ArticlePDF Available

SCIENTIFIC EVALUATION OF EFFECT OF YOGIC PRACTICES OVER ARDHAVABHEDAKA (MIGRAINE)

Authors:
Pradeep Kumar Pal et al / Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. 8(1), Jan Feb 2017
62
Research Article
www.ijrap.net
SCIENTIFIC EVALUATION OF EFFECT OF YOGIC PRACTICES OVER ARDHAVABHEDAKA
(MIGRAINE)
Pradeep Kumar Pal 1, Neera Saini 2*, V.N. Mishra 3, H.H. Awasthi 4
1Junior Resident, Department of Rachana Sharir, Faculty of Ayurveda, IMS, BHU, Varanasi, India
2Ph.D scholar, Department of Vikriti Vigyan, Faculty of Ayurveda, IMS, BHU, Varanasi, India
3Professor, Department of Neurology, IMS, BHU, Varanasi, India
4Professor, Department of Rachana Sharir, Faculty of Ayurveda, IMS, BHU, Varanasi, India
Received on: 05/12/16 Revised on: 26/12/16 Accepted on: 23/01/17
*Corresponding author
E-mail: palsaheb2@gmail.com
DOI: 10.7897/2277-4343.08113
ABSTRACT
A lot of ancient literature including Samhitas, texts etc. modern science literature and published material in various journals, magazines has been
studied. For this clinical study, randomly total 50 cases of Ardhavabhedaka (Migraine) were selected based on presenting complaints as described in
Ayurveda, from Neurology Medicine OPD. These 50 cases were divided in two subgroups; control and intervention consisting 25 cases in each. In
control, sub-group no medication was advised but in intervention subgroup, initially light medication of 1st order was given. Yogic practices were
done regularly twice a day (twenty minutes in morning and in evening time) for 3 months by the cases of both groups. Evaluation of symptoms and
anxiety rating scale was done monthly for three months (three follow-up) in all cases of both groups. Paired and unpaired Friedmans test, chi2 test
and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test were applied to assess changes in the quantitative variables from base line to different sequences of follow up. In
this study, most of the symptoms of Ardhavabhedaka improved in both subgroups significantly (p<0.001) but better results were observed in
intervention subgroup. Yoga practices (Nadi Shodhana Pranayama (NSP), Dhyana/meditation) affecting positively to Agya Chakra (hypothalamo-
cerebral system) improves quality of life in Ardhavabhedaka patients by improving symptoms.
Key words: Ardhavabhedaka, Pranayama, Dhyana.
INTRODUCTION
Headache is such a common complaint and can occur for so
many different reasons that its proper evaluation may be
difficult. Headaches may be of acute onset and chronic in
nature. Chronic headaches are commonly due to migraine,
tension, or depression.1 Almost all ancient Acharyas have
mentioned about the Shiro-roga of which Shirahshula
(headache) as the main symptom. Shirahshula in general is one
of the commonest complaints of the people. Exact cause is
unknown. Acharya Charaka emphasized the role of Manah
Santapa (emotional disturbance) and Rodana (Weeping) is the
etio-pathogenesis of headache.2 In present period it may produce
by overload of work related to family, occupation and job. It
becomes the result of chronicity of the psychosomatic disorders.
Many people are susceptible to headache at the time of
emotional disturbance. Headache can be initiated or amplified
by various triggers, including glare, bright lights, sounds, or
other afferent stimulation; hunger; surplus stress; physical hard
work; violent climate or barometric pressure changes; hormonal
fluctuations during menses; lack of or excess sleep; and alcohol
or other chemical stimulation. Knowledge of a patient's
susceptibility to specific triggers can be useful in management
strategies involving lifestyle adjustments.3
The term migraine refers to a syndrome of vascular spasm of
cranial blood vessels. Symptoms of migraine may include
heightened sensitivity to light and sound (sonophotophobia),
nausea, auras (loss of vision in one eye or tunnel vision),
difficulty of speech and intense pain predominating in one side
of head. Where these symptoms have almost similarity with
condition Ardhavabhedaka described in classics.4 The word
Ardhavabhedaka has two components viz. Ardha and
Avabhedaka. Ardha means half side. Thus, literal meaning of
Ardhavabhedaka is perforating or bursting out like pain in one
half of the head either right or left. Chakrapani, the
commentator of Charaka Samhita made it clear by saying
Ardhavabhedaka means Ardha Mastaka Vedana (pain in half
side of head)5. It is termed as half headache by the common
public and related as migraine in modern sciences. It is a severe
interrupted headache, teases once in 3/5/10/15 or 30 days. As
the condition one half of the head develops severe tearing and
pricking pain, giddiness and piercing pain, suddenly after a
fortnight or ten days. This should be diagnosed as
Ardhavabhedaka caused by vitiation of all the three Doshas6 but
chief involvement of Doshas are Vata and Kapha.
