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Transgender Issues in Pakistani Community

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Abstract

Pakistan is the second largest Islamic state in the world. Islam has given equal rights to everyone. Through electronic and print media, we found that being an Islamic state; still transgender are neglected by the government and the local society. There is many NGO's working for human rights, but also they have ignored the transgender. We found, that in Pakistan the transgender are ignored in every walk of life including, education, government jobs, health care and even security for their life. In 2013, Supreme Court of Pakistan has given rights to transgender which still are not implemented in the community. Not only the society, but their families are not accepting them as their family members. The objectives of this review article were to review and highlight various aspects of issues faced by the transgender community of Pakistan.
9048
ISSN 2286-4822
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EUROPEAN ACADEMIC RESEARCH
Vol. IV, Issue 10/ January 2017
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Transgender Issues in Pakistani Community
KAMRAN SADDIQUE
CHEN GANG
School of Journalism and Communication
Wuhan University, Wuhan, PR China
SINDHU MIRBEHAR
School of Film, TV and Multimedia
Korean National University of Arts, Korea
HASSA BATOOL
Department of Internal Medicine (Cardiology)
Wuhan University, Hubei, PR. China
INTIKHAB AHMAD
1
School of Journalism and Communication
Wuhan University, Wuhan, PR China
Abstract:
Pakistan is the second largest Islamic state in the world. Islam
has given equal rights to everyone. Through electronic and print
media, we found that being an Islamic state; still transgender are
neglected by the government and the local society. There is many
NGO’s working for human rights, but also they have ignored the
transgender. We found, that in Pakistan the transgender are ignored
in every walk of life including, education, government jobs, health care
and even security for their life. In 2013, Supreme Court of Pakistan
has given rights to transgender which still are not implemented in the
community. Not only the society, but their families are not accepting
them as their family members. The objectives of this review article were
to review and highlight various aspects of issues faced by the
transgender community of Pakistan.
1
Corresponding author: intekhab021@gmail.com
Kamran Saddique, Chen Gang, Sindhu Mirbehar, Hassa Batool, Intikhab Ahmad-
Transgender Issues in Pakistani Community
EUROPEAN ACADEMIC RESEARCH - Vol. IV, Issue 10 / January 2017
9049
Key words: NGO’s, Pakistan, Supreme Court, Transgender
INTRODUCTION
Who am i? This question was asked me so many times by so
called “Humans” all around the world. This question strikes
me, why i am like this? Who am i? my identity is not yet
confirmed by so many countries, i cannot get the good position
in government, even though i cannot get my rights for living my
life on my will (Letter of Transgender), the life of transgender
has not yet been experienced by any of the person. A case of
transgender in Pakistan got flamed when a transgender was
shot by unknown militants. The administration got confused
where should we took the patient to the male ward or female in
mean while he was fighting with death and sadden he lost his
life. Who left the questions behind “Are we Humans too, are we
national of the country, do we have any “Right to live” in this
world.”
Transgender can be by choice or by birth there are some
medical terms, which makes them transgender while some of
them are transgender by their own choice, according to the
report of Young Adult Fertility and Sexually Survey 11% of the
active Transgenders are in Philippine ( 2002 Young July 2003).
Official reports of Indian Government about the active Third
gender, it have found 490,000 are active while transgender
activists said this figure are six to seven times higher than
official report claimed. Everybody chilled when they found that
people identified themselves as Transgender. (Rema Nagarajan,
The Times of India 2014). Similarly, there numbers of third
generation in Pakistan, statistics are still not yet confirmed by
official reports. Though numbers of them are not yet confirmed
the Supreme Court of Pakistan give rights to the third gender
in all the official documents (Haider 2009). A task was given to
Pakistan government by the Supreme Court of Pakistan to
Kamran Saddique, Chen Gang, Sindhu Mirbehar, Hassa Batool, Intikhab Ahmad-
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survey about the third generation population and to give equal
rights to them (Ali Shah 2012) no such information could be
found so far on the progress of this work in Pakistan.
