ArticleLiterature Review

The connection between animal abuse and interpersonal violence: A review from the veterinary perspective

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Abstract

Several studies have reported a connection between animal abuse and interpersonal violence. The importance of veterinarians in recognizing and intervening in the cycle of violence has been debated in different articles. This review outlines the findings about this connection around the world and describes the role veterinarians play in this field. We looked up electronic databases and analyzed articles published between 1960 and 2016. Publications were classified into three categories: area of publication, topic of the study and continent where the study had been conducted. Out of the 96 articles included, 76 (79.2%) were from North America. None were from South America or Africa. Ninety-four articles (97.9%) found some association between animal abuse and violence against people. The rates of co-occurrence between domestic violence and animal abuse reported varied between 25% and 86%. Furthermore, children who were abused, exposed to domestic violence, or animal abuse were at risk of developing criminal behavior. Veterinarians play an important role in public health and animal welfare. Yet, only seven articles (7.3%) were published in the field of veterinary medicine. Studies report that between 42.8% and 86% of veterinarians know about the “Link”. However, most veterinarians not being trained to intervene in cases of animal abuse and human violence. This emphasizes the importance of educating veterinarians about this topic and their participation in this area.

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... Since the publication of that review, numerous summaries of the relevant research literature to date have been published, and their contents will not be duplicated in this article. We refer the reader to the work of Ascione (2005bAscione ( , 2007Ascione ( , 2008, Levitt et al. (2015), Monsalve, Ferreira, andGarcia (2017), andMcDonald (2018). Topographies of and motivations for AA continue to be a focus of research attention (Newberry, 2018). ...
... Since the publication of that review, numerous summaries of the relevant research literature to date have been published, and their contents will not be duplicated in this article. We refer the reader to the work of Ascione (2005bAscione ( , 2007Ascione ( , 2008, Levitt et al. (2015), Monsalve, Ferreira, andGarcia (2017), andMcDonald (2018). Topographies of and motivations for AA continue to be a focus of research attention (Newberry, 2018). ...
... Although research on some of these topics has been conducted with non-clinical convenience samples (Henry, 2004), we will focus on research with survivors of IPV. More comprehensive reviews on AA and IPV are available (Kimber, Adham, Gill, McTavish, & MacMillan, 2018;McDonald, 2018;Monsalve et al., 2017;Newberry, 2017 ...
Article
The confluence of developments in the assessment of animal abuse, the evolution of psychiatric nosology for the diagnosis of conduct disorder, legislative changes involving crimes against non‐human animals, and the recent inclusion of crimes against animals in the FBI's National Incident‐Based Reporting System, highlights the critical need for examining the forensic dimensions of animal abuse cases. We provide an overview of the research literature on these topics in the hope that forensic evaluators will have an evidence‐based framework for assessing cases they encounter that include perpetration of violence against animals.
... As a result, their social performance will be poor. Among the risk factors that predispose a child to develop animal abuse at some stage of his life, we can cite having witnessed animal abuse, being victims of physical or sexual abuse, alcoholic or drug addict parents, family dysfunction, or present some behavioral disorder [19,33,[74][75][76][77]. In the studies carried out by Baldry [78], Henry and Sanders [79], and Walters [80], a positive correlation between animal abuse and subsequent bullying behavior was found. ...
... Therefore, the promotion of motor aggressive responses towards animals or conspecifics is known to be the result of multisensory cues from the environment [96]. The risk factors that may predispose children to develop animal abuse at some stage of life include the following: having witnessed animal abuse, being victims of physical and sexual abuse, having alcoholic parents, being raised in a dysfunctional family, being exposed to domestic violence, and presenting a behavioral disorder [19,[74][75][76][77]. According to Baldry's [78] evaluation of a sample of 268 boys and 264 girls aged 9-12 from five schools, 44% reported having witnessed episodes of domestic violence. ...
... These results agree with Henry's study [97] of 206 students, 141 of whom had abused animals. The latter The risk factors that may predispose children to develop animal abuse at some stage of life include the following: having witnessed animal abuse, being victims of physical and sexual abuse, having alcoholic parents, being raised in a dysfunctional family, being exposed to domestic violence, and presenting a behavioral disorder [19,[74][75][76][77]. According to Baldry's [78] evaluation of a sample of 268 boys and 264 girls aged 9-12 from five schools, 44% reported having witnessed episodes of domestic violence. ...
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For years now, the importance of animal cruelty has been gaining recognition in the industrialized cities of the West. Animal cruelty encompasses any act that causes a non-human animal unnecessary pain or suffering, including negligence, abandonment, abuse, torture, bestiality, and even theriocide. This represents a red flag for society as a whole because people who commit such acts can escalate violence and direct it to other individuals. Animal cruelty and interpersonal violence—as well as other socially undesirable conduct such as bullying, antisocial personality disorder, rape, and serial murder—are closely related, so timely diagnoses of either one can help prevent acts of aggression. It is necessary, therefore, to analyze and try to understand whether there are early indicators that may help identify potentially violent individuals. It is well known that kids from homes with actual violence in their homes show a high tendency to reproduce such behaviors with both animals and other people. In conclusion, much research and rethinking of the importance of the veterinarian in detecting animal abuse and cruelty is needed to help detect and prevent cases of interpersonal violence that may arise over time.
... Animal abuse is defined as a "socially unacceptable behavior that intentionally causes unnecessary pain, suffering, or distress to/or death of an animal" (Ascione, 1993, p. 228). Because of its obvious implications for animal welfare as well as its significant connection with human interpersonal violence, it has attracted attention from various research fields, such as psychiatry and psychology (Gullone, 2012;Vaughn et al., 2009), criminology (Agnew, 1998), social work, forensic research (Ascione et al., 2018;Johnson, 2018), and veterinary science (Monsalve et al., 2017). The idea of a link between cruelty to animals and violence towards humans suggested by the life of a Normandy peasant called Pierre Rivière (see above), sentenced to death in 1836 for multiple murders, was proposed in many previous writings. ...
... While the two main etiological interpretations of the phenomenon are still being debated (the "graduation hypothesis," which posits that cruelty towards animals occurs at a specific chronologic stage and prepares violence towards humans, and the "generalized deviance hypothesis," in which animal cruelty is a marker of a general propensity towards deviance), there is global consensus that violence towards animals is related to violence towards humans. As recent meta-analytic reviews have indicated, the available data confirming this link are well developed (Longobardi & Badenes-Ribera, 2018;Monsalve et al., 2017). Forensic veterinary as well as social work practitioners are developing guidelines to take this phenomenon into account in their diagnosis tools (Merck, 2012;Monsalve et al., 2017), and since 2016, the FBI's National Incident-Based Reporting System in the USA has included data on acts of animal maltreatment (Levitt, 2018). ...
... As recent meta-analytic reviews have indicated, the available data confirming this link are well developed (Longobardi & Badenes-Ribera, 2018;Monsalve et al., 2017). Forensic veterinary as well as social work practitioners are developing guidelines to take this phenomenon into account in their diagnosis tools (Merck, 2012;Monsalve et al., 2017), and since 2016, the FBI's National Incident-Based Reporting System in the USA has included data on acts of animal maltreatment (Levitt, 2018). ...
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Animal abuse is considered a significant marker of violence towards humans, and understanding its determinants is important. In this first large-scale survey on adolescent animal abuse carried out in France, we introduced and tested the relative explanatory power of a new variable potentially involved in animal abuse: speciesism, defined as the belief that humans are intrinsically more valuable than individuals of other species. In a school sample composed of 12,344 participants aged 13-18, we observed that 7.3% of participants admitted having perpetrated animal abuse. Consistent with existing studies, cats and dogs were the animals most often abused. Animal abuse was a solitary behavior approximately half of the time, and in 25% of instances it involved only another person. A multivariate logistic regression revealed that animal abuse was more frequent among males, and that it occured more often among adolescents with less positive family climate, lower support from friends, lower attachment to school, and with higher anxio-depressive symptomatology. As implied by the generalized deviance hypothesis, animal abuse was related to more deviant behavior like drunkenness and bullying. Moreover, this study showed for the first time that animal abuse was higher among adolescents who endorsed speciesist attitudes. These results suggest that beyond psychopathological factors, normative beliefs regarding the value of animals and their human use may also be involved in animal mistreatment.
... Interpersonal violence is a public health problem that causes thousands of deaths per year worldwide [1]. Violence predictors include a link between interpersonal violence and animal abuse [2], highlighting the importance of not only identifying animal cruelty cases but also understanding the implications of such crimes [3][4][5]. Animal cruelty, as an indicator of potential interpersonal violence, has been an especially important predictor in child and/or domestic abuse cases [6,7] and of future violent behaviours [8][9][10]. Human and Veterinary Medicine are closely related health care fields and an approach based on the One Health Initiative has been used to integrate these fields [11,12]. ...
... Veterinarians have an ethical obligation to report suspected cases of companion animal abuse to relevant authorities [6,21]. However, animal abuse can occur under a variety of circumstances; therefore, veterinarians working in different sectors need better awareness of these circumstances in order to recognize it [3][4][5][6][21][22][23]. Animals that died under suspected violent circumstances should be submitted for a postmortem exam to reference laboratories with experienced veterinary forensic pathologists who collaborate with governmental agencies responsible for investigating crimes against animals [12][13][14]18,22]. ...
... The field of veterinary forensics is still developing in many countries [13,22] and the amount of literature published varies greatly by country [24,25]. We hypothesize that the high incidence but low notification rate of medico-legal cases involving animals may account for the field's lag in development and the lack of statistics on animal abuse in Spain compared with Anglo-Saxon and Latin American countries [4,14,18]. In order to know the magnitude of this problem, which is largely due to the lack of expertise and/or data in certain countries, more information should be shared among animal welfare organizations. ...
Article
Companion animal abuse is an issue that concerns not only veterinarians and law enforcement agencies but also society in general. Animals that die under suspicious or violent circumstances should be submitted to reference laboratories for a postmortem examination by veterinary forensic pathologists trained to recognize animal abuse. Nevertheless, the low notification rate of such cases in Spain may explain the country’s lag in the development of veterinary forensics and the limited information available on animal abuse epidemiology in comparison with other countries. By sharing information among the entities involved in recognizing animal abuse, we can better address these issues, thus improving veterinary forensics in Spain (and elsewhere). In this study, we analysed the cause and manner of death of 96 dog and cat carcasses suspected of animal abuse. These cases were submitted to our diagnostic laboratory for forensic postmortem examination by public agencies and animal protection centres. To our knowledge, this is the first study to focus on the postmortem analysis of forensic cases of suspected dog and cat abuse in Spain. On the basis of gross and histopathological findings, we distinguished between natural and non-natural abuse-related deaths, classifying the latter. We confirmed that most of the dog deaths were related with abuse, though the suspected abuse and the cause of death did not always coincide. In contrast, cause of death was determined to be natural in many of the cat suspected abuse cases. The most frequent non-natural abuse-related cause of death in dogs was blunt force trauma (n = 24, 43.64%), followed by firearm injuries (n = 10, 18.18%), asphyxia (n = 5, 9.09%), heatstroke (n = 3, 5.45%), starvation (n = 2, 3.64%), bite injury (n = 1, 1.82%), and sharp force trauma (n = 1, 1.82%). In cats, the most common cause of death was blunt force trauma (n = 9, 21.95%), followed by firearm injuries (n = 3, 7.32%) and bite injury (n = 2, 4.88%). The main goal of our study is to share our results with the scientific community to advance the field of veterinary forensics in Spain, which will lead to more successful prosecutions by law enforcement agencies. Finally, we highlight that veterinarians who can accurately recognize signs of animal abuse may be able to better respond to cases of companion animal cruelty, which in turn, may prevent possible escalation to interpersonal violence.
... Young and female veterinarians are at greatest risk of negative outcomes such as suicidal thoughts, mental health difficulties, and job dissatisfaction [2]. Main occupational difficulties are related to managerial aspects of the job, long working hours, heavy workload and job demands, poor work-life balance, difficult or challenging interactions with clients, clients' expectations, and suspected patient/pet abuse by owners [12][13][14]. These specific reasons linked to attitudes and difficulties encountered by veterinary practitioners could not be straightforwardly related to veterinary undergraduate students. ...
... Thus, attitudes toward animals and animal suffering/welfare are investigated in both, veterinary undergraduate students and in veterinary practitioners [21]. The changing nature of animal-human relationships, the emerging trends in human society towards diversification and alternative lifestyles [22], and the debate on the role of veterinarians in recognizing and intervening in the cycle of animal abuse and interpersonal domestic violence [13,23,24] seem further raising expectations from veterinarians. On the contrary, it has not been proven that veterinarians were exposed themselves to greater levels of traumatic events in their childhood compared to people involved in other professions [25]. ...