Nadi Shodhan Pranayama and Dhayan7
The word Nadi means 'energy channel' and Shodhana means 'to
cleanse' or 'to purify'. Therefore, Nadi Shodhana is a practice
whereby the Pranaic channels are purified and regulated. Nadi
Shodhana is also a complete practice and the higher stages
achieve the aim of Pranayama. Nadi Shodhana is practised by
alternating the inhalation and exhalation between the left and
right nostrils, thus influencing the Ida and Pingala Nadis and the
two part of brain cerebral hemispheres. This leads to control of
the oscillations of the body-mind network, bringing balance and
harmony throughout the system
.
An unbroken flow of knowledge to particular object is Dhyana.
The mind tries to think of one object, to hold itself to one
Pradeep Kumar Pal et al / Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. 8(1), Jan Feb 2017
63
particular spot, as the top of the head, the heart, etc., and if the
mind succeeds in receiving the sensations only through that part
of the body, and through no other part, that would be Dharana
(concentration), and when the mind succeeds in keeping itself in
that state for some time it is called Dhyana (meditation).
Aim of study
To assess the effect of Yogic exercise (Nadi Shodhana
Pranayama with Dhyana) over Ardhavabhedaka (migraine)
with the help of symptoms and anxiety rating scales.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Ethical clearance- This study was started after the ethical
clearance from institutional ethical committee in accordance
with ethical standards. EC registration no. is
ECR//256/Inst/UP/2014
Study Design
To study the effect of Pranayama especially Nadi Shodhana
Pranayama with Dhyana in stress induced migraine, total 50
cases of Ardhavabhedaka (migraine) were registered randomly
following diagnostic criteria as described in Ayurveda. Cases
were registered from the Neurology Medicine OPD, IMS, BHU.
These 50 cases were divided in two subgroups control and
intervention, consisting 25 cases in each.
Control- Only Yogic practices were done.
Intervention- Yogic practices practice of Pranayama (Nadi
Shodhana Pranayama) with Dhyana (meditation) for three
months with some very light medications of 1st order initially
which were withdrawn later (after one month).
Yogic practices were done two times morning and evening for
twenty minutes (Nadi Shodhana Pranayama for 10 minutes
followed by Dhyana for 10 minutes), regularly for three months.
This duration was equal in all age groups. Evaluation of all
symptoms and anxiety rating scale was done monthly for three
months (three follow-up) in cases of both subgroups. This
evaluation was done based on grade of each symptom. Grade of
symptoms and anxiety rating scale was noted before and after
Yogic practices.
During this study, all the symptoms of Ardhavabhedaka were
recorded with their grading. Along this Hamiltons Anxiety
Rating scale (HARS) grading also.
The HARS8 is one of the first rating scales developed to
measure the severity of anxiety symptoms, and is used in both
clinical and research settings. The scale consists of 14 items,
each defined by a series of symptoms, and measures both
psychic anxiety (mental agitation and psychological distress)
and somatic anxiety (physical complaints related to anxiety).
Scoring
Each item is scored on a scale of 0 (not present) to 4 (severe),
with a total score range of 056, where <17 indicates mild
severity, 1824 mild to moderate severity and 2530 moderate
to severe.
Rupa (General symptoms) of Ardhavabhedaka9
According to Charaka, the features of Ardhavabhedaka are i.e.,
severe pain in half side of the head, affecting particularly neck,
eye brows temporal region, ear, eye, and forehead. The pain is
like cutting by the sharp objects or piercing in nature aggravated
by Pragvata (fast and cold wind), sun rays and sound.
