Effect of Type of Hay and Concentrate Level in Intake and Digestibility in Diets for Goats

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Dietary fibre contributes significantly to the balancing of nutrient requirements in goats. Dietary fibre also plays a pivotal role in goat production through its influence in and interaction with the intake and digestion of nutrients. Physiological regulation (feedback from metabolic factors) of intake is dominant in goats fed high concentrate diets, while physical fill is the predominant factor in the regulation of intake when goats were fed high-forage diets. Mediated through salivation and buffering capacity, dietary fibre intake influences mastication and rumen fermentation. In growing goats, dietary metabolizable energy density above 2.78Mcal/kg depresses intake and reduces growth rate in goats. Adequate dietary fibre is essential in producing leaner carcasses in growing goats. In high producing lactating dairy goats, dietary fibre intake plays a role in the prevention of milk fat depression. The effect is mediated through the maintenance of favorable acetate to propionate ratio in the rumen liquor, as acetate is the major precursor of milk fat. It appears that 18–20% ADF or 41% NDF is nutritionally adequate for high producing lactating dairy goats. For growing goats between 4 and 8 months of age, 23% ADF is recommended. Relationship between chewing time and dietary fibre can be defined by the equation: total chewing time (min/day)=33.11+30.13 ADF intake (%). Milk fat yield can be predicted from dietary fibre intake: milk fat yield (g/day)=115.78−0.128×ADF intake (g/day)+0.00021×(ADF intake, g/day)2.
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Integrating performance information into budgeting, managing and reporting has become a common component of good public and not-for-profit management. In many jurisdictions, efforts to do so have been under way for many years, yet progress is usually seen as slow at best. It is also clear that, while much has been learned, many challenges remain; few organizations would argue they have been completely successful. The paper argues that implementing results-based management-type initiatives is difficult because to do so impacts throughout an organization. Many of the key challenges are organizational challenges rather than technical: implementing resultsbased management is not primarily a measurement problem. A discussion is provided of 12 key challenges to results-based management, identifying the challenge, noting the experience others have had in relation to the challenge and providing lessons and suggestions for dealing with them.
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This study was conducted to determine the effect of hay level in the finishing ration for lambs on intake, digestibility, nitrogen retention, mastication and ruminal parameters. Twenty Pelibuey growing male lambs, weighing an average of 36 kg, were assigned to one of the four treatment groups according to a completely randomized arrangement. Treatments were: 0, 10, 20 and 30% chopped hay. Dry matter (DM) intake increased linearly (P < 0.05) with an increase in hay percentage from 0 to 30% in the ration. There was a 38% difference in DM intake between lambs consuming the ration without hay and that with 30% hay, corresponding with DM intake of 61.1 and 84.8 g/kg0.75. Rumination time varied from 2.4 h per day in lambs fed the ration without hay to 6.9 h per day in lambs fed the ration with 30% hay. Eating time varied from 1.5 to 2.9 h, and increased as the quantity of hay in the ration increased. DM digestibility was 85.5, 79.9, 67.5 and 66.6% for 0, 10, 20 and 30% hay ration, respectively. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility was 59.4, 58.2, 42.5 and 35% for 0, 10, 20 and 30% hay ration, respectively. Digestibility of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) decreased linearly from 94.2% for the ration without hay to 86.6% for the ration with 30% hay. Retained N (%) decreased linearly (P < 0.01) as the hay in the ration increased, probably related to less readily available energy. Ruminal pH increased linearly (P > 0.01) as the hay in the ration increased. Concentration and molar percentage of acetate increased linearly (P < 0.01) as hay level in the ration increased, while propionate concentration decreased.
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This study attempts to describe the semi-extensive goat farming sector in Andalusia (south of Spain) and to establish characteristics. Eighty-nine goat farmers were surveyed in three areas of this region. The survey examined all aspects of the systems, from socio-economy to management. A multivariate analysis (multiple correspondence and cluster) was used to determine the different farm characteristics. Most of the goat farms studied are single-worker or family managed. The farmers lack training and are elderly, so that continuity of the activity is not assured, although newcomers are usually young. All the farms have some area in ownership, although the farms most specialized in dairy goat products are the smallest in both ownership and total area. The roads are generally in good condition, except on farms with little land, situated in areas of the sierra. Machine-milking installations, closely related to the presence of infrastructures and of goats with a dairy tendency, are generally lacking, (this aspect is improving day by day). Artificial nursing is less generalized than machine-milking. Farms specializing in milk production, whose main activity is dairy goat farming, have dairy specialized breed or crossbred (milk and meat) goats. Feeding depends largely on grazing, with little area being cultivated to produce feed for the goats. Little distinction is made for the production level. Olive or acorn tree branches (Quercus ilex spp.) are used as feedstuff, depending on the types of tree predominating in the area. Five farm types were established, the differences depending on 14 variables of socio-economic aspects, level of production, infrastructure and installations, and feeding. Generated information from this study entails an advance into knowledge of goat farming systems in the Mediterranean area (where little information is generated). The relevance of this study is important since Andalusia has 40% of goats in Spain that produce more than half of the total goat milk in the country, which points out the socio-economical importance for most depressed areas in the region. This work supposes previous steps for improving the semi-extensive goat farming sector. From a methodological point of view, the discussion on variable types and utility establishes farm type characteristics.
