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... People's level of Extraversion is also reflected in their choice of words [44,54,94]. Finally, extraverted individuals are more prone to use emojis containing hearts [123] or signifying happiness [73]. In this paper, we will leverage these personality markers to imbue chatbots with three different levels of Extraversion. ...
... "I see that your answer was very short... Could you tell me a little bit more, so I can better understand how you feel?"), and swear words such as "damn" [80] as informed by prior research. To enrich the chatbot's communication with nonverbal cues, we included emojis associated with high Extraversion, such as , , , , [73,123]. Moreover, we manipulated the chatbot's writing by integrating multiple exclamation marks (e.g. ...
... Because non-verbal behaviour tends to eclipse verbal cues [9], personality markers, such as avoiding gaze or talking quietly, are probably more powerful to convey Introversion. As personality traits were found to be associated with the use of emojis [73,123], which are commonly used as a surrogate for non-verbal cues in text messaging [127], future work could also examine the relationship between the perception of low level traits in chatbots and their emoji usage. Participants perceived the extraverted chatbot as such in the inventory and highlighted its cheerful, upbeat nature and its enthusiastic spirits. ...
... In their analysis, extraversion is inversely related to emoji use (i.e., highly extraverted individuals use fewer emoji). Marengo et al. (2017), in contrast, have investigated particular types of emoji and have found, for instance, that emoji are strongly related to emotional stability, extraversion, and agreeableness. For example, individuals scoring high on neuroticism (i.e., emotional stability) particularly favor emoji that convey strong emotions, while high scores on extraversion are linked to the use of positively connoted emoji. ...
... It has been used in at least one other study investigating relationships between emoji use and personality Frontiers in Communication | www.frontiersin.org traits (e.g., Marengo et al., 2017). Gosling et al.'s (Gosling et al., 2003) own analysis has shown that despite the brevity of the questionnaire, it is sufficient to evaluate individuals' personality traits with acceptable reliability. ...
... Thus, the question arises as to which other factors, such as personality traits, have an influence on whether or not an individual adopts another person's use of emoji. For example, as reported in previous studies, extraversion and agreeableness have been found to be related to the use of emoji (e.g., Li et al., 2018;Marengo et al., 2017), and certain constellations of personality traits have been shown to have an influence on whether or not individuals converge toward their interlocutors' speaking or writing styles (e.g., Muir et al., 2016). It is therefore critical to examine whether personality traits, such as the desire for social approvement (i.e., agreeableness), or level of extraversion also influence how likely it is that a person converges toward or diverges from another person's use of emoji and whether these constellations can explain the deviant patterns observed in some non-leaders. ...
Article
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Converging towards or diverging from an interlocutor’s speaking style (i.e., linguistic accommodation) has been investigated in many previous studies and is a highly relevant phenomenon in forensic authorship analysis. Accommodation has also been linked to personality traits, but there is still a lack of investigations of accommodation in computer-mediated communication. The present study thus aims at examining in how far emoji use is subject to accommodation in casual online interactions, and how reliable both emoji and emoticons are as markers of authorship. Further, this study is interested in finding out about connections between both emoji and emoticon use and the Big Five personality traits of agreeableness, emotional stability, conscientiousness, openness to experiences, and extraversion. The results of the analysis show that the frequency of emoji use is indeed strongly influenced by conversation partners, and that both emoji and emoticon use correlate particularly with extraversion and agreeableness. Despite the influence of conversation partners on emoji use, it can further be shown that emoji and emoticons remain valuable markers of authorship to different degrees.
... Emoji can offer an intuitive and informal way to express emotions (Walther & D'Addario, 2001) and attitudes (Dresner & Herring, 2010). They can be seen as simplifications of facial expressions or body gestures and their use is widespread (Marengo, 2017). Emoji are now part of daily life for the great majority of people, regardless of age, gender or culture (Bai, Dan, Mu, & Yang, 2019;EMOGI, 2016). ...
... One of the major limitations of explicit measures is that consumers are not always able to describe their feelings (Jaeger et al., 2013;Köster & Mojet, 2015). It has been suggested that using non-verbal emotional assessment is more intuitive than using verbal emotional terms (Jaeger et al., 2021;Marengo, Giannotta, & Settanni, 2017). But this contradicts our rather low mean usage frequencies (6%) compared to studies using verbal terms, which often report term usage frequencies around 15 -20% Schouteten & Meiselman, 2021). ...
... Although emoji are now widely used, research has indicated that individual differences in emoji use in computer-mediated communication tend to echo differences in psychological characteristics. For example, emoji have been shown to have associations with three of the five personality traits (Marengo et al., 2017). More specifically, the emoji were associated with the traits that have shown to be the most consistent links with emotions and affective processing, such as emotional stability, extraversion and agreeableness (Marengo et al., 2017). ...
Article
An increasing focus on emotion in consumer and sensory research has led to the development of many instruments to capture consumers’ emotions elicited by food, with a growing interest in the use of emoji in recent years. While emoji are considered a suitable tool to assess food-evoked emotions, it is still unclear to what extent consumers’ emotional state impacts the measurements. This study explored product-emotion associations within a single product category (dark chocolate) and assessed the effect of emotional state on the emotional profiling of chocolate using 33 facial emoji with RATA questions. The study involved 146 adult participants (mean age: 25.5 ± 5.4). Emotional state influenced the emotional conceptualization of some chocolate samples. Use of positive emoji was associated with a positive emotional state, and a similar positive correlation was found between negative/neutral emotional state and the valence related to emoji use. Nevertheless, it should be mentioned that the emotional state only impacted emotional responses of the same valence, e.g. a positive emotional state was only correlated with positive emotions and a positive emotional state was not able to decrease negative emotional responses evoked by chocolate. Further, only 5 out of 33 emoji discriminated significantly among the dark chocolate samples. This study showcases that including a measurement of emotional state when using emoji for emotional profiling can be of interest for framing the results and illustrates that emoji can discriminate between (equally-liked) products within the same product category.
... Using stickers and messengers is an act that most people perform every day, and openness is expected to not play a motivating role in the use or purchase of stickers. Indeed, studies on emojis and stickers have reported that there is no relationship between openness and usage behavior (Marengo et al., 2017;Li et al., 2018;Liu and Sun, 2020). Particularly, Liu and Sun (2020) explored bivariate correlation results between openness and reasons for using stickers, and there were no significant correlations. ...
... Finally, a person with high agreeableness tries to express positive emotions toward others with stickers. Marengo et al. (2017) investigated the relationship between personality and types of emojis and found that agreeableness is correlated with emojis depicting blushing faces, and blushing is a signal promoting positive social interactions. Liu and Sun (2020) also reported that agreeableness is positively correlated with expressing emotions, clarifying/disambiguating messages, lightening up the mood, and showing a sense of humor. ...
... However, this hypothesis is wrong, and openness is thought to be more related to external curiosity, regardless of comparison with others or the image shown to others. So, it seems that this result is the same as previous studies that explored between openness and the use of stickers (Marengo et al., 2017;Li et al., 2018;Liu and Sun, 2020). ...
Article
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Many messengers and social networking services (SNSs) use emojis and stickers as a means of communication. Stickers express individual emotions well, allowing long texts to be replaced with small pictures. As the use of stickers increased, stickers were commercialized on a few platforms and showed remarkable growth as people bought and used stickers with their favorite characters, products, or entertainers online. Depending on their personality, individuals have different motivations for using stickers that determine the usefulness and enjoyment of stickers, affecting their purchase decisions. In the present study, participants ( n = 302) who were randomly recruited from a university completed an online questionnaire assessing the Big Five personality characteristics, motivations for using stickers, and the technology acceptance model (TAM). Results using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) revealed that each personality trait affected different motivations for using stickers. Moreover, motivations for using stickers also influenced different technology acceptance variables. Finally, perceived usefulness, enjoyment, and ease of use had a positive effect on the intention to purchase stickers. This study has implications in that it is an exploratory approach to the intention to purchase stickers, which has been investigated by few prior studies, and it sheds light on the relationship between personality, motivation, and TAM in purchasing stickers. It also suggests that personality and motivation factors can be considered in personalized recommendation services.
... Moreover, numerous studies from different research areas have explored the use of emojis in Likert-type scales/surveys. Examples of such studies include those on marketing/food choice (Bacon et al., 2017;Deubler et al., 2019;Lohmann et al., 2017;Moussa, 2019;Schouteten et al., 2018;Swaney-Stueve et al., 2018), education (Alismail & Zhang, 2020), art (De Angeli et al., 2020), health (Buchanan & Niven, 2002;Setty et al., 2019), personality (Kılıç et al., 2021;Marengo et al., 2017), and vocational interests (Phan et al., 2019;Rounds et al., 2016). Although emojis are a frequently studied theme in diverse research areas, further investigation based on diverse variables, such as age, gender, and culture, is needed because research has shown that the meanings attributed to emojis can differ (Annamalai & Abdulsalam, 2017;Tigwell & Flatla, 2016). ...