Diagnostic criteria of Ardhavabhedaka10
· Shirahshula (Headache)
· Bhrama (Vertigo)
· Bhedatoda (Pricking sensation)
· Utklesha (Nausea)
· Chardi (Vomiting)
· Duration of attack
· Frequency of attack
All the above symptoms were graded in increasing order
according to severity. (0=absent,1= mild, 2=moderate and
4=severe)11.
Diagnostic criteria for migraine12
Classical migraine
· Paroxysmal headache
· Nausea or vomiting
· Aura (usually visual)
Common migraine
· Paroxysmal headache (with or without nausea or vomiting)
· No aura
Exclusion criteria
· Patient with co-morbidity affecting mental or physical
health
· Patient with extreme age groups >65years or <15years
· Abuse of drugs and alcohol
· Patients with terminal illness or advanced state of disease
Inclusion criteria
· Patients & healthy male & female volunteers between age
group 15 65 years.
· Patients diagnosed with irregular menstrual cycle, chronic
pelvic pain and suffering with stress and anxiety.
· Patients of chronic headache with history of stress
Technique of Nadi Shodhana Pranayam 13,14
First sit in any comfortable meditation posture, preferably
Siddhasana, Siddha Yoni Asana, Padmasana or Sukhasana.
Maintain the head and spine straight. Relax the whole body and
close the eyes. Practise Yogic breathing for some time. Adopt
Nasagra mudra (nose tip position) with the right hand and place
the left hand on the knee in chin or Gyana Mudra. Close the
right nostril with the thumb. Inhale and exhale through the left
nostril 5 times, keeping the respiration rate normal.
After completing 5 breaths release the pressure of the thumb on
the right nostril and press the left nostril with the ring finger,
blocking the flow of air. Inhale and exhale through the right
nostril 5 times, keeping the respiration rate normal. Lower the
hand and breathe through both nostrils together 5 times, keeping
the respiration rate normal. This is one round. Practise 5 rounds.
The breathing should be silent. In this way, they were prescribed
with direction that they must do this breathing Nadi Sodhana
Pranayam five to ten rounds (10 minutes) per day for three
months.
Technique of Dhyana15
Patients were advised any comfortable position may be assumed
for sitting as Padmasana and Siddhasana and maintaining Chin
Mudra or Gyana Mudra. Then to keep the spine erect and the
chest lifted it. This slows down the flow of breath regulate the
activity of the brain and leads to the cessation of all thoughts.
Keep the body alert with sharp awareness. Keep the brain
passive, sensitive and silent, like the thin end of leaf, which
shakes even in a gentle breeze. Then advised to close the eyes
and look within. Shut the ears to outward sounds. Listen to the
inner vibration and follow them until they merge in their source.
Any lack of awareness in the eyes and ears creates fluctuation in
the mind. In the real sense Dhyana is the integration of the body,
mind, intelligence, will, conscious, ego and the self. The mind
Pradeep Kumar Pal et al / Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. 8(1), Jan Feb 2017
64
acts as the subject and the self-object; yet in realty the self is the
subject. The end of the meditation is to make the mind submerge
in the self so that all seeking and searching to come at an end.
They were advised to stay in meditation for if they can, without
any discomfort. Then they were advised to lie in Savasanas for
5-10 minutes.
In this way, they were prescribed with direction that they must
do this Dhyana for 10 minutes per day for three months.
Statistical methods
At the end of three months comparison in grade of symptoms
was done and observations were analyzed using statistical
methods. Paired and unpaired Friedmans test, chi2 test and
Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test were applied to assess the
changes in the quantitative variables from base line to different
sequences of follow up. SPSS 16 software was used to analyze
the study. P value >0.05 indicates insignificant result and P
value<0.05 indicates significant result. P value <0.001 indicates
highly significant result.
