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Reducing aggression with martial arts: A meta-analysis of child and youth studies

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... Five articles examined legislation and policy changes such as increasing alcohol taxes, expanding closed-circuit television (CCTV) surveillance, vacant lot remediation (i.e., greening, mowing, gardening of unused land), and implementing conservative gun laws. Violence prevention interventions based on physical activity (e.g., martial arts) were examined in two reviews (Harwood et al., 2017;Spruit et al., 2016). Overall, outcomes varied considerably across reviews, ranging from aggression, cyberbullying, bullying, gun violence, and disruptive behaviour to sexual violence (see Supplementary Table 2a ...
... We found certain types of universal violence prevention interventions were more promising than others. Of note, the strongest effects were for interventions based on martial arts training (Harwood et al., 2017). The quality of the underlying meta-analyses also varied widely with higher quality reviews finding small but positive effects of school-based interventions (Moy & Hazen, 2018) and an online programme for intimate partner violence (Spencer et al., 2021). ...
... We found evidence in support of sports-based interventions. The review on martial arts training made a distinction between traditional and modern martial arts practices and included only the former (Harwood et al., 2017). Traditional styles (e.g., Aikido) describe internally focused techniques that emphasize self-reflection, ancient philosophies, and breathing techniques, while modern martial arts forms lack these components (e.g., boxing; Hernandez & Anderson, 2015). ...
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To address societal harms of violence, many violence prevention interventions have been developed, tested, and implemented in the general population. These have been reported in systematic reviews and meta-analyses, which have typically focused on one type of intervention or outcome. We have conducted an umbrella review of previous meta-analyses using standard approaches, and converted findings on effectiveness into odds ratios. We tested for the underlying quality of the meta-analytic evidence by examining heterogeneity, statistical excess, prediction intervals, and small study effects. We identified 16 meta-analyses, including 9 investigating psychosocial interventions, and 5 legislative and policy changes. Most meta-analyses reported positive effects of tested interventions. The strongest effects were found for sports-based initiatives, and the weakest for general population programmes aimed at early childhood, youth development, and reducing sexual assault perpetration by men. Legislative changes had varying effectiveness. We conclude that simple, scalable, and cost-efficient programmes, such as sport-based initiatives, have the clearest empirical support as population-based approaches to violent prevention.
... Specifically, the existing meta-review on martial arts (Harwood et al., 2017) did not account for elements of mindfulness associated with martial arts (Miyata et al., 2020) which may have affected the results (Gillions et al., 2019;Tao et al., 2021). In addition, the inclusion of cross-sectional studies hampers causal statements regarding the effect of physical activity (Harwood et al., 2017). Furthermore, the meta-analysis of Spruit et al. on physical activity interventions contained a relatively small number of studies (n = 14) which may have limited generalizability. ...
... To date, two previous meta-analytic reviews have examined the effect of physical activity on externalizing behavior in youth (Harwood et al., 2017;Spruit et al., 2016). The first review investigated the effect of martial arts on the reduction of aggression, anger, and violence in youth aged < 18. ...
... The authors included 12 studies with a comparison group but no randomized controlled trials (RCT). They found an average significant effect of martial arts on aggression, but only after removing the three studies that consisted of one-time comparisons (as opposed to interventional, longitudinal, and cross-sectional studies) (Harwood et al., 2017). The second metareview quantified the effect of physical activity interventions on four psychosocial outcomes, including externalizing problems (i.e., aggression, delinquency, or other conduct problems) in adolescents (aged 10-21). ...
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Objectives This systematic review and meta-analysis examines the efficacy of physical activity interventions in the reduction of antisocial behavior in children and adults. Several possible moderators, including study design, sample characteristics (age, proportion male, and sample type), control group, and outcome characteristics (type of activity, duration, frequency), were also investigated. Methods A literature search was performed in the following databases: PubMed, Ebsco/SportDiscus, Ebsco/APA PsycINFO, Ebsco/ERIC, Ebsco/Criminal Justice Abstracts, Embase.com, and Clarivate Analytics/Web of Science Core Collection from inception to June 2021. Studies were eligible if they reviewed the effect of chronic physical activity interventions on antisocial behavior compared to wait-list, no-exercise, or attention control samples. The following studies were excluded: animal studies, studies reporting on acute exercise, studies including yoga or mindfulness as the sole measure of physical activity, and studies including substance (ab)use and/or smoking as the only outcome measure. A random effects model was used to calculate pooled effect sizes. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool (version 2). Results The search yielded 29 studies, of which 20 were included in the meta-analysis. Results indicate a significant small-to-medium effect (g = − 0.26) with a 95% confidence interval ranging from − 0.48 to − 0.04 in favor of physical activity interventions. Significant moderators included type of control group, type of physical activity, and type of antisocial behavior, with larger effect sizes for comparisons with inactive control groups (g = − 0.31), interventions containing walking, jogging, or running as the main type of physical activity (g = − 0.87), and anger/hostility as an antisocial outcome measure (g = − 0.42). Conclusions Physical activity interventions may be a promising way to reduce antisocial behavior in children and adults. However, due to the overall high risk of bias in the included studies, more sound evaluation research is needed to better understand the functioning and to improve the possible implementation of physical activity interventions.
... 44 For instance, spirituality can positively influence mental health. 45 For at-risk individuals, spirituality can foster positive health and mental outcomes, teach healthy coping mechanisms, and improve life satisfaction and subjective well-being. 46 In keeping with traditional MA programs, KFFC was designed to encourage students to develop in their character. ...
... 2), respect, peace, and self-control. 41,45 Research suggests that religious engagement offers individuals the opportunity to be a part of a community, which in itself, can facilitate the formation of strong social connections. ...
... Categorizing KFFC's activities and assumed outcomes in light of the BPS-S framework is challenging because in keeping with MA research, this program was intended to promote overlapping and interconnected physical, mental, social, and spiritual health. 17,45 Like MA, the KFFC program was designed to teach students in all age groups how to overcome physical, mental, and spiritual hardships. 17,50 Group exercise can foster psychological development such as self-efficacy beliefs, 51 and lead to social benefits such as friendship development and a sense of belonging. ...
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As in other parts of the world, Canada’s citizens are confronted with biological, mental, and social crises. Despite the fact that these issues can be interrelated, they are regularly studied and addressed separately. The bio-psycho-social (BPS) framework was offered as an alternative approach for care because of its assumption that in order to produce a variety of interconnected outcomes relative to health and well-being, biological, mental, and social issues must all be considered. Some authors have argued, however, that without a spiritual component, the BPS framework is not holistic. As such, recent scholarship has explored the inclusion of a spiritual component in the framework, and social service professionals have been encouraged to consider designing interventions informed by the bio-psycho-social-spiritual (BPS-S) framework. Good examples of how to apply the framework in practice are limited. This case example describes how the BPS-S framework was applied to design a community-, sports-, and faith-based martial arts program in Ontario, Canada. The program draws upon a combination of sports-, community-, and Christian faith-based considerations to serve its participants, including vulnerable populations such as those with constrained access to social services due to mental health challenges, language barriers, or low levels of income. This article details some of the ways in which the operations of this program (e.g., activities, target audience, leadership) were informed by the BPS-S framework. This includes some of the advantages of drawing upon this framework to foster more nuanced and holistic well-being among participants. The article concludes with some limitations of the BPS-S framework, and implications for applying it to other social service interventions.
... The most recent studies gathered evidence about a positive influence of martial arts and combat sports on aggression (Harwood et al., 2017;Hortiguela et al., 2017;Wojdat et al., 2017;Coco et al., 2018;Kostorz and Sas-Nowosielski, 2021;Lafuente et al., 2021). Evidence that martial arts decrease aggression among the youth was found for nine intervention and longitudinal studies with a detected effect size of 0.65 (95% CI: 0.11, 1.03), which indicates a medium effect (Harwood et al., 2017). ...
... The most recent studies gathered evidence about a positive influence of martial arts and combat sports on aggression (Harwood et al., 2017;Hortiguela et al., 2017;Wojdat et al., 2017;Coco et al., 2018;Kostorz and Sas-Nowosielski, 2021;Lafuente et al., 2021). Evidence that martial arts decrease aggression among the youth was found for nine intervention and longitudinal studies with a detected effect size of 0.65 (95% CI: 0.11, 1.03), which indicates a medium effect (Harwood et al., 2017). Although the results of systematic reviews and meta-analyses signal positive outcomes, all authors agreed that more research on the subject is necessary. ...
... The results obtained in this study show that judokas display statistically significant lower overall aggressiveness compared to team sports athletes, as well as significantly lower expressed indirect and physical manifest aggression. This result is in line with previous research reporting a positive impact of martial arts on prosocial behaviors (Harwood et al., 2017;Hortiguela et al., 2017;Wojdat et al., 2017;Coco et al., 2018;Kostorz and Sas-Nowosielski, 2021;Lafuente et al., 2021). The obtained results not only justify the inclusion of judo in school curricula but also give it a certain advantage over more popular and widely accepted team sports. ...
