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Smells like teen spirit: Associations between odours and stages of life – A preliminary study

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This work investigated, whether or not non-trained individuals would assign seven selected odours from different odour groups (i.e. fruity-citrus, vanilla, floral, spicy-brown, confectionery, green and nutty) according to the concepts of life stages (i.e. kids, adolescents, adults, elderly). Naïve participants were recruited from four different age groups: (i) kids 6-10 years of age, (ii) adolescents 11-20 years, (iii) adults 21-65 years, and (iv) seniors older than 65 years. Results show that six out of seven odours were significantly assigned to a specific life stage by the total of participants. The majority of the participants associated the odours confectionery and vanilla with the kids’ group; floral and spicy-brown to the adults’ group and green and nutty to the group of elderly people. No odour was clearly assigned to the adolescents’ group. These assignments are largely consistent across the investigated age groups, although seniors seem to be less discriminant than the other groups. In contrast to other odours, fruity-citrus seems to be assigned differently by the different age groups. The data reveal small gender effects indicating that female test persons assigned the floral odour more often to their own age group and vanilla odour to kids more frequently compared to male participants. A positive correlation between odour identification and the liking was found, showing that odours correctly identified by the participants were liked significantly more compared to not identified odours. Furthermore, individuals who disliked a specific odour, assigned this odour more frequently to the senior age group compared to individuals liking the same odour.
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Smells like teen spirit: Associations between odours and stages of life - a preliminary study
Lukas Danner1,2, Martin Wendelin3, Elisabeth Buchinger4, Eva Derndorfer5, Dorota Majchrzak6,
Susanne Maunz7, Barbara Siegmund8*, Klaus Duerrschmid9
1 University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt, Department of Food Science, Zeiselgraben 4,
A-3250 Wieselburg, Austria, lukas.danner@gmail.com
2 The University of Adelaide, School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, PMB 1, Glen Osmond SA
5064, Australia
3 Symrise Austria, Heiligenstädterstraße 31/3, A-1190 Wien, Austria,
martin.wendelin@symrise.com
4 Sensorikum OG, Bonygasse 13/2/15, 1120 Vienna, A-Austria,
elisabeth.buchinger@sensorikum.at
5 Eva Derndorfer - sensory consultant, Sonnergasse 4/19, A-1120 Vienna, Austria
eva@derndorfer.at
6 University of Vienna, Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Althanstraße
14, A-1090 Vienna, dorota.majchrzak@univie.ac.at
7 FH Joanneum, University of Applied Science, Institute of Dietetics and Nutrition, Kaiser-Franz-
Josef-Straße 24, A-8344 Bad Gleichenberg, susanne.maunz@fh-joanneum.at
8 Graz University of Technology, Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Food Chemistry, NAWI
Graz, Stremaygasse 9/II, A-8010 Graz Austria, barbara.siegmund@tugraz.at
9 University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU), Department of Food Science and
Technology, Muthgasse 18, A-1190 Vienna, Austria, email: klaus.duerrschmid@boku.ac.at
*…corresponding author
Preprint of Smells like teen spirit: Associations between odours and stages of life - a preliminary
study in Food Quality and Preference, 59, 150-155
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2017.02.016
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Abstract
This work investigated, whether or not non-trained individuals would assign seven selected odours
from different odour groups (i.e. fruity-citrus, vanilla, floral, spicy-brown, confectionery, green and
nutty) according to the concepts of life stages (i.e. kids, adolescents, adults, elderly). Naïve participants
were recruited from four different age groups: (i) kids 6-10 years of age, (ii) adolescents 11-20 years,
(iii) adults 21-65 years, and (iv) seniors older than 65 years. Results show that six out of seven odours
were significantly assigned to a specific life stage by the total of participants. The majority of the
participants associated the odours confectionery and vanilla with the kids’ group; floral and spicy-
brown to the adults’ group and green and nutty to the group of elderly people. No odour was clearly
assigned to the adolescents’ group. These assignments are largely consistent across the investigated
age groups, although seniors seem to be less discriminant than the other groups. In contrast to other
odours, fruity-citrus seems to be assigned differently by the different age groups. The data reveal small
gender effects indicating that female test persons assigned the floral odour more often to their own
age group and vanilla odour to kids more frequently compared to male participants. A positive
correlation between odour identification and the liking was found, showing that odours correctly
identified by the participants were liked significantly more compared to not identified odours.