OBSERVATION AND RESULTS
Chance of incidence of Ardhavabhedaka (migraine) is more
common in female (66%) than male (34%). In Sharirika Prakriti
(Physical constitution) Vataja-Kaphaja Prakriti (60%) is the
most affected than others (VP=26% and PK=14%). Shirahsula
in intervention subgroup was absent in 4.0% cases initially and
was absent in 92% after 3rd follow up, statistically highly
significant (p<0.001). In control subgroup Shirahsula was
absent initially in 8.0% while in 80% after Yogic practices,
statistically highly significant (p<0.001) also. Bhrama in
intervention subgroup was absent in 20% initially and was
absent in 96% after 3rd follow up, statistically highly significant
(p<0.001). In control subgroup Bhrama was absent initially in
16% while in 92% after Yogic practices, statistically highly
significant (p<0.001) also. Bhedatoda in intervention subgroup
was absent in 12% initially and was absent in 84% after 3rd
follow up, statistically highly significant (p<0.001). In control
subgroup Bhedatoda was absent initially in 16% while in 32%
after Yogic practices, statistically highly significant (p<0.001)
also. Utklesha in intervention subgroup was absent in 4%
initially and was absent in 84% after 3rd follow up, statistically
highly significant (p<0.001). In control subgroup Utklesha was
absent initially in 00% while in 36% after Yogic practices,
statistically highly significant (p<0.001) also. Chardi in
intervention subgroup was absent in 24% initially and was
absent in 92% after 3rd follow up, statistically highly significant
(p<0.001). In control subgroup Chardi was absent initially in
12% while in 64% after Yogic practices, statistically highly
significant (p<0.001) also. Although in both subgroups results
were statistically highly significant (p<0.001) but on observation
better result were recorded in intervention than control.
Table 1: Distribution of 5 0 cases according to g rading of Duration of attac k
Sub Groups
No. and Percentage of cases
Within the subgroups comparison Friedman test
Grade
BT
FU1
FU3
Control (25)
0
0(00%)
02(08%)
12(48%)
χ2=70.159
p<0.001
1
02(08%)
07(28%)
05(20%)
2
10(40%)
06(24%)
04(16%)
3
13(52%)
10(40%)
04(16%)
Intervention (25)
0
0(0%)
02(08%)
19(76%)
χ2=71.170
p<0.001
1
03(12%)
11(44%)
04(16)
2
10(40%)
05(20%)
01(04%)
3
12(48%)
07(28%)
01(04%)
Between the subgroups
comparison- Chi Square test
χ2=0.240
p=0.887
χ2=1.350
p=0.510
χ2=5.290
p=0.0214
Table shows initially maximum cases were found to maximum grading in relation to duration of attack and after 3rd follow up
maximum cases were related to minimum grading in both intervention and control subgroups, showing statistically highly significant
(p<0.001) in both subgroups.
Table 2: Distribution of 5 0 cases according to g rading of Frequency of attac k
Sub Groups
Frequency of attack No. and Percentage of cases
Within the subgroups comparison
Friedman test
Grade
BT
FU1
FU2
FU3
Control (25)
0
0(00%)
04(16%)
06(24%)
13(52%)
χ2=67.344
p<0.001
1
04(14%)
08(32%)
10(40%)
06(24%)
2
08(32%)
04(16%)
04(16%)
03(12%)
3
13(52%)
09(36%)
05(20%)
03(12%)
Intervention (25)
0
00(0%)
05(20%)
09(36%)
21(84%)
χ2=68.313p
p<0.001
1
06(24%)
09(36%)
08(32%)
03(12%)
2
11(44%)
07(28%)
06(24%)
01(04%)
3
08(32%)
04(16%)
02(08%)
0(0%)
Between the groups comparison-
Chi Square test
χ2=2.060
p=0.356
χ2=2.900
p=0.235
χ2=2.510
p=0.474
χ2=6.450
p=0.040
Table shows that initially maximum cases were found to maximum grading in relation to Frequency of attack and after 3rd follow up
maximum cases were related to minimum grading in both intervention and control subgroups, showing statistically highly significant
(p<0.001) in both subgroups.