TRANSGENDER:
Transgender is “Vast” term which describe the people whose
sexual characteristics identity diverse the form that usually
correlate with sex at the time of birth. Many of the transgender
live with full-time or part-time as a member of the opposite sex.
For example, if male is transgendered he wills to lives like a
female if female is transgendered she wills to live like a male.
In other words, people who lives with conventional gender are
falls outside of identity, appearance or behaviors can be
described as the transgender. However, everyone whose
outward show or performance is gender-atypical cannot be
defined as transgender person (Force, 2006). Transgender a
person whose personal identity is not confirm, and opposite
from male or female gender. Transgender means one who is not
a full male or female. It means those people they belong from
third gender is called transgender.
TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF TRANSGENDER:
The word transgender refers to a person whose gender identity
differs from the sex to which it is assigned. Men they are
assigned but who are recognizable and living is women or who
want to change or wish to change their live style its referred to
as transgender or transsexual men or its also known as female
to male (FTM).
(http://www.apa.org/topics/lgbt/transgender.aspx)
Kamran Saddique, Chen Gang, Sindhu Mirbehar, Hassa Batool, Intikhab Ahmad-
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CAUSES:
Prevalence of transgender in world:
Transgender population has a very large prevalence in the
world. Although worldwide fact and figure of transgender
population are unknown with size and numbered. According to
united nation High commissioner “that transgender globally
need to improve systematic, economically and social rights. And
he remark widespread discrimination against third gender.
Additionally for transgender protections, care, gender identity
legislature is necessary. Like in 2012 Argentinean senate
passed the first gender identity law in the world (SariL, et al.,
2016).”
Transgender in Pakistan:
In Pakistani Culture and background transgender show a very
important roles in different, festivals including marriage
ceremony, birthday’s, Eid festival and their big events. Still
transgender in Pakistan link up to (Murat,Hijra,Khawaja Sara
and Khusra) Pakistani given by different names to third
gender. It is a group of people they have the lowest degree of
right or honor in Pakistan. Because of uneducated and
aggressive mind set peoples, even they do not prompt to accept
them as a human being of Pakistani society. And from all the
part of Pakistan they faced ignorance and large rejection.
According to a recent survey of transgender sex, about one-
third of 50 children are noticeable with chronic tendencies /
potential. In other words, about 2% of Pakistan's population are
struck or affected by transgenderism (Akhtar, 2016). Third
gender is firstborn determined by family. In initial glance the
families become hyper to kill them or to throw them from their
circle because they feel a shamed have a part of family. No one
knows being born what sex you belong to? Then why Hijra faced
lowborn discrimination in family, communities, social groups,
schools, and society it means in every single step of life.
Kamran Saddique, Chen Gang, Sindhu Mirbehar, Hassa Batool, Intikhab Ahmad-
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According to the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the Supreme
Court of Pakistan agreed to give transgender equal rights like
other citizens of this country with protection under the article 4
and 9 of the Pakistani constitution 1973. In 2013, they got as
same rights as all citizens of Pakistan. And the federal and
provincial governments give them basic rights of employments,
education, health, work in governments different departments
during the comparable period of time. Transgender rights and
the productive paradoxes of Pakistani policing (Daniela &
Devika, 2015)
LITERATURE REVIEW:
This paper examines that how transgender survives in
Pakistani society. In Pakistan transgender groups of people
generally concerns with dancing, whoring, Street walking. The
researcher trying to find out about third gender prevalence, it
means the fact and conditions in Pakistani traditional society.
In this research paper researcher shows that transgender have
basic facility of life, or can Pakistan provide or deprived third
gender from these rights of life like Income, Social respect,
education, treatment, Sex abuse , marriage, prayerful, political,
religiously, freedom, residence issues, and specially personal
Safety? On the basis of previous researcher papers have done
on this issue so far.