Furthermore, individuals who disliked a specific odour, assigned this odour more frequently to the
senior age group compared to individuals liking the same odour.
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Key words:
Odour-age associations; Smell and concept of life stages; Conceptual associations of odours
Highlights
Non-trained individuals associate selected odours with specific life stages.
Liked odours are more often associated with kids and adolescents, and non-liked odours with
the group of elderly persons.
There is a positive correlation between the identification rates of odours and their liking.
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1. Introduction
Perceiving sensory aspects of food is the starting point of a process, which influences and modulates
our behaviour. We stop eating, we continue eating, we eat faster, slower, less or more and so on. But
what happens between the initial step of perception and the final behaviour? How are objects, in our
case food products, represented in our perceptional system? Object representation is often described
in three aspects: (i) percept (what the object is), (ii) concept (what it means), and (iii) affective reaction
(how much pleasure or reward it brings) (Carey, 2009; Thomson, 2015). These three aspects result in
motivation for a certain behaviour and the behaviour itself. As a consequence, conceptualisations of
sensory perceptions are important steps in the behaviour control process.
All objects have conceptual content, often referred to as ‘associated meaning’ (Carey, 2009).
Individuals come to assign meaning to particular objects through personal experience and through
learning from others (Thomson & Crocker, 2014). Recently, it has been proposed that some aspects of
associated meaning may also be acquired innately (Carey, 2009). Thomson (2010) explains the
apparent richness of the conceptual content of an object by its nature. Conceptualisations - although
infinitely diverse - can be reduced to three broad categories: functional (e.g. will refresh me’, will
wash my clothes cleaner’), emotional (e.g. ‘will make me happy’, ‘will annoy me’) and abstract (e.g. ‘is
trustworthy’, ‘is feminine’) conceptualisations. However, in case abstract conceptualisations finally end
up in either emotional or functional conceptualisations, Thomson (2010) suggests describing
conceptualisation in two types, those having emotional connotations and those having functional
connotations.
There exists vast scientific literature about cross modal interactions, which are interactions between
various perceptional modalities, for example of odours with colour, taste or sound (Shimojo & Shams,
2001; Gottfried & Dolan, 2003; Sagiv & Ward, 2006; Crisinel & Spence, 2011; Maric & Jacquot, 2013;
Spence et al., 2013; Kurtz et al., 2014; Nehmé et al., 2016). Also associations of perception with
affective reactions and concepts are in the focus of research and often described in literature
(Mennella & Forestell, 2008; Thomson, 2010; Thomson, Crocker & Marketo, 2010; Gutjahr et al., 2015;
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Köster & Mojet, 2015; Meiselmann, 2015). However, to the best of the authors' knowledge, our study
is the first to investigate the association of odour perception with the concept of stages of life. Stages
of life are abstract conceptualisations, which might have emotional connotations. Childhood and youth
might be associated with positive feelings like optimism, atmosphere of departure and health, whereas
high age might be associated with depression, illness and death.
Within the last years, food industry aimed more and more to develop food products addressing specific
consumer groups. Besides other criteria like for example life style, the belonging to a specific age group
as for example the ‘generation 50plus’ has been emphasised in this context recently. The idea of
conceptualisation and the existence of products for specific age groups led us to the question if
consumers would intuitively assign food odours to the concept of life stages. If this were the case, this
would provide additional opportunities for a targeted age-related product development by age-
focused selection of food flavouring.
In order to test our hypothesis that naïve, non-trained individuals of different age would consistently
assign the four main life stages to odours, we investigated if naïve participants of four different life
stages (i.e. kids, adolescents, adults and seniors) would assign selected food related odours to four
distinct age groups (kids, adolescents, adults, elderly). In addition, the relationship between the ability
to identify smells, their familiarity, liking and conceptualisation was of interest in this study.
Relationships between familiarity and liking as well as between the ability to identify and liking were
discussed in several publications before, showing that familiarity with an odour generally leads to a
higher pleasantness rating than of unfamiliar or unidentified odours, an effect that is generally known
as mere exposure effect (Distel & Hudson, 2001; Distel et al., 1999; Nováková, Plotěná, Roberts, &
Havlíček, 2015). A probable correlation of the two assumptions (i) conceptualisation of odours in terms
of life stages and (ii) pleasantness rating depending on familiarity would open even more interesting
connecting points for the design of age related food products.