Pradeep Kumar Pal et al / Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. 8(1), Jan Feb 2017
65
Table 3: Effect in terms of Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale of 50 cases
Groups
Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HRS)
1-17=1
Mild
18-24=2
Mild to Moderate
25-30=3
Moderate to severe
BT vs. AT
Wilcoxon Signed
Ranks Test
Control (BT)
2
1
22
Control (AT)
10
12
3
BT vs. AT, Z= 1.503, p=0.208
Intervention(BT)
4
2
19
Intervention(AT)
14
10
1
BT vs. AT, Z= 2.443, p<0.001
Table shows that initially maximum cases (22) were related to maximum grading of HARS and after 3rd follow up maximum cases
were related to mild to moderate grading followed by minimum grading in control and in intervention initially maximum cases (19)
were related to maximum grading of HARS and after 3rd follow up maximum cases were related to mild grading.
This result also proved the accessory beneficial response of Yogic practices as the supportive tools of treatment.
Figure 1: Diagram of t he series of events that occur during the autonomic shift present in Yogic practices Nadi Shodhana Pa ranayama and
Dhyana
DISCUSSION
Almost all headaches are disposed to make worse by emotional
stressors, but the most frequent are vascular headache like
migraine and tension headache. Migraine headaches frequently
happen on weekends after the stress is greater than usual.
Throughout this time, there is a primary constriction of blood
vessels in the scalp, followed by more dilatation to carry out
blood for transport away lactic acid and other products formed
during the high-energy, fight or flight stage i.e. stress. The
engorged blood vessels, in turn, stimulate the nerves in the
region of them to liberate chemicals, which bring into being
inflamed. The excessively extended vessels throb as the heart
pumps, simulating adjoining tissue so that more chemicals are
produced, contributing to the pain and nausea. Biochemical
researches have made available evidence for confident
physiologic characteristics in migraineurs, which have been
projected as predisposing factors for Migraine as platelet
serotonin (5-HT) metabolism, platelet activation, and augmented
sensitivity to nitric oxide (NO) donors, reduced levels of
metabolic enzymes, nonstandard opiate receptor purpose, and
electro-encephalographic (EEG) abnormalities.16
In the present study, maximum registered cases belonged to
female category which is also described by a lot of researches.
In the United States and wide-reaching, women have a superior
incidence of chronic pain as compared to men. Women are more
possible than men to report periodic pain, pain in manifold areas
Pradeep Kumar Pal et al / Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. 8(1), Jan Feb 2017
66
of the body, and pain that is crueler. Many chronic pain
syndromes are more common in women, including fibromyalgia
migraine headaches, irritable bowel syndrome,
temporomandibular disorder, a variety of neuropathic pain, and
others. Women have also been reported in experimental studies
to be more responsive to quite a lot of different modalities of
pain and have an inferior threshold for pain. Smith et al. report
that, in women, high oestrogen states were related with an
increase in endogenous mu opioid neurotransmission through
painful stimuli. In disparity, low oestrogen states were linked
with decline in endogenous opioids in numerous areas of the
brain and hyperalgesic responses to stimuli. The influence of
hormones on pain awareness may be one of the reasons that
gender diversity.17
Mechanisms contributing to a condition of peaceful
attentiveness consist of amplified parasympathetic constrain,
calming of stress comeback systems, neuro-endocrine release of
hormones, and thalamic generators.18 An emergent body of
proof also supports the certainty that Yoga paybacks
considerable and psychosocial wellbeing during the mechanisms
of down-regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis
and the sympathetic nervous system. As an outcome, Yoga plays
a significant role in plummeting sympathetic activity, escalating
parasympathetic activity, getting better quality of life, and
declining pain levels. As stated, there is evidence of the benefit
of Yoga in reducing pain.19 Thus grading of anxiety scale also
gets reduced along with decreased frequency of attack and
duration of attack.
CONCLUSION
The Yoga Techniques Pranayama and Dhyana directly affect
the Agya Chakra. Concentration on the Chakras while
performing Yogic practices and stimulates the flow of energy
through the Chakras and helps to activate them. This in turn
awakens the dormant areas in the brain and the corresponding
faculties in the psychic and spiritual bodies, allowing one to
experience planes of consciousness which are normally
inaccessible. These practices on stimulation of Agya Chakra
develop control and regulation over autonomic nervous system
via sifting of sympathetic to parasympathetic nervous system
and enhance relax mode of body for rest and digest.
REFERENCES
1. Stephen J. Mcphee, Maxine A. Papadakis, Eds. Ralph
Gonzales et al. Online CURRENT Medical diagnosis and
treatment. Nervous System Disorders. USA: McGraw-Hill
Companies; 2009.
