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The anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of clove oil in healthy dogs after surgery

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The current study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties of clove oil in dogs. So thirty adult male dogs were used. After a surgical incision on the abdominal area, animals were divided into four group. The first group received 25 mg/kg of clove oil while the second group was considered as a control. The third and fourth groups received betamethasone (20 mg/kg) and phenylbutazone (15 mg/kg) as anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic agents, respectively. All injections were performed for five consecutive days. All tests (measurement of edema, complete blood count, histopathology, and rectal temperature) were performed on all groups. Our results showed that in the clove oil-treated animals, the amount of edema was significantly decreased as compared to control (P ≤ 0.05). The number of white blood cells, neutrophils and band neutrophils was decreased in clove-oil treated dogs as compared to control (P ≤ 0.05). There was no significant difference in the number of red blood cells and hematocrit between clove-oil treated and vehicle-treated groups (P > 0.05). Rectal temperature significantly decreased in the clove oil-treated group as compared to control (P ≤ 0.05). Histopathology revealed that the clove oil-treatment significantly reduced the inflammation. We showed that clove oil administration has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties in dogs.

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... Rodrigues et al. (2009) [74] found that clove oil and eugenol inhibited the macrophage production of IL-1β and IL-6 by ELISA. Nikoui et al. (2017) [63] reported the antiflammatory and antipyretic activity of clove oil in dogs. Clove oil treatment showed decrease in band neutrophils, neutrophils and white blood cells as compared to control (p<0.05) but no effect on hematocrit and red blood cells. ...
... Rodrigues et al. (2009) [74] found that clove oil and eugenol inhibited the macrophage production of IL-1β and IL-6 by ELISA. Nikoui et al. (2017) [63] reported the antiflammatory and antipyretic activity of clove oil in dogs. Clove oil treatment showed decrease in band neutrophils, neutrophils and white blood cells as compared to control (p<0.05) but no effect on hematocrit and red blood cells. ...
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Syzygium aromaticum (Family Myrtaceace) commonly called clove is most important and second valuable spice in world trade and is widely cultivated in North Maluku Islands in Indonesia. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometery (GC-MS) studies of essential oil revealed the presence of eugenol as major compound. Phytochemical analysis of essential oil showed the presence of saponins, alkaloids, flavanoids, glycosides, tannins and steroids. The essential oil of S. aromaticum possess various biological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal, herbicidal, nematicidal, antitumor and anti-inflammatory. This review covers the phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of cloves, it's essential oil and various extracts.
... Banerjee et al. [83] have reported that Clove oil emulsion can substitute chemical based topical products for anti-inflammatory and wound healing applications. Nikoui et al. [84] have also reported that clove oil administration has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties in dogs after surgery. Leem et al. [85] have reported that, among the volatile distillate extracts of 8 herbal medicines, the distillate extract of cloves exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity (IC 50 = 8.85 μg/mL) and COX-2 inhibitory activity (inhibition rate was 58.15% at 10 μg/mL concentration), whereas 15-LOX inhibitory activity (inhibition rate was 86.15% at 25 μg/mL concentration) was the second highest after Angelica. ...
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All over the world, Plants have found to be a valuable source of herbs and spices for a long period of time to maintain the human health. Varieties of herbs and spices have been used to impart an aroma and taste to food for last few centuries. Several applications of plants species have been reported as antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antihypertensive and antimicrobial activities. Currently efforts are focused on their scientific merits, to provide science-based evidence for their traditional uses and to develop either functional foods or nutraceutical behavior. India is well recognized all over the world for their variety of herbs, spices and medicinal biodiversity. The WHO has listed more than 21000 plants, which are used for their medicinal purposes either in the form of essential oil or in the form of flavor. Among these, more than 2500 species and herbs are found in India, however; among them more than 150 species are used commercially on large scale. In India, the use of spices and herbs in the form of essential oil or in the form of flavor are traditionally used in routine treatment. For example, Curcumin which is found in turmeric are frequently used in medical facilities to wound healing, rheumatic disorders, and gastrointestinal symptoms etc.
... Data from previous studies with rabbits demonstrate treatment of fever with eugenol [54]. In addition, it has been reported that eugenol can inhibit COX-2, the main enzyme in the fever process [56]. ...