2. Material and methods
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2.1 Odour samples
For this study seven different odours were selected: fruity-citrus (lemon oil), vanilla (vanillin), floral
(linalool), spicy-brown (eugenol), confectionery (isoamyl acetate), green ((E,Z)-nona-2,6-dienal) and
nutty (2-methoxy-3-methyl pyrazine). These seven odours were chosen for the following reasons: (i)
the odours should cover a variety of flavour directions, (ii) they should cover associations throughout
all life stages (based on results from preliminary investigations; results not shown) (iii) the odours
should be commonly known food flavours or impact compounds. The number of odours was limited
to seven in order not to overburden non-trained participants, especially kids.
With the exception of lemon oil (lemon oil Italian type, 100% citrus oil), pure chemical compounds with
a purity of at least 95% were used. According to Regulation (EU) No. 872/2012, all compounds are
registered in the European Union as flavouring compounds and are authorized to be used in all
categories of flavoured foods. The pure substances were diluted in triacetin (purity > 95%) to obtain
adequate odour intensities of the solutions (0.1% solutions for (E,Z)-nona-2,6-dienal, and 2-methoxy-
3-ethyl pyrazine; 1% solutions for linalool, eugenol and isoamyl acetate; 2 % solution for vanillin). The
lemon oil was used as a 5% ethanolic solution. The ready-to-use solutions were kindly provided by
Symrise Austria. For the association task, the liking and familiarity evaluation and the identification of
odours, sniffing strips made from filter paper were dipped into the solutions and put into cellophane
covers until use.
2.2 Participants
The participants for this study were recruited from four different age groups: (i) kids 6 to 10 years; (ii)
adolescents 11-20 years; (iii) adults 21-65 years; (iv) seniors 65+ years. We aimed at a total of at least
50 persons per age group and used several recruitment approaches: 1) students at the Universities of
the involved researchers 2) scholars from available Austrian schools, 3) participants of seminars, and
4) elderly people from a residential home for senior citizens. Students were approached during lectures
and also at the University campuses to encourage participation. We were not able to give any
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incentive, so participating persons obviously had enough endogenous motivation. In total, 397 naïve
individuals participated in this survey (76 kids, 103 adolescents, 163 adults, 55 seniors). The ethic
committee of the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna confirmed that there was
no need for an official ethical approval, as all investigated compounds are registered in the EU positive
list of flavouring substances. However, the study was conducted according to the Declaration of
Helsinki. For all subjects under the age of 18 years, parents provided written consent.
2.3 General test procedure
Samples were presented sequentially monadic, coded in randomised order. To perform the test
procedure the participants were asked to take the sniffing strips out of the covers and to sniff the
offered odours. After sniffing, the participants were asked to answer questions on a paper
questionnaire, which consisted of the following two parts: (i) question for the age-associated
assignment: ‘Which age group comes into your mind first, when you smell this odour? Please choose
one.’ (kids, adolescents, adults, seniors); (ii) questions concerning the liking of the odours and the
familiarity with the presented odours. I like the odour.’ (yes/no), and I know the odour.’ (yes/no),
followed by a request to describe the odour. The questionnaire was intentionally designed very simple
and short to allow school aged children to complete the questionnaire with minimal support by adults.
The two parts of the questionnaire were randomized within the whole set of panellists in order to
avoid effects based on the sequence of questioning. However, chi-square tests showed no significant
order effects (p>0.05) on life-stage association, liking or identification frequency (results not shown).
The given descriptions were compared to a predetermined descriptor list and categorized as identified
correctly or not.
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2.4 Statistical data analysis
The data were analysed with a combination of descriptive techniques and chi-square tests with
consecutive Z-tests using Microsoft Excel 2013 (Microsoft Corporation) and SPSS 22.0 (2013, IBM
Corporation, Armonk, USA) at 5% level of significance.
To investigate whether the selected odours were associated with different life stages chi-square tests
with consecutive Z-tests were performed on the frequency data of the total cohort and for each age
group separately. Additionally, the adults’ group - as the largest group - was split by gender and the
same analyses performed to investigate gender effects. To examine whether liking/disliking influences
the assignment of odours to the selected life stages, chi-square tests were conducted for each odour.