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Combat sports and martial arts are often associated with aggressiveness among the general public, although data on judo and/or martial arts and aggressiveness seem to be unclear. This research aims to compare athletes who have trained judo for a prolonged time (minimum 5 years) and athletes from various team sports, primarily regarding the manifestation of aggression, but also regarding personality traits, emotional intelligence, and self-efficacy. Also, the potential predictive value of personality traits, emotional intelligence, and self-efficacy for aggression within subsamples of judokas and team athletes was tested. The research findings showed that professional judo athletes are characterized by a low degree of aggression, especially low indirect and physical manifestations of aggression. In addition, the personality traits Honesty-Humility and Openness to experience are well expressed, contrary to Emotionality and Extraversion, which are less pronounced. They are also characterized by moderate general self-efficacy. On the other hand, members of team sports produced the opposite results, as they are characterized by increased aggression, pronounced traits of Emotionality and Extraversion, somewhat less pronounced traits of Honesty-Humility, Openness to new experience, and less pronounced general self-efficacy. The percentage of explained variability of aggression is slightly higher in the subsample of team sports and constitutes 49.9% of the variability, while in the subsample of judokas it constitutes 47.8% of the variability of the criteria. Practical implications, limitations, and future research directions were discussed.
... It has been theorized that martial arts reduce aggressive tendencies by enabling the participant to channel such energies into productive and self-enhancing activities (6), and that the development of self-control coupled with an enhanced awareness of self-boundaries may furthermore contribute to these observed psychological benefits (7). Indeed, common to all the recently reviewed studies demonstrating reductions in externalizing behaviors following martial arts practice were the capitalization of training on complex, repetitive movements, self-controlled behavior, and interpersonal respect (8). Although these are all plausible explanations for the suggestion that martial arts practice reduces aggression, they have little empirical backing, and no studies have evaluated potential pathways of change. ...
... Forming the foundation for the current study, a recent metaanalysis demonstrated the potential for martial arts to reduce aggressive behaviors (8). Despite the promising findings, only twelve studies were relevant for inclusion, and just one studied aggression in at-risk youths (12). ...
... Although the cognitive findings reinforced predictions based on previous research with normative youth, the current study found no significant differences in aggression or self-esteem levels following the intervention. This finding was unexpected given the previous positive findings, especially in the field of aggression, a finding which had been replicated in multiple populations and formed the basis for the current study (8). ...
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The current study assessed whether an extended program of martial arts training was a viable intervention for at-risk youths in improving cognitive and psychological functions. Adolescent boys attending specialized education facilities for at-risk youths took part in regular sport lessons or martial arts practice twice a week for 6 months. Hormonal reactivity was assessed during initial training, and measures of psychological (aggression, self-esteem) and cognitive (inhibition, flexibility, speed of processing, and attention) functions were assessed before and immediately following the intervention. Participants in the martial arts training demonstrated significant improvement in the domains of inhibition and shifting and speed of processing. Additionally, initial hormonal reactivity (oxytocin and cortisol) to the intervention predicted significant post-intervention change on several measures of cognitive and psychological functioning. Specifically, oxytocin reactivity predicted improvement in processing speed, as well as reduction of aggression, whereas cortisol reactivity predicted increases in self-esteem. This pioneering, ecologically valid study demonstrates the initial efficacy of this enjoyable, readily available, group intervention for at-risk boys and suggests potential mechanisms that may mediate the process of change.
... They provide young people with negative behavioural patterns, at the same time distorting the image of sport (Mroczkowska et al., 2008), as well as increase the risk of a career-ending injury (Pedersen, 2007). In the case of combat sports, considering the propensity for violent behaviours is not only of cognitive significance because of the dangers associated with the athletes' extensive skills and strength, which can be employed outside the sports arena to use violence, engage in fights, and commit various crimes (Reynes and Lorant, 2001, 2002a,b, 2004Graczyk et al., 2010;Klimczak et al., 2014;Martinkova and Parry, 2016;Harwood et al., 2017). ...
... It was expected that the analyses would significantly broaden the scope of the existing knowledge on the subject, thus allowing to obtain important results, especially in the field of humanities, i.e., psychology, sociology, pedagogy, and ethics. Besides, many authors (Tiric-Campara et al., 2012;Kuśnierz and Bartik, 2014;Martinkova and Parry, 2016;Harwood et al., 2017;Basiaga-Pasternak et al., 2020) indicate the scarcity of publications on martial arts and combat sports. It should also be added that the issue of aggression has been extremely rarely raised, especially in the last decade. ...
... One might suppose that socialisation of anxiety and aggression behaviours based on rigid rules and principles of martial arts statistically significantly decreases their incidence in athletes. These views have been confirmed in publications by many authors (Jasiński et al., 2000;Lu, 2008;Mroczkowska et al., 2008;Krishnaveni and Shahin, 2014;Harwood et al., 2017). Kubacka-Jasiecka and Wrześniewski (2012) claim that although athletes practising martial arts for recreational purposes or participating in combat sports competitions have to selfinduce a certain degree of aggression, they do not differ in this respect from individuals engaged in other sports disciplines or physical activities. ...
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Purpose: The main aim of the research was to analyse aggression dimensions among athletes practising martial arts and combat sports. Material and Methods: There were 219 respondents. The Buss and Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ) in the Polish adaptation by Siekierka was applied. Results: Martial arts apprentices turned out to present a statistically significantly lower level of hostility ( p < 0.001) and of the general aggression index ( p = 0.04) than combat sports athletes. It turned out that lower level of aggression was noted in female participants (physical aggression ( p < 0.001), verbal aggression ( p = 0.004), hostility ( p < 0.001), and the general aggression index ( p < 0.001). Analysis revealed that the training experience and the training rank did not differentiated the level of the respondents' particular aggression dimensions. Conclusions: It would be advisable to perform parallel analyses in other areas of Poland and take into account the respondents' education and place of residence.
... This was heavily influenced by the expansion of the styles and philosophies of East martial arts in the West. In recent years, the popularity of MA&CS has continued to grow in the West (Harwood et al., 2017) becoming one of the most practiced sports in many countries, helping to contribute to the growing interest in research in MA&CS. This fact is observed in the increase of scientific literature on MA&CS (Gutiérrez-García, 2020;Gutiérrez-García et al., 2011) and also of scientific meetings and specific journals on MA&CS (Gutiérrez-García et al., 2018;Vertonghen & Theeboom, 2010). ...
... This process was also performed independently by two different members of the review team, while the other members helped in resolving any disagreement. Noteworthy is the fact that we did just one analysis for Lorant's (2002a,b, 2004) papers, as they are part of the same study and have overlapping samples (in the same line, see Gubbels et al., 2016;Harwood et al., 2017). ...
... The studies used in this review differ greatly from each other in relation to quality and variety at the time of the interventions. This was also indicated by Harwood et al. (2017), in their meta-analysis they found a relationship between the intervention time and the results obtained. In this way the study with less intervention time (Delva-Tauiliili, 1995), reported the least effect, while the greatest effect was generated in the longer intervention, 10 months (Palermo et al., 2006). ...
Article
Martial Arts and combat sports (MA&CS) are the subject of a dispute. On the one hand, they have been considered an ideal means to acquire emotional self-control. On the other hand, they have been considered aggressive practices which may promote violent behaviors. The current systematic review aims to analyze the evidence of the effects of MA&CS participation in anger and aggression, and the quality of this evidence. The review was conducted according to the PRISMA-P protocol. The studied variables were study type and aims, sample, interventions and procedures, measurements and outcomes. Nine studies (three cohort studies and six randomized controlled trials) were selected for inclusion. The following results should be viewed with much caution, as the volume of studies and the methodological quality of most of them is not optimal. Training in traditional martial arts seems to be an effective means to lower levels of anger and aggression. Regarding the age of subjects, there is a predisposition to reduce anger in the adult population. In addition, young subjects with violent or behavioral problems show a positive response to working with martial arts. However, the available evidence, overall, shows no relationship between MA&CS practice and anger and aggression levels.
... In a recently published meta-analysis Harwood et al. (2017) examined nine studies regarding the effects of martial arts training on aggressive behaviour. The authors reported a medium average effect size of 0.65 (95% CI: 0.11, 1.03) and suggested that martial arts training can reduce aggressive behaviour and may be a valuable intervention for youths exhibiting externalising behaviour issues. ...
... Finally, it appears that some selective interpretation of results likely to be favourable towards martial arts has occurred. For example, Harwood et al. (2017) reported where multiple effect sizes were available in a single study they 'extracted only the larger effect size for the most relevant measure' (p. 98) for comparison. ...
... Popularly, martial arts training is often presented as a way of regulating aggressive behaviour, and reductions in aggressive behaviour are often cited by research examining the effects of martial arts training. For example, Harwood et al. (2017) recently reported an average medium effect size in a meta-analysis and suggested that martial arts training reduces aggression. It is very concerning that the confidence intervals in the current metaanalysis not only suggest we should not assume that martial arts training reduces aggression, but that we cannot conclude that martial arts training does not increase aggressive behaviour. ...