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Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is a spice widely used for its medical properties, though the species lacks scientific evidence regarding its toxicity and biologic effects. The aim of this study was the chemical identification by GC-MS analysis and evaluation of the hemolytic, anticoagulant, antidiarrheal and antipyretic activities of the essential oil from S. aromaticum (EOSa) in adult male mice. Essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and provided 9.8% v/w yield. GC-MS analyses allowed the identification of nine constituents, with eugenol (84.63%) as the majority. EOSa was diluted in several concentrations (0.005-2 mg/mL) for hemolytic assays, showing hemolytic activity above 20% in concentrations higher than 0.625 mg/mL. Different concentrations of EOSa induced a coagulation time 100% higher than control blood. 50 and 100 mg/kg of EOSa caused additional intestinal motility induced by castor oil by 90-100%. Fever, induced by Saccharomyces cerevisae 15% (s.c.), was controlled by 50 and 100 mg/kg EOSa (p.o.), effects similar to 100 mg/kg dypirone. Results showed that when used orally, EOSa may have a certain degree of toxicity in high dosages, but with antipyretic and intestinal motility properties.
... Similarly, anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extract of S. aromaticum in carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats has been reported with significant decrease in the edema at efficacy rates of 79.41, 82.39 and 63.92 % at the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight at 2 nd , 4 th and 6 th h, respectively (Saeed et al., 2017). Nikoui et al. (2017) studied the anti-inflammatory effect of clove oil in thirty adult male dogs which were divided into four groups after surgical incision on abdomen. They reported that in the clove oil (25 mg/kg) treated animals, there was significant decrease in edema as compared to control dogs. ...
... It shows the activity of eugenol as anti-inflammatory agent in essential oil of clove. The mechanism of eugenol as anti-inflammatory was inhibit the expression of COX-2 in macrophage-stimulated LPS and reduced production leukotrienes as mediator inflammation [20,21]. There was a significant difference between positive control and formula group. ...
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Background : The optimal concentration of essential oil of clove in absorption base ointment as anti-inflammatory has been studied. The developmentof formulations can be done by adding oleic acid and propylene glycol as enhancers. The purpose of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatoryactivity of the essential oil of clove in absorption base ointment formula by adding a mixture of oleic acid and propylene glycol as enhancers.Methods: In this study, the composition of oleic acid and propylene glycol was 100% oleic acid (FI), 50% oleic acid and propylene glycol (FII), and100% propylene glycol (FIII). The profile of the anti-inflammatory activity essential oil of clove was carried out using male of mice Balb/C strain whichwas induced inflammatory with croton oil on back of skin. After treatment, it was sacrificed and then was taken the back of skin to get histopathologicalpreparation. After that, the epidermal thickness, number of inflammatory cells, and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression can be measured.Results : Based on the results of the test, it shows that FIII has the smallest of the amount of COX-2 expression, the number of inflammatory cells, andthe epidermal thickness so the addition of the composition enhancer provides good anti-inflammatory activity.Conclusion: The increasing concentration of propylene glycol caused the raising activity of essential oil of clove as anti-inflammatory.
... Interestingly, Nassar et al. (2007) reported the remarkable antioxidant activity after treatment with S. aromaticum extract. Moreover, Nikoui et al. (2017) reported the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties after clove oil treatment. In another study, Lambert and Elias (2011) reported remarkable antioxidant and pro-oxidative effects of C. sinensis polyphenols, resulting in cancer prevention. ...
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... However, most of the currently available drugs have significant long-term debilitating side-effects. Therefore, new nutraceutical or pharmaceutical anti-inflammatory products are urgently needed, and in fact they are heavily investigated [4,5]. ...
Chapter
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A crude MeOH extract of Syzygium aromaticum (clove) exhibited preferential growth-inhibitory activity against Gram-negative anaerobic periodontal oral pathogens, including Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia. By means of bioassay-directed chromatographic fractionation, eight active compounds were isolated from this extract and were identified as 5,7-dihydroxy-2-methylchromone 8-C-beta-D-glucopyranoside, biflorin, kaempferol, rhamnocitrin, myricetin, gallic acid, ellagic acid, and oleanolic acid, based on spectroscopic evidence. The antibacterial activity of these pure compounds was determined against Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces viscosus, P. gingivalis, and P. intermedia. The flavones, kaempferol and myricetin, demonstrated potent growth-inhibitory activity against the periodontal pathogens P. gingivalis and P. intermedia.