Chi-square tests were also used to analyse the relationship between odour identification and
liking/disliking for each odour individually and pooled for all odours.
3. Results & discussion
3.1 Associative assignment of odours to specific life stages
The data obtained from the total of 397 participants are summarised from the total cohort in Table 1
and for each age group individually in Table 2. The results of the chi-square test indicate that the
odours are associated with different life stages (p < 0.001, for the total cohort and all age groups). The
consecutive Z-tests indicate that all used odours except fruity-citrus were significantly assigned to a
certain life stage by the total of participants. These assignments are largely consistent throughout the
age groups of participants, although seniors seem to be less discriminant than the other groups and
the odour fruity-citrus seems to be assigned differently by the four age groups (Tab. 2). One possible
reason for the less discriminative age group assignment, especially for floral, fruity-citrus and spicy-
brown, could be that seniors are generally regarded as less sensitive than the average adult (Doty et
al., 1984). This is also supported by the lower identification rate of seniors compared to adults (Tab.
2). However, odours like green and nutty - despite very low identification rates - were clearly assigned
to specific age groups. To explain those differences in detail further studies with more participants in
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combination with odour threshold testing are required. Results show that confectionery and vanilla
were assigned to the kids group by 48% and 42% of all participants, respectively (Tab. 1). These values
are significantly higher than the expected 25% by chance. Confectionery and vanilla flavours are widely
used for food products designed for kids. As a consequence, we suppose that participants simply
reproduced what they had learned by their own and their kids’ consuming behaviour. Floral and spicy-
brown were assigned to the adults group by majorities of 40% and 39%. Flowers are often associated
with reproduction and sexuality and therefore might be connected more closely to the adults group.
Spicy-brown is the flavour of ripeness and full development, which in terms of periods of life might be
seen closer to adults than to other life stages. Green and nutty odours were associated with seniors by
majorities of 44% and 53%, respectively. Two aspects might be the associative bridge from nutty odour
to the elderly group. Nuts are fruits of the autumn and the surface of a nut is often - in analogy to the
faces of old humans - very wrinkled. Green is also a smell of the harvest and maybe also the smell
produced by elderly people cutting the lawn of their garden. For the green odour (E,Z) nona-2,6-dienal
was chosen a compound that is representative for the odour of cucumber. It is well known that
vegetables belong to children’s least accepted food category (Caporale et al., 2009; Poelman et al.,
2015). This aversion for vegetables and the corresponding odour might probably be the reason why
the green odour is not associated with the groups of low age but rather to the group of elderly people.
Fruity-citrus was the only aroma that was not clearly assigned to any of the four age groups by the
total of participants. Only the group of adults clearly assigned it to the adolescent group (37%) and
adolescents to the kids group (36%) (Tab.2). An interesting, however, not significant observation, is,
that seniors assign fruity-citrus to adults and adolescents by the majority, adults to adolescents and
adolescents to the kids, each age group to the younger group respectively. Only kids assign fruity-citrus
to their own group by a relative majority. So fruity-citrus odour might be the smell of the respective
younger generation from the perspective of each smelling individual. Besides the aforementioned
effects, the results are very consistent across age groups.
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The data for the adult group reveal a small gender effect (Tab.3). Female test persons assigned the
floral odour more often to their own age group (50%) compared to the male group (34%). From
perfumery science, it is well known that floral odours are strongly correlated with feminine fragrances
and that most women would apply perfumes and fragrances showing floral components (Zarzo, 2015).
This behaviour may also lead to the stronger assignment of floral odour by females to their own age
group. Women also tended to assign vanilla odour to kids more frequently (45%) then men (32%), and
men assigned vanilla more often to adolescents (30%) than women did (19%). On the contrary, men
assigned nutty more often to the adult group (40%) compared to females (25%), who assigned this
odour more often to adolescents (11%) than men (2%). However, at present, we cannot offer any
explanation or evidence from other research areas for the observed gender effect.