Article
Objective Mental health issues are of increasing public concern, however are often untreated for a variety of reasons. While limited, the research examining the relationship between mental health and martial arts training is generally positive. This systematic review and meta-analysis explored whether martial arts training may be an efficacious sports-based mental health intervention. Design The meta-analysis used a random effects model and examined three mental health outcomes: wellbeing, internalising mental health, and aggression. Data sources During January to July 2018 the following electronic databases were searched: CENTRAL, EBSCO, Embase, ERIC, MEDLINE, PUBMED, and ScienceDirect. Eligibility criteria Eligibility criteria included: (1) martial arts was examined as an intervention or activity resulting in a psychological outcome, (2) the study reported descriptive quantitative results measured using standardised scales that compared results between groups and (3) studies were published as full-length articles in peer reviewed scientific or medical journals. Results More than 500,000 citations were identified and screened to determine eligibility. Data was extracted from 14 eligible studies. Martial arts training had a significant but small positive effect on wellbeing (d=.346, 95% CI=0.106 to 0.585, I²=59.51%) and a medium effect on internalising mental health (d=.620, 95% CI=0.006 to 1.23, I²=84.84%). Martial arts training had a minimal non-significant positive effect in reducing aggression (d=.022, 95% CI=-0.191 to 0.236, I²=58.12%). Summary/Conclusion Whilst there is considerable variance across the studies included in the meta-analyses, there is support for martial arts training as an efficacious sports-based mental health intervention for improving wellbeing and reducing symptoms associated with internalising mental health.
... It is estimated that in the UK there are over 41,000 children and young people who experience the death of a parent each year [1]. Grief manifests itself in a variety of outcomes, such as depression, anxiety, and aggression [2][3][4][5][6][7][8]. As physical activity can have a positive impact on mental health [2,3,5], it is important to understand whether it could benefit grief outcomes. ...
... Adolescents (N = 11,110) with greater physical activity levels have been found to have lower depressive symptoms [3]. Activities such as Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) and combat sports can reduce aggression, providing a controlled outlet for children and young people [6]. MMA can also increase self-control skills, and reduce hostile thoughts [7]. ...
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Background Physical activity benefits physical and mental health. However, limited research investigates if physical activity can improve outcomes from the grieving process following the death of a parent. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 individuals ( n = 8 female; age M = 31.2 years), who had experienced the death of a parent when they were aged between 10 and 24 years old, using retrospective recall. Data were analysed inductively using thematic analysis. Results Six themes were identified. Physical activity was seen as; 1) ‘ Therapeutic’ ; providing an 2) ‘ Emotional Outlet’ and created a strong sense of 3) ‘ Social Support’ . Alongside it 4) ‘ Builds Confidence’ , and led to 5) ‘ Finding Yourself’ and 6) ‘ Improved Health and wellbeing’ (physical and psychological). Conclusion Physical activity has the potential to provide positive experiences following a parental bereavement. It can provide a sense of freedom and was seen to alleviate grief outcomes, build resilience, enable social support and create a stronger sense of self. Bereavement support services for young people who have experienced death of a parent should consider physical activity as a viable intervention to support the grieving process.
... These findings, in addition to contextual factors related to the fast economic and social development of the UAE, necessitate research on how BJJ applied in school settings can affect the behaviour of Emirati children. In addition, other gaps and conflicts in the literature (e.g., effects on behaviour, effects of different combat sports, teaching approach, social context, sex, and age), make it difficult to establish a clear position about the effects of martial arts and combat sports on mental health and behaviour of children in school (Bu et al., 2010;Gubbels et al., 2016;Harwood et al., 2017;Kavoura et al., 2012;Lakes et al., 2013;Lakes & Hoyt, 2004;Strayhorn & Strayhorn, 2009;Theeboom et al., 2009;Vertonghen & Theeboom, 2012). Furthermore, the few studies concerned with the cognitive and behavioural effects of Brazilian jiu-jitsu on practitioners have not been definitive (Chinkov & Holt, 2015), and no studies have included BJJ, mental health, classroom behaviour, and Arab adolescents. ...
... In addition to improvements in the SDQ-t score values, both interventions decreased the risk of mental health problems on subscales of conduct problems, hyperactivity/inattention prosocial behaviour, total difficulties score, and externalising problems component; however more significant improvements were observed in the BJJ group for the subscales of conduct problems and total difficulties score, as well as which only the BJJ group presented improvements in the internalising problems component. Thus, these findings agree with other studies that found a positive impact of martial arts and combat sports practice on behaviour in the context of learning (Bu et al., 2010;Chinkov & Holt, 2015;Gubbels et al., 2016;Harwood et al., 2017), as well as superior results of martial arts and combat sports compared to regular physical education programmes on the behaviour of boys in the school environment (Lakes et al., 2013;Lakes & Hoyt, 2004). ...
Article
This study is a randomised trial which aimed to evaluate the effects of a school-based Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ) programme on the mental health and classroom behaviour of children from a secondary public school in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE). For this, 88 male sixth-grade schoolchildren were randomly (randomisation [1:1] by lot) assigned to either a BJJ class (experimental group) or a traditional physical education class (control group) for 12 weeks. As inclusion criteria, eligible participants were all children aged 10 through 13, enrolled in the sixth grade of the UAE. The experimental group took two classes per week of BJJ, and the control group took two classes per week of traditional physical education. For the assessment of the primary outcome, the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire for Teachers model (SDQ-t) was completed before and after the interventions by two classroom teachers. During the study, 8 children did not attend the minimum number of classes and were excluded from the final analyses, leaving 80 children (40 in each group). The results showed that BJJ classes significantly decreased emotional symptoms (p = 0.007; small effect), hyperactivity/inattention (p < 0.001, moderate effect), total difficulties score (p = 0.002; moderate effect), and externalising problems (p = 0.001, |2= 0.07; moderate effect), when compared with classes of traditional physical education. Thus, the findings of the current study showed that male sixth-grade students in a public school in the UAE demonstrated significant improvements in mental health, as well as in classroom behaviour following their participation in a 12 week BJJ programme.
... This is evident from many studies that consistently show that a long training experience within MA is positively correlated with a set of psychological factors. This includes better self-regulation (Lakes and Hoyt, 2004;Nakonechnyi and Galan, 2017), attentional control (Lakes et al., 2013), resilience (Greco, Cataldi and Fischetti, 2019), and lowered aggression (Nosanchuk and Lamarre, 2002;Harwood et al., 2017). Consequently, there is an array of psychosocial benefits stemming from MA practice, and we will focus on mainly four: aggression, self-regulation, compassion, and prosocial behavior. ...
... Aggression is widely considered as undesirable and has implications for young people's psychosocial development and adjustment. Most studies suggest that a longer time participating in MA is correlated with lower aggression (for reviews, see Harwood et al., 2017;Blomqvist Mickelsson, 2021;Lafuente et al., 2021). There is some longitudinal evidence to this too. ...
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This paper introduces a model that explains psychosocial development by embedding the developmental concept of rough-and-tumble play (RTP) into the contextual settings of martial arts (MA). Current sport-for-change literature relies on theories that address contextual factors surrounding sport but agrees that sport in itself does not facilitate developmental outcomes. In contemporary times where western societies invest substantial resources in sport programs for their psychosocial contribution, this becomes problematic. If the contextual factors surrounding sport are exclusively what produce developmental outcomes, what is the rationale for investing resources in sport specifically? We challenge this idea and argue that although contextual factors are important to any social phenomena, the developmental outcomes from sport can also be traced to the corporeal domain in sport. To date, we have lacked the theoretical lenses to articulate this. The developmental concept of RTP emphasizes how “play fighting” between consenting parties stimulates psychosocial growth through its demand for self-regulation and control when “play fighting” with peers. In short, RTP demands that individuals maintain a self-regulated mode of fighting and is contingent on a give-and-take relationship to maintain enjoyment. RTP can thus foster empathy and prosocial behavior and has strong social bonding implications. However, such play can also escalate. A fitting setting to be considered as moderated RTP is MA because of its resemblance to RTP, and its inherent philosophical features, which emphasizes self-regulation, empathy, and prosocial behavior. This paper outlines what constitutes high-quality RTP in a MA context and how this relates to developmental outcomes. By doing so, we present a practitioner’s framework in which practitioners, social workers, and physical educators can explain how MA, and not merely contextual factors, contributes toward developmental outcomes. In a time where sport is becoming increasingly politicized and used as a social intervention, it too becomes imperative to account for why sport, and in this case, MA, is suitable to such ends.
... Previous studies also reported that the BMB3 approach was very effective in Tarung Derajat martial arts training [1], [15]. The main purpose of martial arts is not only to develop technical and psychological aspects [24], but also to cultivate moral behavior, develop benevolence, respectful behavior [25]- [27], self-control, self-discipline, perseverance, and responsibility [28]. Therefore, when creating interventions aimed at improving coach performance, emotional intelligence and emotional skills should be a fundamental consideration [29]. ...
... 23,24 There 5 have been cases where contact sports including martial arts, e.g., Judo, boxing, and football, have helped to rehabilitate juvenile delinquents by curbing their aggression. 25 These trends must promote the creation of "Budo neuroscience" as the new academic discipline targeting the social and emotional aspects of sporting humans, which also could be a solution to loneliness as one of the largest health risks. 26 In the words of Kano, this discipline would be "the science of Jita-Kyoei (mutual welfare and benefit)." ...
... include increased cognitive and affective self-regulation and prosocial behavior in children(Lakes & Hoyt, 2004), and reduced aggressive behavior in youth and undergraduate populations(Harwood, Lavidor, & Rassovsky, 2017). Studies have also demonstrated improvements in mood(Yang, Ko, & Roh, 2018), and enhanced strategies for coping with and managing stress(Petrovic, 2017) in Taekwondo students. ...