... Thus, it would be very important to do more research on veterinary practitioners' relationships with clients and to investigate about client typology with particular attention to the two extremes: from people who treat animals like humans or like part of their selves not accepting to constrain their animal during a veterinary visit or procedure, having difficulties to overcome their animals' death and grieving for a long time seeking for support from the veterinarian, to the other extreme of those abusing animals and exhibiting interpersonal violence. This latter is an additional role that veterinarians have worldwide [13], where we could again question whether they are prepared to handle such important responsibility and ethical dilemmas once in practice. In particular, if we add to this the fact that during the last decades an increasing number of animal-rights-activists and vegans enrolled in veterinary school already facing realities of practices on animals that are very different from those that they may accept them to be (e.g. ...
Article
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Background Worldwide, veterinary practitioners and students are reported to be at higher risk of suicide, burnout, and depression compared to other occupational groups. The aim of the current study was to apply text mining and topic modelling analysis on scientific literature regarding suicide, burnout, and depression among veterinary practitioners and students to extract meaningful and synthetic information. These statistical approaches can be used to comprehend more in deep the phenomena involving veterinarians and veterinary students and to suggest the potential changes needed in admission to veterinary school, veterinary curricula, and post-graduation initiatives as preventive actions. Results A systematic search protocol was set up to identify scientific literature that published on the topic from 1985 to 2019. Two-hundred-eleven records were selected with abstracts/texts submitted to text mining and topic modelling analysis. Student , stress , work , anim* , and euthanasia resulted the most frequent terms. Topics modelling allowed to differentiate groups of words and papers in 3 areas of interest: 1) students’ difficulties encountered during their studies that increase stress and anxiety impairing their psychological health; 2) exposure to death and euthanasia as risk factor for mental health; and 3) need of support among those providing medical and health care, and of supportive group work to cope with such profession. Conclusion Based on the most frequent words included in the clouds and on the contents of the papers clusterised in them, some suggestions are interfered. It is emphasized that the veterinary curricula should include courses that prepare them early to deal with animal death and post-death grief of pet owners, to handle ethical dilemmas and moral stressors, to communicate with clients and staff members, to work in team, to balance work-family life and to promote individual and team resources. Specific courses for veterinary practitioners could keep them updated on their new roles and ways to handle them among functioning as potential feedbacks to monitor their psychological wellbeing.
... Animal abuse has been linked to violent acts against humans within families or communities (Monsalve et al., 2017). The occurrence of this crime can be employed as an indicator of child abuse, family violence and violent criminal behavior (Ascione et al., 2007;Bright et al., 2018;Levitt et al., 2016;McEwen et al., 2014). ...
... Thus, the identification and reporting of animal abuse should be accompanied by a subsequent investigation of other types of crimes (Benetato et al., 2011) and the identification of socioeconomic problems in the family, as situations of economic disadvantage (Benetato et al., 2011;Monsalve et al., 2018). In this context, the veterinarian is an essential professional responsible not only for the care of animals but also for the health and safety of people (Benetato et al., 2011;Lockwood and Arkow, 2016;Monsalve et al., 2017Monsalve et al., , 2018. ...
... Likewise, research on animal abuse shows that pets are frequently victims of abuse in this region (Hammerschmidt and Molento, 2012;Marlet and Maiorka, 2010;Monsalve et al., 2018). However, the veterinarians' perception regarding their role in the intervention of animal abuse and interpersonal violence, as well as the level of training that this professional receives on the subject are unknown in Latin America (Monsalve et al., 2017). Thus, this study aims to characterize veterinarians' perception regarding the connection between human violence and animal abuse and the knowledge and attitudes of these professionals about the identification of animal abuse in Paraná, Brazil, and Cundinamarca, Colombia. ...
Article
Identification and report of animal abuse by veterinarians are fundamental to the promotion of animal welfare and the prosecution of this crime. Likewise, these professionals have an important responsibility to cope with the cycle of violence. This study aims to characterize the perception, knowledge, and attitudes of small animal practitioners regarding animal abuse and interpersonal violence in Brazil and Colombia. An online survey containing 27 questions was distributed to small animal practitioners of both countries. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) was employed to construct relationships among categorical variables and the chi-square statistic was used for testing these relationships. An important number of respondents had suspected that their patients could be victims of animal abuse (Brazil 48.1%; Colombia 64.5%). However, only a minority reported this situation to competent authorities (Brazil 32.7%; Colombia 10.8%). To receive training about veterinary forensics and/or animal welfare sciences in veterinary college was associated with identifying and denouncing animal abuse (p <.05). Deficiency in training received by veterinarians on veterinary forensic and animal welfare science in veterinary college was evident. Despite this, small animal practitioners recognize the existence of an association between animal abuse and interpersonal violence (Brazil 94.2%; Colombia 96.8%). The results highlight the need to strengthen education on animal abuse and promote the participation of veterinarians in the prosecution of this crime in Latin America.
... Thus, the imposition of fines on these economically disadvantaged families will be counter-productive, as this will further complicate the animal's and the family' situation itself. Education and frequent monitoring by the competent authorities is necessary to obtain successful results in these situations of vulnerability (GARCIA, 2017). ...
... Approximately 50% of these people had already committed other violent crimes against human beings, such as theft, death threats, homicides, bodily injuries. Other researchers have also associated animals mistreatment with interpersonal violence (COSTA et al., 2014;MONSALVE et al., 2017). ...
... The understanding of these determinants is of utmost importance for the development of prevention and control strategies, which reduce the presence of negative interactions of the human-animal bond. Therefore, a veterinary doctor is an essential professional responsible not only for the animal care but also for the health and security of the people (Monsalve, Ferreira, & Garcia, 2017) because they are in a privileged position to identify such criminal attitudes against animals and human beings (Arkow & Nassaro, 2017). ...
... In Brazil, a legislation that prohibits the maltreatment of animals exists (Lei nº 9.605, de 12 de fevereiro de 1998), and normative instruments oblige the veterinarians to report to authorities cases of animal maltreatment (Conselho Federal de Medicina Veterinária [CFMV], 2016, so that the identification and communication of these abuses are accompanied by investigation and other kinds of crime (Benetato, Reisman, & McCobb, 2011). However, the perception of the veterinarians of their role in the intervention of the animal abuse and interpersonal violence and the level of the training that they receive on the subject during their academic qualification are not yet elucidated in Latin America (Monsalve et al., 2017). ...
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This study aimed to obtain information about the knowledge and attitudes of veterinarians in the state of Paraíba, Brazil, regarding the care of abused animals, the profile of possible aggressors, and their perceptions of the relationship between animal maltreatment and interpersonal violence. For this purpose, an online survey containing 21 questions was made available to veterinarians registered in the Regional Veterinary Medicine Council of Paraíba (CRMV - PB). The chi-square test with a 5% significance level (p < 0.05) was used for statistical analysis. According to the interviewees, 70.7% (53/75) of the abuse victims were small animals. Negligence (68% [51/75]) and the absence of medical care (68% [51/75]) were the most evident forms of abuse. Furthermore, 82.7% (62/75) of them believed in the relationship between animal maltreatment and interpersonal violence. In addition, 90.7% (68/75) of the interviewees responded that they have not experienced technical difficulty in identifying maltreatment. However, 48% (36/75) stated to not know the animal abuse law, 90.7% (68/75) did not report the aggressors, and 81.3% (61/75) stated that the absence of measures by the competent public bodies makes it harder to report the abuse. This study concluded that these professionals will, at some point in their clinical routine, encounter situations of animal maltreatment and human violence, as they are in a privileged position to identify such acts. However, they need more normative knowledge about animal abuse crimes.
... Animal abuse is not only an animal welfare issue, but it is also a critical concern to the wellbeing of humans. It is considered as a sign of antisocial behavior trends [1] based on the potential "link" between animal abuse and child abuse or other forms of domestic violence [2][3][4][5][6]. Therefore, every member of a society shares the same responsibility with respect to reducing animal cruelty; however, veterinarians should have a stronger sense of duty in this regard compared to any other group because of their professional abilities [7][8][9]. ...
... Likewise, veterinarians are at the forefront of witnessing and identifying abused animals or "battered pets" [16]. In previous studies that have focused on veterinarian intervention in animal abuse cases, researchers have highlighted the distinctive role that veterinarians could play in reducing the incidence of animal abuse by identifying cases involving NAIs, and they have also highlighted a possible link between animal abuse and the early detection of child and woman abuse [5,7,[17][18][19][20]. Consequently, they explored the factors that could influence a veterinarian's intention to intervene, such as personal characteristics, experience levels, and perceived barriers associated with reporting animal abuse cases. ...
Article
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Due to their professional abilities, veterinarians have a duty to reduce animal abuse. Therefore, it is crucial to understand their attitude and behavior on encountering animal abuse cases. We analyzed the responses from completed questionnaires (n = 593) filled by small and large animal practitioners in South Korea. The majority (n = 513, 86.5%) of the respondents witnessed suspected animal abuse cases in their practice. The female participants, small animal practitioners, and younger veterinarians tended to report animal abuse cases more frequently. Based on a hierarchical regression model, moral obligation was the statistically significant predictor of intention toward counseling owners (F = 22.089, R2 = 0.232, p < 0.001) while “pro-animal” attitudes, belief in the “link” between animal and human crimes, and moral and legal obligation were significant predictors of intention to report (F = 22.877, R2 = 0.239, p < 0.001). The most frequent barrier in reporting abuse cases was the difficulty in assuring animal safety afterwards. Our findings revealed that individual characteristics (sex, age, practice type, pro-animal attitude) affect veterinarian sensitivity in recognizing animal abuse. Participants lacked self-efficiency in managing animal abuse cases. Therefore, strengthening professionalism and training veterinarians in identifying nonaccidental injuries caused by abuse are recommended to motivate them to intervene in abuse cases.
... This contrasted with only 6% of the matched sample reporting harm of animals, and no animal companion deaths. This matches international research that demonstrates co-occurrence of domestic violence and animal abuse rates between 25% and 86% (Monsalve et al. 2017). For example, Hartman et al. (2016, in a US study, found that 11.7% of 291 victims of domestic violence had witnessed threats towards a companion animal, with 26.1% witnessing actual animal harm. ...
... The Links In-and-Between Human-Animal Abuses: Love… nik.taylor@canterbury.ac.nz et al.'s respondents explicitly mentioned that lack of domestic violence services that include companion animals was a significant factor in their decision to remain in the violent relationship. This mirrors other research that shows between 18% and 65% of female victims of domestic violence delay leaving over concern for their animals' well-being (Monsalve et al. 2017). Service providers are increasingly articulating that concern for the well-being of any animals left behind is a significant barrier to leaving violent situations (e.g., Wuerch et al. 2017). ...
Chapter
Taking centre stage in this chapter are stories about women and companion animals being dominated and abused by ‘loved ones’ and seeking refuge in each other through their own interspecies relationships of empathic love. Close-up examples of abuse are provided from the Loving You, Loving Me study involving nine individual interviews conducted in the presence of their companion animals. The chapter begins with a discussion of love, empathy, and connection because it provides context to the confusion often felt by victims when violence extends beyond infrequent incidents to become an ongoing dynamic.
... Thus, the imposition of fines on these economically disadvantaged families will be counter-productive, as this will further complicate the animal's and the family' situation itself. Education and frequent monitoring by the competent authorities is necessary to obtain successful results in these situations of vulnerability (GARCIA, 2017). ...
... Approximately 50% of these people had already committed other violent crimes against human beings, such as theft, death threats, homicides, bodily injuries. Other researchers have also associated animals mistreatment with interpersonal violence (COSTA et al., 2014;MONSALVE et al., 2017). ...
