households conducted throughout Oregon and Washington in late 2009 and early 2010. Findings suggest that younger and more highly educated respondents are significantly more likely than older and less educated respondents to either support or strongly support government policies to promote bioenergy, wind, geothermal, and solar energy. Those respondents with higher NEP scores are also more supportive of government promotion of wind, geothermal, and solar technologies than are those with lower NEP scores. Support for wave energy does not show a statistical correlation with environmental values, maybe a reflection of this technology's nascent level of development. The paper concludes with a consideration of the implications of these findings for environmental management.
Article
Nova Scotia, Canada's community feed-in tariff (COMFIT) scheme is the world's first feed-in tariff program specifically targeting locally-based renewable energy projects. This study investigated selected turbine capacities to optimize electricity production, based on actual wind profiles for three sites in Nova Scotia, Canada (i.e., Sydney, Caribou Point, and Greenwood). The turbine capacities evaluated are also eligible under the current COMFIT-large scheme in Nova Scotia, including 100 kW, 900 kW and 2.0 MW turbines. A capital budgeting model was developed and then used to evaluate investment decisions on wind power production. Wind duration curves suggest that Caribou Point had the highest average wind speeds but for shorter durations. By comparison, Sydney and Greenwood had lower average wind speeds but with longer durations. Electricity production cost was lowest for the 2.0 MW turbine in Caribou Point ($0.07 per kWh), and highest for the 100 kW turbine located in Greenwood ($0.49 per kWh). The most financially viable wind power project was the 2.0 MW turbine assumed to operate at 80 m hub height in Caribou Point, with NPV=$251,586, and BCR=1.51. Wind power production for the remaining two sites was generally not financially feasible for the turbine capacities considered. The impact of promoting local economic development from wind power projects was higher in a scenario under which wind turbines were clustered at a single site with the highest wind resources than generating a similar level of electricity by distributing the wind turbines across multiple locations. Crown Copyright
Article
This paper presents a literature review addressing the public acceptance of renewable energy as a replacement for fossil fuels in electricity production. This review was motivated by the global tendency for a substitution of conventional fuels by renewable energy sources (RES) during the global financial crisis. It studies research on the preferences and attitudes of local communities towards investments in renewable energy projects and their perception of the use of new energy technologies in their daily lives, through various case studies worldwide. An effort is made to identify the parameters that influence consumers' energy behaviour, together with their interest, or lack thereof, in the environmental impact of using fossil fuels to produce energy and their willingness to reduce it. Applications of contingent valuation are examined, which are employed to analyse public attitudes towards the use of RES for electricity production. Willingness-to-pay is observed to be correlated to socioeconomic characteristics including education, interest in environmental issues and knowledge of RES. Finally, the profile of a typical green energy consumer and appropriate policy paths for the penetration of RES into the energy market are outlined.
Article
Deployment of marine renewable energy (MRE) in the UK is desirable in order to address climate change, meet mandatory EU renewable energy targets and provide significant economic development opportunities, including new export markets. Public funding constraints in the UK mean that substantial investment is required from the private sector to commercialize the industry. By focussing on investor attitudes and behaviours towards wave and tidal technologies, this paper reveals significant observations from the investment community with serious implications for the future of the MRE industry. Through a series of in-depth interviews with individuals from the investment community, device developers and industry support, the research seeks to identify common barriers and incentives to investment. The paper demonstrates that although investors' attitudes are generally aligned, they do appear to have changed over time. Of the participants that had previously invested in early stage MRE device development, none were likely to do so again. It is concluded that this is a function of investors' greater understanding of the scale, and unpredictability of the costs, and the length of time required to develop these technologies. This presents a significant policy challenge for all actors interested in the commercialization of wave and tidal technologies.
Article
The far-field, barotropic effects of in-stream tidal energy extraction from Puget Sound are quantified using a one-dimensional channel model. In-stream turbines are modelled in regions of energetic flow in northern Admiralty Inlet and Tacoma Narrows. The far-field extraction effects include changes to the tide (amplitude and phase), transport, power dissipation, and kinetic power density. These effects are observed throughout Puget Sound and are dependent on the magnitude and location of extraction. The model indicates that a 5 per cent reduction in transport in the South Sound would correspond to either 260 MW of dissipation by in-stream turbines in Admiralty Inlet, 120 MW in Tacoma Narrows, or an intermediate level of dissipation in both locations. The environmental and economic limits on future developments are discussed. For pilot-scale development, this modelling indicates that the barotropic, far-field extraction effects on Puget Sound will be immeasurably small.