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The playing activity of a football player, taking place in conditions of high-intensity loads, cannot but cause corresponding changes in the work of his organs and systems. The fatigue that arises and progresses during the competition affects the effectiveness of technical and tactical actions of the player. Significant expansion of technical and tactical actions with maximum use of playing space, universalization of players necessitates increasing the requirements for special endurance of football players during competitions. Therefore, it seems legitimate to characterize the new trends that have emerged in football and are directly related to the impact of speed-power endurance on the effectiveness of technical and tactical skills of players.
... There have also been several benefits identified as a result of participating in martial arts. For example, many traditional approaches to teaching martial arts use meditation and mindfulness techniques [Harwood et al. 2017;Milligan et al. 2015;Vertonghen & Theeboom 2010], which has been linked to improved self-regulation and performance in MMA fighters [Massey et al. 2015], as well as increasing self-understanding and calmness, and better tolerating discomfort in youth with learning disabilities [Milligan et al. 2015]. Additionally, Bird and colleagues [2019] found that offering MMA training, in combination with psychotherapy, resulted in improved mental health, as well as having a positive impact on other aspects of their life due to an increase in confidence and self-reflection. ...
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In this qualitative study, we explored the experiences of 10 adults who trained in mixed martial arts (MMA) to understand the meaning they ascribed to attaining the black belt and their martial arts journal overall. Using a conventional content analysis, four themes were derived from the data: importance of the black belt, benefits of training in MMA, dealing with injuries, and being part of the MMA community. Training in MMA was very positive, with both individual benefits (improved physical and mental health, skill development, and personal growth) and interpersonal benefits (relationship development and sense of community) being reported. Self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000) and goal setting theory (Locke & Latham, 2002) are used to discuss participants’ motivation in their pursuit of the black belt and continued training.
... Si en 1960, año en el que acontece la primera edición de los Juegos Paralímpicos en Italia, participó un solo grupo de personas con discapacidad física, en la actualidad participan también personas con parálisis cerebral, con discapacidad intelectual o con deficiencias sensoriales en más de 25 modalidades deportivas adaptadas. De hecho, la participación de atletas pasa de menos de 400 en los primeros Juegos Paralímpicos de Italia a más de 4.400 en el 2021 en Tokio (International Paralympic Committee, 2021 cuando los participantes no tienen ningún tipo de discapacidad, estos tienen efectos beneficiosos sobre: la aptitud física, la salud mental; el control corporal; la percepción; la fuerza muscular; la función cognitiva o; la flexibilidad y el equilibrio (Calderón, 2018;Cho & Roh, 2019;de Souza et al., 2020;Fong et al., 2012;Harwood et al., 2017;Kim et al., 2015;Wąsik & Wójcik, 2017). Además, ayudan en el control de la ira, disminuyen la depresión y aumentan tanto la autoestima como la confianza (García et al., 2014). ...
... Si en 1960, año en el que acontece la primera edición de los Juegos Paralímpicos en Italia, participó un solo grupo de personas con discapacidad física, en la actualidad participan también personas con parálisis cerebral, con discapacidad intelectual o con deficiencias sensoriales en más de 25 modalidades deportivas adaptadas. De hecho, la participación de atletas pasa de menos de 400 en los primeros Juegos Paralímpicos de Italia a más de 4.400 en el 2021 en Tokio (International Paralympic Committee, 2021 cuando los participantes no tienen ningún tipo de discapacidad, estos tienen efectos beneficiosos sobre: la aptitud física, la salud mental; el control corporal; la percepción; la fuerza muscular; la función cognitiva o; la flexibilidad y el equilibrio (Calderón, 2018;Cho & Roh, 2019;de Souza et al., 2020;Fong et al., 2012;Harwood et al., 2017;Kim et al., 2015;Wąsik & Wójcik, 2017). Además, ayudan en el control de la ira, disminuyen la depresión y aumentan tanto la autoestima como la confianza (García et al., 2014). ...
Article
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El objetivo de esta investigación fue indagar en la participación de las personas con discapacidad física, sensorial e intelectual en la práctica de las artes marciales o deportes de contacto. Para ello, se analizó la literatura entre 1990 y 2020 en relación con las artes marciales y las personas con discapacidad. Los 33 estudios encontrados se clasificaron en dos bloques: estudios experimentales para determinar los beneficios y estudios no experimentales para adaptar la práctica. Los resultados demostraron que, cuando las artes marciales se adaptan, participan todo tipo de personas independientemente de su edad, género o capacidad y aportan beneficios a todos ellos. Dada la heterogeneidad de este colectivo, hace falta mayor investigación tanto para determinar los beneficios como el formato de entrenamiento o competición en igualdad de condiciones.
... Dentre as possibilidades de exercícios físicos com crianças com TEA, a modalidade de jiu jitsu, vem ganhando crescente popularidade nas últimas décadas, devido a seus efeitos positivos nas funções motoras, cognitivas, de auto regulação e na sensação de bem-estar dos seus praticantes 19,20 . Não foi encontrado na literatura qualquer estudo envolvendo o treinamento de jiu jitsu em crianças com TEA tendo como foco o desenvolvimento de habilidades motoras básicas e seu impacto na funcionalidade. ...
Article
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O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar os efeitos de um programa de jiu jitsu no desempenho motor e nas habilidades funcionais (autocuidado e função social) de crianças com TEA. A amostra constituiu de seis crianças, três do grupo controle e três do grupo experimental com idades entre 6 e 12 anos submetidas à prática do jiu jitsu. A intervenção teve duração de um ano e três meses (80 sessões). Os instrumentos utilizados foram o Test of Gross Motor Development-2, e o Pediatric Evalution of Disability Inventory. Os resultados apontam melhoras significativas do grupo experimental após a intervenção no desempenho manipulativo, no autocuidado, na função social, e menor ajuda dos pais para a realização das tarefas. É possível concluir que o jiu jitsu representa um instrumento de tratamento para o TEA contribuindo para o planejamento das intervenções e auxiliando os treinadores e os profissionais da saúde.
... Research showed several physical and psychological benefits of karate (1, 2) and football (3,4). Also, evidence on sport aggression-related risks suggested that whereas martial arts may reduce aggressive behaviors (5), football may foster them (6). Knowing sport benefits and risks is important to inform current and future athletes. ...
Article
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The importance of perceptions as determinants of people's behavior has been well-established, but little is known about athletes' perceptions of their sport and the links of these perceptions with other correlates. In this study, we compared karate ( n = 51) and football ( n = 49) athletes' perceived benefits and aggressiveness risks from their sports and examined whether these perceptions predicted athletes' engagement and quality of life (QoL). Participants completed perception measures of karate and football, and engagement and QoL measures. Results showed that karateka perceived more benefits and fewer risks in karate than football, but footballers generally perceived equal benefits and risks in both sports. Both athlete groups perceived similar physical and psychological benefits in their own sport, but deemed physical benefits as prominent outcomes in the other sport. Notably, karateka's perceived benefits about karate predicted engagement directly and QoL indirectly via vigor. Overall, karate athletes' perceptions seemed to be relevant to experiencing fulfillment in training and general well-being.
... However, this situation has pushed the moral and social values in sports into the background and emphasized the ambition to win (Şahan, 2007). Sports have evolved from a concept based on ambition, competitiveness, awards, pleasure, happiness and sense of achievement to an arena where aggressive and violent behaviors are exhibited (Harwood et al., 2017;Mutz & Baur, 2009;Spaaija & Schailléec, 2019). Today, aggression and anger are among the terms that are widely studied and regarded to be as important as motive/motivation in the field of psychology (Omli & LaVoi, 2009;. ...
Article
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The present study aims to examine the predictive power of the aggressiveness and anger levels of Faculty of Sports Sciences students on the level of sportsmanship behavior. A total of 442 athletes studying at the Faculty of Sports Sciences participated in the study on a voluntary basis. The survey method was used as the data collection tool in the study. The Competitive Aggressiveness and Anger Scale developed by Maxwell & Moores (2007) and adapted into Turkish by Gürbüz et al. (2019) was applied to the participants as well as the Sportsmanship Behavior Scale developed by Gümüş et al. (2020) and the personal information form prepared by the researcher. The data obtained were analyzed using the SPSS package program. In addition to descriptive statistics, the Independent Samples t-test was applied in the comparison of the data between two variables while the one-way analysis of variance was performed in the comparison of three or more variables. The LSD test was applied for the detection of the difference in the comparisons made between three or more groups. Additionally, the Pearson Product-Moment Correlation test and the regression analysis were performed. As a result, it was observed that aggressiveness and anger predicted sportsmanship behavior and explained 12.7% of the total variance. In addition to this, a correlation was found between the sportsmanship behavior and aggressiveness and anger levels of sports sciences students training in different branches. In line with this finding, it can be stated that the aggressiveness and anger levels of athletes will decrease as their level of sportsmanship behavior increases. It was also determined that variables such as gender, place of residence and status of smoking were significant factors of the level of aggressiveness and anger. The sense of sportsmanship in sports is a phenomenon that affects the general from the particular. Sportsmanlike or unsportsmanlike behaviors exhibited during competitions are important enough to influence the behaviors of individuals in the society. Therefore, within the family, the smallest unit of the society, it is necessary to raise children with sports ethics starting from the core.