Article
Domestic animals, especially pets, have a close and affectionate relationship with people. However, many of them are harmed by their supposed tutors. In Brazil, there are few veterinary studies looking at epidemiology of pets’ mistreatment admitted to veterinary practices and hospitals, and none in Paraíba state. The aim of this study was to identify the occurrence and the epidemiological aspects of pets’ mistreatment in the Veterinary Hospital from the Federal University of Campina Grande, Patos, Paraíba, Brazil. In addition, it was sought to exhibit the frequency of animal abuse cases and their respective levels of socio-environmental vulnerability by neighborhood. A retrospective study of medical records was carried out for a period of ten years. The data were analyzed descriptively. A total of 943 cases of mistreated pets were identified with 59.8% (564/943) in dogs and 40.2% (379/943) in cats. Males represented 50.9% (480/943) of the cases and 49.1% (463/943) were females. Dogs [40.60% (229/564)] and cats [54.35% (206/379)] up to one year of age were the most affected. Furthermore, the majority of dogs [74.3% (419/564)] and cats [98.15% (372/379)] mistreated were mixed breed. Negligence was evidenced with 69.1% (651/943) of mistreatment cases. There was also a higher frequency of mistreatment in neighborhoods with high levels of vulnerability. It is concluded that although the number of mistreated dogs was higher, proportionally cats were more likely to be victims of abuse and that in those poorer socioeconomic areas, harmful attitudes to domestic animals are a daily reality. Keywords: Animal Mistreatment. Vulnerability. Pets. Violence. Resumo Animais domésticos, especialmente cães e gatos, mantêm uma relação estreita e afetuosa com as pessoas. No entanto, muitos são prejudicados por seus supostos tutores. No Brasil, existem poucos estudos veterinários sobre a epidemiologia dos maus-tratos a animais de estimação admitidos em clínicas e hospitais veterinários, e nenhum na Paraíba. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar a ocorrência e os aspectos epidemiológicos dos maus-tratos a animais de estimação no Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Patos, Paraíba, Brasil. Além disso, buscou-se apresentar a frequência dos casos de maus-tratos animais e seus respectivos níveis de vulnerabilidade socioambiental por bairros. Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo de prontuários médicos por um período de dez anos. Os dados foram analisados descritivamente. Um total de 943 casos de animais de estimação maltratados foram identificados com 59,8% (564/943) em cães e 40,2% (379/943) em gatos. Os machos representaram 50,9% (480/943) dos casos e 49,1% (463/943) eram fêmeas. Os cães [40,60% (229/564)] e os gatos [54,35% (206/379)] até um ano de idade foram os mais acometidos. Ademais, a maioria dos cães [74,3% (419/564)] e gatos [98,15% (372/379)] maltratados eram sem raça definida (SRD). Evidenciou-se a negligência com 69,1% (651/943) dos casos de maus-tratos. Observou-se também maior frequência de maus-tratos em bairros com altos níveis de vulnerabilidade. Concluímos que embora o número de cães maltratados tenha sido maior, proporcionalmente os gatos tiveram maior probabilidade de serem vítimas de maus-tratos e que naquelas áreas socioeconômicas mais desfavorecidas, atitudes prejudiciais aos animais domésticos são uma realidade diária. Palavras-chave: Maus-Tratos Animais. Vulnerabilidade. Animais de Estimação. Violência.
... Stanek (2014) introduces educators to "The Link" and suggests that educators can be part of the cross-reporting framework and are in a place to intervene by fostering compassion, building resilience, and facilitating the humane treatment of animals. Monsalve et al. (2017) consider the role of veterinary practitioners, finding that few publications explore "The Link" from a veterinary perspective and suggest that veterinarians should receive more training on this topic. Finally, Ladney and Meyer (2020) review the literature on the impacts of witnessing animal cruelty during childhood, finding that this can cause trauma and be a risk factor for future violence toward both animals and humans. ...
... This is potentially problematic for generalizability, especially if these studies investigate whether CAC is predictive of these same factors. Authors have cautioned that relying on inmate populations might inflate the relationship between CAC and later violent behavior (Arluke et al., 1999) while relying on groups with exposure to domestic violence without comparison makes it difficult to interpret results on the strength of "The Link" (Monsalve et al., 2017). To explore this issue, studies were classified using the population's pre-existing perpetration-of/exposure-to violence as a criterion. ...
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Several perspectives inform research on Childhood Animal Cruelty (CAC), but these perspectives are poorly integrated with each other and there is little dialogue with the rest of the child–animal interaction (CAI) literature. This study reviews the current empirical and theoretical literature on CAC to explore issues regarding research definitions and methodologies. Following the RAMESES guidelines, we performed a meta-narrative review of the CAC literature from 2010 to 2020, including theoretical papers and original research published in English. Four databases (OVID, Web of Science, PubMed, and EBSCOhost) were searched for terms relating to children, animals, and harm in the title and keyword fields. This generated 416 results, and 69 publications were reviewed here. We explore theories of CAC in relation to the historical research strands and discuss how well they are supported by existing empirical evidence. We thematically classified empirical study findings, which showed that (1) environmental factors that predict CAC include exposure to childhood adversity, especially experiences of violence and witnessing animal cruelty, (2) CAC is recurrent or has extreme links to later interpersonal violence, (3) psychological risk factors linked to CAC include externalizing disorders, lower empathy, lower self-esteem, poorer family functioning, and attitudes accepting of cruelty, (4) witnessing animal cruelty is a serious risk factor for a range of internalizing and externalizing behaviors, and (5) a range of psychosocial barriers exist in measuring and reporting CAC. Issues with measures, population selection, and definitions focusing only on more severe forms of CAC are factors which potentially constrain the generalizability of results. We highlight the need for developmentally appropriate definitions of CAC and methods of measurement and argue that the CAC literature is not well aligned with animal welfare legislation. We propose that CAC should be integrated into a broader spectrum of childhood behaviors toward animals.
... Scientific publications have shown an association between animal abuse and interpersonal violence, and that animal abuse is an indicator of violence against people [32,33]. Children exposed to animal abuse are at a higher risk of developing criminal behavior [34]. Within this context, interdependent notification systems that trigger the investigation and intervention in both types of violence, human, and animal, must be encouraged [35]. ...
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The One Health concept represents the inseparability of human, animal, and environmental health through a unified view of health care. This article addressed the topic of public health policies from the One Health perspective, demonstrating its inclusion in various health agendas such as emerging and reemerging infectious diseases, basic sanitation, mental health, chronic non-communicable diseases, interpersonal violence, and food safety. The results showed that the application of the One Health concept to the development and implementation of policies is associated with a growing need to involve transdisciplinary teams for solving complex problems to improve communication and to ensure the relevance and acceptability of public policies, thus guaranteeing governance. According to the principle of efficiency, the government must be aware of the evolution of technical knowledge and should use the One Health approach to improve the efficacy of already existing systems. We, therefore, conducted this review to contextualize current knowledge in this topic which is becoming an essential tool for public health policy-makers and practitioners around the world promoting a reflection on the importance of multiprofessional articulation in the implementation of intersectoral public health policies.
... The search was performed in two electronic databases (Scopus and ISI Web of Science) using the following keywords: animal cruelty, children animal cruelty, animal violence, animal abuse and pet abuse. Additionally, the reference sections of all included studies, previous literature reviews and meta-analyses (Flynn, 2011;Miller, 2001;Monsalve, Ferreira, & Garcia, 2017;Patterson-Kane & Piper, 2009), and the relevant studies on animal cruelty were checked for possible eligibility. ...
... For example, when comparing owners and non-owners of pets, Hirsch and Whitman [29] found no differences in the case of chronic pain, while Kidd and Martinez [30] found no differences in terms of the self-acceptance and well-being scales of the California Psychological Inventory [31]. Furthermore, some studies in the scientific literature speak of negative attitudes that arise from human-animal interaction, which occur in cases of animal abuse by action [32][33][34][35]; abuse by omission, such as abandonment [36,37]; or animal accumulation disorder [38]. ...
Article
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The coexistence of humans with pets, and the type and quality of interactions that derive from it, is a growing line of research that covers many scientific disciplines: veterinary sciences, education, psychology, biological sciences, sociology, neuroscience, etc. In this article, we analyze both the characteristics of care for pets and the feelings and emotions involved in the human–pet relationship in the population of Puerto Rico. The sample has been of 1436 people. The most representative results of the research show how pets have a positive impact on the mental health of their owners, because of the emotional connection established, which leads them to experience mainly feelings of love, joy and peace.
... Recognizing animal abuse is of importance in the context of not only animal welfare but also because of the relationship between animal abuse and domestic violence [14][15][16][17][18][19]. Consultation of an expert panel has shown added value in human medicine when dealing with suspected child abuse cases [4,20,21]. ...
Article
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This case description reports an adult dog with multiple rib fractures that was initially suspected to be the victim of non-accidental trauma, but eventually was diagnosed with severe chronic interstitial nephritis and renal secondary hyperparathyroidism leading to fibrous osteodystrophy and multiple pathological fractures. The importance of the specific expertise of a dedicated expert panel on animal abuse is discussed. This case illustrates the significance of the identification of normal, pathological, and breed-related variations within an animal in addition to forensic expertise, emphasizing that the presence of multidisciplinary teams in an expert panel on animal abuse is crucial.
... In China, the scale of grass carp aquaculture has expanded dramatically, accounting for more than 18% of total freshwater aquaculture production, driven by the economic reform movement and the prosperity of aquaculture . However, a problem of veterinary drug abuse was found in many farms and became more and more serious recently (Monsalve et al. 2017). A high-throughput and efficient strategy is urgently needed for government and related bureaus for monitoring drug residues. ...
Article
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Avermectins were illegally used and detected in aquaculture recently. In this study, a process, robustness, improvements, matrix effects, ease of use (PRiME) pass-through solid-phase extraction (SPE) was developed for the purification of avermectins in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) tissue. The eluate was directly analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The conditions were optimized by using 90% methanol (0.1% formic acid) as extracting solvent with volume of 3 mL. The MS/MS parameters were also tested for selecting the optimum precursor ions, such as [M+H]+ and [M+NH4]+. Afterwards, this methodology was validated in terms of linearity (0.9989–0.9997), limit of detection (LOD ≤ 1.10 μg kg−1), precision (RSD 1.88–4.85%), recovery (76.3–90.7%), etc., indicating its efficiency and robustness. Finally, five batches of grass carps (n = 6) from local markets were analyzed, and the results indicated the presence of abamectin in two fish samples originating from illegal use or cross contamination of drug. The PRiME technique can simplify the sample preparation procedure by avoiding the tedious steps, such as conditioning and washing. The successful application of the PRiME SPE and UPLC-MS/MS method indicated its superiority in detecting low levels of avermectins from the violation of regulation. .
... Para o presente estudo foram selecionados 15 artigos, em destaque o trabalho de Monsalve et al. (2017), que apresenta importante revisão sistemática sobre a "Teoria do Elo" onde foram compilados dados de 96 artigos científicos sobre a temática. De acordo com Levitt et al. (2016), há uma relação entre as prisões de ofensores por abuso sexual animal e as prisões por abuso sexual em humanos, envolvendo como principal alvo de vítima indivíduos menores de idade, sendo que 93% dos agressores de crueldade animal possuem histórico de cometerem outras infrações penais, destacando-se, entre elas, a posse de drogas, seguida de agressão interpessoal. ...
Conference Paper
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Embora se espere que a relação entre os seres humanos e os animais de companhia seja sempre positiva, há formas negativas de interação entre eles, como os maus-tratos a e crueldade a esses animais. Nos últimos anos, pesquisas científicas de todo o mundo, principalmente da América do Norte, atestaram a existência da conexão entre a crueldade contra os animais de companhia e a violência interpessoal, conhecida também como “A teoria do Elo”. Estudos relataram que crianças que sofreram violência no seio familiar, seja de natureza moral, física ou sexual, tendem a reproduzir atos violentos contra os animais durante esta fase da vida e a se tornarem potenciais agressores a animais e a seres humanos em sua fase adulta, principalmente se nenhuma intervenção de correção ou educação for aplicada neste contexto. Na idade adulta, alguns estudos mostram que existe uma relação estatística significativa entre prisões por abuso sexual animal e prisão por abuso sexual em humanos, envolvendo como vítimas, principalmente, menores de idade. Os profissionais da medicina veterinária são agentes fundamentais na detecção, prevenção e atuação direta no rompimento destes ciclos de violência.
... At the same time, more active steps are needed to educate veterinarians about the importance of reporting suspected animal violence, inform them about their states' animal cruelty laws, and make them aware of the resources available to them. A recent study analyzed articles published between 1960 and 2016 on the topic of animal brutality and its link to other types of violence (Monsalve, Ferreira & Garcia, 2017). Of the 96 articles located, only 7 were published in the field of veterinary medicine, even though veterinarians play a role in public health as well as animal welfare. ...
Article
Animal abuse frequently occurs at the same time and the same place as other types of violence, particularly family violence. Because of that close association, this article proposes that it is the responsibility of both animal service and human service professionals to be aware of its occurrence, understand its significance, and promote appropriate professional and policy responses to it. Research literature addressing the link between animal abuse and other forms of violence (“the link”) is discussed. Articles selected for review were published in a peer-reviewed journal, relevant to some aspect of the link between animal abuse and child abuse and/or domestic violence, used either a national or a longitudinal database, or relied on random sampling or a comparison group. If a study was retrospective or drawn from a convenience sample, it had to have been replicated by another study for inclusion. Finally, any measurement instruments used by the study under review must have had acceptable reliability and validity. Legal databases, such as LexisNexis, were used to identify legislation that has been passed and/or court cases that have been decided that were relevant to the topic of “the link.” Strong associations were found between domestic violence, child abuse, and animal abuse; animal abuse, whether witnessed or committed, is a form of trauma. Severe animal abuse as a predictor for severe domestic violence recently emerged as a promising association. However, some of these findings on “the link” have not been translated into practice, for example, domestic violence advocates and child protection workers frequently do not ask questions about pets in the family. At the same time, the past 20 years have seen an increase in state and federal legislation and policies that have been enacted, in part, because of the growing body of evidence on the link. Knowledge of the link also has influenced a number of court cases deciding parental rights. Moreover, awareness of the link is illustrated by the passage of pet protection orders for victims of domestic violence as well as the inclusion of pet abuse as a form of domestic violence. Human service and animal service professionals should articulate more ways in which they can communicate with one another, thus adding more information and resources to any intervention or treatment of family violence.