2. Agnivesha, Charak Samhita, edited by Dwevedi
Lakshmidhar, Dwevedi B.K., Goswami P.K. Sutra Sthana,
Kiyantha Shirshiyadhaya, C.Su. 17/10. Varanasi:
Chaukambha Krishnadas Academy; 2013:350.
3. Pal Pradeep K, Mishra V.N., Awasthi H.H. A Scientific
Study: Regulation of Autonomic Nervous System through
Slow Breath Pranayama. J.of AYUSH: Ayurveda, Yoga,
Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy 2016;5(3):23-28.
4. Shree Vidya P, Shantharam K.S, Gajanana Hegde, Mythrey
R.C. Management of Ardhavabhedaka Vis Á Vis Migraine:
An observational clinical study. Int. J. Res. Ayurveda
Pharm. 2013; 4(6):825-830.
5. Agnivesha, Charak Samhita, edited by Dwevedi
Lakshmidhar, Dwevedi B.K., Goswami P.K. Sutra Sthana,
Na Vegandharaniyadhaya, C.Su. 7/16. Varanasi:
Chaukambha Krishnadas Academy; 2013:177.
6. Sushruta, Susruta samhita, edited by Dutt Ambika Shastri.
Uttar Tantra, Shirorogavigyaniyadhaya, S.Ut.25/15-16.
Varanasi: Chaukambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 2006:128.
7. Swami Nirjanand. Prana and Pranayam. Nadi Shodhana
Pranayama. Bihar: Yoga publication trust; 2008:233-236.
8. Hamilton M. The assessment of anxiety states by rating. Br J
Med Psychology 1959;3(2):5055.
9. Agnivesha, Charak Samhita, edited by Shastri
Rajeshwardutta, Upadhaya Yadunandan, Pandey
Gangasahaya. Siddhi Sthana, Trimarmaiyasiddhiradhaya,
C.Si. 9/75-76 . Varanasi: Chaukambha Bharti Academy;
2004:1067-1068.
10. Sushruta, Susruta samhita, edited by Dutt Ambika Shastri.
Uttar Tantra, Shirorogavigyaniyadhaya, S.Ut.25/15-16.
Varanasi: Chaukambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 2006:128.
11. Tiwari Ashutosh, Awasthi H.H, Tripathi J.S. Effect of
Chandra Nadi (Svara Yoga) Pranayama (Left Nostril
Breathing) in Patients of Raktagatvata (Essential
Hypertension). Punarnav 2014;2(3):1-10.
12. Stanley Davidson. Principles and Practice of Medicine.
Neurological Disease. 20th edition. British:Churchill
Livingstone;2006:1162.
13. Swami Nirjanand. Prana and Pranayam. Nadi Shodhana
Pranayama. Bihar: Yoga publication trust; 2008:233-236.
14. Saraswati Satyananda. Asana Pranayama and Mudra.
Pranayama. Bihar: Yoga publication trust; 2009:386-390.
15. Iyenger B.K.S. Light on Pranayama Pranayama Dipika.
Dhyana. 20th edition. Connaught place, New Delhi:Harper
Collins publishers; 2006:223-227.
16. Kumar Sunil, Nathani Neeru, Tripathi J.S. Integrative
Effect of Yogic Practices in the Management of
Ardhavabhedaka (Migraine). Punarnav 2014;2 (1):147-155.
17. Vearrier Laura. A Feminist Perspective on Gender Justice in
the Treatment of Chronic Pain. Arch. Med 2015;8(3):1-5.
18. John P.J, Sharma Neha, Sharma Chandra M. et al.
Effectiveness of Yoga Therapy in the Treatment of Migraine
without Aura: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Headache
2007; 47:654-661.
19. Sang-Dol Kim. Effects of yoga exercises for headaches: a
systematic review of randomized controlled trials. J Phys
Ther. Sci. 2015; 27(7): 23772380.
20. Uddupa K.N. A manual of Science and philosophy of Yoga.
Stress and Yoga. Vranasi: Sarvodaya Sahitya Prakashan;
1995:46-50.