Article
Public concern about the visual and environmental impacts of renewable-energy projects has been a major factor behind the stalling or rejection of many planning applications for on-shore renewables developments. Siting renewables facilities in off-shore locations would appear to reduce this tension but, as yet, limited research has been conducted on public attitudes to marine renewables—particularly tidal and wave power—to establish how genuinely ‘out of sight and out of mind’ such developments are in the public mind. This paper presents a quantitative study of public opinions on a test site for wave energy currently under construction near the coast of the Southwest UK. The findings suggest general public support for wave energy as an economically beneficial method of power generation with few adverse side-effects. The merits of quantitative and qualitative research on public attitudes towards renewable-energy technologies are then discussed and concepts of risk and reward perception are used to explore the possible future dynamics of public attitudes towards ‘future’ renewables technologies like wave energy. We conclude with reflections on risk and reward perceptions as a heuristic device for defining future directions for research on public attitudes towards different renewable-energy technologies.
Article
We estimate Arizona residents’ Willingness to Pay (WTP) to invest in a solar energy research and development fund using data obtained from a Dichotomous-Choice Contingent Valuation mail survey. We examine differences in WTP estimates using different categorizations for respondent uncertainty. We also employ both commonly used Maximum Likelihood and less frequently applied Bayesian estimation techniques. We find that respondent uncertainty has an economically significant impact on WTP estimates, while WTP estimates are robust to different estimation techniques. Our robust specification with strict uncertainty coding indicates the average Arizona household is WTP approximately $17 per month to invest in research and development in solar energy.
Article
The federal government, through the U.S. Department of Energy, has been promoting the development and emergence of viable domestic renewable energy and energy efficiency industries through numerous administrations. This Article discusses the types of legal instruments used by the federal government to provide incentives and assistance to aid in the development of green technologies that are targeted for potential commercialization in the future energy marketplace. The relative merits of those respective instruments and the need for Congress to set out green energy priorities in comprehensive energy policy legislation in the near future are discussed.
Article
This paper presents a simple computational method for measuring the difference of independent empirical distributions estimated by bootstrapping or other resampling approaches. Using data from a field test of external scope in contingent valuation, this complete combinatorial method is compared with other methods (empirical convolutions, repeated sampling, normality, nonoverlapping confidence intervals) that have been suggested in the literature. Tradeoffs between methods are discussed in terms of programming complexity, time and computer resources required, bias, and the precision of the estimate.
Article
Research on conditions to develop new innovations within emerging renewable energy industries is often done with a national focus. However, recent research on international entrepreneurship has revealed that firms operate on international levels very early in their life time. Thus, based on former research on international entrepreneurship and case examples, we build the propositions that firms in the marine energy industry use internationalization as a strategy to overcome industry barriers. Our primary source of data is a unique dataset from a global survey of all the companies in the marine energy industry who are aiming to commercialize a wave or tidal energy device. This paper is organized in two steps: first we identified the most challenging industry barriers perceived by companies. Second we use these to form propositions which we assess through empirical data. The two most challenging barriers perceived by the companies are need for capital and need for supportive political schemes. Our findings reveal that internationalization certainly is a common strategy to access capital and attractive support schemes in foreign countries. The early internationalization has implications for researchers, managers and policy makers.
Article
Concern over global climate change has led policy makers to accept the importance of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This in turn has led to a large growth in clean renewable generation for electricity production. Much emphasis has been on wind generation as it is among the most advanced forms of renewable generation, however, its variable and relatively unpredictable nature result in increased challenges for electricity system operators. Tidal generation on the other hand is almost perfectly forecastable and as such may be a viable alternative to wind generation. This paper calculates the break-even capital cost for tidal generation on a real electricity system. An electricity market model is used to determine the impact of tidal generation on the operating schedules of the conventional units on the system and on the resulting cycling costs, emissions and fuel savings. It is found that for tidal generation to produce positive net benefits for the case study, the capital costs would have to be less than €510,000 per MW installed which is currently an unrealistically low capital cost. Thus, it is concluded that tidal generation is not a viable option for the case system at the present time.
Article
This study uses a split-sample, dichotomous choice contingent valuation survey of 1574 U.S. residents to explore willingness to pay (WTP) for renewable energy under collective and voluntary payment vehicles, and under government and private provision of the good. We also evaluate the impact of “participation expectations” on stated WTP. We find some evidence that, when confronted with a collective payment mechanism, respondents state a somewhat higher WTP than when voluntary payment mechanisms are used. Similarly, private provision of the good elicits a somewhat higher WTP than does government provision. We also find that contingent valuation responses are strongly correlated with expectations for the WTP of others. Our results shed light on strategic response behavior and the incentive compatibility of different CV designs, and offer practical insight into U.S. household preferences for how to support renewable energy.
Article
Investment in energy research and development in the U.S. is declining despite calls for an enhancement of the nation's capacity for innovation to address environmental, geopolitical, and macroeconomic concerns. We examine investments in research and development in the energy sector, and observe broad-based declines in funding since the mid-1990s. The large reductions in investment by the private sector should be a particular area of concern for policy makers. Multiple measures of patenting activity reveal widespread declines in innovative activity that are correlated with research and development (R&D) investment—notably in the environmentally significant wind and solar areas. Trends in venture capital investment and fuel cell innovation are two promising cases that run counter to the overall trends in the sector. We draw on prior work on the optimal level of energy R&D to identify a range of values which would be adequate to address energy-related concerns. Comparing simple scenarios based on this range to past public R&D programs and industry investment data indicates that a five to ten-fold increase in energy R&D investment is both warranted and feasible.