... It can be difficult to recognise NAIs in animals -the animal's coat may conceal overt signs of injury, and behaviours may not always be good indicators of mistreatment. Recognising animal abuse requires training and a skilled observer -the following are provided as references for further review and research -Almeida, Torres and Wuenschmann (2018);Monsalve, Ferreira and Garcia (2017); Arkow (2015);Merck (2013); Munro and Munro (2008). ...
Article
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Veterinarians are considered by society to be experts in animal health and the treatment and prevention of animal disease and are similarly regarded in matters of animal welfare. As such, veterinarians are expected to make judgements regarding the welfare of animals both in their care and beyond (Siegford, Cottee and Widowski, 2010). The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) recommends that veterinarians “should be the leading advocates for the welfare of all animals, recognizing the key contribution that animals make to human society through food production, companionship, biomedical research and education” (OIE, 2012). Additionally, the Federation of Veterinarians of Europe (FVE), together with the Canadian Veterinary Medical Association (CVMA) and the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) declare that “Veterinarians are, and must continually strive to be, the leading advocates for the good welfare of animals in a continually evolving society” (AVMA, 2014). Professional and societal expectations confer a responsibility upon veterinarians to lead the way in promoting good animal welfare, and making ethical decisions for their animal patients, in often difficult situations. The specific decisions made by a veterinarian will vary depending on local legislative requirements, drug and equipment availability, and cultural expectations; a global understanding of the role of the veterinary practitioner in promoting animal welfare is fundamental for advancing companion animal health and welfare around the world. So, what is animal welfare? While there currently is no universally accepted definition, for the purpose of this document we will define it as follows: “Animal welfare is the physical and psychological, social and environmental well-being of animals” Veterinary professionals are expected to provide not only for physical health, but also the non-physical aspects of animal welfare that allow for the psychological, social and environmental well-being of their patients. And veterinarians must do so in the face of a diverse socio-economic, cultural, technological, and educational world. Companion animal practice is a rapidly growing and increasingly important segment of the global veterinary profession, with the World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) itself representing more than 200,000 individual veterinarians belonging to over 100 associations (WSAVA, 2018). The benefits of leading companion animal practitioners to a better understanding of, and practice in animal welfare are many, and include increased professional satisfaction, enhanced client perceptions and improved compliance, safety and benefits to individuals and communities. A good understanding of how to provide for the pet’s welfare also provides a means of building trust with animal owners. Studies have shown that owners whose pets are considered “part of the family” are more responsive to veterinary recommendations, as are those who have an established pet-owner-veterinary bond (Lue, Pantenburg and Crawford, 2008). A recent survey revealed that clients of veterinarians who discussed with them the value of human-animal connections were up to 77% more likely to follow the veterinary recommendations, come for wellness appointments and purchase pet insurance (HABRI, 2016). Overall, this can allow for better patient care, improve professional satisfaction for the veterinarian and the veterinary team, and result in healthier animals and happier pet-owning individuals or families. Multiple human health studies have provided scientific evidence that pets can influence human physical and emotional health, minimise depression, and improve social interactions amongst people (Takashima and Day, 2014). Evidence was so compelling in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) that, in 2013, the American Heart Association issued the statement that “pet ownership, particularly dog ownership, may be reasonable for reduction in CVD risk” (Levine et al., 2013). These and other studies help underline the importance of pets in people’s lives and how pet-owner relationships can influence human health. The evidence for a mutually beneficial relationship between humans and their pets continues to mount, and the need for universally accepted guidelines for companion animal welfare has been identified. As a global veterinary association, WSAVA is ideally placed to introduce these animal welfare guidelines, designed to be utilised by all companion animal veterinarians no matter in what geographical region they practice. These guidelines are intended to assist companion animal veterinarians throughout the world in their understanding of contemporary animal welfare concepts and science, and provide guidance on addressing potential animal welfare problems, navigating some more common ethical issues, and promoting good animal welfare through effective communication, both within the veterinary clinic and beyond.
... Setelah menguji situs web dan aplikasi mobilenya, dapat diketahui bahwa Ani-care telah berfungsi sebagaimana mestinya. [21] ...
Article
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Currently, there is no specific platform to manage the adoption process for stray animals in Indonesia. This paper describes the design of a Mobile Application created to address this issue in Jakarta, named myAnimach. This app allows strays and potential adopters to meet their needs easier. myAnimach provides a user-friendly, generic user interface to help them find the strays that meet their criteria or make a post about strays in their neighborhood. Users who want to adopt or offer animals to be adopted can log in or create an account on myAnimach. If the user is interested in becoming an adopter, they need to fill the adoption form. There are several stages in the adoption process. The completion of all the stages will result in an issuance of an adoption letter from myAnimach. Aside from adopting animals, users can also look for adopters for their animals by filling out the upload form on the mobile application.
... The participation of veterinarians should center on the aspects of clinical medicine and animal health and nutrition, but they should also educate owners on pet management [64] and explain the relation between the mistreatment of animals and domestic violence. Several studies investigated the relationship between domestic violence and animal abuse [105][106][107][108][109][110][111]. Furthermore, veterinarians are inclined to detect this type of animal abuse, since they can exhibit direct contact with the animals that suffered from it [107]. ...
Article
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In this article, we gathered information from postgraduate theses and scientific articles published in several databases using inclusion criteria that had been made in Latin America, in countries with similar economic conditions, and also in the USA to present a point of comparison. The objective of this review is to broaden the readers' understanding of the causes of the increasing numbers of stray dogs and the reasons why people abandon pets in the streets, specifically in Latin America. It also discusses adoption and responsible ownership, identifies what failed in promoting positive human-dog interaction, and suggests strategies to address this problem. It concludes that adoption alone is not an effective solution but that it is necessary to offer education and awareness programs for owners, organize sterilization campaigns, and develop and apply – with the corresponding authorities – measures to ensure animal welfare that will provide benefits for society and improve animal quality of life. The role of veterinarians is fundamental in education and in disseminating the necessary information to orient people before they acquire a pet and prevent animal abandonment to resolve this problem.
... Furthermore, the transition to parenting may increase stressors that result in conflict between caregivers and exacerbate the risk of intimate partner violence (IPV; [223]). It is well documented that IPV and animal cruelty commonly co-occur [224][225][226][227]. As such, pets of adult and child IPV survivors may be a target for animal cruelty, which may, in turn, lead to negative impacts on caregiver and child outcomes. ...
Article
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There is a paucity of research exploring how relationships with household pets may impact maternal mental health. We are unaware of any study to date that has examined associations between individuals’ relationships with their pets and psychological adjustment in the perinatal period. Using a biobehavioral lens, this paper provides a narrative overview of the literature on perinatal mental health and human–animal interaction (HAI). We focus on the role of social relationships, stress, and stress reduction in relation to perinatal mental health; the role of HAI in perceptions of social support, stressors, and stress reduction; and gaps in empirical knowledge concerning the role of HAI in perinatal mental health. Finally, we integrate contemporary biobehavioral models of perinatal mental health and HAI (i.e., Comprehensive Model of Mental Health during the Perinatal Period and the HAI–HPA Transactional Model) to propose a new conceptual framework that depicts ways in which HAI during the perinatal period may influence maternal and child health and wellbeing. To our knowledge, this is the first paper to consider the role of HAI in biobehavioral responses and mental health during the perinatal period. We conclude with recommendations for future research and improved perinatal care.
... Abuse often continues if intervention does not occur, 2,27 and such violence can potentially result in homicide and/or suicide, not only to the victim but also children of the IPV victim, 28 as well as cruelty to animals. 29 Financial costs to society are also increased, as IPV patients consume more health care resources than those without IPV. 12,30,31 One in 50 women presenting to an orthopaedic fracture clinic is a victim of IPV, 10 with 64% sustaining fractures. ...
Article
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Orthopaedic surgeons are in a position to assist in identifying intimate partner violence (IPV) patients. It was the purpose of this study to analyze the demographics and fracture patterns of IPV patients in the United States. Methods: Data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System All Injury Program from 2005 through 2013 were used. Injuries due to domestic violence were identified, and statistical analyses accounted for the weighted, stratified nature of the data. Results: There were 1.65 million emergency department visits over nine years for IPV. The median age was 29.8 years, 83.3% were women, and 55.3% occurred at home. The major diagnoses were contusion/abrasions (43.4%), lacerations (16.9%), strain/sprains (15.6%), internal organ injuries (14.4%), and fractures (9.7%). The most common fracture involved the face (48.3%), followed by the finger (9.9%), upper trunk (9.8%), and hand (6.4%). The highest proportion of lower extremity fractures occurred in men, and upper extremity fractures increased with increasing age. The odds of fracture in an IPV patient were greatest in those sustaining an upper extremity injury (odds ratio [OR] = 6.62), lower extremity injury (OR = 6.51), upper trunk injury (4.28), and head/neck injury (OR = 3.08) compared with a lower trunk injury (referent), and women (OR = 1.80) compared with men (referent). Older patients sustaining IPV had higher odds of a fracture (the few patients 10-14 and >65 years old were excluded from this analysis). Conclusions: As this study encompasses the entire United States, these results are germane to all US orthopaedic surgeons. Knowing typical fracture patterns/locations is helpful in identifying IPV patients, although the victim may not fully divulge the history and details of the event. Identification is important for the physical and mental health of the victim, and abuse often continues if intervention does not occur. The odds of a fracture in an IPV patient are greatest when the injury involved the extremities and increased with increasing age of the patient.
... Previous reviews have examined the significance of the relationship between IPV and AA from the veterinary (Monsalve et al., 2017;Newland et al., 2019) and child (McPhedran, 2009a(McPhedran, , 2009b perspectives. Yet no systematic reviews have been conducted on the situationalspecific motives driving AA, and its impact on human and animal victims involved, from an IPV victim's perspective. ...
Article
This systematic review focused on animal cruelty in abusive adult intimate partner relationships with a specific focus on the prevalence, motivations, and impact of animal abuse on victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) and the pets involved. Peer-reviewed research articles were sourced from online databases PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus and PsycInfo in July 2020. Overall, 427 records were retrieved, of which 35 articles from 30 studies were included in this review. Relevant data were extracted, with results presented as a narrative summary. The findings showed that the prevalence of animal abuse is high in households with intimate partner violence (range: 21%–89%) and there is a significant relationship between intimate partner violence and animal abuse. Both are often perpetrated concurrently, with animal abuse used as a mechanism to control the partner and facilitate intimate partner violence. Animal abuse affected a victim's decision to leave the abusive relationship and seek support and had an ongoing psychological impact on both animal and human victims. The findings have practical implications for organizations, professionals and researchers working in the field of intimate partner violence and animal abuse.
... 32,33 However, there are several barriers to recognizing and reporting abuse, 34 including a low index of suspicion when presented with an injured animal and a lack of confidence in pursuing further action when animal abuse is suspected. 32,[35][36][37] Education and specialized training opportunities could prepare veterinarians to play a more active role in this area. 32,35,36 The establishment of safe havens in veterinary teaching hospitals, like the PetSafe program at Purdue, could potentially help in training veterinarians to recognize and report animal abuse. ...
Article
OBJECTIVE To determine the number and species of animals cared for by the PetSafe program at the Purdue University College of Veterinary Medicine (a community service offered to meet the short-term housing needs of pets, especially pets owned by victims of intimate partner violence) from 2004 through 2019 and collect information on duration of stay, outcome, health problems, and expenses. ANIMALS 229 animals cared for by the PetSafe program. PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed for information on species, breed, age, duration of stay, outcome of stay, client referral source, whether the animal had been cared for previously, health problems, medical interventions, and expenses incurred. RESULTS There were 124 dogs, 95 cats, 6 ferrets, and 4 sugar gliders; 187 of the animals were returned to their owners, 37 were rehomed, and 5 were euthanized because of medical conditions. The most common health problems were dental disease and dermatological complaints (eg, flea infestation and resulting fleabite dermatitis). None of the animals had physical evidence of abuse. Mean duration of stay was 22 days (range, 1 to 93 days), and mean ± SD cost per animal was $368 ± $341. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Over the 16-year period of the study, the number and species of animals cared for by the PetSafe program at Purdue and the health problems encountered in those animals were relatively stable, and the program was able to meet the relatively predictable financial costs incurred through existing sources of funding.