3.2 Relationship between liking and life stage assignment
The results of this study showed a significant relation between the hedonic evaluation of the odours
and the assignment of life stages for six out of seven odours (chi-square test p < 0.05, for all odours
except confectionery, see Fig.1). When odours were disliked, they were associated more often with
the group of seniors which can be seen best for the odours nutty and green, but also holds true for the
other odours under investigation (Fig.1). On the other hand, if an odour was liked it was more likely to
be assigned to the kids group (Fig.1). Schloss et al., (2015) reported that the preference for identified
odours was strongly related to the preference for objects associated with this odour. The fear or
unpopularity of higher age life stage might be a reason for these correlations.
3.3 Relationship between odour identification and liking
Figure 2 shows that odours, which were identified correctly, are liked to a significantly higher
percentage than those, which weren’t identified. This relationship is statistically significant (p<0.001)
for six out of seven investigated odours; only confectionery is equally liked when identified and not
identified. The fact that odours were rated more pleasant (or in case of this study, were liked by a
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higher proportion of participants, see Fig.2) when identified compared to the same odours when not
identified was described earlier (Distel & Hudson, 2001). Recently, Martinec Novakova et al., (2015)
described a positive relationship between odour identification and affective responses for unpleasant
odours like garlic or fish but not for pleasant odours. In contrast to their findings and in agreement
with Distel and Hudson (2001), we found a positive relationship between the affective responses and
the identification rate also for pleasant odours including vanilla, fruity-citrus and spicy-brown (see
Fig.2). In our study, only the odourant confectionery is liked to the same extent no matter if it was
identified or not. All other odours were liked more (in terms of frequency) when they were identified
and liked less when they were not identified.
4. Limitations and future research directions
Even though this preliminary study shows several clear effects, it also bears several limitations. Firstly,
only seven odours were used. Since human beings are able to perceive several thousands of odours,
the investigated odours represent only a small cut-out of the whole picture. The odours (with
exception of fruity-citrus) were used in terms of adequate solutions of pure chemical compounds.
Working with such simple types of odour samples is advantageous in terms of definition of the stimuli,
but detrimental in terms of near to life considerations. Future studies might consider using more
complex aromas, which are closer to everyday food or nature. A second limitation refers to the
definition of age stages. The age stages, to which the odours had to be associated, were not defined
to the participants prior to the test. We simply used the terms ‘kids’, ‘adolescents’, ‘adults’ and
‘seniors’ hoping, that the test persons would intuitively have similar conceptions of these age stages.
However, the fact that we did not use a free association method, but probably rather guided the
participants into the direction of age associations, might be a further limitation of this study. Full
conceptional profiling might provide deeper insights regarding the importance of age associations
compared to the whole conceptualisation of odours. Furthermore, due to the limited number of
participants, gender effects were only analysed for the adult age group. However, with respect to a
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detailed segmentation within the age groups investigating gender or life style effects, the participant
number should be increased in future studies. Despite the interesting results obtained from our
investigations, this study did not gain any insight into the causes of the found associations. A way to
get ideas, why people are associating odours to age stages, would be to ask and discuss that question
with test persons in form of focus group discussions or one-on-one interviews. Although unconscious
associative processes are out of access to cognitive thinking, one might despite that fact get several
starting points to explore this background.
5. Conclusions and perspectives
The results from this study imply that associative assignments of odours to certain life stages actually
do exist for selected odours. As some associations like the association of vanilla with the kids’ group
might seem rather obvious, others were unexpected or even surprising. The finding that participants
assigned pleasant smells to the youth and unpleasant smells to the elderly might appear a bit
offending, but this matter of fact could have its roots in certain conceptions of the final period of life.
However, food industry is aiming more and more to develop products designed for specific age groups.
Knowledge about associations between specific periods of life and odours will deliver valuable
information for product development targeting specific age groups. Nonetheless, based on the results
of this preliminary study it has to be shown in future research, how stable these odour-age associations
are. Cross-cultural effects may also be expected and explored in a more complex test design.
Acknowledgement
The authors are grateful to all volunteers for participating in this study gratuitously and to Magdalena
Kaiser for conducting a huge number of interviews. Furthermore, we would like thank Symrise, Austria
for providing the odour solutions and the sniffing strips.
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Tab. 1: Assignments, liking and identification of seven odours for the total cohort. The chi-square
test was highly significant (p<0.001). Different letters indicate significant differences across
columns (z-test, p < 0.05).