... The findings of our study differ from the results of the research by Marengo et al. (2017), Phan et al. (2019) and Rounds et al. (2016). Marengo et al. (2017) explored the usage of emoji-baseḋ items instead of verbal response categories in assessing personality traits on young adults. ...
... The findings of our study differ from the results of the research by Marengo et al. (2017), Phan et al. (2019) and Rounds et al. (2016). Marengo et al. (2017) explored the usage of emoji-baseḋ items instead of verbal response categories in assessing personality traits on young adults. They found moderate-to-large concurrent validity between two formats and they concluded that their work advances the idea that emoji can be used to develop a language-independent assessment tool for personality. ...
Article
Today, emoji have become a popular option for anchoring the categories of Likert-type scales applied to not only adults but also children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of category labeling with emoji by comparing the psychometric properties of the emoji- and verbal-anchored versions of the mathematics motivation scale applied to students aged 8–11 years (grades 3, 4, and 5). The participants of the study comprised 658 students. According to the research results, students used the upper categories of the scale more intensively in the emoji-anchored version than in the verbal-anchored one. Parallel to this, the means calculated for the emoji-anchored version were found to be significantly higher. Moreover, the results of the research revealed that the verbal-anchored scale form yielded more reliable and valid measures than the emoji-anchored version.
... The study of emoji in human personality is a research field that is still in its infancy. The author is only aware of three studies that have tried to investigate associations between emoji and human personality factors or dimensions (Li et al. 2018;Marengo et al. 2017;Völkel et al. 2019). ...
... While the above-mentioned two studies focus on emoji usage in public (i.e., Twitter) and private (i.e., mobile) communication, the study by Marengo et al. (2017) was the first to have employed emoji as items in a scale to assess human personality. This study was conducted using a sample of 234 young adults, a brief Big Five personality questionnaire, and a 91-item survey (where each item is depicting an emoji) asking participants how do they recognize themselves in these emoji. ...
... This study was conducted using a sample of 234 young adults, a brief Big Five personality questionnaire, and a 91-item survey (where each item is depicting an emoji) asking participants how do they recognize themselves in these emoji. Results in Marengo et al. (2017) indicate that 36 of the 91 examined emoji were significantly related to three of the Big Five personality dimensions, namely Extraversion (e.g., , ), Agreeableness (e.g., , ), and Emotional Stability (e.g., ...
Article
Full-text available
Brand personality (BP) measurement is a research area that has been attracting a tremendous amount of attention. An examination of extant BP scales reveals that: (a) all of them gauge BP through verbal stimuli; (b) most of them were formulated in one language and tested in one country; and that (c) the majority of them were developed using Classical Test Theory and factor analytic procedures as “the” measurement framework and the method of choice, respectively. This study explores the possibility of using emoji (a new universal non-verbal language) to measure BP. It adopts a Nonparametric Item Response Theory procedure known in personality research as Mokken scaling. Data were collected from 416 respondents from 10 countries via an online 30-emoji survey assessing four global brands. Results indicate that 17 of the 30 emoji form four strong and reliable Mokken scales gauging dimensions Agreeableness, Conscientiousness/Openness, Extraversion, and Neuroticism. The proposed emoji-based scale represents a valuable measure that is suited to national as well as cross-national BP research.
... Teenagers typically use emojis on social networks as visual symbols that combine semiotics and human facial expressions to convey emotions and imply certain psychological states (Choi and Aizawa, 2019). Therefore, as important non-verbal symbols and new pictographic forms on social networks, emojis and their use imply important consequences for the social behaviors, social interactions, and even individual personality traits of college students (Marengo et al., 2017;Boutet et al., 2021;Was and Hamrick, 2021). ...
... Positive emojis (i.e., smileys), can improve the initial levels of trust within a network, which is closely related to the projection and empathy of the personality characteristics of users. According to the projection principle (Marengo et al., 2017), emojis not only reflect a user's personality traits but also dynamically constructs and shapes its image (Bai et al., 2019). In Experiment 1, the positive emoji appeared immediately after the description of the rules of the trust game, which means that trustee conveys to trustor the propensity to be intimate and cooperative. ...
Article
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Emojis are increasingly used in online communication and expression, however, most previous studies have focused on describing this phenomenon, but less on how it affects interpersonal trust relationships. Therefore, this study examines the effect of emojis on online interpersonal trust among college students through three experiments. A total of 62 college students were recruited for Experiment 1. The results demonstrated that positive emoji () improved the level of trust of trustors in the trust game [t(60) = -2.79, p = 0.007], whereas that of the control group exerted no effect on the initial level of online trust among college students. Then, 74 college students were selected for Experiment 2. The results indicated no significant differences between the experiment and control groups in terms of the influence of negative emojis () on initial online trust using. A joint analysis (via ANOVA) of Experiments 1 and 2 illustrated that the type of emoji exerted a significant effect [F(2,96) = 3.96, p = 0.02, η 2 = 0.08] on college students' online trust. Finally, we recruited 111 participants for Experiment 3 to explore the role of emojis on online trust among acquaintances. The results suggested that the individual propensity to trust plays a moderate role in the relationship between emojis and online trust among acquaintances. That is, emojis influenced interpersonal trust among acquaintances only if the level of propensity to trust, is low.
... При этом в спектре многообразия видов выражений лица улыбка считается социальным признаком, который играет решающую роль в поведении при принятии социальных решений [19]. В эпоху глобального развития интернет-коммуникаций в виртуальном пространстве стали широко использоваться эмоджи (картинки с различными видами выражения лица) [20], а смайлики (смайл от англ. «улыбка» -доброжелательные, позитивные эмоджи) -в виртуальных маркетинговых кампаниях [21]. ...
... Значок эмоджи относится к метакоммуникативным визуальным изображениям и представляет собой различные выражения лица человека, которые подразделяются на «типографские или текстовые» (например, :-) для представления улыбающегося лица) и «графические» (например, ☺) [23]. Эмоджи -это графический символ, широко используемый в онлайн-коммуникациях. Эта новая форма пиктографического языка в последнее время приобрела значительную популярность: 92% онлайн-пользователей используют его как интуитивный и неформальный способ выразить свои эмоции и отношение [20,24], причем его использование, безусловно, существенно увеличивается при неформальном общении в социальных сетях. ...
... Emojis are widely studied as non-verbal cues in text [24], carriers of emotions [7], new ubiquitous language [23], as well as sensors of cultural backgrounds [19], personality [20], and engagement [12]. ...
... That is, we select the 30 emojis with the highest proportions on GitHub compared to Twitter, ranked by their Istatistics (one-tail z-test), and denote them as GitHub-specic emojis. Third, we include the 36 emojis that are reported to be related to personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, and agreeableness of the Big-Five traits) [20]. In literature, 10 of the 36 emojis have been proposed as a promising surrogate to text-based items to assess symptoms of depression [21]. ...
Preprint
Emotions at work have long been identified as critical signals of work motivations, status, and attitudes, and as predictors of various work-related outcomes. For example, harmonious passion increases commitment at work but stress reduces sustainability and leads to burnouts. When more and more employees work remotely, these emotional and mental health signals of workers become harder to observe through daily, face-to-face communications. The use of online platforms to communicate and collaborate at work provides an alternative channel to monitor the emotions of workers. This paper studies how emojis, as non-verbal cues in online communications, can be used for such purposes. In particular, we study how the developers on GitHub use emojis in their work-related activities. We show that developers have diverse patterns of emoji usage, which highly correlate to their working status including activity levels, types of work, types of communications, time management, and other behavioral patterns. Developers who use emojis in their posts are significantly less likely to dropout from the online work platform. Surprisingly, solely using emoji usage as features, standard machine learning models can predict future dropouts of developers at a satisfactory accuracy.
... With respect to emojis, results by Coyle and Carmichael (2019) suggest that convergence in emoji use between the sender and the receiver produces positive attributions. A study by Marengo et al. (2017) reported moderate to large concurrent validity between assessments of personality traits of participants based on the emojis they selected to represent their personality and actual evaluation of those participants' personality. This research provides indirect evidence that emojis influence social attributions but does not directly address the question of whether inferences about the personality of the sender is influenced by the emotional valence of emojis as is the case for facial expressions in FtF communication. ...