... Increased scientific knowledge and general awareness that animals are sentient beings, who feel pain and other emotions, is turning society less tolerant to animal abuse and increasingly willing to protest against practices which not long ago were accepted (Spindel & Miller, 2011). Evidence of that is the increasing number of scientific studies related to the theme, which have been trying to clarify aspects like definition of terms, such as animal cruelty, abuse, and neglect (Arkow & Lockwood, 2013;Molento & Hammerschmidt, 2015;Pagani, Robustelli, & Ascione, 2010), maltreatment diagnosis and epidemiology (Arkow, Boyden, & Patterson-Kane, 2011;Hammerschmidt & Molento, 2012, 2014Marlet & Maiorka, 2010) and the relationship between animal mistreatment and domestic violence against humans (Monsalve, Ferreira, & Garcia, 2017). ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to analyze the perception of police officers within the Environmental Military Police of the State of São Paulo about animal abuse occurrences and to implement the Protocol for Expert Report in Animal Welfare (PERAW) as guidance for the first approach to complaint cases related to animal mistreatment. 608 officers filled a pre-implementation questionnaire, followed by a training for PERAW use, and filled a post-implementation questionnaire after two months of Protocol use; these last two were accomplished by only 200 officers. Feeding and water inadequacies were quoted as the condition most easily identified as maltreatment. After training, more officers mentioned two and three animal welfare segments of physical, behavioral, and mental aspects. The concept of sentience was known by a significant higher number of officers after training. Officers reported that the main PERAW advantage was that it enabled greater discrimination and more appropriate assessment of occurrences, besides providing a technical basis to the assessments. Overall, PERAW implementation provided some guidance for a first approach to animal mistreatment cases; however, continued training may provide further improvement.
... [11][12][13] This association emphasizes the importance of identifying and prosecuting animal abuse cases to protect human well-being, emphasizing the fundamental role of veterinarians, not only as the advocate for animal welfare, but also to intervene to break the cycles of violence. 14 In addition to the connection to violence, animal abuse has also been associated with other types of social vulnerability such as socioeconomic disadvantage, low educational levels, and disability; 15,16 making detection of animal abuse important for the resolution of other social problems. ...
Article
Los médicos veterinarios juegan un papel fundamental en la detección de casos de maltrato animal y violencia doméstica. Por lo tanto, es esencial que las escuelas de medicina veterinaria brinden una formación adecuada en bienestar animal y medicina veterinaria forense. El objetivo del presente artículo es caracterizar la percepción y el conocimiento de los estudiantes de medicina veterinaria sobre la formación en medicina veterinaria forense, bienestar animal y la asociación entre maltrato animal y violencia humana. Un cuestionario online fue distribuido a los estudiantes de las 227 y 22 facultades de medicina veterinaria en Brasil y Colombia, respectivamente. Pruebas de chi-cuadrado fueron realizadas para comparar las respuestas de las variables categóricas entre los estudiantes de Brasil y Colombia. La mayoría de los estudiantes encuestados indicaron que su escuela ofrecía capacitación en bienestar animal. Sin embargo, solo el 21.8% (47/216) de los estudiantes colombianos y el 43.1% (216/523) de los brasileños mencionaron que su facultad ofrecía formación en medicina veterinaria forense. En ambos países fueron identificadas deficiencias en la capacitación sobre la identificación de traumas no accidentales, denuncia de maltrato animal y el conocimiento sobre la asociación entre maltrato animal y violencia interpersonal. A pesar de esto, más del 90% de los estudiantes relataron ser conscientes de la relación que existe entre estos dos crímenes y la importancia de recibir capacitación obligatoria sobre maltrato animal y medicina veterinaria forense. Adicionalmente, la mayoría de los encuestados reconocieron que el maltrato animal incluye tanto el abuso físico como el mental. Nuestros resultados destacan la necesidad de mejorar la educación en bienestar animal, maltrato animal, violencia humana y medicina veterinaria forense en las facultades de medicina veterinaria de Brasil y Colombia.
... Companion animals are also often part of households in which domestic violence occurs (80%; Faver and Strand 2003). In fact, when any form of family violence against humans (child abuse, partner abuse, or elder abuse) occurs in the home, any animal members of the household also share in the risk of experiencing abuse and harm (Monsalve et al. 2017). This risk often extends to animals not traditionally thought of as "pets", including horses, cows, chickens, or any animal that humans form a bond with and find healing and support from (Cody et al. 2011). ...
Article
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The well-being of children and non-human animals (subsequently referred to as animals) is often intertwined. Communities are unlikely to be able to best protect humans from abuse and harm unless they are working to ensure the safety of animals who reside there as well. This study is the first to utilize U.S. animal control report data and narratives to explore how children are involved in cases of animal cruelty. Children engage in abusive acts toward animals, alone, or along with peers and/or adults. Children were found to inflict abuse most often with their hands or feet as opposed to with a weapon or other object. A total of 85% of animal cruelty perpetrated by children was toward a dog or cat. Key differences between how children are involved in acts of cruelty to companion animals compared with acts involving wild animals are described and warrant further study. The cases of animal abuse or neglect reported by children were among the most severe in the study, and often involved an adult perpetrator known to the child. Neighbors rarely report child abuse or intimate partner violence in the United States, but 89% of the animal cruelty cases involving children in this study were reported by a neighbor or passerby. Although children involved in reports as a perpetrator or reporter were most often in early adolescence, children involved in cross-reports between child welfare and animal control were often under the age of 5. Improved cross-reporting and stronger partnerships between human and animal welfare agencies may provide opportunity for earlier intervention and is likely to better many human and animal lives.
Chapter
In this chapter we outline the scale of domestic violence including the relatively little that is known about animals’ experiences of it. We acknowledge the complexity of domestic violence, before considering the links between love, loyalty, and abuse. We note that they often coexist for all those—human and animal—experiencing domestic violence. Following this we outline our conceptual and theoretical approaches to studying domestic violence done to humans and other animals, which is a feminist intersectional understanding that recognises this complexity. We then advance our central argument. Simply put it is that we need to collectively change the current humancentric framing of domestic violence, to include (other) animals.
Article
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Objectives Estimates the prevalence of animal abuse in Nizhni Novgorod, Russia, and Lviv, Ukraine, assesses the sociodemographic characteristics of animal abusers in these cities, and provides the first empirical test of Agnew’s (Theor Criminol 2(2):177–209, 1998) theory of the causes of animal abuse. Methods Logistic regression and generalized structural equation models are estimated using interview data from 1435 randomly-sampled adults in 41 neighborhoods in Lviv and Nizhni Novgorod. Results Animal abuse was quite rare among respondents and committed mostly by males and younger individuals. Consistent with Agnew’s theory, low self-control, animal-abusing peers, justifying beliefs, and perceived benefits all were associated with statistically significantly increased likelihood of animal abuse. In addition, justifying beliefs and perceived benefits mediated a significant and substantial share of the effects of self-control and animal-abusing peers on animal abuse. Contrary to theoretical expectations, perceived costs appeared unrelated to animal abuse net of the effects of other predictors. Conclusions People who abuse animals appear to do so partly because, due to low self-control and exposure to animal-abusing peers, they hold beliefs justifying the behavior and perceive greater benefits associated with it.
Article
Assessing the risk for animal cruelty is imperative, yet understudied and problematic due to the sensitivity of the topic. Early prevention is critical, yet very little research examines cruelty when it first appears in childhood. The aim of this study was to explore children’s attitudes towards types of animal cruelty, to investigate potential demographic differences, and to examine potential associations between acceptance of cruelty and cognitive and affective factors that place children ‘at-risk’ for cruelty perpetration. Questionnaire data was collected from 1127 children in schools. The results indicate that cruelty attitudes are predicted by some demographic variables such as urban living, being male, younger age and not having pets, but depend on the type of animal cruelty. Acceptance of cruelty predicted low compassion and low reported humane behaviour towards animals. Acceptance of cruelty was predicted by negative attitudes towards animals, lower beliefs in animal minds and low attachment to pets, signifying the importance of targeting such variables in future prevention programmes. This study is an original contribution to research into childhood animal cruelty in the general population, with implications for designing and implementing early prevention programmes that tackle problematic attitudes to cruelty.
Book
There are many types of interpersonal violence that can lead to short-and long-term physical and psychological effects on those involved. Reducing Interpersonal Violence reflects on the World Health Organization's stance that interpersonal violence is a public health problem and considers what steps can realistically be taken towards its reduction. Clive Hollin examines interpersonal violence across a range of settings, from bullying at school and in the workplace, smacking children and partner violence in the home, to sexual and other forms of criminal violence in the community. This book summarises the research on evidence-based strategies to reduce violence and shows that reducing interpersonal violence can have a positive effect on people's wellbeing and may save a great deal of public expenditure. This book is an invaluable resource for students and researchers in the fields of psychology, criminology, law, and police studies, as well as professionals such as probation staff and forensic psychologists.
Chapter
More American homes have pets than children (Vincent et al., et al., 2019). Over two-thirds of American households include a pet (National Pet Owners Survey, 2014). Well-cared-for pets may be protective for human mental health (Arkow, 2015). Most pets are cherished members of the family; however, some people consider animals to be their property. Violence at home can be directed at both pets and family members, and animal cruelty has been described as being a sentinel for family violence (Arkow, 2015).
Article
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This article explores the intersections of human and animal lives in the context of violence and marginalisation. It draws on two studies, the first involving a sub-sample of 23 open-ended survey responses completed by transgender and non-binary (TNB) people taken from a larger study exploring the intersections of animal- and human-directed violence, and the second involving eight interviews with TNB people focused on the meaning of animal companionship. Together, the findings suggest that animal companionship can be a protective factor for TNB people experiencing marginalisation and/or distress, whether in the context of domestic violence and abuse (DVA) or in the context of other forms of intra- or inter-personal points or adversity. The findings suggest that animal companions can provide TNB people with comfort and non-judgemental emotional interactions in the face of DVA and other life stressors. However, the risk of violence directed towards animals must also be considered. The article concludes with discussion of the implications for DVA service provision and research.
Article
Animal cruelty cases can involve a variety of mistreatments to domestic animals. A common source of abuse is the use of heat sources, such as ovens, hot surfaces and microwaves. Analysis of damage to skin by a veterinarian is a key aspect of these investigations but additional information can be provided by observing the hair of the animal, including heat source type and exposure time. This study developed an objective grading system for the analysis of heat damage in hairs which can be used to quantify different damage characteristics including bubbling, discolouration, expansion of hair, fractures, changes to the medulla and scales and scale removal/melting. This grading scheme was applied to the investigation of dog (Canis familiaris) skin samples with full pelage and loose hairs exposed to microwaves and a heated environment in order to identify any distinguishing damage characteristics from the two different heated environments. Samples were exposed to a furnace for 1 minute at different temperature ranges (50- 350°C with 50°C intervals) and also a microwave at maximum power for different time periods (15, 30, 45, 60, 120, 180, 240 and 300 seconds). Hairs were extracted for examination using high powered light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Overall, it can be determined that the type of damage observed is influenced by the nature of heat applied and the context and substrate in which the hair is situated at the time of exposure. Using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) it was concluded that as temperature increases in a furnace so does the severity of each of the damage characteristics observed. It can be noted that with furnace exposure, any one of the characteristics could be used to indicate the temperature to which it has been exposed. For furnace exposed samples there was no significant difference between loose or embedded hairs. PCA analysis determined that there are two independent forms of damage that occur when hairs are exposed to microwave radiation, these are: increased bubbling and discolouration in the root and increased bubbling and discolouration of the shaft and tip. Exposure time is correlated with both the root and shaft/tip observations. The results indicated some clear distinctions between heat source and exposure useful for the objective interpretation of such evidence. This standardised approach for the observation of heat damage characteristics in animal hair provides investigators with a tool to differentiate between methods of abuse, providing a greater understanding of the crime committed.
Chapter
Some form of Animal Cruelty (AC) has been considered to be a crime in the United States since the Animal Welfare Act of 1966. Currently there are varying forms of felony provisions in all 50 states against more “severe” acts of AC. In 2016, details about AC crimes were included in the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) allowing law enforcement, researchers, and policy makers to obtain information about the nature of these crimes and their perpetrators. This chapter describes what is known about people who commit AC. The chapter first discusses different conceptualizations of AC behavior and reviews the laws relating to how animals are viewed in the legal system. Then different theories of AC, including the violence graduation and deviance generalization hypotheses are detailed. Existing research on the personality correlates to AC, highlighting the role of psychopathic traits in our understanding of who perpetrates AC behavior, is then reviewed.
Article
Veterinarians have a fundamental role to play in the detection of animal abuse and domestic violence cases. Therefore, it is essential that veterinary colleges provide appropriate training in animal welfare and veterinary forensics. The aim of this article is to characterize the perception and knowledge of veterinary students about training in veterinary forensics, animal welfare and the association between animal abuse and human violence. An online survey was made available to veterinary students at 227 veterinary colleges in Brazil and 22 in Colombia. The Chi-Square test of independence was performed to compare responses of Brazilian and Colombian students for categorical survey items. Most of the surveyed students indicated that their college offered animal welfare training. However, only 21.8% (n = 47/216) of the Colombian and 43.1% (n = 216/523) of the Brazilian students mentioned that their veterinary colleges offered veterinary forensics training. Deficits in training in identification of non-accidental traumas, reporting of animal abuse and awareness of the association between interpersonal violence and animal abuse were identified in both countries. Despite this, more than 90% of students were aware of the relationship between these two crimes and in the importance of receiving compulsory training in animal abuse and veterinary forensics. Likewise, most of the respondents recognized that animal abuse includes both physical and mental abuse. The results highlight the need to improve education in animal welfare, animal abuse, human violence and veterinary forensics in veterinary colleges in Brazil and Colombia.