... However, this situation has pushed the moral and social values in sports into the background and emphasized the ambition to win (Şahan, 2007). Sports have evolved from a concept based on ambition, competitiveness, awards, pleasure, happiness and sense of achievement to an arena where aggressive and violent behaviors are exhibited (Harwood et al., 2017;Mutz & Baur, 2009;Spaaija & Schailléec, 2019). Today, aggression and anger are among the terms that are widely studied and regarded to be as important as motive/motivation in the field of psychology (Omli & LaVoi, 2009;. ...
Research
Full-text available
The present study aims to examine the predictive power of the aggressiveness and anger levels of Faculty of Sports Sciences students on the level of sportsmanship behavior. A total of 442 athletes studying at the Faculty of Sports Sciences participated in the study on a voluntary basis. The survey method was used as the data collection tool in the study. The Competitive Aggressiveness and Anger Scale developed by Maxwell & Moores (2007) and adapted into Turkish by Gürbüz et al. (2019) was applied to the participants as well as the Sportsmanship Behavior Scale developed by Gümüş et al. (2020) and the personal information form prepared by the researcher. The data obtained were analyzed using the SPSS package program. In addition to descriptive statistics, the Independent Samples t-test was applied in the comparison of the data between two variables while the one-way analysis of variance was performed in the comparison of three or more variables. The LSD test was applied for the detection of the difference in the comparisons made between three or more groups. Additionally, the Pearson Product-Moment Correlation test and the regression analysis were performed. As a result, it was observed that aggressiveness and anger predicted sportsmanship behavior and explained 12.7% of the total variance. In addition to this, a correlation was found between the sportsmanship behavior and aggressiveness and anger levels of sports sciences students training in different branches. In line with this finding, it can be stated that the aggressiveness and anger levels of athletes will decrease as their level of sportsmanship behavior increases. It was also determined that variables such as gender, place of residence and status of smoking were significant factors of the level of aggressiveness and anger. The sense of sportsmanship in sports is a phenomenon that affects the general from the particular. Sportsmanlike or unsportsmanlike behaviors exhibited during competitions are important enough to influence the behaviors of individuals in the society. Therefore, within the family, the smallest unit of the society, it is necessary to raise children with sports ethics starting from the core.
... Moreover, another possible reason is martial arts education has special educations for discipline and mutual respect (Shao et al., 2018). These educations may also help regulate aggression and hostility (Harwood et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Bullying behaviour is becoming alarmingly common among adolescents, and it significantly affects their physical and mental health. Martial arts emphasizes moral practice and self-control, and it improves emotional management ability. Hence, adolescents who practice martial arts may have better self-regulation and tend to perform fewer bullying behaviours. The purpose of this study was to explore the internal mechanisms between self-control and bullying behaviour among martial arts practicing (MAP) adolescents. The study included 775 adolescents (males = 515, age M = 13.48, SD = 1.11) who responded to questionnaires to assess self-control, negative affect, aggression, and bullying behaviour. The results showed that (1) The self-control level of MAP adolescents was higher than that of non-MAP counterparts while the bullying behaviour level of MAP adolescents was lower than that of non-MAP counterparts; (2) Self-control was negatively associated with bullying behaviour through indirect effects, and negative affect and aggression played key mediatory roles that contributed to most of the indirect effects. Our findings indicate a potential mechanism to understand the role of self-control in reducing bullying behaviour in MAP adolescents. Based on our findings, regular martial arts training is recommended as a physical education curriculum in school.
... ere are various forms of martial arts, each with its own style, but no matter which form they are, their common feature is that they are mainly composed of offensive and defensive actions such as hitting, kicking, falling, and stabbing [16]. As an important way of military training, the offensive nature of martial arts is obvious. ...
Article
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Artificial intelligence, as one of the important representatives of information technology development, gradually penetrates into all fields of education and teaching, and the forms of education and teaching become diversified. Teaching with the core of students’ core literacy cultivation and digital transformation as the background has produced incompatibility with the current development in terms of teaching purpose, teaching value, teaching methods, and teaching ability, which has become an obstacle to the development and reform of education and teaching. In the current era, we should do a good job of integrating information technology and education teaching, transforming traditional teaching habits, focusing on the core value of teaching, and realizing the transformation from teaching to learning in the context of digitalization. The development of artificial intelligence way education refers to the use of new technology to promote talent training, so that the traditional education and teaching methods are changed to form a new education form of intelligent learning, interactive learning, and deep learning.
... Per una rassegna si vedaDiamond & Lee, 2011;Diamond, 2013;Harwood et al. 2017;Zivin et al., 2001;Blomqvist Mickelsson, 2019. ...
Article
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Corporeity is the communication of an identity process. How is the body of the person with ADHD represented? What does it mean to be at the same time an artistic or sporting talent and therefore to be twice-exceptional? What does it mean to be a body that simultaneously conveys achievements and failures? In the modern perspective, hyperactivity as an embodied phenomenon leads to questioning the relationship between body, movement and cognition. Overcoming the Cartesian dualism, on the background of Sheets-Johnstone's philosophy of movement (2010, 2011), the contribution will lead to reflect on the theme of the so-called twice-exceptionality and on the power of sport and performance art as vehicles of inclusion/exclusion by analyzing four stories of life, narratives of talents who, on the one hand, have made hyperactivity their strong point, but on the other have learned to live with some grey areas.
... Reflective of the ambiguity of MA research, however, later reviews have refuted these initial findings [47,48], generally pointing to increased well-being due to MA practice [6]. Still, it is important to highlight that these results have nothing to do with the initial perceptions of MA benefits but are results of the MA practice itself or, at least, empirical associations. ...
Article
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Parents place their youths in sport with the belief that doing so will produce developmental outcomes. However, it is unclear if parents enroll children in different sports based on different desired characteristics they wish their youth to develop. This paper analyses the link between youths engaged in martial arts (MA) compared to other leisure activities. MA research has indicated the importance of masculinity and gender ideals that suggest that parents hold certain visions when enrolling their youths in MA. For example, one such vision is for their youths to be able to handle themselves in physical encounters. Two research questions guided the study. First, what characteristics do MA parents desire their children to develop? Secondly, how do these desires correspond to MA youths’ actual characteristics? We utilize multinomial logistic regression analysis on nationally representative data from the Netherlands. The results show that MA parents are younger, their youths are of migration background, and the parents value characteristics such as self-control, responsibility, and acting “gender appropriately”. These results correspond to their youths; MA youths are consistently characterized by more masculinity compared to the youths in other groups. The results bear implications for how MA environments must safeguard against potentially harmful and misleading norms.
... A meta-study by Gubbels et al. (2016) found there was "no overall relation between martial arts participation and externalizing behavior in juveniles" (p.73). Another meta-study by Harwood, Lavidor, and Rassovsky (2016) also discovered mixed results within their sample of studies. In general, however, they argued "it appears that martial arts has a potential to reduce externalizing behaviors in youth" (p.96). ...
Thesis
This research is about being able to return to peace education as a reputable educator. To be able to do so required research that not only found pedagogical resolutions but embodied the values I hold as central to peace education. This research is about me trying to walk my talk. I felt peace education was ineffective for many of the young men with which I worked. The research aimed to develop new innovative pedagogies for engaging young men about peace. However, it soon also became a deeply personal journey into my own relationship with masculinity and peace. This research tries to make peace with those pieces of my masculinity so I can facilitate peace with other men. The research showcases a novel methodology using autoethnography, interviews and innovative perspectives of second-order reflexivity and diffraction that propelled me to an additional research step of undertaking a Vision Quest. This approach was developed as I believe it not only provided approaches for finding resolutions to my questions but did so in ways that espoused the values of peace important to my identity. In so doing I believe diffractive autoethnography showcases a peaceful research methodology useful for undertaking research that ensures “synergy with peace values” (Cremin 2016). This approach provides the new methodology I can embrace as a peace educator. A key theme that emerged is the importance of my own being as a peace educator. This being is achieved through commitments to constantly work on myself through diffractive reflection, vulnerability, and authentic presence during interactions with others. The research also suggests a possible importance of providing opportunities for participants to similarly diffract their perspectives and supporting them craft and transition to new stages in their lives. The utility of autoethnography in particular emerged as a viable peace pedagogy for these endeavours with its ability to challenge individuals to reflect and reach out in conversation with others. In this role I seek to develop myself as an Elder rather than expert: one where I am there for participants opposed to educating them. Through this research I might finally come to believe in myself as a peace educator and come into the peaceful male I hope to be. I hope this research engages you in conversation and challenges you to reflect upon your life so we might keep the conversation going (Bochner & Riggs 2014).
... Another example is sport initiatives in prison that resulted in improved attitudes, thinking and behavior, and in promoting desistance (Meek & Lewis, 2014). Similarly, consistent martial arts training of 6 months or more was accompanied by increased self-esteem and decreased aggressive behaviors in children and youth (Harwood et al., 2017;Twemlow et al., 2008), as well as the refinement of violence into its legitimate modes (Burt & Butler, 2011). Children practicing martial arts reported improved selfconfidence, self-regulation, and social skills, as well as the adoption of a non-violent approach to conflict management (Theeboom et al., 2009). ...