... These findings are consistent with research showing that emoticons influence first impressions in socially-driven digital interactions (Byron & Baldridge, 2007;Glikson et al., 2017;Hsieh & Tseng, 2017;Wall et al., 2016). Our results are also consistent with indirect evidence that the number and type of emojis a person uses in digital platforms influence the way in which this person is perceived (Coyle & Carmichael, 2019;Marengo et al., 2017). While a negativity effect was observed with regard to perceived affect, a positivity effect was observed with regards to social perceptions because positivity in sentences also influenced feelings of warmth. ...
Article
Many emojis symbolize nonverbal cues that are used during face-to-face communication. Despite their popularity, few studies have examined how emojis influence digital interactions. The present study addresses this gap by measuring the impact of emojis on emotion interpretation, social attributions, and information processing. Participants read messages that are typical of social exchanges in instant text messaging (IM) accompanied by emojis that mimic negative, positive and neutral facial expressions. Sentence valence and emoji valence were paired in a fully crossed design such that verbal and nonverbal messages were either congruent or incongruent. Perceived emotional state of the sender, perceived warmth, and patterns of eye movements that reflect information processing were measured. A negativity effect was observed whereby the sender’s mood was perceived as negative when a negative emoji and/or a negative sentence were presented. Moreover, the presence of a negative emoji intensified the perceived negativity of negative sentences. Adding a positive emoji to a message increased the perceived warmth of the sender. Finally, processing speed and understanding of verbal messages was enhanced by the presence of congruent emojis. Our results therefore support the use of emojis, and in particular positive emojis, to improve communication, express feelings, and make a positive impression during socially-driven digital interactions.
... Although cultural differences are known to affect emoji understanding [20,21], we observed a few significant differences between countries and the overall sum of scores. In another attempt to develop an emoji-based questionnaire, Marengo et al. tested a 10-item emoji-based instrument in order to assess depressive symptoms [22]. Based on the data collected from 1430 young adults, they found that 33 out of 36 emojis had significant correlations with the 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. ...
Article
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Background Hand hygiene is universally recognized as a cornerstone measure for the prevention of healthcare-associated infections. Although the WHO “My five Moments for hand hygiene” poster has been used for more than a decade to delineate hand hygiene indications and promote action, adherence levels among healthcare workers are still notoriously low and disquieting. To compensate for the lack of effective hand hygiene communication, we aimed to evaluate emojis as possible surrogates for the non-verbal aspects of hand hygiene behaviour. Methods Following a thorough review of the Unicode version 12.0, the most applicable emojis to the terms used in the WHO 5 Moments poster were extracted. We developed a self-administered questionnaire to assess the view of infection prevention and control (IPC) practitioners regarding the use of emojis to show the WHO 5 Moments. Completed questionnaires were collected and analysed to determine the suitability of the existing emojis to illustrate a unified emoji poster. Data were analysed using R (version 3.6.3). Results A total of 95 IPC practitioners completed the questionnaire from May to October 2019 from different countries. Of these, 69 (74%) were female, and the mean age of the participants was 44.6 ± 10.87 years. We found appropriate emojis for six of the words used in the poster, including "Image missing" for touching (72%), "Image missing" for patient (63%), "Image missing" for clean (53%), "Image missing" for procedure (56%), "Image missing" for body fluid (58%), and "Image missing" for exposure risk (71%). The existing emojis proposed for the words “hygiene”, “aseptic”, and “surrounding” seemed to be less satisfactory. Conclusions In summary, the findings of this study indicate that the existing emojis may not be able to substitute the words used in the WHO 5 Moments poster. Emojis might be helpful to address hand hygiene indications in healthcare that may eventually play a role in promoting this measure. However, emojis should be further studied to choose the most appropriate ones and avoid ambiguity and misinterpretation. More emojis to convey health related messages are needed. We recommend further research in this area to evaluate the effect of using emojis in healthcare-related behaviours.
... Pronouns can be analyzed in a closevocabulary approach or word counts. For example, older people prefer to use first-person [7]pronouns and traumatized people use more first-person singular pronouns [8]. In the open-vocabulary approach, the pronouns and verb tenses emphasize the speaker's attention. ...
... Marengo et al. explored the relationship between personality and the use of emojis in a different way (Marengo et al., 2017). They presented participants with a set of 91 emojis and asked to self-identify with them. ...
... The limitations of our narrative review include the exploratory nature of the search and general exclusion of publications and journals not indexed in PubMed. For example, an important study in a psychological journal not indexed by PubMed [46] by the authors of previously discussed work [9] established the rationale for the suggested linkage of an individual's self-identification with various emojis and correlations with certain Big 5 personality traits. This highlights another potential use of emojis in the health care space, and future reviews should build upon our initial survey to assess a broader scope of literature. ...
Article
Background Emoticons and emojis have become staple additions to modern-day communication. These graphical icons are now embedded in daily society through the various forms of popular social media and through users’ personal electronic conversations. With ever-increasing use and inclusivity, exploration of the possible health care and dermatology applications of these tools is imperative. Objective The goal of this narrative review was to provide and evaluate an up-to-date literature survey examining the utility of emoticons and emojis in medicine. Special attention was paid to their existing and potential uses in the field of dermatology, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods A PubMed search of peer-reviewed publications was performed in mid-2021 to collect articles with emoticon or emoji keywords in combination with other health care–relevant or dermatology-relevant keywords. Screening of publications and described studies was performed by the authors with education and research experience in health care, dermatology, social media, and electronic communication trends. Selected articles were grouped based on common subjects for qualitative analysis and presentation for in-depth discussion. Results From this extensive search, researchers were able to identify a wide variety of publications detailing the use of emoticons and emojis in general health care, pediatric health care, public health, and dermatology. Key subject areas that emerged from the investigation included the ability of emoticons and emojis to improve communication within pediatric health care, enhance mood and psychological assessment or mental health screening in adults, develop interventions to improve patient medication adherence, complement novel means of public health and COVID-19 surveillance, and bolster dermatology-specific applications. Conclusions This review illuminated the repurposing of emojis and emoticons for a myriad of advantageous functions in health care and public health, with applications studied in many populations and situations. Dermatology-specific uses were relatively sparse in the literature, highlighting potential opportunities for growth in future studies and practices. The importance of diversity and inclusivity has extended to emojis, with the recent introduction of skin color customization and new emojis better representing the comprehensive spectrum of users’ experiences. A continuously evolving and technology-driven population creates a unique niche for emoticons and emojis to ease worldwide communication and understanding, transcending the barriers of age, language, and background. We encourage future studies and innovations to better understand and expand their utility.
... records. Researchers have been utilizing emoji analysis to detect the personality and mental states of users since it gained popularity [45]. It is particularly important for criminal behavior analysis [44]. ...
Article
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Social media usage is increasing at a rapid rate. Everyday users are leaving a substantial amount of data as artifacts in these applications. As the size and velocity of data increase, innovative technologies such as Web Storage and IndexedDB are emerging. Consequently, forensic investigators are facing challenges to adapt to the emerging technologies to establish reliable techniques for extracting and analyzing suspect information. This paper investigates the convenience and efficacy of performing forensic investigations with a time frame and social network connection analysis on IndexedDB technology. It focuses on artifacts from prevalently used social networking site Instagram on the Mozilla Firefox browser. A single case pretest–posttest quasi-experiment is designed and executed over Instagram web application to produce artifacts that are later extracted, processed, characterized, and presented in forms of information suited to forensic investigation. The artifacts obtained from Mozilla Firefox are crossed-checked with artifacts of Google Chrome for verification. In the end, the efficacy of using these artifacts in forensic investigations is shown with a demonstration through a proof-of-concept tool. The results indicate that Instagram artifacts stored in IndexedDB technology can be utilized efficiently for forensic investigations, with a large variety of information ranging from fully constructed user data to time and location indicators.
... Many analysts support these views and emphasize that messages or visuals containing emojis are more effective (Novak et al., 2015) and grab the viewer's more emotional attention than those without emojis (Beattie, 2017;Daniel & Camp, 2020). These points illustrate that emojis have various special functions such as awakening emotions (Das et al., 2019), increasing positiveness, empowering self-expression (Eru & Yakin, 2019), creating-reinforcing meanings, evoking-conveying positive feelings (Bai et al., 2019), leaving positive impressions (Wibowo et al., 2017), creating intimacy, providing psycho-logical courtship (Gesselman et al., 2019), lighting the mood, establishing emotional tone (Kaye et al., 2016), displaying personality and differences (Marengo et al., 2017), capturing emotional states (De Angeli et al., 2020), activating a positive effect (Das et al., 2019) and forming interpersonal bonds (Das, 2020) in the viewers in digital social interaction networks. These functions show that emojis differentiate, deepen, and reinforce the meaning of online images or texts, thus leaving a meaningful emotional impact on the viewers during digital communication (Bai et al., 2019). ...