Article
Green criminology has stimulated criminological examinations of crimes against wildlife, discussions of nonhuman animals as victims of crime, and expanded conceptualization of animal rights. In recent years, increased attention has been directed toward studies of wildlife crimes, which have primarily been restricted to studying crimes against animals that occur through animal trafficking and poaching. At the same time, empirical studies of the social control of animal crimes, especially against nonwildlife animals, have been neglected. As a result, empirical knowledge concerning how nonwildlife animal laws are enforced and the extent to which they are enforced is lacking. The present study addresses that gap in knowledge by examining the enforcement of two animal protection laws in the US that apply to nonwildlife animals: the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and the Horse Protection Act (HPA). The results indicate that these laws have low enforcement rates, and that the majority of enforcement efforts involve the lowest levels of formal social control available in those statutes. Furthermore, there are relatively few fines for such violations, and when fines are meted out, they tend to be small. Quantitative and qualitative data from 3,719 cases for the years 2010–2014 were employed to assess the extent of, and how the AWA and HPA Acts were enforced in the US. The empirical evidence suggests lack of enforcement of these statutes which, as the qualitative data suggests, involves some serious harm outcomes that were accompanied by rather small penalties.
Article
Due to their intimate relationship with human beings, animals can experience abuse, especially in the family environment. Research on the variables involved in this topic is scarce in Latin America. The objective of this study was to identify the main types of animal abuse in Brazilian municipalities and to characterize animals and perpetrators in addition to identifying the socioeconomic factors associated with the incidents. The occurrences of animal abuse were analyzed from the records of the Police Station Specialized in Fauna Crimes Investigation Department of the Civil Police of Minas Gerais operating in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, from September 2016 to September 2018. Events involving cruelty to animals were categorized as active maltreatment, while acts of omission, which refer to neglected animals, were categorized as passive maltreatment, defined according to sets of nutritional, health, behavioral, and comfort indicators. Cruel crimes were the most frequently registered (45.7 %, 101/221), with intoxication and aggression being the most common types. Active maltreatment generated more deaths compared to passive maltreatment (OR: 3.900, 95 % CI: 1.873–8.588, p<0.05). Regarding abuse, dogs were the most affected animals (59.7 %, 132/221), followed by felines (14.9 %, 33/221), equine (5.4 %, 12/221), birds (5.8 %, 13/221), poultry (2.7 %, 6/221), reptiles (2.2 %, 5/221), and other groups of animals (9.0 %, 20/221). Adults were the most frequently reported (55.2 %, 122/221) age of abused animals. Cats were the main cruelty victims, with the highest chance of death (OR: 6.829, 95 %CI: 2.916–16.696, p<0.05) and were those who suffered most from intoxication abuse (OR: 4.72, 95 % CI 1.585–14.996, p=0.001). The perpetrators of abuse were predominantly males (66.8 %, 137/205) aged between 40 and 59 years (38.6 %, 53/137). Perpetrators of committing animal cruelty were 3.57 times more likely to be male and 2.5 times more likely to have no college education. The perpetrators of animal abandonment had a 25 times greater chance of being between 18 and 24 years old compared to the category between 40 and 59 years old and perpetrators of animal intoxication had 5 times greater chance of being also between 18 and 24 years old. Among all victimized animals, dogs and cats were the most affected, probably due to their close relationships with humans. Understanding the profile of victims and suspects involved in neglect maltreatment and cruelty to animals is fundamental to the establishment of policies and strategies to prevent and restrain these activities.
Book
Queer Entanglements provides the first comprehensive account of the intersections of lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, trans, and non-binary people's lives with the lives of animals. Exploring diverse topics such as domestic violence, grief following the loss of an animal, veganism, cruelty-free makeup products, Pride events, and community activism, the book offers a theoretical and empirical basis for understanding the contexts that bring together human and animal lives. By using real-world examples, it provides a lively and engaging view of what it means to think about the connections between animal and human lives, even when human experiences operate at the expense of animal wellbeing. This critical, intersectional, and interdisciplinary perspective on human-animal relations will be of interest to scholars and students in human-animal studies, psychology, sociology, social work, and cultural and gender studies.
Chapter
Queer Entanglements provides the first comprehensive account of the intersections of lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, trans, and non-binary people's lives with the lives of animals. Exploring diverse topics such as domestic violence, grief following the loss of an animal, veganism, cruelty-free makeup products, Pride events, and community activism, the book offers a theoretical and empirical basis for understanding the contexts that bring together human and animal lives. By using real-world examples, it provides a lively and engaging view of what it means to think about the connections between animal and human lives, even when human experiences operate at the expense of animal wellbeing. This critical, intersectional, and interdisciplinary perspective on human-animal relations will be of interest to scholars and students in human-animal studies, psychology, sociology, social work, and cultural and gender studies.
Article
On 1 January 2016, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) began collecting data on crimes involving animal cruelty from law enforcement agencies that participate in the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) in the United States (U.S.). Prior to 2016, such crimes either went unreported or were lumped into an “all other offenses” category, making it difficult to understand who was committing these crimes and whether there were any connections between crimes perpetrated against animals and crimes in which there was a human victim. Animal cruelty has cruelty has been linked to certain types of human violence and, therefore, it is important for authorities to know more about the people committing these crimes. Preliminary results from an analysis of the first four years (2016–2019) of data are presented. The age and gender of animal cruelty offenders, the time of day when most crimes occur, and the most common locations where offenses take place are presented. The type of animal cruelty involved and details of the other crimes that co-occur with animal cruelty are discussed. The limitations of the data are shared and recommendations are made about other types of data that could be collected in the future to add value to the data.
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Companion animals can both protect against, and increase risk for, coercive control and abuse, yet have not been considered in existing UK COVID-19 reports of domestic abuse. This study aimed to explore the nature and frequency of animal-related calls received by UK domestic abuse helpline staff during the COVID-19 pandemic, examine any lockdown-related changes, identify potential commonalities across helpline organisations, and explore perspectives about ongoing animal-related issues in the context of domestic abuse. Semi-structured virtual interviews were conducted with 11 domestic abuse helpline staff workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were subjected to thematic analysis. The analysis revealed four overarching themes. Theme 1) Lockdown-related changes in the frequency and nature of animal-related calls received. Theme 2) Animals as tools for abuse during lockdown, with subthemes a) Manipulating the family-animal bond, and b) Fears over animal safety. Theme 3) Animals as barriers to refuge during lockdown, with subthemes, a) Lack of animal-friendly accommodation, b) Lack of social support systems, and c) Animals as coping mechanisms. Theme 4) Helpline staffs’ awareness of and links to animal friendly accommodation and fostering services. The findings can inform decision making regarding appropriate long-term support needs for multi-species families with complex needs, both during and post-pandemic.
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There is a strong association between animal abuse and interpersonal violence; therefore, veterinarians may encounter both. Dealing with animal abuse cases is beneficial for advancing animal welfare and the overall public health. Veterinarians play an important role in identifying and responding to this relationship. This study estimated the incidence of animal abuse encountered by veterinarians, examined veterinarians' awareness of the relationship between animal abuse and human abuse, examined veterinarians' attitudes towards how they deal with abuse cases, and related demographic characteristics to their attitudes of intervention and the frequency of encountering abuse cases. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was designed and distributed through social media. Our results show that respondents' motivation to interfere for animal abuse cases was positively related to their moral or legal responsibility, willingness to assist, and agreement of mandatory reporting. Our results indicated that respondents who believed they had been provided with adequate training were more willing to deal with animal abuse, more capable of distinguishing abuse cases, and did not believe that dealing with abuse cases was beyond their ability. However, more than 60% of our respondents self-evaluated that the animal cruelty awareness training courses were insufficient. Hence, in addition to the traditional role of veterinarians, identifying and responding to animal cruelty should be enhanced through education.
Article
Este artigo tem por objetivo abrir uma discussão concernente aos limites religiosos, mais precisamente o abate de animais, e os ditames legais que tratam da necessidade de resguardar membros sociais mais vulneráveis, no caso dos animais. Como questão problematizadora, busca-se entender como se dá a atuação do Estado laico diante dos limites de atuação religiosa acerca do abate de animais. O método de pesquisa deste artigo caracteriza-se como pesquisa exploratória com levantamento bibliográfico e normativo sobre o tema e análise da discussão em julgamento que se encontra no Supremo Tribunal Federal, Recurso Extraordinário nº 494.601/RS a respeito do sacrifício de animais em ritos das religiões de matriz africana. O presente estudo revela que refletir quanto as diversas ideias postas em sociedade sobre os inúmeros comportamentos humanos e da necessidade de ponderação de bens e valores é essencial para as decisões conscientes, apoiadas na busca pela harmonia humana. Defender o abate ritualístico nas religiões que se fundamentam nesta prática é preservar a liberdade religiosa, liberdade esta, jungida na necessidade de prévio atordoamento do animal frente à regra constitucional proibitiva que trata da vedação da prática de atos cruéis contra os animais.
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Previous research has found that domestic violence (DV) victims who seek refuge in DV shelters often report the abuse of companion animals as a form of psychological control. However, these studies have mainly involved the use of interviews and questionnaires which restrict the quality and depth of data collected (e.g. these methods increase the probability that victims will withhold information due to embarrassment or ethical constraints). The current study utilized a novel method previously overlooked in the literature on companion animal abuse in an attempt to overcome these problems; domestic violence victims' stories of companion animal abuse were obtained from online forums where victims voluntarily shared their experiences. Seventy-four stories were analyzed using thematic analysis and four key themes were identified: The Victim-Companion Animal Bond; Companion Animals Used to Control Victims; Victims' Perceptions of Abusers' Behavior; and Support for Victims and Companion Animals. A number of DV victims reported that companion animals were one of their main sources of support, and many chose to stay in an abusive relationship because DV shelters did not have the facilities to house their pets. Findings have policy implications for police, DV shelters, child protection organizations, and animal welfare organizations.
Article
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The role of the veterinary forensic pathologist in the investigation of animal abuse or neglect can go beyond documenting the condition of animals presented as evidence. Although animal cruelty is a moral concern and a crime in itself, law enforcement response to such crimes is often enhanced by the recognition that crimes against animals can be both indicators of other ongoing crimes against people and predictors of the potential for interpersonal violence. An understanding of common motives underlying animal cruelty can aid the pathologist in asking appropriate questions. The authors review the forms of pathology evidence commonly seen in various presentations of animal cruelty. Understanding these forms of evidence can help the pathologist describe findings that can be significant for assessing the potential risks the alleged perpetrator may pose to other animals and humans.
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This study seeks to sociologically examine the patterns of animal crime in one large American city. Using Chicago Police Department animal crimes data, this research analyzes the types of crimes perpetrated, characteristics related to animal crime, and patterns of arrest. Findings indicate that a majority of animal crime was classified as abuse/neglect. High animal crime areas had higher rates of crime, more socioeconomic hardship, and more African-American residents. Compared to abuse/neglect, animal fighting was more likely to occur in community areas with more socioeconomic hardship, and animal crimes were more likely to result in arrest when they occurred in areas with more hardship.
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This study examined profiles of adjustment in an ethnically diverse sample of 291 school-age children recruited from community-based domestic violence services. Using latent profile analysis (LPA), six domains of adjustment were examined: social problems, attention problems, internalizing behavior, externalizing behavior, empathy, and callous/unemotional traits. Results of the LPA provided support for three distinct profiles of socioemotional functioning among children in the sample: Resilient (66 %; n = 191), Struggling (28 %; n = 83), and Severe Maladjustment (6 %; n = 17). Variables that distinguished between the profiles included: children’s race/ethnicity, exposure to concomitant animal cruelty, relationship to the abusive partner, and the duration of their maternal caregiver’s experience of IPV. Study results lend support to previous research suggesting differential patterns of socioemotional adjustment among children exposed to IPV.
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Bestiality is a serious but less commonly reported form of animal cruelty occurring in a society. It is a punishable sexual offence in India. Bestiality has received little attention in recent psychiatric literature, and even though case reports have been published, an elaborate psychological assessment is often missing. This case report of 18 year old male presented here highlighted the importance of psychological assessment to emphasize on its implications for the further risk assessment of the person, family psycho-education and non-pharmacological intervention for bestialists. The overall assessment suggested of absence of any brain dysfunction and active psychopathology, average intelligence (IQ) and intact cognitive functioning. The findings portrayed physical and sexual inadequacies, emotional and sexual immaturity, difficulty in emotional attachment, internalized hostility, voyeuristic tendencies and infantile social behaviour, excitement seeker, inability to delay gratification of impulses, lacks empathy, poor self-discipline, less conscientiousness and less sensitive to criticism. The report also emphasized the role of child sexual abuse on sexual behavior later life. The importance of including the topic within the community health/sexual and reproductive health education programmes was highlighted.