Article
Spiritual criminology (SC) is an umbrella term for various criminological theories, models and practices that share reference to the spiritual dimension of human existence. Informed by a growing body of research that applies spiritual approaches to various aspects of criminology, SC attempts to provide a common thread shared by most approaches to spirituality: a voluntary self-journey that begins with an elevated level of self-centeredness and is aimed at self-transformation. Based on an extensive review of the literature, this paper proposes three general principles for spiritual accompaniment of people who offended: mindful non-doing, being and acting; love and compassion; and compassionate inclusion. These principles can be applied by combining several practices: renouncing control over knowledge, process and outcomes; creating a moral atmosphere that includes forgiveness and nonjudgment; and self-modeling. SC is shown to contribute to the rehabilitation of people who offended and also to crime prevention. Keywords compassion, forgiveness, non-doing, mindfulness, spiritual criminology
... Research studies consistently show that, like meditation, martial arts help practitioners to better gain a sense of control over both the situational environment and themselves, leading to fewer negative emotional responses and an overall reduction in violent behaviour (see e.g. Harwood, Lavidor, and Rassovsky 2017). Notably, both martial arts and Buddhist meditation techniques are being applied by more and more militaries and law enforcement agencies around the world. ...
Article
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This article stems from a project launched by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in 2017 to examine the degree to which Buddhism might complement or enhance international humanitarian law (IHL), also known as ‘the law of war’ or ‘the law of armed conflict’. Given that Buddhist teachings discourage violence, scholarship has critiqued Buddhists’ involvement in armed conflict rather than considered how Buddhism might contribute to regulating the conduct of hostilities once war has broken out. Yet the Buddhist aim to reduce suffering is particularly relevant during armed conflict, and the empirical realism of early Buddhist texts shows that early Buddhist communities were very much aware of its grim reality. The article investigates the evidence for this empirical realism before exploring a range of concepts, doctrines and practices from within Buddhism that are pertinent to the recognition and implementation of IHL principles and the conduct of war. While IHL lays down explicit rules to follow during war, Buddhism emphasises broader ethical principles to be applied, so as not to dilute its ideal of non-violence. At a deeper level, it addresses the intention or motivation of parties to armed conflict, and possesses psychological insights and resources to help change their behaviour.
... In the Chinese environment, it has been also confirmed that the inheritance of MA culture is of great significant value for promoting youngsters' health and allround development [19]. The meta-analysis of Harwood et al. [20] demonstrates that martial arts reduce externalizing behavior (aggression) amongst the practicing youth. ...
Article
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Role of physical activities (PA) characterised as martial arts (MA) has been gaining in importance regarding prevalence of physically active lifestyle among adolescents in the context of societal development. The study aim is a knowledge about the associations of MA types preferred and performed with composition of weekly PA in adolescents, taking into account gender differences. Material and Methods: The sample concerned 1408 boys and 1831 girls aged 15-19 years from Katowice and Wrocław regions (Poland). To assess the rate of preferences and participation in PA, we used the International Physical Activity Questionnaire – Long Form (IPAQ-LF). The data was collected in 89 schools using the ‘International database for research and educational support’ (Indares) internet program. Results: Out of MA, boys prefer boxing, kick-boxing (thai-boxing), and karate, while girls prefer boxing, judo and karate. Boys who prefer MA have significantly higher vigorous PA 2337 metabolic equivalent (MET-min) (girls 1665 MET-min) than other boys, who report only 1605 MET-min (girls 1289 MET-min). Boys who are involved in MA throughout the year have higher odds for meeting the weekly vigorous PA recommendation, compared with other boys (odds ratio OR = 1.696, confidence interval CI = 1.175-2.447), p = 0.005). Conclusions: The present study confirms significant associations between preferring and performing MA and vigorous PA in boys. Adolescents’ involvement in MA throughout the year contributes to achievement of weekly PA recommendation in a similar manner as other types of PA. Further research on the associations between involvement in MA, in comparison with other types of PA, and odds for meeting the PA recommendations is warranted.
... Others believe just the opposite (i.e., expressing one's aggression will do nothing to limits its prevalence and may even exacerbate it; Droscher, 1976;Tavris, 1988). Conflicting evidence exists in the sports world, where some studies have shown participation in martial arts reduces the incidence of externalizing behaviors in school-age youth (see Harwood et al., 2017), while others find involvement in contact sports positively predicts certain forms of aggression (e.g., Sherrill & Bradel, 2017). Regardless of the uncertain evidence in the literature, schools are still called upon to address students' aggressive behaviors in school with interventions. ...
Article
The most common behaviors eliciting a student referral for special education evaluation related to emotional disturbance (ED) are adult- and peer-targeted aggression. Curiously, the word aggression, which is an externalizing behavior, does not appear anywhere in the federal description of ED. Despite the lack of clarity surrounding definitions, as well as issues of identification for special education services, aggression in schools is a public health concern and the concept deserves researchers’ and teachers’ attention. The purpose of this article is to (a) briefly review the context of aggression in schools, (b) discuss historical conceptualizations of aggression in society, and (c) provide readers with recommendations for dealing with aggression manifested by students with ED in school.
... Tra le funzioni cognitive, in particolare le funzioni esecutive, tendono a migliorare con gli allenamenti (Diamond & Lee, 2011), così come i comportamenti esternalizzanti (Harwood et al., 2017). Più uno studente avanza di livello nelle arti marziali tradizionali, più bassi sono i suoi livelli di aggressività (Nosanchuk & MacNeil, 1989). ...
Article
Full-text available
Il contributo partendo da un’analisi comparata della letteratura volta a argomentare l’importanza delle funzioni esecutive e del loro sviluppo attraverso le arti marziali, intende riflettere sul tema del disturbo da deficit di attenzione iperattività (DDAI) e quanto la pratica delle arti marziali può supportare la persona iperattiva. Il disturbo DDAI si caratterizza per lo specifico deficit nelle funzioni esecutive (Barkley, 1997), pertanto individuare le caratteristiche specifiche delle arti marziali che agiscono nel loro potenziamento, può risultare un approccio metodologico estendibile anche aldilà degli ambienti sportivi e soprattutto in ambito scolastico. Nel presente lavoro si vogliono considerare gli studi di settore e gli esiti di ricerca nello sviluppo delle funzioni esecutive in bambini con e senza iperattività che hanno partecipato a percorsi di arti marziali. A valle del contributo si presenterà una riflessione pedagogica su come a livello metodologico la pratica di tali arti, e in particolare del Jiu-Jitsu brasiliano e del Taekwondo, può aiutare i bambini a migliorare le proprie abilità di pianificazione, concentrazione, problem solving e soprattutto il controllo e gestione delle proprie emozioni.
... Martial arts training is one of the preferable methods of physical exercise. It provides health & psychological benefits, such as preventing osteoporosis [1], reduces stress, depression, and increases mindfulness [2], and also has the potential to reduce aggressive behavior [3]. Basic movements of martial arts training such as stance and punches are usually done with the supervision of the instructor. ...
Article
To create a Virtual Reality (VR) system for Wing Chun's basic hand movement training, capturing, and classifying movement data is an important step. The main goal of this paper is to find the best possible method of classifying hand movement, particularly Wing Chun's basic hand movements, to be used in the VR training system. This paper uses Oculus Quest VR gear and Unreal Engine 4 to capture features of the movement such as location, rotation, angular acceleration, linear acceleration, angular velocity, and linear velocity. RapidMiner Studio is used to pre-process the captured data, apply algorithms, and optimize the generated model. Algorithms such as Support Vector Machine (SVM), Decision Tree, and k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) are applied, optimized, and compared. By classifying 10 movements, the result shows that the optimized kNN algorithm obtained the highest averaged performance indicators: Accuracy of 99.94%, precision of 99.70%, recall of 99.70%, and specificity of 99.97%. The overall accuracy of the optimized kNN is 99.71%.
... Though commonly labeled as "combat sports, " Eastern traditional martial arts, aimed at developing fighting skills as much as non-violent attitudes, lack such norm (Theeboom and Knop, 1999;Klimczak et al., 2014). Indeed, metaanalytic findings support an association between the practice of martial arts and a reduction in aggressive tendencies (Harwood et al., 2017). Moreover, Sofia and Cruz (2013) found that football players reported higher levels of aggressiveness and anger than kickboxing and self-defense athletes. ...
Article
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Little is known about people’s perceived benefits and risks of sports, despite their role in shaping people’s intentions to engage in them. Here, we developed and tested a scale to measure perceived physical, emotional, cognitive, and social benefits as well as aggression-related risks of karate and football. Additionally, we compared these perceptions within and between these two sports, as well as among undergraduates with current/former participation in different types of physical activity (viz., martial artists, team sports players, participants in other types of physical activity, and non-participants). After a literature review, we created a 5-factor scale with 20 items administered to 184 undergraduates, along with questions about physical activity participation. After removing five items, confirmatory factor analyses supported the factor structure of the scale. Factor loadings and reliability indices were acceptable, though less than desirable results were found concerning the average variance extracted of all benefits dimensions and the reliability of the social benefits dimension. Analyses of variance showed that: (a) physical benefits were seen as the salient outcomes of karate and football, though martial artists perceived karate’s physical, emotional, and social benefits to the same extent; (b) in comparison to football, karate was perceived to bring more emotional and cognitive benefits and to entail less aggressiveness risks; (c) karate and football perceptions varied as a function of participant’s involvement in physical activity. This study presents a promising instrument to gather information on people’s perceptions about karate and football, which can be used to foster people’s engagement in them.