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Spices and vegetables possess antioxidant activity that can be applied for preservation of lipids and reduce lipid peroxidation in biological systems. The potential antioxidant activities of selected spices extracts (water and alcohol 1:1) were investigated on enzymatic lipid peroxidation. Water and alcoholic extract (1:1) of commonly used spices (garlic, ginger, onion, mint, cloves, cinnamon and pepper) dose-dependently inhibited oxidation of fatty acid, linoleic acid in presence of soybean lipoxygenase. Among the spices tested, cloves exhibited highest while onion showed least antioxidant activity. The relative antioxidant activities decreased in the order of cloves, cinnamon, pepper, ginger, garlic, mint and onion. Spice mix namely ginger, onion and garlic; onion and ginger; ginger and garlic showed cumulative inhibition of lipid peroxidation thus exhibiting their synergistic antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of spice extracts were retained even after boiling for 30 min at 100 degrees C, indicating that the spice constituents were resistant to thermal denaturation. The antioxidant activity of these dietary spices suggest that in addition to imparting flavor to the food, they possess potential health benefits by inhibiting the lipid peroxidation.
Article
The insecticidal and fumigant activities of Cinnamomum cassia (Blume) bark-derived materials against the oak nut weevil (Mechoris ursulus Roelofs) were examined using filter paper diffusion and fumigation methods and compared to those of the commercially available Cinnamomum bark-derived compounds (eugenol, salicylaldehyde, trans-cinnamic acid, and cinnamyl alcohol). The biologically active constituent of the Cinnamomum bark was characterized as trans-cinnamaldehyde by spectroscopic analysis. In a test with the filter paper diffusion method, trans-cinnamaldehyde showed 100 and 83.3% mortality at rates of 2.5 and 1.0 mg/filter paper, respectively. At 2.5 mg/paper, strong insecticidal activity was produced from eugenol (90.0% mortality) and salicylaldehyde (88. 9%), whereas trans-cinnamic acid revealed moderate activity (73.3%). At 5 mg/paper, weak insecticidal activity (50.0%) was produced from cinnamyl alcohol. In a fumigation test, the Cinnamomum bark-derived compounds were much more effective against M. ursulus larvae in closed cups than in open ones. These results indicate that the insecticidal activity of test compounds was attributable to fumigant action, although there is also significant contact toxicity. As a naturally occurring insect-control agent, the Cinnamomum bark-derived materials described could be useful as a new preventive agent against damage caused by M. ursulus.
Article
In this work we studied the local anaesthetic activity of beta-caryophyllene, one of the main components of clove oil obtained from the dried flower-buds of Syzygium aromaticum (Myrtaceae family). We compared its activity to a chemically related compound, caryophyllene oxide. Anaesthetic activity was evaluated in vivo in the rabbit conjunctival reflex test and in vitro in a rat phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparation. Beta-caryophyllene (10(-4) - 1 microg/ml), but not caryophyllene oxide, was able to reduce drastically, in a dose-dependent manner, the electrically evoked contractions of the rat phrenic hemidiaphragm. In the rabbit, conjunctival reflex test treatment with a solution of beta-caryophyllene (10-1000 microg/ml) allowed a dose-dependent increase in the number of stimuli necessary to provoke the reflex. As in the in vitro results, caryophyllene oxide was ineffective also in the in vivo test. In conclusion, these data evidence the local anaesthetic activity of beta-caryophyllene, which appears to be strictly dependent on its chemical structure.
Article
Anticandidal activity of carvacrol and eugenol, the major phenolic components of oregano and clove essential oils, respectively, were tested in vivo. Efficacy evaluation of carvacrol and eugenol in the prophylaxis and treatment of experimental vaginal candidiasis was performed in immunosuppressed rats. The anticandidal activity was analysed by microbiological and histological techniques and was compared with that of nystatin. Microbiologically, prophylactic treatment with carvacrol eradicated the vaginal fungal burden of infected rats, whereas eugenol reduced the number of colony counts of Candida albicans in vaginas of infected rats by 98.9% 10 days after inoculation. Therapeutic treatment for 7 consecutive days with carvacrol was able to eradicate the vaginal candidal burden in 7/9 of the infected rats and reduced the number of colony counts of C. albicans in vaginas of the two remaining rats by 98%. Treatment with eugenol completely cured 2/9 of the infected animals, but the 7/9 still infected showed an 84% reduction of colony counts of C. albicans in their vaginas. Histologically, in all treated rats, no Candida organisms were found in the lumina of the vagina; this was in contrast to control groups in which many yeasts, strongly stained with periodic acid-Schiff, were observed. The results obtained with nystatin used at 10-fold minimal inhibitory concentration confirm the validity of this model. Carvacrol and eugenol could be considered as promising products in the treatment of vaginal candidiasis. This work is a preliminary contribution to the development of a new generation of efficient and natural antifungal agents for curative treatment and prophylaxis.