Kids [%]
Adolescents [%]
Adults [%]
Seniors [%]
Liking of odour [%]
Identification rate [%]
Confectionery
48c
23b
17a
12a
74
74
Floral
13a
19b
40c
28b
65
59
Fruity-citrus
27b
31c
27b
15a
85
85
Green
9a
10a
37b
44c
40
61
Nutty
9a
11a
27b
53c
19
45
Spicy-brown
19a
17a
39b
25a
78
82
Vanilla
42d
27c
22b
9a
87
80
Total
24
20
30
26
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Tab. 2: Assignments, liking and identification of seven odours for the total cohort. The chi-square
test were highly significant for all age groups (p<0.001). Different letters indicate significant
differences across columns (z-test, p < 0.05).
Kids [%]
Adolescents [%]
Adults [%]
Seniors [%]
Liking of odour [%]
Identification rate [%]
Confectionery
38b
20ab
24ab
18a
83
62
Floral
21a
22ab
33b
25ab
71
51
Fruity-citrus
36b
24ab
25ab
16a
96
76
Green
18a
14a
29ab
38b
55
54
Nutty
14a
11a
20a
55b
28
43
Spicy-brown
29ns
25ns
29ns
17ns
78
80
Vanilla
46b
25b
16a
13a
92
75
Total
29
20
25
26
Confectionery
56c
19b
14a
11a
70
79
Floral
9a
15b
38c
39c
58
56
Fruity-citrus
34b
26b
23ab
17a
77
86
Green
10a
8a
36b
47b
32
68
Nutty
9a
13a
30b
49c
8
40
Spicy-brown
29ab
17a
36b
17a
83
84
Vanilla
40c
39c
16b
6a
88
80
Total
27
20
28
26
Confectionery
53c
24b
14a
9a
67
83
Floral
11a
18b
45c
26b
65
69
Fruity-citrus
22b
37c
29b
12a
85
93
18
Green
5a
7a
39b
48c
38
64
Nutty
6a
8a
30b
56c
18
46
Spicy-brown
9a
7a
47b
37b
75
85
Vanilla
41d
23b
27c
9a
83
85
Total
21
18
33
28
Confectionery
33b
33b
24ab
11a
80
56
Floral
16ns
22ns
42ns
20ns
69
45
Fruity-citrus
16ns
31ns
33ns
20ns
85
73
Green
9a
15a
45b
31b
42
49
Nutty
7a
16a
25a
51b
35
51
Spicy-brown
13ns
33ns
38ns
16ns
82
69
Vanilla
40b
24a
25a
11a
91
69
Total
19
25
33
23
19
Tab. 3: Assignments, liking and identification of seven odours for female and male adults. The chi-
square test were highly significant for both genders (p<0.001). Different letters indicate
significant differences across columns (z-test, p < 0.05).
Kids [%]
Adolescents [%]
Adults [%]
Seniors [%]
Liking of odour [%]
Identification rate [%]
Confectionery
54c
25b
12a
10a
65
85
Floral
9a
16ab
50c
25b
67
72
Fruity-citrus
21b
35c
31b
14a
84
93
Green
4a
10b
42c
45c
40
67
Nutty
6a
11ab
25b
57c
15
44
Spicy-brown
9a
5a
45b
40b
80
87
Vanilla
45c
19b
26b
9a
85
86
Total
21
17
33
28
Confectionery
51c
23b
19ab
8a
72
79
Floral
15a
23a
34a
28a
60
64
Fruity-citrus
25b
42c
26b
8a
87
94
Green
8a
2a
34b
57c
34
57
Nutty
6a
2a
40b
53b
23
51
Spicy-brown
9a
9a
49c
32b
64
79
Vanilla
32b
30b
28b
9a
79
83
Total
21
19
33
28
20
Figure 1: Assignments to the four age groups dependent on odour liking. Statistically
significant differences based on the results of the Chi-square test are marked with *
for p < 0.05 and with *** at p < .001.
21
Figure 2: Proportion of participants liking the odour (participants indicated if they like or dislike
the odour) depending on correct and incorrect identification of the odours. (***
denotes a statistically significant difference in liking between identifiers and non-
identifiers, p < 0.001)
0
20
40
60
80
100
% Liking
Correctly identified
Not correctly identified
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