... Ulusal ve uluslararası düzeyde yarışmaların gelişmesinden bu yana, artan bir popülerlik kazanan karateye olan ilginin artmasıyla rekor katılımcı sayılarına ulaşmıştır (WKF, 2017). Karatenin dâhil olduğu temaslı spor uygulamaları, oyunun kurallarının dışındaki zararlı olan eylemleri, saldırganlık ve şiddeti yeniden üretebileceği veya pekiştireceği (Klimczak, Podstawski ve Dobosz, 2014;Nixon, 1997), düşüncesinin tersine karate branşının bireylerin saldırganlık düzeyini düşürebileceği de (Harwood, Lavidor ve Rassovsky, 2017) belirtilmiştir. ...
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Özet Giriş ve Amaç: Karate sporun doğası gereği içinde saldırganlığı barındırmaktadır. Ayrıca ergenlik döneminde de saldırganlığın arttığı göz önüne alındığında karate sporunu yapan genç sporcuların saldırganlık durumları merak edilmiştir. Bu açıdan, 17-19 yaş grubu karate sporcularının saldırganlık düzeylerinin belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Belirlenen saldırganlık düzeylerinin de; yaş, cinsiyet, spor yılı, profesyonellik durumu, ailenin gelir düzeyi, anne ve baba eğitim durumlarına göre değişip değişmediği de incelenmiştir. Yöntem: Araştırma amacı doğrultusunda basit seçkisiz örnekleme yöntemi ile farklı kulüplerde spor yapan 31 kadın 45 erkek olmak üzere toplam 76 karate sporcusuna ulaşılmıştır. Sporculara, bilgi formu ile Buss ve Warren (2000) tarafından geliştirilen, Can (2002) tarafından Türkçe'ye uyarlanan Saldırganlık Ölçeği uygulanmıştır. İnternet üzerinden katılımcılara formlar sunulmuştur. Veriler SPSS 21.0 paket programında analiz edildiğinde normal dağılım gösterdiğinden parametrik yöntemlerden bağımsız gruplardan ikili küme karşılaştırmalarında t testi, ikiden fazla küme karşılaştırmalarında tek yönlü varyans analizi uygulanmıştır. İstatistiksel hata düzeyi p<0.05 olarak kabul edilmiştir. Bulgular: Yapılan analiz sonucunda saldırganlık düzeyi; cinsiyet, yaş, spor yılı, profesyonellik durumu, anne-baba eğitim düzeyine göre anlamsız bulunmuştur. Ancak gelir düzeyi açısından 2001 tl ve üzeri gelire sahip olanlar lehine anlamlı fark bulunmuştur. Sonuç: Cinsiyet, yaş, spor yılı, profesyonellik durumu, anne-baba eğitim durumu açısından saldırganlık puanları anlamlı farklılık göstermemiştir. Sadece gelir durumuna göre anlamlı fark bulunmuştur. Spor yapma yılına göre anlamlı olmasa da saldırganlık puanlarının 7-10 yıl arasında düşmesi sonucundan yola çıkılarak karate sporunun saldırgan tutumlar üzerine etkisini test eden araştırmalar yapılmasının uygun olacağı düşünülmüştür. Anahtar Kelimeler: saldırganlık, adolesan, karate, spor
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Background While limited evidence suggests that omega-3 supplementation may reduce antisocial behavior in children, studies have not reported on posttreatment follow-up and most treatment periods have been of short duration. This study tests the hypothesis that omega-3 supplementation over 6 months will reduce behavior problems in children both at the end of treatment and at 6 months post treatment.Methods In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, stratified, parallel-group trial, a community sample of 8–16 year old children were randomized into a treatment group (N = 100) and a placebo-control group (N = 100). The supplementation consisted of a fruit drink containing 1 g/day of omega-3 or a placebo consisting of the same fruit drink without omega-3. Participants, caregivers, and research assistants were blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome measures of externalizing and internalizing behavior problems were reported by both caregivers and their children in a laboratory setting at 0 months (baseline), 6 months (end of treatment) and 12 months (6 months post treatment), together with the secondary outcome measures of parental antisocial behavior. Data were analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis including all participants. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02016079?term=mauritius&rank=2ResultsSignificant group × time interactions were observed with the treatment group showing long-term improvements in child behavior problems. The average posttreatment effect size was d = −.59. Effects were documented for parent reports, but with the exception of proactive and reactive aggression, child-report data were nonsignificant. Parents whose children took omega-3 showed significant posttreatment reductions in their own antisocial and aggressive behavior. This improvement in caregiver behavior partly mediated the improvements observed in child behavior.Conclusions Findings provide initial evidence that omega-3 supplementation can produce sustained reductions in externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. Results are the first to report improvements in caregiver behavior, and to establish this improvement as a part-mechanism for the efficacy of omega-3.
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BackgroundA neurobiological perspective has become accepted as a valuable approach for understanding anti-social behaviour. There is literature to suggest that, in non-offending populations, psychological treatments affect both neurobiological measures and clinical presentation. A theoretical position to this effect has been adopted with respect to offender treatment, but there has been no systematic review of empirical literature on this point.AimsThis study aimed to ascertain from published literature firstly whether there is evidence of change in neuropsychological or physiological measures after behavioural treatments/programmes for people with anti-social behaviour and secondly whether these neurobiological changes are associated with behavioural change.MethodA systematic search strategy was formulated to include studies considering ‘neurobiological factors’, ‘anti-social population’, ‘treatment’ and ‘treatment outcome’. The Maryland Scientific Methods Scale was used to select relevant studies of sufficient methodological quality.ResultsEleven studies were found, only one with adults. Overall, the values of specific neurobiological risk factors, particularly of basal cortisol, become less abnormal following intervention. There was some evidence for a link between change in neurobiological functioning and behavioural improvement.Conclusions Findings, although provisional, may provide new insights into the underlying mechanisms of interventions for anti-social behaviour. Future studies that include pre-treatment neurobiological assessment could help reveal physical vulnerabilities that interventions should target to improve treatment efficacy, and provide for objective, independent corroboration of change. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Engagement in aggressive behavior has been associated with many negative outcomes for children including academic failure, social maladjustment, peer rejection, and lifelong destructive and criminal behavior. Cognitive-behavioral interventions (CBIs), which use behavioral principles, behavior therapy, and cognitive mediation through self-talk, are one type of intervention used to decrease aggressive behavior in school populations. The purposes of this meta-analysis are to examine the effectiveness of school-based CBIs in reducing or preventing aggression in children and youth, to explore the effectiveness of interventions that used school personnel compared to those that used study personnel as CBI implementers, and to determine the effectiveness of CBIs delivered universally compared to those that are delivered in small group settings. We identified 25 articles meeting our inclusion criteria and found a mean effect size (ES) of − 0.14, (SD = 0.48) and a mean weighted ES score of − 0.23. Results showed that the universal intervention delivery method had a significant effect on the magnitude of the effect size (F (1, 61) = 4.84, p = .032). In light of these results we discuss study limitations and suggest future research on potential CBI moderators and the role of CBI in the current school environment.
Article
Juvenile delinquents, identified by their scores on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) received training under one of three different protocols for 1 hour three times weekly for a period of 6 months. Group I students received training in the traditional Korean Martial Art of Tae Kwon Do, Group II students received training in a “modern” version of the martial art which did not emphasize the psychological/philosophical aspects of the sport as the Korean version did, and group III students served as a control group for contact with the instructor and physical activity. Group I students showed decreased aggressiveness, lowered anxiety, increased selfesteem, increased social adroitness, and an increase in value orthodoxy, as indicated by before-and-after scores on the Jackson Personality Inventory (JPI), in addition to normal MMPI scores at the completion of the study. Group II students showed an even greater tendency toward delinquency on the MMPI than they did at the beginning of the study, a large increase in aggressiveness, and generally opposite effects of Group I on the JPL Group Ill students showed no notable differences on any of the personality measures. These data suggest that training in the traditional martial art of Tae Kwon Do is effective in reducing juvenile delinquent tendencies.
Article
This study examines aggressive fantasy of students in traditional karate dojos. These data are of both theoretical and humanistic interest. The theoretical interest derives from the conventional wisdom that perceives such training as leading to a decrease in aggressiveness, in contrast to current theory which would expect such training to increase aggressiveness. Such an inquiry is of humanistic interest because it offers practitioners of nonviolence the option of acquiring defensive competences without at the same time becoming more aggressive. Interviews with 42 students at various belt levels found that longer training is associated with lower aggressiveness, in contrast to the theoretical predictions. Four plausible mechanisms of such a change were examined: self-control, self-assertiveness, self-esteem, and self-confidence. None of these was found to qualify as an intervening variable, though one subscale of self-assertiveness, "constructiveness," was found, like training, to be associated with lower aggressiveness. Further studies are suggested.
Article
This study addresses two issues associated with the relationship between martial arts training and aggressiveness. The first is a replication of two recent findings, that for students trained traditionally, length of training varies inversely with aggressiveness, whereas for students trained in a “modern” style, length of training and aggressiveness are related directly.Second, we examine two competing explanations for the findings above. One is the training hypothesis, which holds that elements present in traditional approaches to martial arts but absent in modern approaches act to reduce aggression levels of students. These may include meditation, philosophy, emphasis on the kata (the forms of combat), etc. The alternate hypothesis, selection, holds instead that these findings are artifactual, a result of differential mortality in a setting characterized by high drop-out rates.Two categories of students were interviewed: “movers,” students who had trained in more than one school, and “quitters,” students who had terminated their training, for any reason. These students were compared with “stayers” from an earlier study. Our results are consistent with the opposite effects of traditional and modern martial arts training on aggressiveness. Further, the data generally support the training hypothesis as against selection.