According to the Pakistani English news paper
(www.pstimes.com) (Pakistan state times in Article which was
published by Mehwish Akhter on wed, Apr 20th,2016. Answer is
very simple and attractive uncomplicated that transgender and
Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) area of people
are recognized as a shame and ignominy in the Pakistani
culture. They don’t have sources of income without dancing,
singing etc. they are bound to live outside of common societies,
and to make their own colonies. And in case of any physical
attacks they don’t have social respect and personal life safety. If
Kamran Saddique, Chen Gang, Sindhu Mirbehar, Hassa Batool, Intikhab Ahmad-
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they face criminal victimizations or sexual harassment these
persons or individuals acquire no help or support of society or
government or non government organization. In 2009 The
supreme court former chief justice Iftikhar Muhammad
Chaudhry declare rights that they are third gender and they
have equal rights with national ID card with free education,
jobs and health care. But members of transgender community
they don’t have these rights it is just certain records on papers.
According to Farzana Jan the corporate executive of the
transgender peoples of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, “ In a video
report of Voice of America Pashto that it is the reality that
when we started our endeavor for ours rights then we faced alot
of problems. And she said that from 2015 to 2016, 40 to 45
(khwaja sara) harass , kidnapped, raped and killed by some
groups. And these groups giving us threats of life they want to
depressed our voice in society. Now I realized that we are
inhuman we are not the part of this society, I don’t know that
we are animals or what but humans love with animals if they
have a dog or cat they give it a proper food, milk shelter
everything which they need. According to “Naila Nazir& Aqsa
Yasir” that in Pakistan there are no official record of third
gender documented, but approximately the transgender are 1.5
million. Previous research shows that the total number
statistics accurate of transgender are unknown actually in
province of KP.
Queer theory was first rise up in 1990s.Teresa de
lauretis create verbally the term “queer theory” she have been
discussed this first about Special issues of differences in a
conference at the university of California. Queer theory is
“concentration on igniter between Sex activity, gender and
desire”.(11/4/2016) 04:34am online
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Queer_theory”).
All the above studies mentioned that there is direful
need to solve the troubles of third gender of unemployment, low
income, health, medication, houses, jobs, respect, social
Kamran Saddique, Chen Gang, Sindhu Mirbehar, Hassa Batool, Intikhab Ahmad-
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gathering rights, gender equality, fundamental rights and life
safety, in the Society especially in an underdeveloped country
such as like Pakistan.
ALISHA TRANSGENDER TRAGEDY IN PESHAEAR
(KPK)
Peshawar is the Capital of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, the
entire population of the province is twenty one million. Khyber
Pakhtunkhwa is composed of 25 districts. In Peshawar a
recently dreadfully tragedy of Alisha a transgender community
activist 23 years old, was shot anonymously seven times on
Sunday night and left in a serious state and Alisha needing
emergency this horrifying attack was in Peshawar but the Lady
Rendering Hospital (LRH) staff of doctor’s and nurse were not
ready to treat ALISHA is like a human. And they spent four
hours to decide where to put him/her in male or female ward?
Due to careless care, Alisha left the world leaving the question
behind. Who am I? What am I? why I am not treated like a
human being like other treated. She left the world on the black
day of 25th of May in LRH helpless.
According to the “dailymail.co.uk daily” news article that
the Peshawar LRH hospital staff didn’t give her/him the
medical care essential to save her life.and the Trance Action
Alliance (TAA) this Support group of third gender declared
protest and claims about Alisha mistreatment. They said that
after our protested Alisha was shifted to female ward but
female patients had also not acceptable her being transgender
and they said “we really don’t know what to do and where to
go”. The transgender Alisha speaking out before giving her soul
“ that we are the most defenseless part of society but the
government gives us none of the rights due to over gender”. and
more she said that Society does not accept us I think
Government and society should recognized us as disabled or
special persons by the society she said we are facing more
Kamran Saddique, Chen Gang, Sindhu Mirbehar, Hassa Batool, Intikhab Ahmad-
Transgender Issues in Pakistani Community
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difficulties and discrimination because of more traditional
societies and not just Peshawar local government denying our
rights but nationwide our communities in Pakistan facing same
problems (CALDERWOOD, 2016).