Article
The empirical literature on discrete response contingent valuation has found that seemingly innocuous changes in the statistical models estimated result in significantly different point estimates of willingness to pay. This paper hypothesizes and tests several potential explanations for these results. First it investigates and compares the biases inherent in single-bounded and double-bounded maximum likelihood estimation procedures and examines how they react to various bid designs and sample sizes. Then it examines the presence and identification of "outliers" in binary choice data and how these outliers influence estimation. Finally, it presents an alternative approach to addressing the issue of outliers which explicitly acknowledges the possibility of upwardly biased response probabilities.
Article
Graduation date: 2011 Renewable energy resources, such as wind, solar, and wave, have a number of advantages compared to traditional fossil fuels. Numerous studies attest to the physical potential for wave energy development in Oregon. In transitioning from conventional fossil fuel to alternative energy provision, citizen understanding of the global energy problems and their causes and solutions is believed to be the key for the development of renewable energy. Using a statewide mail survey of 1,200 Oregonians this dissertation provides some insight and understanding about the determinants of public opinion with regards to renewable energy, the role these determinants play in public opinion formulation, and their relative importance in citizen support of or opposition toward wave energy development in Oregon. Citizen environmental values and value orientations, ideology preferences, climate change awareness and energy policy beliefs, familiarity with the technology, energy knowledge, and sociodemographic characteristics are examined. Using multiple regression analyses, the results reveal that several determinants serve as statistically significant predictors of attitudes toward wave energy development. Some of the most important are: familiarity with the technology, agreement with the possibility of increasing energy supplies while protecting the environment, and awareness about rising global temperatures. Some policy and theoretical implications of the findings are discussed and suggestions for further research are proposed.
Article
The collision-dissociation behavior of two novel dimeric G-quadruplexes of HIV-1 integrase inhibitors and their noncovalent complex ions with a perylene derivative (Tel03), polyamides (ImImImbetaDp and PyPyPybetaDp) was investigated by tandem-in-time electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). It was found that the dimeric ion loses five ammonium ions one by one at activation energy of 10%, so the loss of NH(4)(+) is the predominant fragmentation pathway at lower collision energy. When the activation amplitude is increased to 16%, the loss of guanine nucleobases from backbones of the oligonucleotide is the predominant fragmentation pathway. And the stability of the complex ion of the dimeric G-quadruplex and Tel03 is higher than that of ImImImbetaDp and PyPyPybetaDp. The results of the MS/MS spectra of the complex ion indicated that Tel03 binding molecule favor the stabilization of the novel G-quadruplex structure.
Article
This paper argues for the use of a simulation methodology to examine the distributions of elasticities that, in turn, are complex, non-linear functions of estimated parameters. Linear approximations are often used in this context but are shown to be poor substitutes for the suggested procedure.
Article
Donation payment mechanisms are well suited forsome contingent valuation studies. In aneffort to better understand the discrepancythat has been consistently found between actualand hypothetical donations, we investigate anapproach to estimating actual willingness todonate using contingent donations with afollow-up question in which respondents ratethe level of certainty about their response tothe contingent donation question. The approachallows us to estimate the magnitude of thehypothetical bias and identify the respondentsresponsible for the bias. Identification ofthe respondents responsible for thehypothetical bias is the first step towarddeveloping an understanding of the causes andpossible remedies. In this study we find thatmost of the respondents (80%) to thecontingent donation question provide a responseconsistent with how we predict they wouldrespond in an actual donation situation. Copyright Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001
Article
The ultimate goal of most non-market valuation studies is to obtain welfare measures i.e. mean and/or median willingness to pay (WTP) and confidence intervals. While the delta (nlcom) and bootstrap (bs) methods can be used for constructing such confidence intervals in Stata, they are not recommended because WTP measures are non-linear functions of random parameters (Creel and Loomis, 1991). The best and widely used approach, which is not available in Stata, consists in simulating the confidence intervals using the Krinsky and Robb procedure (Haab and McConnell, 2002). Hole (2007) has recently introduced a useful command, wtp, which implements the Krinsky and Robb procedure in Stata, but does not feature mean and median WTP estimates and their confidence intervals. I present a Stata command, wtpcikr, which computes mean and median WTP, confidence intervals using the Krinsky and Robb procedure, achieved significance level (ASL) for testing the null hypothesis that WTP equals zero, and a relative efficiency measure (Loomis and Ekstrand, 1998). The command supports both linear and exponential contingent valuation models estimated with or without covariates using the Stata commands probit, logit, biprobit, and xtprobit. I will illustrate the use of wtpcikr by replicating empirical results in Haab and McConnell (2002).
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