Article
Abstract This study examines the extent to which participation in high school interscholastic sports contributes to male interpersonal violence. Deriving competing hypotheses from social control, socia lization and masculinity theories, I usedata from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to test if 1) type of sport, 2) peer athleticparticipation, and3) the presence of
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This book examines the field of dance therapy from its inception in the 1940's to the present. A detailed analysis is conducted of the theory and practice of the major pioneers. The book covers biographical reports and the influence of many dance therapy leaders. Laban Movement Analysis (LMA) is discussed as well as dance therapy in specific patient/client settings. Appended are: (1) listing of survey repondents; (2) information on the American Dance Therapy Association; and (3) the Dance Therapy questionnaire. A 34-page bibliography is included. (JD)
Article
The martial art of Aikido was used as an intervention with 15 middle and high school students with severe emotional disturbances in an alternative educational setting. Students with an extensive history of violently disruptive and assaultive behaviors were trained for 12 weeks in this nonviolent Japanese martial art in order to achieve the following outcomes: reduce disruptive classroom behaviors and verbally abusive and physically assaultive behaviors toward other students and staff members, and decrease the number of school-wide disciplinary referrals for violent behaviors. The training focused on peaceful conflict resolution, nonviolent self-defense, individual and group confrontation management, and autogenic relaxation training. Significant improvements were achieved in reducing violent behaviors during the training sessions, and these positive behaviors transferred into other classrooms. Parents and administrators also noted positive behaviors exhibited by student participants, including enhanced respect for authority and peers, improved conflict de-escalation skills, and enhanced feelings of confidence and self-worth. It was found that Aikido training can be implemented with a minimum of scheduling disruptions and financial expenditure. Appended is a 12-week behavioral summary chart. (Contains 46 references.) (SW)
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The aim of this meta-analytic study, including 22 studies and 5764 participants, was to examine the effects of aftercare programs on recidivism in juvenile and young adult offenders released from correctional institutions. The studies had to be (quasi-)experimental, with the control group receiving 'care as usual' or no treatment. Recidivism was measured by re-arrests and/or reconvictions and was based on official reports. Although the overall effect size for aftercare programs was generally small (d=.12), moderator analyses indicated more substantial effects and showed that aftercare is most effective if it is well-implemented and consists of individual instead of group treatment, and if it is aimed at older and high-risk youth. Whereas the treatment duration and moment of starting the aftercare program were not related to the program's effectiveness, more intensive aftercare programs were associated with lower recidivism rates.
Article
Notwithstanding the lack of empirical support for its positive socio-psychological effects, numerous educators and welfare workers make use of martial arts in their work with socially vulnerable youth. Using qualitative methodology, the aims, approaches and personal experiences were analysed of teachers and co-ordinators involved in specific martial arts programmes (n=12) for disadvantaged youth in Flanders (Belgium). Results revealed that although all respondents were very positive with regard to the effects of their programmes on the youngsters they work with, most would not regard these as different from the effects resulting from regular participation in sport or other social activities. Martial arts were selected because of their specific attraction to youth. Findings also showed that great importance was attached to the type of guidance used.
Article
The central executive component of working memory is a poorly specified and very powerful system that could be criticized as little more than a homunculus. A research strategy is outlined that attempts to specify and analyse its component functions and is illustrated with four lines of research. The first concerns the study of the capacity to coordinate performance on two separate tasks. A second involves the capacity to switch retrieval strategies as reflected in random generation. The capacity to attend selectively to one stimulus and inhibit the disrupting effect of others comprises the third line of research, and the fourth involves the capacity to hold and manipulate information in long-term memory, as reflected in measures of working memory span. It is suggested that this multifaceted approach is a fruitful one that leaves open the question of whether it will ultimately prove more appropriate to regard the executive as a unified system with multiple functions, or simply as an agglomeration of independent though interacting control processes. In the meantime, it seems useful to continue to use the concept of a central executive as a reminder of the crucially important control functions of working memory.
Article
In 1896, Sir Almroth Wright—a colleague and mentor of Sir Alexander Heming, who discovered penicillin—developed a vaccine to protect against typhoid (Susser 1977; see Roberts 1989). The typhoid vaccine was tested in several settings, and on the basis of these tests the vaccine was recommended for routine use in the British army for soldiers at risk for the disease. In that same year, Karl Pearson, the famous biometrician, was asked to examine the empirical evidence bearing on the decision. To do so, he synthesized evidence from five studies reporting data about the relationship between inoculation status and typhoid immunity, and six studies reporting data on inoculation status and fatality among those who contracted the disease. These eleven studies used data from seven independent samples, with four of those being used twice,once in a synthesis of evidence about incidence of typhoid among those inoculated, and once in a synthesis of evidence about death among those contracting typhoid. He computed tetrachoric correlations for each of these eleven cases, and then averaged these correlations (separately for incidence and fatality) to describe average inoculation effectiveness. In his subsequent report of this research, Karl Pearson concluded that the average correlations were too low to warrant adopting the vaccine,since other accepted vaccines at that time routinely produced correlations at or above .20 to .30: "I think the right conclusion to draw would be not that it was desirable to inoculate the whole army, but that improvement of the serum and method of dosing, with a view to a far higher correlation, should be attempted" (1904b, 1245). We tell this story for three reasons. First, we discovered this example when first researching this chapter in 1991,and at the time it was the earliest example of what we would now call a meta-analysis. So it is historically interesting,although a few older examples have now been located.Second, we will use the data in table 14.1 to illustrate how to combine results from fourfold tables. Finally,the study illustrates some conceptual and methodological issues involved in combining estimates of effect size across studies, points we return to in the conclusion of this chapter. In many ways, the capacity to combine results across studies is the defining feature of meta-analysis, so the conceptual and statistical issues involved in computing these combined estimates need careful attention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Background: Various forms of psychosocial interventions for people with severe mental illness (SMI) exist. These interventions include verbal interventions as well as activity-based interventions. Aims: To compare three psychosocial interventions with persons with SMI using qualitative assessment. The interventions tested were: (a) a psycho-educational recovery oriented verbal intervention, (b) training in karate (an activity-based intervention), and (c) aerobic exercises (a control intervention). Method: 145 people with a diagnosis of a SMI (schizophrenia, schizoaffective, affective disorder, severe personality disorders) were randomly assigned to the above three interventions. Sixty-four participants who had participated in 12 or more sessions were interviewed during the last week of each intervention. Participants' accounts of the intervention process and outcome were analyzed qualitatively. Results: Training in karate improved the cognitive and physical status of the participants and increased their self-control and sense of empowerment, more than the verbal intervention. Conclusions: An activity-based intervention might be more effective than a psycho-educational verbal intervention.
Article
This study evaluated the Gentle Warrior Program, a traditional martial arts–based intervention to reduce aggression in children, as it was implemented in three elementary schools. The sample consisted of 254 children in grades 3, 4, and 5 who participated in the Gentle Warrior Program as part of a larger school violence intervention. Results indicated that boys who participated in more Gentle Warrior sessions reported a lower frequency of aggression and greater frequency of helpful bystanding (i.e., helpful behavior toward victims of bullying) over time, relative to boys with less frequent participation. The effect of participation on aggression was partially mediated by empathy. The effect of participation on helpful bystanding was fully mediated by changes in student empathy. No significant results were found for girls. Results of the study provide preliminary support for the use of martial arts–based interventions to address bullying in schools for boys, by teaching empathy, self-control, and peaceful strategies to resolve conflicts. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Article
The effects of 14 weeks of Kata techniques training on stereotypic behaviors of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were investigated. The study included 30 eligible (diagnosed ASD, school age) children with ages ranging from 5 to 16 years whom they assigned to an exercise (n=15) or a no-exercise control group (n=15). Participants of the exercise group received Kata techniques instruction four times per week for 14 weeks (56 sessions). Stereotypy was assessed at baseline (pre-intervention), week 14 (post-intervention), and at one month follow up in both groups. Results showed that Kata techniques training significantly reduced stereotypy in the exercise group. Following participation in Kata techniques training, stereotypy decreased from baseline levels by a M of 42.54% across participants. Interestingly, after 30 days of no practice, stereotypy in the exercise group remained significantly decreased compared to pre-intervention time. The participants of the control group did not show significant changes in the stereotypy. Teaching martial arts techniques to children with ASD for a long period of time consistently decreased their stereotypic behaviors.
Article
The impact of school-based Tae Kwon Do training on self-regulatory abilities was examined. A self-regulation framework including three domains (cognitive, affective, and physical) was presented. Children (N = 207) from kindergarten through Grade 5 were randomly assigned by homeroom class to either the intervention (martial arts) group or a comparison (traditional physical education) group. Outcomes were assessed using multidimensional, multimodal assessments. After a 3-month intervention, results indicated that the martial arts group demonstrated greater improvements than the comparison group in areas of cognitive self-regulation, affective self-regulation, prosocial behavior, classroom conduct, and performance on a mental math test. A significant Group × Gender interaction was found for cognitive self-regulation and classroom conduct, with boys showing greater improvements than girls. Possible explanations of this interaction as well as implications for components of martial arts training for the development of self-regulation in school-age children are discussed.