According to Human rights campaign (HRC) in August
2003 at that time, the organization of Islamic conference and
the associated countries, specially Pakistan, Malaysia, Egypt,
united nation members and Saudi Arabia, and all Muslims
countries and local governors, Muslim states media at large
scale anti it (Javaid & Eleni, 2013).
RELIGION AND TRANSGENDER:
The relationship between religion and LGBT are variegate
widely around the global. Majority of the adults in United
States of America (USA) describe themselves as religious. 70%
of the American attend the religious services once per year at
least, while 90% engage themselves in private act like daily
prayer (Davis et al. 2005, Masen, Brett, Billy, & Tubbs, 2005).
In November 2016 Saudi Arabia bans transgenders to
allow them to get the VISA for Religious pilgrimage to Mecca
“UMRAH” notification were issued and all the travel agents
shall bound to it (Daily Pakistan 2016). According to Qamar
Naseem(activist with trans action KP Pakistan) that the
country rejected the discussion leading to only resulting mo re
confusion. Javed Ahmad Ghamidi a religious scholar told to the
Pakistan Express Tribune Newspaper, “that government has no
rights to prohibit transgender people performing hajj”.
Transgender people are self-conscious, reasonable, body
differences do not make them less human being, they have
rights to treated equally. He told to the news paper , “that
Mecca is the house of ALLAH so everyone should be allow to
see it (Browning, 2016).
This is not a big issue it is just a medical disorders in the
hormones don’t make it too much complicated or no need to
Kamran Saddique, Chen Gang, Sindhu Mirbehar, Hassa Batool, Intikhab Ahmad-
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make it stigma or taboo, nobody is responsible for it (Khanzada,
2016). All those who are medical fit so what and those who
born with medical disease are not their fault either. In our
society they are considered an alien, even though they are third
gender still they have right to live among us (Hassan, 2016).
God have created them and they do accept God have created
them, they have same rights to live among. Even if we look into
Islamic Law they have given full and equal rights. According to
the Islamic law all those parents who are not take care of such
kids are violates the law and they should be consider the
criminals (Ghamdi, 2016). Misbehave with transgender
considered “SIN” according to Religion.
A transgender by himself was accepted by his family and
supported. But still the society are not accepting him as an
human being (Khan, 2016). President of Shemale foundation,
there are good and bad people in the society. Those who are bad
what respect they can give us? (Bobby, 2016).
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1. 2002 Young Adult Fertility and Sexually Survey, 2003
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supremecourt-leads-the-way/
3. Akhtar, M. (2016, April 20). Ideas. Retrieved November 16,
2016, from Pakistan States Times:
pstimes.com/2016/04/20/transgenders-in-pakistan
4. Bobby, A. (2016, December 5). 11th Hour. (W. Badami,
Interviewer)
5. Browning, B. (2016, December 1). News. Retrieved December
5, 2016, from LGBTQ Nation:
http://www.lgbtqnation.com/2016/12/saudi-arabia-banning-
transgender-people-religious-pilgrimage-mecca/
6. Calderwood, I. (2016, May 25). News. Retrieved November 15,
2016, from Daily Mail:
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http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-
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staff-waited-hour-treating-decided-female-male-ward.html
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... The present study directly relates to advancing the rights of the trans-community by laying out various aspects of health, education, human rights of trans-community from a developing country's perspective. The findings of the present study are similar to those of Siddique et al. (2017) as both the study revealed that in Pakistan the transgender is ignored in every walk of life including, education, government jobs, health care, and life security that led them increased feelings of fear, anger, and more significant depression. Justin. ...
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... Because of the marginalization they have done their best to create and survive in a community of their own. Presently, there is a significant number of transgender in Pakistan and there are transgender or Hijra communities which are similar to family groups lead by a Guru (Abdullah et al. 2012b;Saddique et al. 2017). It is found that in past they were used to earn their living by dancing majorly at weddings, festivals and births but this trend seems to get diminish due to which most of the transgender now earn their living through begging and sex work (Majeedullah 2016). ...