Chapter
Digital marketing and online social media platforms have become the cornerstones to the success of places and accommodation. This edited volume investigates the current status of digital marketing and social media utilization by both travellers and service providers and explores future digital marketing and social media research trends. - Explores the most effective digital marketing strategies and campaigns; - Investigates the current status of digital marketing and social media utilization by both travellers and service providers; - Provides a view to the future of future digital marketing and social media research trends.
... On social platforms, emojis in the text posted by users will also reflect a person's personality characteristics [17] . But due to the small amount of text containing emojis, we didn't considered emojis in this paper. ...
Conference Paper
Personality is the dominant factor affecting human behavior. With the rise of social network platforms, increasing attention has been paid to predict personality traits by analyzing users' behavior information, and pay little attention to the text contents, making it insufficient to explain personality from the perspective of texts. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a personality prediction method based on personality lexicon. Firstly, we extract keywords from texts, and use word embedding techniques to construct a Chinese personality lexicon. Based on the lexicon, we analyze the correlation between personality traits and different semantic categories of words, and extract the semantic features of the texts posted by Weibo users to construct personality prediction models using classification algorithm. The final experiments shows that compared with SC-LIWC, the personality lexicon constructed in this paper can achieve a better performance.
... Los resultados obtenidos en esta materia han confirmado la correlación entre el uso de determinadas palabras y el funcionamiento psicológico (Hirsh & Peterson, 2009;Lee et al., 2007;Pennebaker & King, 1999), el estilo cogniti-vo (Wolf et al., 2007), el procesamiento neurobiológico subyacente (Saxbe et al., 2013;Vigliocco et al., 2014) y la afección psicológica sobre experiencias traumáticas (Pennebaker, 2018;Walton & Wilson, 2018). Adicional a esta evidencia, se encuentran las iniciativas en perfilación derivada de evidencia digital (Al Mutawa et al., 2019), en particular los hallazgos sobre la correlación entre los rasgos de la personalidad de un sujeto y el uso que hace de datos digitales no textuales, por ejemplo: emoji (Hall & Penninton, 2013;Marengo et al., 2017), que aportan un corpus de conocimiento relevante para la interpretación de evidencia levantada desde distintas fuentes documentales, derivadas de la técnica de perfilación psicolingüística, aplicada a la investigación criminal (Ceballos-Espinoza, 2017b). ...
Article
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Junto al alza cuantitativa de homicidios durante los últimos años, históricamente se han registrado casos cuya investigación criminal resulta particularmente compleja. De ahí que exista una constante demanda de nuevas metodologías que permitan efectivizar los resultados del trabajo de los equipos policiales investigativos. En este escenario, la Evaluación Psicológica Reconstructiva (EPR) surge como la posibilidad de realizar una evaluación psicológica indirecta y retrospectiva, en ausencia del sujeto (víctima/victimario), orientada a explicar la posible relación entre las características psíquicas y el acto criminal. En el presente artículo se indaga sobre los aportes de la EPR dentro de la investigación criminal de homicidios; en particular, se revisan los hallazgos –reportados en la literatura científica–, que resultan de utilidad para una adecuada interpretación de la evidencia recopilada a partir de este método indirecto de evaluación. Se concluye que la EPR constituye un elemento de gran utilidad dentro de la investigación criminal de alta complejidad; además, señala la necesidad de superar las actuales barreras metodológicas, para la interpretación de la evidencia, mediante el apoyo de esta en sistemas computacionales dentro de este proceso analítico.
... Emojis have also proven to be effective in studying cognitive phenomena without the influence of language. For example, Marengo et al. (2017) asked participants to respond to a brief Big Five Personality inventory and to 91 emojis drawn from the Apple Color Emoji fontset. Findings suggest that of the 91 emojis presented participant responses to 36 were correlated with their responses to three of the five personality traits. ...
... While observing B's data, we also noticed that the most salient feature of B's messages is the abundant use of emojis (see Dainas & Herring, this volume). Literature shows that while they may be deemed inappropriate in professional contexts, emojis have been found to be capable of disambiguating the communicative intention behind messages Kaye, Malone and Wall 2017), whether they are face ones or non-face ones (Riordan 2017), and of providing insight into the users' personality with a reasonable level of accuracy Marengo, Giannotta and Settanni 2017). Combined with text messages, the application of emojis can increase information richness leading to playfulness that facilitates social connectedness and identity expressiveness (Hsieh and Tseng 2017; see also Danesi 2017; Evans 2017; Seargeant 2019; Giannoulis and Wilde 2020). ...
Chapter
The present study investigates the pragmatic strategies and effects of self-presentation performance in a social selling context either by way of status updates or through group chat in WeChat, a popular social networking platform in China. Drawing on Goffman’s (1959, 1974, 1981) outstanding research on self-presentation, frame, and footing, as well as Page’s (2010a, 2010b, 2012, 2018) exploration in digital narrative, this chapter analyzes data collected from WeChat Moments and WeChat chat logs to uncover their staged authenticity and the relative social value that it entails. The results of our analysis of both screen data and user data show that the meticulously intertwined and multimodally presented communicative acts of social selling on this particular social platform are the outcome of frame-shifting and frame-overlapping strategies on the one hand and highly crafted staged authenticity on the other. Keywords: frames, footing, self-presentation, WeChat, status update, group chat, social selling, influencer, multimodal analysis, staged authenticity, pragmatic strategy
... And experimental variables could be gender, age or mediated platform. As for theme, personality assessment [6] and interpersonal relationship [7] could be conducted via "emoji identity". Sentiment analysis accounts for the majority though statistical deviation seems to be unavoidable. ...
... Paradoxically, although emoticons are often used to express emotions in social media, little is known about how emotions are recognized from emoticons compared to other modes of expression, including photographs of facial expressions. As each system provider develops their own emoticons, research has investigated a great diversity of emoticons, sometimes after pretesting (Huang et al., 2008;Luor et al., 2010;Marengo et al., 2017;Sun et al., 2019). In practice, when people use emoticons to express emotions in text-based communications, depending on the system used, there might be a misunderstanding between sender and receiver (Miller et al, 2016(Miller et al, , 2017Miller Hillberg et al., 2018). ...
Article
The development of information and communication technologies has provided a new non-verbal channel to convey emotions using emoticons. Although a great diversity of emoticons is widely used today in text-based communications, little is known about the way emotions are recognized when using emoticons compared to other modes of expression. In a pretest and three studies (N = 1,203), ‘new’ emoticons specifically designed to represent the six basic emotions were proposed to participants who had to recognized the emotions conveyed by each. The quality of recognition was compared to other modes of emotional expression, including facial expressions. In using a between-subject design, the first two studies revealed that the emotions conveyed by ‘new’ emoticons were recognized more effectively than other modes of expression, including facial expressions. Using a within-subject design, a third study confirmed the more successful recognition of ‘new’ emoticons than other modes of expression, and with a greater intensity. For all the studies, this effect was mainly due to the negative emotions of disgust (Study 1, 2, and 3) and sadness (Study 2 and 3). These findings suggest the need to use specific emoticons to convey easily recognized basic emotions for communication technologies, and implement them in social media.
... Based on their results, the sad emoticon showed a high agreement rate with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Major Depression, fourth edition, and the use of emojis was found effective in screening for depression among patients. Marengo et al. [19] developed a 91-item questionnaire with emojis related to personality characteristics in order to assess a language-free instrument for personality. The authors involved a sample of 234 young adults online, and a brief Big-Five personality questionnaire was administered along with the emoji questionnaire to each participant. ...
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Introduction Emojis have surpassed facial expressions and they are now widely used to deliver complex concepts by representing graphical expressions in the digital platform. In this study, we endeavored to develop medical emojis for clinical signs and symptoms to be used as tools for text-based counselling. Methods The present study was conducted using the Delphi method with medical studnets and general practitioners, drawing and discussing in several repeated rounds. For this purpose, about 100 clinical signs/symptoms were considered using the ICD-10 website. Results In the present study, from one hundred signs and symptoms we reached to 85 signs/symptoms that after first round of sessions were illustrated. Out of these 85 eligible emojis, 4 cases were removed due to the lack of consensus. The rest of the emojis were finalized and prepared by the graphic designer. These emojis then were published online to collect online votes. Conclusion In this study, we could design up to 81 medical emojis presenting clinical sign and symptoms with acceptable consensus between the participants. These emojis were reasonably acceptable by our panelists in presenting the established clinical concepts.