Article
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Cruelty toward companion animals is a well-documented, coercive tactic used by abusive partners to intimidate and control their intimate partners. Experiences of co-occurring violence are common for children living in families with intimate partner violence (IPV) and surveys show that more than half are also exposed to abuse of their pets. Given children's relationships with their pets, witnessing such abuse may be traumatic for them. Yet little is known about the prevalence and significance of this issue for children. The present study examines the experiences of children in families with co-occurring pet abuse and IPV. Using qualitative methods, 58 children ages 7-12 who were exposed to IPV were asked to describe their experiences of threats to and harm of their companion animals. Following the interviews, template analysis was employed to systematically develop codes and themes. Coding reliability was assessed using Randolph's free-marginal multirater kappa (kfree=.90). Five themes emerged from the qualitative data, the most common being children's exposure to pet abuse as a power and control tactic against their mother in the context of IPV. Other themes were animal maltreatment to discipline or punish the pet, animal cruelty by a sibling, children intervening to prevent pet abuse, and children intervening to protect the pet during a violent episode. Results indicate that children's experiences of pet abuse are multifaceted, potentially traumatic, and may involve multiple family members with diverse motives.
Article
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As decisoes judiciais sobre casos de maus-tratos contra animais podem ser subsidiadas por laudos de peritos em bem-estar animal. O objetivo deste trabalho foi adaptar protocolos de diagnostico de bem-estar animal para a identificacao de maus-tratos contra animais de companhia. O protocolo e composto por quatro conjuntos de indicadores: nutricionais, de conforto, sanitarios e comportamentais, os quais devem ser classificados em inadequados, regulares e adequados. As decisoes finais para cada conjunto de indicadores devem ser integradas em um unico resultado, o qual sera o grau final de bem-estar. O protocolo utiliza uma forma de integracao simplificada, baseada em limites para a inclusao em cada um dos cinco graus de bem-estar, descritos como: muito baixo, baixo, regular, alto e muito alto. Graus de bem-estar baixo e muito baixo sao considerados inaceitaveis e devem ser descritos como maus-tratos. Grau de bem-estar regular e considerado aceitavel se medidas corretivas forem asseguradas. Graus de bem-estar alto e muito alto sao considerados desejaveis para o bem-estar animal. O protocolo permite a diferenciacao do grau de bem-estar em escala compativel para a decisao em relacao a ocorrencia de maus-tratos. Nos esperamos que o refinamento das formas de identificacao de crimes contra animais, especialmente nos casos nos quais nao existem lesoes fisicas, juntamente com um protocolo padronizado, possam aprimorar a percepcao do sofrimento animal, alem de facilitar o trabalho de campo das pessoas envolvidas nestas investigacoes, oferecendo assim uma contribuicao para incrementar o bem-estar animal, por meio de acoes adequadas e de reducao da criminalidade.
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Although animal cruelty is often described as a warning sign of future human violence, particularly in the prediction of multiple homicides, prior studies reveal mixed support for this notion and lack conceptual clarity in the measurement of such cruelty. This study investigates the quantity and quality of cruelty present in a sample of 23 perpetrators of school massacres from 1988 to 2012. Findings indicate that 43% of the perpetrators commit animal cruelty before schoolyard massacres and that the cruelty is usually directed against anthropomorphized species (dogs and cats) in an up-close manner. The implications of these findings for reducing false positive cases of cruelty are discussed.
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To establish the incidence, frequency and type of deliberate animal abuse seen in veterinary practice in New Zealand, and ascertain veterinarians' knowledge of human abuse within the families where animal abuse was occurring. To explore attitudes of veterinarians to and knowledge about the correlation between animal abuse and human violence, and their perceived role in dealing with such issues. A postal questionnaire was sent to practising veterinarians in New Zealand. It covered demographics, frequency and type of animal abuse cases seen, awareness of violence towards humans, within families where animal abuse was seen, the methods used for managing animal and human abuse, the incidence of psychological abuse of animals, and the attitudes of veterinarians towards and their beliefs about the link between animal abuse and human violence. A total of 383/1,412 (27% response rate) questionnaires with useable data were returned. Within the group of respondents, the sexes were evenly represented; 40% of respondents worked in small-animal practice, 50% in mixed practice and 10% in large-animal practice. Deliberate animal abuse had been seen by 63% of respondents in the last 5 years; 37% of these had seen such cases once a year or less, while 9% had seen abuse cases at least four times a year. Dogs were the species most commonly reported as abused, followed, in numerical order, by cats, cattle and horses. Among respondents who had seen deliberate animal abuse, 16% either knew of (4%) or suspected (12%) human abuse within the families of the abused animals. A clear majority of responding veterinarians agreed with the statement that people who abuse their animals are more likely to abuse their children (77%) or spouse (70%). The survey indicated that the majority of respondents had seen cases of animal abuse within the previous 5 years, and dogs were the species most often reported abused. Responding veterinarians felt a strong ethical duty to deal with cases of animal abuse, but they were less comfortable about issues of human abuse, even though the awareness of the link between abuse of animals and abuse of humans was relatively high. The greater the awareness of animal abuse and its linkage with human abuse, the greater the possibility that veterinarians can contribute in a meaningful way to the reduction of violence in society.
Article
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Results from this study challenge the assumption that animal abusers commonly “graduate” from violence against animals to violence against humans. The criminal records of 153 animal abusers and 153 control participants were tracked and compared. Animal abusers were more likely than control participants to be interpersonally violent, but they also were more likely to commit property offenses, drug offenses, and public disorder offenses. Thus, there was an association between animal abuse and a variety of antisocial behaviors, but not violence alone. Moreover, when the time order between official records of animal abuse and interpersonal violence was examined, animal abuse was no more likely to precede than follow violent offenses. Although these findings dispute the assumption that animal abuse inevitably leads to violence toward humans, they point to an association between animal abuse and a host of antisocial behaviors, including violence. Also discussed are the methodological problems of demonstrating sequential temporal relations between animal abuse and other antisocial behaviors.
Article
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Battered women seeking shelter were surveyed at intake about their experiences with pet abuse and the roles of pets in their abusive relationships. Of the women with pets, 46.5% reported that their batterers had threatened to harm or actually harmed their pets. Pets often served as important sources of emotional support during the relationship, particularly for women reporting pet abuse. Women continued to worry about the safety of their pets, especially given that many pets remained with the abusive partner. Implications of the findings are discussed and recommendations are presented for domestic violence and other professionals.
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This paper examines the relationship between childhood cruelty toward animals and aggressive behavior among criminals and noncriminals in adulthood. Data were derived from personal interviews with 152 criminals and noncriminals in Kansas and Connecticut. A standardized, closed, and open-ended interview, requiring approximately 1-2 hours to complete, was administered to all subjects. Aggressiveness was defined by behavioral criteria rather than by reason for incarceration. Childhood cruelty toward animals occurred to a significantly greater degree among aggressive criminals than among nonaggressive criminals or noncriminals. Additionally, the occurrence of more than 40 cases of extreme animal crielty facilitated the development of a preliminary classification of nine distinct motivations for animal cruelty. Finally, family violence, particularly paternal abuse and alcoholism, were significantly more common among aggressive criminals with a history of childhood cruelty toward animals.
Article
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Only recently have sociologists considered the role of nonhuman animals in human society. The few studies undertaken of battered women and their animal companions have revealed high rates of animal abuse co-existing with domestic violence. This study examines several aspects of the relationship between humans and animals in violent homes. The study explored the role of companion animals in the abusive relationship through in-depth, semi-structured interviews with clients at a battered women's shelter. In particular, the study focused on the use of companion animals by women's violent partners to control, hurt, and intimidate the women; the responses of the animals to the women's victimization; and the role of pets as human surrogates and the resulting symbolic interaction between human and nonhuman family members. The significance of the findings for family violence research and application are discussed, as well as the broader implications for sociological investigation of human-animal interaction.
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In Western research, cruelty to animals in childhood has been associated with comorbid conduct problems and with interpersonal violence in later life. However, there is little understanding of the etiology of cruelty to animals, and what in the child's life may require attention if the chain linking animal cruelty and later violence is to be broken. The study reported in this paper investigated the association between parent-reported cruelty to animals, and parent- and self-reported psychological strengths and weaknesses in a sample of 379 elementary school children in an Eastern context, Malaysia. No gender differences were found in relation to cruelty to animals or psychological problems, as assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). However, there were different predictors of cruelty to animals for boys and girls. Regression analyses found that for boys, parent-reported hyperactivity was a unique predictor of Malicious and Total Cruelty to animals. For girls, self-reported conduct problems was a unique predictor of Typical Cruelty to animals. Parent-reported total difficulties were associated with Typical, Malicious, and Total Cruelty to animals. We suggest that routine screening of children with an instrument such as the SDQ may help to detect those children who may need to undergo further assessment and perhaps intervention to break the chain linking childhood cruelty to animals and later conduct problems.
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine whether child and parent reports of animal cruelty in children correlated with child- and parent-reported delinquency in these same children. A group of 3,397 children (1,778 boys, 1.619 girls; age = 9 years) from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing sample (FFCW: Reichman, Teitler, Garfinkel, & McLanahan, 2001) served as participants in this study. The prevalence of animal cruelty as reported by the child (4.7%) and parent (3.0%) were both low and the zero-order correlation between the two estimates was non-significant, suggesting that they were measuring different constructs. A two-equation multiple regression analysis was conducted, controlling for child gender, domestic violence within the home, mother hitting/spanking, and father hitting/spanking. Findings indicated that parent-reported animal cruelty correlated significantly with child-reported delinquency, controlling for child reports of animal cruelty and the four control variables. Child-reported animal cruelty, however, failed to correlate with parent-reported delinquency, controlling for parental reports of animal cruelty and the four control variables. These results suggest that parental reports of animal cruelty may be more useful as indicators of delinquent involvement than child reports. Possible reasons for these findings are discussed.
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine whether animal cruelty and firesetting can serve as markers of fearlessness and disinhibition, respectively. File data gathered on 496 male sex offenders were analyzed in an effort to test two hypotheses, a countervailing hypothesis and a narrowness hypothesis. Results pertaining to the countervailing hypothesis revealed that animal cruelty correlated significantly better with fearlessness than with disinhibition and firesetting correlated significantly better with disinhibition than with fearlessness. A multiple regression analysis controlling for age at time of discharge, participant race, and offender category (pure rapist and pure child molester) also confirmed this hypothesis. Corroborating the narrowness hypothesis, animal cruelty and firesetting failed to predict violent offending after controlling for fearlessness and disinhibition, respectively. These results suggest that animal cruelty may serve as a marker for fearlessness and callous–unemotional traits, whereas firesetting may serve as a marker for disinhibition and low self-control.
Article
We explored the relation between empathy, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, and animal abuse in a sample of 290 seven- to twelve-year-old children whose mothers were exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV). The sample comprises mostly Latino and White participants, and 55% of the children's mothers were born outside the United States (primarily Mexico). To our knowledge, among studies examining child-perpetrated animal abuse, this study is the first to examine empathy levels and one of only a few to examine CU traits. When comparing Griffith Empathy Measure (empathy) and Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (callous-unemotional [CU] traits) scores with those from studies of White schoolchildren, our sample scored lower on affective empathy, higher on cognitive empathy, and lower for overall CU scores as well as Callous and Unemotional subscales. Of 290 children, 47 (16.2%) harmed an animal at least once according to either mother or child report. There were no significant sex or age differences between Abuse and No Abuse groups. The Abuse group scored significantly higher on affective empathy, CU, and Callousness/Unemotional subscales, and significantly lower on cognitive empathy. However, in regression analyses that controlled for income, only lower cognitive empathy and higher CU significantly predicted having abused an animal. In summary, low cognitive empathy (but not affective empathy) and CU traits may serve as reliable predictors of child animal abuse. However, replication of these results is necessary. A larger sample with a high percentage of Latino children whose mothers were exposed to IPV, along with a non-exposed comparison group, would be ideal.
Article
The goal of the current study was to examine the association between demographic characteristics and childhood experiences on the respondents’ age of committing childhood animal cruelty and its recurrency. Using data collected from 257 male inmates at a Southern medium-security state prison, the current study seeks to replicate a study by Hensley, Tallichet, and Dutkiewicz. Results revealed that those respondents who were physically abused as children reported engaging in recurrent animal cruelty. The younger the age of respondent for first witnessing animal cruelty, the sooner his initiation to hurting and killing animals occurred. In addition, those who reported witnessing a parent commit acts of animal abuse reported that they committed animal abuse themselves at an older age, while those who witnessed a brother/sister commit animal abuse reported engaging in it at an earlier age. Therefore, physical abuse and witnessing primary socializers engage in animal abuse seem to be important in understanding the respondents’ age of onset and repeated childhood animal cruelty.