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This article discusses the legitimacy of the claims for the criminalization of homosexuality under Sharia law. It submits that discrimination against LGBT individuals and repression of homosexuality are incompatible not only with human rights law, but also with the Sharia and the essence of the Islamic religious scriptures. In the view of the authors, a more thoughtful reading of the Qur’an and the Sunna affirms the compatibility of religion and sexual diversity, and the Qur’an, contrary to common belief, recognizes gender identities, and embraces sexual diversity. A contemporary approach to Sharia should complement international law standards on sexual minorities’ rights in order to achieve a sustainable change in Islamic state practices. In this respect, the paper suggests that the recent initiatives within the UN, including Resolution 17/19 on sexual orientation (14 July 2011), represent positive, though insufficient, steps for the implementation of LGBT rights in the Muslim world. An approach to LGBT rights, which takes into consideration the compatibility of religion and sexual diversity is necessary, not only for the Muslim states to comply with international human rights law, but also for the international community to promote the idea of human dignity and equal respect for human beings and cultures.
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Transgender people are a diverse population affected by a range of negative health indicators across high-income, middle-income, and low-income settings. Studies consistently document a high prevalence of adverse health outcomes in this population, including HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, mental health distress, and substance use and abuse. However, many other health areas remain understudied, population-based representative samples and longitudinal studies are few, and routine surveillance efforts for transgender population health are scarce. The absence of survey items with which to identify transgender respondents in general surveys often restricts the availability of data with which to estimate the magnitude of health inequities and characterise the population-level health of transgender people globally. Despite the limitations, there are sufficient data highlighting the unique biological, behavioural, social, and structural contextual factors surrounding health risks and resiliencies for transgender people. To mitigate these risks and foster resilience, a comprehensive approach is needed that includes gender affirmation as a public health framework, improved health systems and access to health care informed by high quality data, and effective partnerships with local transgender communities to ensure responsiveness of and cultural specificity in programming. Consideration of transgender health underscores the need to explicitly consider sex and gender pathways in epidemiological research and public health surveillance more broadly.
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Colleges and universities are beginning to consider the needs of transgender students, but few understand how to offer support to this segment of the campus community. This chapter address issues and provides suggestions for student affairs professionals.
Pakistani Supreme Court leads the way Inside Islam: Dialogues and debates. Available from http://insideislam.wisc
  • D Ahmed
Ahmed, D (2011, November 15). Pakistani Supreme Court leads the way. Inside Islam: Dialogues and debates. Available from http://insideislam.wisc.edu/2011/11/pakistani- supremecourt-leads-the-way/
Ideas, from Pakistan States Times: pstimes.com
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from Daily Mail: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article- 3609463/Transgender-activist-dies-shot-Pakistan-hospital- staff-waited-hour-treating-decided-female-male-ward
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Calderwood, I. (2016, May 25). News. Retrieved November 15, 2016, from Daily Mail: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article- 3609463/Transgender-activist-dies-shot-Pakistan-hospital- staff-waited-hour-treating-decided-female-male-ward.html
from LGBTQ Nation: http://www.lgbtqnation.com/2016/12/saudi-arabia-banning- transgender-people-religious-pilgrimage-mecca
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Browning, B. (2016, December 1). News. Retrieved December 5, 2016, from LGBTQ Nation: http://www.lgbtqnation.com/2016/12/saudi-arabia-banning- transgender-people-religious-pilgrimage-mecca/
Pakistani Supreme Court leads the way. Inside Islam: Dialogues and debates
  • D Ahmed
Ahmed, D (2011, November 15). Pakistani Supreme Court leads the way. Inside Islam: Dialogues and debates. Available from http://insideislam.wisc.edu/2011/11/pakistanisupremecourt-leads-the-way/