... The second reason is that emojis are currently being used by international companies like Anheuser-Busch, Coca-Cola, Chevrolet, Disney, Nestl e, and Starbucks in their corporate communication campaigns (Leung and Chan, 2017). The third reason is that emojis are showing up both in psychological measurement (e.g., Marengo et al., 2017) and marketing research for designing more friendly and more engaging surveys (see, e.g., Bacon et al., 2017;Jaeger et al., 2017;Stevens et al., 2016). Stevens et al. (2016) were perhaps the first to suggest that emojis can be used to develop non-verbal marketing scales. ...
Article
Abstract Purpose: Though brand love is recognized as being an important marketing topic both for theory and practice, a gap still exists with regard to its operationalization. To bridge this gap, this paper proposes a single-item measure (SIM) that uses a visual rating scale (i.e., a rating scale combining verbal with nonverbal contents). Design/methodology/approach: Three studies covering over 700 respondents and examining three international brands over three product categories were conducted to test the new measure. Findings: Findings provide consistent evidence for the reliability and validity of the proposed measure. They also demonstrate that brand love, as gauged by the new SIM, is good in predicting positive word of mouth, willingness to pay a higher price, and willingness to forgive brand mishaps. Research limitations/implications: The paper focuses on brand love mainly from a measurement perspective. Practical implications: This paper provides a practical and parsimonious tool to measure brand love. Originality/value: Extant SIMs of brand love are: less than ordinal, content invalid, of unknown reliability, and of untested concurrent validity. This paper provides academics and practitioners alike with a SIM of brand love that is ordinal, content valid, and tested in terms of reliability and concurrent validity.
... With regard to social media platforms, it is possible that the differences across the content and user profiles of various platforms yield some meaningful differences in brand engagement. For instance, users might respond to the same emojis in different ways given research showing variations in individuals' responses to emojis (Chen & Siu, 2017;Marengo, Giannotta, & Settanni, 2017;Tossell et al., 2012;. ...
Article
Brands, both human and corporate, are increasingly communicating with their consumers using emojis. The current work examines if and how these pictographs shape online brand engagement on Twitter (i.e., likes & retweets). To do so, we first examine datasets generated by scraping the tweets of the most popular celebrity brands and most popular corporate brands (Study 1). This study demonstrates that emoji presence increases engagement with tweets, with more emoji leading to more likes and retweets. Two controlled experiments then explore the role of perceived playfulness in explaining this effect of emojis on engagement (Studies 2 and 3). We find that the effect of emojis on brand engagement varies depending on the nature of the interplay between emojis and text, and the subsequent effect of this interplay on perceived playfulness. Theoretical contributions and social media practitioner implications are also addressed.
... Emojis are considered the evolution of emoticons, as more expressive and more capable of conveying emotional messages [33]. They strengthen the content of the message [34] and disambiguate the communicational intent, providing information about the personality of the interlocutor [35]. Further advancements can be witnessed in Apple's introduction of memoj stickers for the iPhone in autumn 2019. ...
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Nowadays, smartphone-Mediated Communication (SMC) has become a popular form of social interactions. The present experimental study manipulated three aspects of messaging in a WhatsApp chat as a form of SMC: synchronicity (immediate vs. time-lagged response), modality (with or without emojis), and valence (empathic accurate vs. empathic inaccurate response). The aim of this study was to investigate whether these three aspects had an impact on perceived social support, interpersonal trust, and personality attribution of the communication partner. The partial mediation of perceived social presence (the evaluation of the communication partner's accessibility) and subjective social presence (the perception of being concordant with him/her) was also examined. Participants were 160 young adults, balanced in gender. They were randomly assigned to different the experimental conditions where they engaged in a manipulated WhatsApp chat with a fictitious same-gender communication partner. Post-questionnaire data were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling. Message valence (empathic accurate response) and modality (with emojis) significantly predicted higher levels of both forms of social presence. Synchronicity (immediate response) predicted higher levels of perceived but not subjective social presence. Social presence, in turn, was positively associated with social support, while subjective, but not perceived social presence, was positively associated with personality attribution. Neither perceived nor subjective social presence were related to interpersonal trust. Our results show that both what is said and how it is said impact the experience of interpersonal relations in SMC.
... Li et al. also explored the correlation between personalities and emoji usage preferences, and their experiments demonstrate that diverse personalities lead to various emoji usage patterns in emoji recommendation tasks [10]. Based on the above findings, Marengo et al. promoted the idea that emoji might be employed to develop a languagefree assessment tool for personality [11]. ...
Conference Paper
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Emojis can be seen as a visual language inserted in texts to express emotions, attitudes, and situations. It is widely used in computer-mediated communication, e.g., video comments. The emojis can express more detailed information beyond text information, and their usage can improve interlocu-tors' communication efficiency and emotions. The latest advances in natural language processing and deep learning have made it possible for chatbots to automatically add emojis in their dialogue. Precisely predicting emojis to be added is very challenging, especially in the video comments, where the use of emojis is complex, subtle, and associated with the cultural characteristics of video genres, e.g., anime and dancing. In this article, we first construct a benchmark dataset Bilibili comments dataset with more than 3.9 million comments that contain emojis in the video-sharing website Bilibili and then statistically analyze features of emoji's usage of video genre, comment content, and where an emoji appears in a sentence. According to the analyzed results and the gated recurrent unit (GRU) neural network, we propose a novel model of genre-based multitask GRU (GM-GRU) and its attention-added edition (GM-GRU+) to predict an emoji's category and position in a video comment. Our experiment and evaluation show that the proposed method can significantly increase the accuracy of predicted emojis for video comments.
... This link has been repeatedly observed in previous research (c.f. Butterworth et al., 2019;Li et al., 2018;Marengo, Giannotta & Settani, 2017). However, as soon as interaction occurs with a potential romantic interest, emoji use patterns become more flexible as users adapt their emoji patterns to test and respond to the interest of their chat partner. ...
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This study adds to research on digital interactions by exploring the role of emoji use patterns in online dating among young adults. Focus group data suggest emojis play a similar role as non-verbal behaviors do in an offline context, where coordination is used to ascertain mutual interest. The data shows how the degree of synchronization in emoji use patterns (such as frequency, types, and style) is used as a feedback tool to assess a chat partner's romantic fit. Attunement of emoji use patterns between the partners is also used to signal and gage interest, for example by using suggestive emojis to “test” the other partner's interest and intentions, or to establish a shared mood. Conversely, a lack of reciprocity is experienced as awkward or wrong and can produce insecurity and doubt. To understand this back-and-forth process of mutual suggestion and attunement, we propose a modified version of Collins’ interaction ritual model. In this model, we highlight the importance of shared interpretative schemas and interaction scripts, which set normative expectations for how emoji patterns can be used to build sexual or romantic chemistry.
Chapter
Emojis are widely used in everyday interactions. This chapter provides a systematical review of emojis in interactive marketing. First, this chapter summarized the functions of emojis from three aspects: emojis play emotional functions (expressing sentiment, strengthening sentiment, weakening sentiment, establishing emotional tone, and building social relationship) and semantic functions (substituting textual messaging and influencing sentiment processing) in sender–receiver communication, lead to positive emotional and behavioral responses (such as memory accuracy, engagement, positive affect, and high purchase intention) in brand–consumer communication, and are used to measure peoples’ emotional expressions and conceptual associations. Second, this chapter noted the factors (age, gender, language and country, relationship types) influencing using emojis. Third, this chapter examined the effects of emojis (the presence of emojis, the position of emojis, the repetition of emojis, the meanings of emojis, and the type of emojis). In summary, emojis greatly influence the interaction between the brand and consumers and connections among active consumers. Important implications, as well as limitations and future research directions, were addressed.KeywordsEmojiCommunicationFunctionInfluenceSystematic overview
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Emoji increasingly feature alongside written language in interpersonal communication. Boutet et al. (2021) showed that negative-face emoji led to a negativity effect on perceptions of message tone and senders' mood. We extended their design, considering the role of non-face emoji and the impact of text content and emoji on message clarity. We utilised a 3 (sentence valence: negative, neutral, positive) × 5 (emoji type: no emoji, negative face, neutral face, positive face, object emoji) quasi-experimental design and online survey method. Sixty participants each processed 60 stimuli counterbalanced across conditions, rating messages' emotional tone and clarity, and senders’ warmth and emotional state. Cumulative link mixed models were used to analyse responses. We found that sentence valence and emoji type interact, influencing message emotionality and clarity, and perceived sender warmth and state. The congruency of text and emoji was particularly important; results showed that incongruent emoji detracted from message clarity vs. no emoji (or congruent emoji). Congruent emoji typically amplified emotional perceptions of messages and senders. Object emoji were most influential when text was either neutral or positive. Results were consistent with models such as the EASI framework (Van Kleef, 2009), and suggest that compositionality extends to representations of text + emoji.