Article
Induction of cytotoxicity and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation by 4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol (eugenol, EUG), 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol (MMP), 3,3'-dimethoxy-5,5'-di-2-propenyl-1,1'-biphenyl-2,2'-diol (bis-EUG) and 3,3'-di-methoxy-5,5'-dimethyl-1,1'-biphenyl-2,2'-diol (bis-MMP) were investigated in HL-60 leukemia cells. The 50% cytotoxic concentrations (CC50) for EUG, MMP, bis-EUG and bis-MMP were 0.38 mM, 0.38 mM, 0.18 mM and 0.20 mM, respectively. DNA fragmentation was induced most strongly by bis-EUG, followed by EUG, MMP and bis-MMP. The expression of MnSOD and, less strongly, Cu/ZnSOD activity, as assessed by acrylamide gel electrophoresis, was inhibited by EUG, suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction. The expression of the mRNAs for MnSOD and Cu/ZnSOD in HL-60 cells, as assessed by RT-PCR, was significantly inhibited by treatment with 1 mM EUG for 1 hour. Furthermore, inhibition of SOD mRNAs expression by EUG was strongly potentiated by the addition of 5 mM N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or glutathione (GSH), whereas NAC or GSH alone did not affect the expression of SOD mRNAs. The cytotoxicity of EUG was significantly enhanced by high concentrations of NAC or GSH, which may be attributed to the inhibition of SOD mRNAs expression by the synergistic action of EUG and GSH or NAC. The regulatory effects of eugenol-related compounds on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression in RAW 264.7 cells were investigated by Northern blot analysis. Bis-EUG, MMP and bis-MMP inhibited COX-2 gene expression at concentrations of 300 microM, 500 microM and 500 microM, respectively. In contrast, no inhibitory effect of EUG was found over the wide concentration range of 10-500 microM, possibly as a result of the extensive mitochondrial dysfunction induced by this compound, which possesses potent pro-oxidative activity. Eugenol-related compounds, particularly bis-EUG, may act as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-like compounds.
Article
This study was designed to examine the chemical composition of essential oil and the in vitro antibacterial activities of essential oil and methanol extracts of Ziziphora persica. The inhibitory effects of essential oil and methanol extracts of Ziziphora persica were tested against 98 laboratory strains belonging to 51 bacteria species by using disc-diffusion assay and micro-broth dilution methods, respectively. GC and GC/MS analyses revealed that the essential oil predominantly contains (+)-pulegone (79.33%), limonene (6.78%) and piperitenone (4.2%). The antibacterial test results showed that both methanol extract and in particular essential oil of Ziziphora persica had antibacterial activity against a number of bacteria tested. The lowest MIC values (7.81microg/ml) were obtained with the essential oil of Ziziphora persica against Bacillus dipsauri, Corynebacterium cystitidis and Corynebacterium flavescens.
Article
The essential oil extracted from clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is used as a topical application to relieve pain and promote healing in herbal medicine and also finds use in the fragrance and flavouring industries. Clove oil has two major components, eugenol and beta-caryophyllene, which constitute 78% and 13% of the oil, respectively. Clove oil and these components are generally recognized as 'safe', but the in-vitro study here demonstrates cytotoxic properties of both the oil and eugenol, towards human fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Clove oil was found to be highly cytotoxic at concentrations as low as 0.03% (v/v) with up to 73% of this effect attributable to eugenol. beta-caryophyllene did not exhibit any cytotoxic activity, indicating that other cytotoxic components may also exist within the parent oil.
Article
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including both traditional nonselective NSAIDs and the selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors, are widely used for their anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. NSAIDs are a necessary choice in pain management because of the integrated role of the COX pathway in the generation of inflammation and in the biochemical recognition of pain. This group of drugs has recently come under scrutiny because of recent focus in the literature on the various adverse effects that can occur when applying NSAIDs. This review will provide an educational update on the current evidence of the efficacy and adverse effects of NSAIDs. It aims to answer the following questions: (1) are there clinically important differences in the efficacy and safety between the different NSAIDs, (2) if there are differences, which are the ones that are more effective and associated with fewer adverse effects, and (3) which are the effective therapeutic approaches that could reduce the adverse effects of NSAIDs. Finally, an algorithm is proposed which delineates a general decision-making tree to select the most appropriate analgesic for an individual patient based on the evidence reviewed.