Article
Existing research suggests that various forms of family violence such as domestic violence and child abuse tend to coexist or cluster. Although the link between animal cruelty and domestic violence is well publicized, little research has examined various forms of animal abuse and possible links between corresponding forms of interpersonal offenses. The present study examined a subsample obtained from the FBI's Behavioral Analysis Unit. (BAU) III - Crimes Against Children, which included the criminal histories of 150 adult males arrested for animal cruelty, neglect or sexual abuse in the U.S. between 2004 and 2009. The sample was described in terms of demographic and criminal characteristics. Results indicated that 41% of the offenders in the sample were arrested for interpersonal violence at least once, 18% were arrested for a sex offense such as rape or child molestation, and 28% were arrested for another interpersonal crime such as violating a restraining order or harassment. Significant relationships were discovered between Active animal cruelty (such as beating or stabbing) and both interpersonal violence and substance abuse as well as between sexually abusing animals and sexual offending against humans. These results point to the need for increased collaboration between animal welfare agencies and the social service and legal entities responsible for protecting domestic violence victims, children, elders, and others at risk groups.
Article
The overlapping nature of interpersonal violence and animal cruelty is well established, however historically each issue has been addressed by distinct and separate protective systems. An innovative community-based project is described that utilized crosstraining as a mechanism to foster collaboration between human services and animal control agencies. Findings are useful for professionals and community stakeholders interested in facilitating the cross-reporting of interpersonal violence and animal cruelty.
Article
We examined rates of animal abuse in pet-owning families experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). We also examined whether higher levels of IPV (as measured by subscales from the Conflict Tactics Scales) predicted increased risk for partner-perpetrated animal abuse. Our sample included 291 mother-child dyads, where the mothers sought services from domestic violence agencies. Nearly half the sample is comprised of Mexican immigrants. Mothers reported that 11.7% of partners threatened to harm a pet and 26.1% actually harmed a pet, the latter of which represents a lower rate than in similar studies. When examining animal abuse by "Hispanic status," follow-up analyses revealed significant omnibus differences between groups, in that non-Hispanic U.S.-born partners (mostly White) displayed higher rates of harming pets (41%) than either U.S.-born or Mexican-born Hispanic groups (27% and 12.5%, respectively). Differences in rates for only threatening (but not harming) pets were not significant, possibly due to a small number of partners (n = 32) in this group. When examining whether partners' IPV predicted only threatening to harm pets, no IPV subscale variables (Physical Assault, Psychological Aggression, Injury, or Sexual Coercion) were significant after controlling for income, education, and Hispanic status. When examining actual harm to pets, more Psychological Aggression and less Physical Assault significantly predicted slightly higher risk of harm. However, Mexican-born partners had nearly 4 times lower risk of harming a pet. Overall, these results suggest that Hispanic men who are perpetrators of IPV are less likely to harm pets than non-Hispanic perpetrators of IPV, particularly if Mexican-born. Considering that the United States has a significant proportion of Mexican immigrants, it may be worthwhile to explore the topics of IPV and animal abuse within this group.
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether childhood experiences with family pets are associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety in early adulthood. Undergraduate students (n =318) responded to an online survey that included questions about bonding with childhood pets, exposure to family violence and human aggression directed toward family pets in childhood, and current symptoms of depression and anxiety. Two-way ANCOVAs were conducted with a measure of childhood emotional abuse included as a covariate, and significant interactions were observed between pet bonding and exposure to aggression toward pets (pet aggression). Among participants with medium-level bonds, those who were exposed to pet aggression had significantly higher depression and anxiety scores than those who were not exposed to pet aggression. Among participants who were not exposed to pet aggression, those with medium-level bonds had lower depression and anxiety scores than those with low-level bonds. Bearing in mind the limitations of the research design, the results are consistent with the assertion that bonding with pets may support mental health and that exposure to animal cruelty may lead to the development of internalizing symptoms. The results also support the contention that both bonding with pets and exposure to pet aggression should be considered when investigating the association between experiences with pets and mental health. Interventions for the protection of children may be indicated in cases of animal cruelty. Social workers who investigate child maltreatment may be advised to refer children who are exposed to animal cruelty for counseling. Clinicians should consider addressing issues that arise from exposure to pet aggression during the therapeutic process.
Article
A growing body of literature has shown the link between domestic violence and animal cruelty, resulting in a shift in the way family violence and those who are victims of abuse are considered. There are approximately 700 shelters across the nation protecting women and their children from domestic abuse, but not companion animals. National trends indicate that most domestic violence shelters do not accommodate companion animals on site. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses were used to examine companion animal policies in California domestic violence shelters. Results indicated that shelter administrators are aware of the link between domestic violence and animal cruelty; however, they lack the resources to fully support clients with companion animals. Current best practices and recommendations highlight methods that can be used to develop broader community support for victims of domestic violence and their companion animals.
Article
The current study sought to examine the relationship between behavioral difficulties, animal abuse, and bullying among women. Five hundred female undergraduate students enrolled in Introductory Psychology completed surveys assessing animal abuse experiences, bullying behaviors, and victimization of bullying during their K-12 school years. Participants also completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire which evaluated their behavioral difficulties. Results revealed a significant relationship between animal abuse, bullying, and victimization experiences. Moreover, animal abusers displayed significantly more behavioral problems when compared to non-abusers. Results from regression analyses indicated that animal abuse, bullying and victimization were significant predictors of various behavioral issues. These results suggest that behavioral difficulties associated with female animal abusers are similar to those related to male perpetrators.
Article
Abstract Two hundred forty-four male undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory psychology class completed surveys assessing animal abuse tendencies, bullying behaviors, and victimization by bullying during their K-12 school experience. Participants also completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, which evaluated their behavioral difficulties. Results revealed a significant relationship between animal abuse and bullying and victimization experiences. Moreover, animal abusers, bullies, and victims of bullying displayed significantly more behavioral problems when compared to nonabusers, nonbullies, and nonvictims. Multivariate analysis revealed a complex pattern of main effects for animal abuse, bullying, and victimization on the SDQ subscales. In addition, a three-way interaction between animal abuse, bullying, and victimization was identified for the SDQ Conduct Problems subscale. These results can be utilized to help identify areas of psychological functioning that may be of concern for this population.
Article
The battered-child syndrome, a clinical condition in young children who have received serious physical abuse, is a frequent cause of permanent injury or death. The syndrome should be considered in any child exhibiting evidence of fracture of any bone, subdural hematoma, failure to thrive, soft tissue swellings or skin bruising, in any child who dies suddenly, or where the degree and type of injury is at variance with the history given regarding the occurrence of the trauma. Psychiatric factors are probably of prime importance in the pathogenesis of the disorder, but knowledge of these factors is limited. Physicians have a duty and responsibility to the child to require a full evaluation of the problem and to guarantee that no expected repetition of trauma will be permitted to occur.
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency with which child protection workers (CPWs) in Ontario, Canada, seek information about animal cruelty during investigations of child maltreatment and the extent to which they consider information about animal cruelty when making decisions about whether intervention is required. The CPWs (N = 78) responded to an online survey about their experiences with animal cruelty during child protection investigations in the previous year. Few CPWs routinely asked questions about animal cruelty during investigations, but those who did ask questions were significantly more likely to report disclosures of animal cruelty by children and caregivers than those who did not ask questions. Many CPWs had directly observed children and caregivers physically harming animals. Almost all respondents indicated that animal cruelty was an important factor to consider when making intervention decisions. The results suggest that CPWs should consider routinely asking children and caregivers questions about animal cruelty and observe the behavior and living conditions of family pets when conducting risk assessments. Future research should determine whether animal cruelty is a reliable indicator of exposure to family violence.
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine whether childhood animal cruelty is primarily a feature of family context or of externalizing behavior. Twenty measures of family context and proactive (fearlessness) and reactive (disinhibition) externalizing behavior were correlated with the retrospective accounts of childhood animal cruelty provided by 1,354 adjudicated delinquents. A cross-sectional analysis revealed that all 20 family context, proactive externalizing, and reactive externalizing variables correlated significantly with animal cruelty. Prospective analyses showed that when the animal cruelty variable was included in a regression equation with the 10 family context variables (parental arguing and fighting, parental drug use, parental hostility, and parental knowledge and monitoring of offspring behavior) or in a regression equation with the five reactive externalizing variables (interpersonal hostility, secondary psychopathy, weak impulse control, weak suppression of aggression, and short time horizon), it continued to predict future violent and income (property + drug) offending. The animal cruelty variable no longer predicted offending, however, when included in a regression equation with the five proactive externalizing variables (early onset behavioral problems, primary psychopathy, moral disengagement, positive outcome expectancies for crime, and lack of consideration for others). These findings suggest that while animal cruelty correlates with a wide range of family context and externalizing variables, it may serve as a marker of violent and nonviolent offending by virtue of its position on the proactive subdimension of the externalizing spectrum.
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine risk factors associated with Western Australian secondary school students’ involvement in violence-related behaviours. Design/methodology/approach – This cross-sectional study examined data collected using an anonymous self-completion questionnaire from 542 school students aged 13-17 years. The questionnaire measured risk factors associated with being a perpetrator and/or victim of violence-related behaviours. Findings – Gender was significantly associated with being a victim and perpetrator of violence-related behaviours. Males were significantly more likely than females to be a victim of threatening and physical violence at school, and to be a perpetrator of physical violence at school and in the community. Males were significantly more likely than females to watch violent media, with exposure to violent media associated with physically hurting someone at school. Students involved in greater acts of animal cruelty had increased odds of being involved in all forms of the violence measured. Research limitations/implications – Limitations such as the cross-sectional nature of the study and the small sample size are noted, along with suggestions for future research. Practical implications – Implications of the research for practitioners working with adolescents, with a particular focus on the school setting, are discussed. Originality/value – Most previously published research on adolescent involvement in violence has been conducted outside Australia, and as such, may not be directly applicable to the experiences of young people in Western Australia.
Article
This study examines the intra- and intergenerational links between intimate partner violence (IPV) and animal abuse by analyzing a national, longitudinal, and multigenerational sample of 1,614 individuals collected by the National Youth Survey Family Study from 1990 to 2004. Using multilevel random-intercept regression modeling, parents' own history of animal abuse is predictive of their later involvement in IPV perpetration and victimization, net of important controls. In turn, parents' IPV violent perpetration (but not violent victimization) is predictive of their children's history of animal abuse-measured 14 years later. Intergenerational continuity of animal abuse, however, is not significant. Implications of these findings are discussed, as are the study's limitations, and future research directions.
Article
Abstract Research examining the interpersonal interactions of those high on the Dark Triad has proliferated in recent years. Extant research, however, has not examined other types of relationships such as attitudes and behaviors towards animals. Further, there has been limited research examining the associations between personality and attitudes and behaviors towards animals generally. In this study, participants (N = 227) completed an online survey measuring the Dark Triad, attitudes towards animals, and acts of animal cruelty. The results revealed that individuals with higher levels of the Dark Triad demonstrated less positive attitudes towards animals and reported engaging in more acts of animal cruelty. Age and sex were found to be significant predictors of less positive attitudes and behaviors towards animals, independent of the Dark Triad. These results suggest that those callous and manipulative behaviors and attitudes that have come to be associated with the Dark Triad are not just limited to human-to-human interactions, but are also consistent across other interactions.
Article
The relationship between childhood cruelty toward animals and subsequent aggressive offending was explored in 1,336 (1,154 male, 182 female) participants from the 11-wave Pathways to Desistance study (Mulvey, 2013). Aggressive and income offending at Waves 1 through 10 were regressed onto a dichotomous measure of prior involvement in animal cruelty and four control variables (age, race, sex, early onset behavior problems) assessed at Wave 0 (baseline). Results indicated that childhood animal cruelty was equally predictive of aggressive and non-aggressive (income) offending, a finding inconsistent with the hypothesis that cruelty toward animals desensitizes a person to future interpersonal aggression or in some way prepares the individual for interpersonal violence toward humans. Whereas a significant sex by animal cruelty interaction was predicted, there was no evidence that sex or any of the other demographic variables included in this study (age, race) consistently moderated the animal cruelty-subsequent offending relationship. On the other hand, two cognitive-personality measures (interpersonal hostility, callousness/unemotionality) were found to successfully mediate the animal cruelty-subsequent offending relationship. Outcomes from this study imply that a causal nexus-partially or fully mediated by hostility, callousness/unemotionality, and other cognitive-personality variables-may exist between childhood animal cruelty and subsequent offending, although the effect is not specific to violence. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX-XX, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.