Chapter
Under the circumstance of continuous variation of COVID-19 virus, verified the temporariness of the vaccines made by various countries. One cannot expect permanent protection by accepting only one dose of vaccine. In order to prepare and respond to the pandemic, many countries are applying different strategies to increase vaccination rates. The WHO appeals to the world to take the vaccine booster shot for community immunity. Relevant authorities then have to provide and spread visual health messages on the booster shot to keep the public informed. This study examine how unofficial organizations can guide and persuade people to adopt relevant health actions more effectively (such as continuous vaccination) by introducing emoji with different emotional valences in different message framing. An online experiment adopted a 2 (emoji: positive versus negative) × 2 (message framing: gain framing versus loss framing) design to investigate the effects of contrary emoji on people’s self-efficacy to continuously take the booster shot. In total of 240 university students were recruited to participate in this study. Within two types of message framing, the experiment simulated 4 pieces of health messages on the COVID-19 booster shot released by an unofficial organization, together with emoji of two emotional valences. The results showed that health messages with negative emoji result in stronger self-efficacy to user. Moreover, there is an interaction effect between emoji and message framing on self-efficacy. This study is intended to provide meaningful insights for health communicators, visual designers and health practitioners concerned.
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Tourism for people with disabilities offers entertainment, improves both mental and physical health, as well as socialization and contributes significantly to improving their quality of life. The purpose of this study was to reveal, with the use of emoji, the preferences of children with disabilities regarding their participation in recreational activities during the holidays. For this purpose, an electronic questionnaire was developed, which included questions with emoji. The research sample consisted of 72 children with motor and intellectual disabilities and sensory disorders. The results of the research showed that the majority stated that they like to socialize with other children and that they would like to participate in various games and activities during their vacation. Finding new friends and avoiding the feeling of loneliness was the most important reason for their participation in recreational activities during their holidays. Their participation contributed significantly to the cultivation and maintenance of their autonomy, the prevention of depression and the development of sociability. The results of the present research can significantly contribute to the design of services provided in the field of tourism.KeywordsEmojiInformation and communication technologiesDisabilityTourismRecreational activitiesJEL ClassificationL83SportsGamblingRestaurantsRecreationTourism
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The scope of this study is to examine the relationship between message strategies and stakeholders’ responses on Facebook. Data on 20 non-governmental organizations’ Facebook pages was collected by simple random sampling to examine their communication practices on social media. It was found that those organizations were more likely to adopt Public Information (PI) model to transmit information to their stakeholders. Organizational messages based on Two-way symmetry model (TWS) can generate the greatest number of Likes which is significantly larger than Press Agentry (PA), Public Information (PI), and Two-way asymmetry (TWA) models. The multi-way (MW) model was proposed in order to extend Grung & Hunt’s framework in the digital era.
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Emotions at work have long been identified as critical signals of work motivations, status, and attitudes, and as predictors of various work-related outcomes. When more and more employees work remotely, these emotional signals of workers become harder to observe through daily, face-to-face communications. The use of online platforms to communicate and collaborate at work provides an alternative channel to monitor the emotions of workers. This paper studies how emojis, as non-verbal cues in online communications, can be used for such purposes and how the emotional signals in emoji usage can be used to predict future behavior of workers. In particular, we present how the developers on GitHub use emojis in their work-related activities. We show that developers have diverse patterns of emoji usage, which can be related to their working status including activity levels, types of work, types of communications, time management, and other behavioral patterns. Developers who use emojis in their posts are significantly less likely to dropout from the online work platform. Surprisingly, solely using emoji usage as features, standard machine learning models can predict future dropouts of developers at a satisfactory accuracy. Features related to the general use and the emotions of emojis appear to be important factors, while they do not rule out paths through other purposes of emoji use.
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Emojis are extensively used to convey emotional nuances non-verbally in computer-mediated communication. Previous studies have examined how emojis are used and how they change the expression of a sentence, as well as the subsequent impression of the reader. Regarding whether the writer’s emotion is understood correctly by readers, evidence shows that emojis can enhance specific emotions. However, the effects of variation in the kinds of sentence, emotion, and emoji on the shifting emotion conveyed have not been studied. In this study, we examined the various factors that affect the shift in emotions being communicated. Our results demonstrated that positive emotions can be communicated more correctly compared with negative emotions and that smiley emojis (a.k.a. emoticons) can communicate emotions more clearly compared with other kinds of emoji.
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p> Facebook provides users comfort in communicating even though they cannot see expressions or any other nonverbal signs, which have been an essential factor in supporting face-to-face communication. Therefore, this research is necessary because the absence of nonverbal communication, especially facial expression, touching, and gesture, renders the communication process between individuals ineffective and uncomfortable, as it was when people first used email to communicate via the internet. Through the study of Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) perspectives, nonverbal communication, Social Presence Theory and Lack of Social Context Cues theory, this paper will discuss forms of nonverbal communication in the digital era. This study is based on research conducted by researchers using the netnography method and carried out through literature studies. The research was conducted on the Muslim community Bening Society on Facebook because the communication between them is very intense, as required in netnography. The loss of nonverbal communication in interpersonal communication does not, in fact, reduce netizens’ comfort in communicating and interacting. The emergence of digital emoticons and nonverbals is a substitute for nonverbal communication because digital emoticon and nonverbal functions in mediated interpersonal communication are the same as nonverbal communication. </p
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em> Defined as an easy and automated way of expressing emotions in the digital age, emojis are emerging as a new language in the social media world and sports clubs also. For sports clubs, it is of vital importance to communicate and establish effective relations with fans or followers. Hence, almost all professional sports clubs use social media and shape their social media accounts to interact with fans/followers and effectively maintain marketing communication efforts. The aim of this study was to determine the content of emoji usage in tweets of Turkish sports clubs (Besiktas JK, Fenerbahce SK, Galatasaray SK, Istanbul Başakşehir FK, Trabzonspor SK). Since Twitter is one of the most heavily used social media networks of sports clubs, so in this study was preferred . Content analysis method was used to examine emojis used by sports clubs. The study found that sports clubs use emojis that create positive and neutral connotations. Emojis used are heavily determined to be visuals depicting the colors and symbols of sports clubs. The study is the first to examine sports clubs' emojis used. Hence, the study included important results for the management of communication and marketing strategies of sports clubs on social media. </span
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The importance of effective remote communication is currently being emphasized as education moves from offline to online due to acceleration of the Untact Era (a contact-free society). In this study, we analyze the hindrances to effective distance learning, observe the effect on users of communicating through Expressive Avatar (EA), and suggest effective ways to use EA. First, through a questionnaire, 84% of the respondents quantitatively demonstrated experiencing a psychological burden due to exposure of their faces, in addition to low concentration during remote classes. Second, through in-depth interviews, they were found to prefer to replace their images with two- and/or three-dimensional avatars and believed that the avatars’ unique characteristics were important. Content using EA is expected to contribute to improved quality in distance learning by reducing psychological burden and promoting transmission of emotions.
Thesis
Les émoticônes sont souvent utilisées dans les environnements numériques pour transmettre des émotions. Bien qu’une grande diversité d’émoticônes existe, on sait peu de choses sur la façon dont elles transmettent des émotions par rapport à d’autres modes d’expression, et peu d’études se sont intéressées à leur utilisation dans un contexte scolaire. Dans cette thèse, quatre études (N = 291) ont été réalisées pour concevoir de « nouvelles » émoticônes représentant de manière non ambigüe les six émotions de base, trois études (N = 957) ont cherché à comparer la qualité de reconnaissance des émotions à partir de ces « nouvelles » émoticônes par rapport à d’autres modes d’expression, et notamment les expressions faciales. Une dernière étude a examiné la façon dont ces émoticônes sont utilisées sur une webradio par des collégiens (N = 204). Les résultats ont montré que les « nouvelles » émoticônes véhiculent les émotions plus efficacement et plus intensément que les expressions faciales et les émoticônes de Facebook et iOS. Cette meilleure reconnaissance est principalement due aux émotions négatives de dégoût et de tristesse. L’implémentation de ces « nouvelles » émoticônes sur la Wikiradio© Saooti a permis d’étudier leurs usages en contexte scolaire. Les résultats ont montré que, indépendamment du genre des élèves, l’utilisation de l’émoticône véhiculant la joie a été privilégiée pour exprimer les émotions à l’égard des émissions réalisées par des pairs. Ces résultats suggèrent la nécessité de concevoir des émoticônes spécifiques pour transmettre de manière non ambigüe des émotions dans les environnements numériques et étudier leurs effets sur les comportements.