21. Singh R.H. Yoga Evam Yogic Chikitsa. Yoga for health
therapy. Ist edition. Delhi: Chaukhamba Sanskrita
Pratisthan;1994:87-90.
Cite this article as:
Pradeep Kumar Pal, Neera Saini, V.N. Mishra, H.H. Awasthi.
Scientific evaluation of effect of yogic practices over
Ardhavabhedaka (Migraine). Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm.
2017;8(1):62-66 http://dx.doi.org/10.7897/2277-4343.08113
Source of support: Nil, Conflict of interest: None Declared
Disclaimer: IJRAP is solely owned by M oksha Publishing House - A non-profit publishing house, dedicated to publish quality research, while
every effort has been taken to verify the accuracy of the content published in our Journal. IJRAP cannot accept any responsibility or liability
for the si te content and articles published. The views expressed in ar ticles by our contri buting authors are not necessarily those of IJRAP
editor or editorial board members.
... Although when we analyzed the whole two variables: Yoga practice and sleep disturbance we found that Yoga practice improves sleep quality of PLH on ART we think this might be due, as other authors reported, to the observation that yoga practice reduces feeling of hopelessness, nervousness and loneliness with generally improved mood, hostility and insomnia 21,22 . Besides, it is known that every yoga class includes some time devoted to relaxation 23,24 , aware regeneration of each part of the body, which gives a strong feeling of rejuvenation and energy restoration. Practicants usually comment that this part of the class is worth like a few hours of sleep. ...
Article
Full-text available
Sleep is a physiological state of self-regulation and resting. Sleep and sleep quality in people living with HIV are altered by many factors among which are: 1) Infection-itself, 2) The diagnosis, and 3) Treatment. Yoga is known for its beneficial effects on physiologic and psychological functions, besides it improves the quality of life of people. For these reasons, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of yoga practicing on sleep quality of people living with HIV on ART. One hundred twenty five people living with HIV without antecedent of practicing yoga were invited to participate in this study and 82 people agreed to participate in systematic yoga exercises for 30 min 3 times a week in a period of 8 weeks. Participants were later randomly assigned into one of the three yoga programs (only Asanas, only Pranayama and both Asanas-Pranayama). Quality of sleep was assessed using semi-structured interview focusing on the following sleep disturbances: 1) difficulty to fall asleep, 2) sleep less than 6 hours and 3) fragmented sleep. The analysis was performed using SPSS 21 for Windows software package. Results are expressed as the frequencies of sleep disturbances at the beginning and at the end of the study among study programs. Z-test for proportion differences was employed being significant P values < 0.05. The Yoga programs resulted in proportions differences, yet not significant, between starting and ending the study among sleep disturbances. However a significant proportion difference was found between Yoga practice (any program) and sleep disturbances (any); thus, we conclude that Yoga practice improves sleep quality of people living with HIV on ART.
Article
Full-text available
PunarnaV AN INTERNATIONAL PEER REVIEWED AYURVED JOURNAL ABSTRACT: In modern era speed, accuracy and to compete others are the prime demands of mankind. To cope with these situations everybody has to face hectic and stressful life. Ardhavabhedaka (Migraine) is occurring most frequently due to adoption of faulty lifestyle, anxiety, depression, stress etc. in the busy schedule of human beings. The classical feature of this psychosomatic disease is one sided headache with giddiness and attacks occur once a week, once a fortnight, or once a month. Majority of the modern medicines, employed for treatment of this disease are limited to suppress the symptoms only. A repeated and long term use of such drugs has been found to cause serious side effects also. By the only use of medicines, it may not be possible to prevent and control this disease. Practice of Yoga could be a safe, effective and economical approach for better management of Migraine. A clinical study was conducted to assess the combined effect of selected Yogic practices (including Asanas, Pranayama, Meditation) on the symptoms of Migraine. Total 20 patients of Migraine were registered and a set of yogic practices were advised to them. 19 patients completed all the three follow-ups, each of one month intervals. Frequency change in severity grades of symptoms at different follow ups was found statistically highly significant in terms of Severity, Frequency and Duration of Migraine attack, VAS score and MIDAS.