El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la incidencia de la proporción de maíz molido, sobre el pH ruminal, la degradabilidad in situ de la materia seca (MS) y de las fracciones de la pared celular del heno de alfalfa. Se utilizaron cabras cruzas criolla con Anglo Nubian fistuladas(n=8). El diseñó consistió en un cuadrado latino (4x4) replicado. Las dietas fueron heno de alfalfa 100% (D0); heno de alfalfa y maíz molido 70/30 (D1); 50/50 (D2); 40/60 (D3). El consumo de MS se ajustó al 3% del peso vivo. Se determinó el pH ruminal y la degradabilidad in situ de la MS, de la fracción fibra detergente neutro (FDN) y fibra detergente ácido (FDA) del heno de alfalfa a las 24 y 48 h. Las áreas bajo las curvas de pH aumentaron linealmente con la concentración de maíz molido en la dieta (p< 0,05) y los tratamientos D2 y D3 difirieron de D0 (p< 0,05). La degradabilidad in situ de la MS del heno de alfalfa aumentó linealmente con la concentración de maíz molido (p< 0,05) a las 24 h de su incubación, igualándose a las 48 h (p>0,05). El aumento de maíz molido provocó una disminución lineal de la FDN y FDA a las 48 h (p<0,05), no observándose diferencia a las 24 h de su incubación (p>0,05). La utilización del almidón aportado por el maíz molido como fuente energética, produjo disminución del pH ruminal y menor utilización de la FDN y FDA.
1.(1) It was possible to alter and maintain the rumen pH of three sheep given hay and three given concentrate by the continuous infusion of various amounts of an acid solution (H2SO4:HCl:H2PO4; 1:1:1, w/w) and a bicarbonate solution (NaHCO3 (66%):KHCO3 (34%), w/w), respectively.2.(2) Reduction of the rumen pH (to 6.0–6.1) in sheep given roughage led to the inhibition of cellulolysis and partial destruction and washout of the rumen microflora. Dry matter degradation in the rumen and dry matter intake were also depressed.3.(3) Increasing the rumen pH of sheep offered the concentrate diet did not greatly alter the rumen microflora nor did it increase cellulolysis, dry matter degradation or dry matter intake.4.(4) It appears that both the type of substrate present in the rumen and the rumen pH have important effects on ruminal cellulolytic activity.
The effects of addition of a sorghum grain-based mixture on the digestion of mature and immature hays were evaluated on four female goats, fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulae. The goats were fed four diets, consisting of immature alfalfa-grass hay, mature alfalfa-grass hay, and a 1:1 mixture of a grain sorghum and soybean meal with mature or immature hay. Ruminal pH was lower (p<0.05) in the grain-hay diets than in the hay diets, but did not differ between immature and mature hay diets. Ruminal (p=0.12) and total tract dry matter (DM) and starch digestibilities were higher (p<0.05) in the immature than mature hay-based diets. Grain sorghum addition did not affect the amount or proportion of DM digested in the rumen. The NDF digestibility coefficient in the numen did not differ between diets containing 0% or 50% grain. The ADF digestibility coefficient was not affected by grain. Digestibility coefficients of DM and starch in the total tract were increased (p<0.01) by incorporation of sorghum grain to the hay diets. Total VFA concentrations were greater (p<0.05) in diets containing immature hay than mature hay. Hay maturity did not affect molar proportions of ruminal acetic, propionic or butyric acids. Grain sorghum addition decreased the molar proportions of acetic and propionic acids (p<0.01) but increased butyric acid (p<0.01). The acetate:propionate ratio was greater (p<0.05) in goats fed hay-grain than hay diets at 0 and 2h after feeding. Grain addition to the hay diets increased ruminal ammonia concentration at feeding (p<0.05). Neither maturity nor grain addition affected duodenal flow of ammonia, bacterial, undegraded fed-N or microbial efficiency. It was concluded that supplementation with as much as 50% grain sorghum to an alfalfa-grass hay did not negatively affect fiber digestion.
Two forages, maize stover silage (MS) and alfalfa hay (AH) were combined with 0, 30 and 60% of three types of concentrate either rich in rapidly degradable starch (RS), slowly degradable starch (SS), or rich in digestible fibre (DF). Treatment effects and interactions were compared in terms of organic matter (OM), holocellulose (SC), non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) and starch digestibility in the stomach and the whole tract. Mean intakes of OM, SC, NSC and starch were 925, 472, 270 and 224 g day−1, respectively. Mean digestibilities were 47.8, 59.0, 43.5 and 78.7%, respectively, in the stomach and 68.1, 63.9, 78.5 and 96.1%, respectively, in the whole tract. The precision of the estimates of stomach digestibility was lower than that of the whole tract. Significant treatment interactions were observed at the whole tract level except for the combination AH/DF. The influences of the level of concentrate on stomach and whole tract digestibility were parallel only when diets included RS and DF. In the case of SC digestion, large interactions were observed with MS-mixed rations contrary to AH-mixed ones. For the MS diet, there was good agreement between stomach and whole tract estimations. There was no influence of concentrate level on whole tract NSC digestibility, and no general relationship between stomach and whole tract NSC digestibilities. The use of whole tract digestibility to evaluate or quantify ruminal digestive interactions could be an inaccurate criterion. A specific feed effect must be taken into account when linking stomach and whole tract digestion of OM and SC.