Chapter
Depression is one of the most common and growing mental disorder advancing at a very fast pace. Despite of the availability of medication and cure, a number of people yet to receive such treatment due to the lack of information regarding the symptoms and occurrence of the depression. Here we propose a text based information systems for the diagnosis of symptoms of depression based on machine learning algorithms. This systems works on textual data collected from different social media sources or search engine queries like FaceBook, Twitter, Google Search and YouTube etc. and analyze them against a system trained with depressive sentiments with different machine learning based algorithms. The systems classify the queries with stress and without stress. A comparative analysis is conducted to evaluate the performance of different ML algorithms in the domain of subject.
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Emoji is now a popular inclusion in technology-mediated communication and a part of everyday expression of users. Yet, there is a dearth of scientifically designed research studies focussing on the human implications of the use of emojis. Limited systematic inquiry in this area is restricted to technical studies focussing on algorithm analysis of humongous quantitative data ignoring the people who are posting these emojis. Therefore, in the present study, an attempt is made to study the use of emojis from an individual’s behavioural perspective borrowing from the classic ‘contagion theory’ and the ‘information-signal theory’. A mixed research approach was adopted to study young university student’s emoji usage behaviour. Focus group discussion (FGD) was conducted on 11 participants with an average age of 22.5 years. The discussion was transcribed and thematic analysis was then conducted from which a survey instrument was developed which was administered to 250 university students. These survey data were then analysed using exploratory factor analysis. Results show that social media platforms, linguistic pattern, social relationships, emotional connect and level of formality and gender emerged as important factors that drive emoji usage. The findings of the study indicate the psychological implications and socio-behavioural impact of emoji usage which can be used for creating regulations and norms. What appears to be casual pictorial supplement of textual messages holds the power to be developed as a stand-alone language which could impact the usage of language-dependent communication.
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Abstract The present study explores the young consumers’ perception regarding the usage of emojis in social media marketing and also examines the effect of gender and internet usage pattern on the usage of emojis. A quantitative approach was used to collect data through a questionnaire and the research was conducted in India. Three hundred sixty (360) people were answered closed and multiple-choice questions out of four hundred two (402) people, in order to quantify the weight of emojis in the consumer’s mind. The perception of young consumers was assessed with the help of EFA, Independent t-test and one- way ANOVA. Results showed that the overall perception of young consumers towards usage of emojis in social media marketing is positive and they find it entertaining, full of humour, personalised, easy to understand and convincing in nature. In addition, gender also affects the perception of young consumers. Women are more attracted towards emojis as compared to men. This paper features the ways in which marketers can get a chance to gain advantage from emojis in social media to reach their consumers. It also makes a noteworthy contribution to quantify or make a notice towards the rapidly emerging tool of marketing. Furthermore, it discusses the importance of emojis in current situation of pandemic covid-19. Keywords: Emojis, Social media marketing, Perception, Young generation, Gender, Internet usage
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Data sets from seven original trait taxonomies from different languages, American English, Dutch, German, Hungarian, Italian, Czech, and Polish, are used for a crosscultural study. The taxonomic procedures, involving culling trait terms from the various lexicons and the construction Of representative samples of trait terms, are briefly discussed. Factor structures, presumably Big Five structures, within these languages, based on ratings from an average of about 640 subjects on an avenge of approximately 430 trait variables per language, are used for comparison. Congruence coefficients are calculated for the corresponding factors in the different languages, based on their independent positions and on their positions after rotations, using the American English solution as target In a relative sense, the congruences show replicability of the first four American English, Big Five factors in the other languages.
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The second edition of this comprehensive volume presents methods for nonverbal assessment of diverse individuals, such as persons with speech or hearing deficits, limited English skills, or emotional problems. Chapters provide a contemporary context for nonverbal evaluations, accompanied by descriptions of best practices in detecting bias in cognitive tests, multicultural assessment, cross-battery assessment of nonverbal cognitive ability, and psychological and physiological influences on assessment. The book discusses nonverbal assessment of cognition and intelligence as well as related domains, such as academic skills, neurocognitive functioning, personality, and behavior issues. Guidelines for using common nonverbal assessment tools and strategies feature the most up-to-date information on administration and scoring, psychometric properties, and strengths and limitations. Best practices for testing diverse children and adults and using reliable, valid, and fair assessment instruments are emphasized throughout the book. Featured instruments in the Handbook include: • The Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test, Second Edition (UNIT2). • The newest version of the Leiter International Performance Scale (Leiter-3). • The Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability (WNV). • The Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence, Second Edition (CTONI-2). • The Test of Nonverbal Intelligence. • The General Ability Measure for Adults (GAMA). The Second Edition of the Handbook of Nonverbal Assessment is a must-have resource for researchers and graduate students in school and clinical child psychology, speech and language pathology, educational technology, social work, and related disciplines as well as clinicians, professionals, and in-service educators of diverse students.
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This chapter describes some salient physiological and psychological influences on multicultural and nonverbal assessment. Obviously, examinees who require nonverbal assessment, those from culturally diverse settings and those with emotional problems and/or language deficits, may behave in ways that are different from mainstream examinees and those who present no language-related problems. Examiners who are sensitive to these differences, to the psychological impact of the testing environment, and the impact of biology on test behavior will be more successful in reducing construct-irrelevant variance in test scores and in obtaining more accurate estimates of intellectual, educational, and emotional functioning. In particular, examiners should determine whether the examinee’s physiological condition is optimal for testing; one particularly salient consideration is the extent to which medications have been administered to examinees before testing, and the dosage level; this information should be included in the psychoeducational report. In addition, if an examiner suspects that an examinee is under the influence of illicit drugs the session should be terminated until the examinee is drug free. Examiners who are aware of the conditions under which tests are administered, who can relate the impact of these influences to the success or failure of the child in the testing session, and who can extrapolate the impact of these influences to the school and home will be more successful in accurately describing performance levels and potential of the examinee, and ultimately in helping teachers and parents help children.
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Jose is very smart, but you would not know that by observing him in class. His first-grade teacher says he just sits in class with a lost look on his face. During instruction times, he seems to want to participate, but he quickly loses interest and then starts to misbehave. The teacher has to tell him things repeatedly, and he seems not to understand. So it was quite a surprise to find out that Jose scored 128 (97th percentile) on a nonverbal test of ability! How could that be? The answer is that Jose has both a problem with intermittent hearing loss and limited English-language skills. This has resulted in poor communication skills and failure to follow what is going on in the classroom—when he does hear. This case illustrates the real advantage of a nonverbal test of general ability—to identify children’s level of ability overcoming, in this case, the impediment of limited English-language skills and hearing problems that can pose a considerable obstacle to accurate assessment. In fact, nonverbal tests have been used to overcome limited English language since the early 1900s (Yoakum & Yerkes, 1920).
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In this article we examine the role of appeasement in human emotion, social practice, and personality. We first present an analysis of human appeasement. Appeasement begins when the conditions of social relations lead one individual to anticipate aggression from others, is expressed in submissive, inhibited behavior, which in turn evokes inferences and emotions in others that bring about social reconciliation. Our empirical review focuses on two classes of human appeasement: reactive forms of appeasement, including embar- rassment and shame, which placate others after social transgressions; and anticipatory forms of appeasement, including polite modesty and shyness, which reduce the likeli- hood of social conflict and aggression. Our review of the empirical evidence indi- cates that embarrassment, shame, modesty, and shyness share the eliciting conditions, submissive behavior, and social consequences of appeasement. We conclude by discussing social processes that allow humans to appease one another, such as teasing, and those that prevent appeasement, such as legal and negotiation prac- tices, to the benefit and detriment of human relations. Aggr. Behav. 23:359-374, 1997. © 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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Assessed the structural properties, construct validity, and temporal stability (test–retest) of the Big Five Questionnaire (BFQ), a questionnaire for the measurement of the Big Five Factor Model (FFM), which includes the factors Extraversion, Agreeableness or Friendliness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability or Neuroticism, and Intellect or Openness to Experience. The assessment of the questionnaire involved 1,189 Ss (aged 16–63 yrs). The factor structure of the BFQ showed a high stability across different groups of Ss with different demographic characteristics. The factor scores showed substantial overlap with the scores for the expected 5 dimensions. The temporal stability and the internal consistency of the dimensions and facet scales were satisfactory. Finally, the construct validity was proved by correlations with standard markers of the FFM and personality factors of alternative taxonomies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In the last decade, an upward trend in the use of short measurements for personality can be observed. The goal of this study was to explore the psychometric characteristics of the GSOEP Big Five Inventory (BFI-S; Gerlitz & Schupp, 2005), a 15-item instrument. We compared the BFI-S with the NEO-PI-R (Costa & McCrae, 1992a, 1992b) in a sample of 598 German adults (mean age = 42 years). Despite shortcomings for Agreeableness, the short scales generally showed acceptable levels of: (1) internal consistency, (2) stability over a period of 18 months, (3) convergent validity in relation to the NEO-PI-R and (4) discriminant validity. We conclude that in research settings with a pronounced need for parsimony, the BFI-S offers a sufficient level of utility.