Article
Full-text available
Headache is the most common health problem experienced by mankind. In that, around 40% of individuals worldwide are suffering from migraine headache which results in severe disabling condition. W.H.O has ranked migraine as number 19 among all diseases worldwide causing disability. According to International Headache Society, Migraine constitutes 16% of the primary headache and affects approximately 10-20% of general population (About 15% of women and 6% of men are the sufferers of migraine). Migraine can be defined as benign, recurring syndrome of headache, nausea, vomiting and/or other symptoms of neurological dysfunction in varying admixtures. The symptom complex of which similates with Ardhavabhedaka is one among the 11 types of shiroroga. The treatment protocol of contemporary science are not acceptable due to their drawbacks and they also cause drug dependence, relapse of headache within hours etc. beside this, the text Charaka samhita mentions Nasya karma as the master key for all shirorogas. So, this study has been carried out with an objective to evaluate the combined efficacy of shatahvadi taila nasya karma with Tablet Nimbadi guggulu and Mashadi kashaya in the management of Ardhavabhedaka vis-à-vis Migraine. The study had been carried out in 30 patients under a single group for a period of 30 days with pre, mid and post test. Overall assessment showed statistically highly significant results with the p value 0.000.
Article
Full-text available
[Purpose] To assess the evidence for the effectiveness of yoga exercises in the management of headaches. [Subjects and Methods] A search was conducted of six electronic databases to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting the effects of yogic intervention on headaches published in any language before January 2015. Quality assessment was conducted using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. [Results] One potential trial was identified and included in this review. The quality critical appraisal indicated a moderate risk of bias. The available data could only be included as a narrative description. Headache intensity and frequency, anxiety and depression scores, and symptomatic medication use were significantly lower in the yoga group compared to the control group. [Conclusion] There is evidence from one RCT that yoga exercises may be beneficial for headaches. However, the findings should be interpreted with caution due to the small number of RCTs. Therefore, further rigorous methodological and high quality RCTs are required to investigate the hypothesis that yoga exercises alleviate headaches, and to confirm and further comprehend the effects of standardized yoga programs on headaches.
Article
Numerous studies have explored the effectiveness of complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of migraine but there is no documented investigation of the effectiveness of yoga therapy for migraine management. To investigate the effectiveness of holistic approach of yoga therapy for migraine treatment compared to self-care. A randomized controlled trial. Seventy-two patients with migraine without aura were randomly assigned to yoga therapy or self-care group for 3 months. Primary outcomes were headache frequency (headache diary), severity of migraine (0-10 numerical scale) and pain component (McGill pain questionnaire). Secondary outcomes were anxiety and depression (Hospital anxiety depression scale), medication score. After adjustment for baseline values, the subjects' complaints related to headache intensity (P < .001), frequency (P < .001), pain rating index (P < .001), affective pain rating index (P < .001), total pain rating index (P < .001), anxiety and depression scores (P < .001), symptomatic medication use (P < .001) were significantly lower in the yoga group compared to the self-care group. The study demonstrated a significant reduction in migraine headache frequency and associated clinical features, in patients treated with yoga over a period of 3 months. Further study of this therapeutic intervention appears to be warranted.
Principles and Practice of Medicine. Neurological Disease
  • Stanley Davidson
Stanley Davidson. Principles and Practice of Medicine. Neurological Disease. 20 th edition. British:Churchill Livingstone;2006:1162.
Bihar: Yoga publication trust
  • Swami Nirjanand
  • Pranayam Prana
  • Nadi Shodhana
  • Pranayama
Swami Nirjanand. Prana and Pranayam. Nadi Shodhana Pranayama. Bihar: Yoga publication trust; 2008:233-236.
Asana Pranayama and Mudra. Pranayama. Bihar: Yoga publication trust
  • Saraswati Satyananda
Saraswati Satyananda. Asana Pranayama and Mudra. Pranayama. Bihar: Yoga publication trust; 2009:386-390.
A Scientific Study: Regulation of Autonomic Nervous System through Slow Breath Pranayama
  • Pal Pradeep
  • K Mishra
  • V N Awasthi
Pal Pradeep K, Mishra V.N., Awasthi H.H. A Scientific Study: Regulation of Autonomic Nervous System through Slow Breath Pranayama. J.of AYUSH: Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy 2016;5(3):23-28.