Intake and digestibility of feeds by ruminants are influenced by characteristics of the feed, animal and feeding situation. Integration of these characteristics in mathematical models is critical to future progress in forage evaluation and optimal formulation of diets for ruminants. The physiological and physical theories of intake regulation can be described by simple mathematical equations. These equations indicate that intake is a linear function of animal characteristics, such as body weight and production level, and a reciprocal function of feed characteristics, such as fill effect and energy content. Theoretical equations were developed to predict intake when the neutral detergent fiber and energy content of the diet and the energy requirements of the animal are known. The theoretical model also can be used to predict the maximum intake that will maintain a given level of animal production by solving the physiological and physical intake equations at their intersection. Psychogenic intake regulation, which is related to the animal's behavioral response to factors not related to physiological or physical characteristics, can be described mathematically as a multiplier. Digestibility can be predicted by summing the contents of ideal nutritive entities in feeds, which have true digestibilities near 100%, subtracting their associated endogenous losses and adding the variable digestible fiber content. Steady-state models indicate fractional rates of digestion and passage can be used to define ideal nutritive entities and predict digestibility over a range of kinetic characteristics. The steady-state solutions are particularly useful in understanding and predicting the depression in digestibility associated with changes in rates of passage at high levels of feed intake.
Thirty wether lambs (52.5 +/- 1.5 kg) were used in a replicated 3 x 5 factorial treatment arrangement and four periods to determine dietary intake and digestibility of three ground forages with increasing levels of supplemental ground corn. Forages were a mature, low-protein grass hay (LQH; 5.2% CP), an immature, medium-protein grass hay (MQH; 10.2% CP), and an immature, high-protein grass hay (HQH; 14.2% CP). Supplementation treatments were no supplement (NS), a protein supplement (PS), protein plus .25% BW of corn (LC), protein plus .5% BW of corn (MC), and protein plus .75% BW of corn (HC). Crude protein intake (1.4 g/kg BW) from supplements was equalized with soybean meal and corn gluten meal. Lambs were housed in metabolism crates. Supplements were fed at 0700 each morning after orts from the previous day's feeding were removed. Hay was subsequently offered at approximately the previous day's consumption plus 25%. Each of the four periods lasted 21 d. Sixteen days were allowed for diet adaptation. Feces were collected with fecal bags during d 17 to 21. Lambs receiving LQH and PS had higher forage (P < .04) and total DMI (P < .001) than lambs fed LQH and NS. Corn supplementation decreased forage intake (quadratic effect; P = .08), total intake (quadratic effect; P = .08), and increased apparent DM digestibility (linear effect; P < .04) with lambs receiving LQH. Protein supplementation did not affect forage or total DMI (P > .11), and corn supplementation did not affect total DMI (P > .20) with either MQH or HQH.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
The in vivo digestibility and the rates of degradation and passage of alfalfa hay (AH) and vetch straw (VS) were compared in three Granadina goats and three Segureña wethers fed at approximately maintenance level, using a change over design. The nylon bag technique was used to estimate the fractional rate of degradation of the feeds in the rumen. The fractional outflow rate of hay and straw particles was determined with chromium as a marker. No significant differences in the digestibility coefficients of nutrients between animal species were found. Nitrogen retention expressed as coefficients of both nitrogen intake and digested nitrogen was lower (P < 0.01) in goats than in sheep when VS was offered. There was no significant difference between goats and sheep in the effective degradability (measured at outflow rates in the range of 0.027 to 0.032 h-1) of dry matter (DM) for either forage. However, the effective degradabilities of the neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and crude protein (CP) of VS were lower (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively), in goats than in sheep. The degradation rates of DM, NDF and CP were not significantly different (P > 0.05) between goats and sheep. Also, the fractional rate of passage of particles from the rumen was not different (P = 0.056) between species, although there was a tendency for an increased outflow rate in goats. In a second experiment the effects of animal species, type of diet and frequency of feeding on rumen fermentation pattern were studied following a factorial design. Four goats and four wethers were used. They were randomly allocated to three dietary treatments: AH, VS or a 50:50 mixture of AH and VS (AH/VS). Rations were offered in two or three meals daily and samples of rumen content were obtained at 09.00, 11.00, 13.00, 15.00, 17.00 and 19.00 h. No difference in rumen pH was found between goats and sheep. Total volatile fatty acids and ammonia concentrations were higher (P < 0.001) in sheep than in goats. The molar proportions of acetate and isovalerate were higher (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively) in goats than in sheep, whereas the opposite was true for the molar proportion of n-butyrate. Feeding frequency had a slight effect on the rumen parameters measured. It is concluded that only minor differences in the digestive capacity and rumen activity of sheep and goats can be expected when they are fed on medium quality forages.
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