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Accession Number: 2012-11178-001. First Author & Affiliation: Hahn, Elisabeth; Department of Psychology, Saarland University, Saarbruecken, Germany. Release Date: 20120430. Correction Date: 20120625. Publication Type: Journal, (0100); Peer Reviewed Journal, (0110); . Media Covered: Electronic. Document Type: Journal Article. Language: English. Major Descriptor: Five Factor Personality Model; Nonprojective Personality Measures; Psychometrics; Test Reliability; Test Validity. Classification: Personality Scales & Inventories (2223) Personality Traits & Processes (3120) . Population: Human (10); Male (30); Female (40); . Location: Germany. Age Group: Adulthood (18 yrs & older) (300) Young Adulthood (18-29 yrs) (320) Thirties (30-39 yrs) (340) Middle Age (40-64 yrs) (360) Aged (65 yrs & older) (380) . Tests & Measures: German Socio-Economic Panel Study-Big Five Inventory; NEO Personality Inventory-Revised; Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations DOI: 10.1037/t02138-000; . Methodology: Empirical
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The term "emoticons" -short for "emotion icons" -refers to graphic signs, such as the smiley face, that often accompany computer-mediated textual communication. They are most often characterized as iconic indicators of emotion, conveyed through a communication channel that is parallel to the linguistic one. In this article, it is argued that this conception of emoticons fails to account for some of their important uses. We present a brief outline of speech act theory and use it to provide a complementary account of emoticons, according to which they also function as indicators of illocutionary force. We conclude by considering how our analysis bears upon broader questions concerning language, bodily behavior, and text.
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Personality psychology seeks to be explanatory rather than merely descriptive, and the purpose of this review is to examine the viability of a cognitive processing approach to personality traits. In support of this goal, a multistage cognitive processing model is introduced. The review then seeks to link extraversion, neuroticism, and agreeableness to distinct processing operations. It is suggested that extraversion and neuroticism are systematically related to affective memory structures favoring positive and negative affect, respectively. On the other hand, it is suggested that agreeableness appears to be less closely linked to accessibility processes and more closely linked to affect and emotion control following activated hostile thoughts. Finally, recent data support developmental suggestions that individual differences in executive function appear to play an important role in moderating the neuroticism-distress relationship. In total, the review documents recent developments in understanding the processing basis of extraversion, neuroticism, and agreeableness.
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We examined the extent to which cognitive ability, Conscientiousness, and Openness to Experience predict decision-making performance prior to and after unforeseen changes in the task context. Seventy-three undergraduates made decisions on a series of 75 problems during a 3-hour computerized simulation. Unbeknownst to participants, the rules used in determining correct decisions changed after problems 25 and 50. Effects of the individual differences on decision-making performance became significantly stronger after the changes. Only cognitive ability explained variance in prechange performance. Individuals with higher cognitive ability made better decisions. After the change, the cognitive ability effect increased and the effects of Conscientiousness and Openness became statistically significant. As expected, those with high Openness made better decisions. Unexpectedly, those with low Conscientiousness made better decisions. Subsequent analyses revealed that this surprising effect for Conscientiousness was due to the traits reflecting dependability (i.e., order, dutiful-ness, deliberation) rather than volition (i.e., competence, achievement striving, self-discipline).
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The rationale for lexical studies rests on the assumption that the most meaningful personality attributes tend to become encoded in language as single-word descriptors. We articulate some key premises of the lexical approach and then review a number of studies that have been conducted examining the factor structure of personality descriptors extracted from dictionaries. We compare lexical studies in English and 12 other languages, with attention to delineating consistencies between the structures found in diverse languages. Our review suggests that the Anglo-Germanic Big Five is reproduced better in some languages than in others. We propose some organizing rules for lexical factor structures that may be more generalizable than the contemporary Big-Five model. And, we propose several candidate structural models that should be compared with the Big Five in future studies, including structures with one, two, and three very broad factors, an alternative five-factor structure identified in Italian and Hungarian studies, and a seven-factor structure represented in Hebrew and Philippine studies. We recommend that in future studies more attention be paid to middle-level personality constructs and to examining the effects of methodological variations on the resulting factor structures.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of fluid intelligence (gf) with trait Openness and Conscientiousness. A total of 2658 participants completed the NEO PI-R [Costa Jr., P. T. & MCrae, R. (1985). Revised NEO Personality Inventory and Five-Factor Inventory Professional Manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources] and the GMA: Abstract test of cognitive ability [Blinkhorn, S. F. (1985). Graduate and Managerial Assessment Manual and User Guide. Dorchester: Dorset Press]. Correlational analysis showed that only the Ideas and Actions sub-facets of Openness were positively correlated with gf. Order, Self-Discipline and Deliberation sub-facets of Conscientiousness were negatively correlated with gf. Regressions showed that the sub-factors of each of the traits accounted for 5% of the total variance in gf. These findings are discussed in an attempt to explain how the relationship between Openness, Conscientiousness and gf may have developed.
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When time is limited, researchers may be faced with the choice of using an extremely brief measure of the Big-Five personality dimensions or using no measure at all. To meet the need for a very brief measure, 5 and 10-item inventories were developed and evaluated. Although somewhat inferior to standard multi-item instruments, the instruments reached adequate levels in terms of: (a) convergence with widely used Big-Five measures in self, observer, and peer reports, (b) test–retest reliability, (c) patterns of predicted external correlates, and (d) convergence between self and observer ratings. On the basis of these tests, a 10-item measure of the Big-Five dimensions is offered for situations where very short measures are needed, personality is not the primary topic of interest, or researchers can tolerate the somewhat diminished psychometric properties associated with very brief measures.
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Previous findings suggest that the Big-Five factor structure is not guaranteed in samples with lower educational levels. The present study investigates the Big-Five factor structure in two large samples representative of the German adult population. In both samples, the Big-Five factor structure emerged only in a blurry way at lower educational levels, whereas for highly educated persons it emerged with textbook-like clarity. Because well-educated persons are most comparable to the usual subjects of psychological research, it might be asked if the Big Five are limited to such persons. Our data contradict this conclusion. There are strong individual differences in acquiescence response tendencies among less highly educated persons. After controlling for this bias the Big-Five model holds at all educational levels.
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This study investigated the remedial value of blushing in the context of clear-cut predicaments. Besides testing the effects of displaying a blush on a neutral expression, we investigated whether blushing increased the remedial properties of shameful and embarrassed expressions. After reading a vignette describing either a transgression (Experiment 1; N = 66) or a mishap (Experiment 2; N = 62), participants saw pictures of people with or without a blush and rated them on several dimensions (e.g., sympathy, trustworthiness). The results of both experiments supported the hypothesis that blushing has remedial properties. In most instances, blushing actors were evaluated more favorably than their nonblushing counterparts. Although people often consider blushing to be an undesirable response, our results showed that, in the context of transgressions and mishaps, blushing is a helpful bodily signal with face-saving properties.
Article
A number of apparently diverse personality scales––variously assessing trait anxiety, neuroticism, ego strength, general maladjustment, repression-sensitization, and social desirability––are reviewed and are shown to be in fact measures of the same stable and pervasive trait. An integrative interpretation of the construct as Negative Affectivity (NA) is presented. A review of studies using measures such as the Beck Depression Inventory, Eysenck Personality Inventory, and Multiple Affect Adjective Check List indicate that high-NA Ss are more likely to experience discomfort at all times and across situations, even in the absence of overt stress. They are relatively more introspective and tend differentially to dwell on the negative side of themselves and the world. Further research is needed to explain the origins of NA and to elucidate the characteristics of low-NA individuals. (5½ p ref)