Article

Core Self-Evaluation: Linking Career Social Support to Life Satisfaction

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Abstract

This research examined how core self-evaluation (CSE) develops from social support in the career context and how it influences individuals’ life satisfaction. Study 1 used a field survey to collect data from 768 university students for testing the mediating role of CSE in the relationship between career social support (CSS) and life satisfaction. Study 2 employed two experiments with two groups of participants (n = 103 for Experiment 1 and n = 102 for Experiment 2) to further verify the Study 1 findings obtained from cross-sectional data. The results from these two studies showed that CSE mediated the CSS-life satisfaction relationship in such a way that CSS served as a cause of CSE, which in turn affected individuals’ life satisfaction. Among the first to use both field study and experiments to confirm the antecedent (i.e., CSS) and outcome (i.e., life satisfaction) of CSE, this research offers useful insights regarding CSE as a causal mechanism underlying the effect of CSS on life satisfaction and carries important theoretical and practical implications.

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... CSE has continued to gain attention as a subject of study in the realm of organizations since it has been discovered to be connected to several circumstances. Scholars have consistently shown high associations between Core self evaluation and job satisfaction (Jiang et al., 2017). People's judgments about the outside world (e.g., their employment) are influenced by perceptions they have about themselves, as per Judge et al. (1997). ...
... So, employees become less inclined to give up on their professions and more likely to invest time and money in improving their abilities if they are extremely committed to their current careers (Aryee and Tan, 1992). As a result, employee creative behaviors are encouraged because people who are highly committed to their careers will endeavor to fully comprehend the necessities of the organization and implement proactive changes that connect what they want in life with organizational goals (Wang et al., 2017). Chang (1999) discovered that employees with high career commitments were more motivated (as compared to employees with low career commitments) when the expectations were endorsed and recognized by the organization as a whole. ...
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Organizations seeking to innovate and gain a competitive edge must unleash creative potential in the workplace. The current study is aimed at assessing the serial mediation of career optimism and career commitment in the relationship between core self-evaluation (CSE) and employee creative performance. 458 employees from the IT sector participated in the study belonging to Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Data was collected using adopted questionnaires. SPSS PROCESS Macro was used for data analysis. The findings showed that individuals with higher levels of CSE also had higher levels of career optimism, which affects their commitment to their careers. Consequently, higher levels of career commitment have a positive impact on their ability to produce creative work. These findings highlight the need of taking career optimism and career commitment into account as sequential mediators of CSE's influence on creative performance. Furthermore, this work provides the door for future research into the underlying mechanisms and the examination of new aspects that could add to the complex dynamics of creativity.
... Research in the area of occupational development and vocational behavior has found that the constructs of work personality and core self-evaluation (CSE) are robust psychological variables that significantly impact the occupational development, vocational behavior, and work participation of individuals with chronic health conditions [9,[17][18][19]. Based on this research, it would seem reasonable that work personality and CSE would impact how young adult CNS survivors perceive barriers to employment and the ability to address these internal and external barriers. ...
... Finally, emotional well-being is conceptualized as low levels of neuroticism [17]. According to CSE theory these four constructs collectively act as a higher order factor to impact career and employment outcomes including, but not limited to, job satisfaction and performance [18,19]. ...
Article
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PurposeThe purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between work personality, core self-evaluation (CSE), and perceived internal and external barriers to employment in a group of young adult CNS survivors.Methods The participants consisted of 110 young adult survivors of pediatric central nervous system (CNS) tumors aged between 18 and 30 years old (M = 23.05, SD = 3.36). Mediation analysis with structural equational modeling (SEM) technique was used to correlate a number of different measures (Work Personality [WP], Perceived Employment Barriers [PEB], and Core-Self Evaluation [CSE]).ResultsResults revealed an exceptionally well-fitting model to our data with work personality predicting CSE positively: β = 0.34, SE = 0.07, 95% CI (0.18, 0.47) while CSE inversely predicts Perceived Barriers to Employment, β = − 0.60, SE = 0.06, 95% CI (− 0.70, − 0.49). There is a direct pathway from WP to PEB once CSE was accounted for β = − 0.20, SE = 0.07, 95% CI (− 0.33, − 0.06). The presence of both significant direct and indirect effects of WP on PEB implied that there was a partial mediating effect of CSE on the association between WP and PEB.Conclusions Work personality is a robust construct that can be applied to young adult CNS survivors in effort to gain more insight into the personality and psychological factors that impact career development and employment in this group. The major finding of this study was that work personality and CSE had a significant direct effect on perceived career barriers and that there was a significant indirect effect with CSE acting as a mediator between developmental work personality and perceived career barriers.
... This sense of belonging may make them feel that they are not isolated, which is related less loneliness (Satici, 2018); rather, that they have numerous friends. With the resulting positive life attitude, they tend to have relatively high life satisfaction (Jiang et al., 2017;Yildiz, 2017). Therefore, loneliness may have a positive mediating effect on the association between social networking site use and life satisfaction. ...
... that vary by individual (Reinecke and Trepte, 2014;Dienlin et al., 2017). Loneliness is a negative emotional response to a discrepancy between the desired and achieved quality of social interactions, which can lead to low life satisfaction (Jiang et al., 2017;Unanue et al., 2017). ...
Article
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The current study examined the associations between specific Internet activities (online shopping, pornography use, social networking site use, and Internet gaming), life satisfaction, and the mediating effects of loneliness and depression for these associations. Participants were 5,215 students (2,303 male participants, Mage = 16.20 years; ranging in age from 10 to 23 years) from various school types (546 elementary school students, 1710 junior high school students, 688 senior high school students, and 2271 university students) who provided self-report data on demographic variables, online shopping, pornography use, social networking site use, loneliness, depression, and life satisfaction. The results indicated that after controlling for demographic variables (gender and age) (a) loneliness and depression had fully positive mediating effects on the association between social networking site use and life satisfaction; (b) loneliness and depression played fully negative mediating effects on life satisfaction associations with online shopping, pornography use, and Internet gaming. Therefore, loneliness and depression were the underlying mechanisms that caused life satisfaction to be affected by online shopping, pornography use, social networking site use, and Internet gaming.
... [30] emphasized that the stronger the CSEs of employees, the more committed their professional behavior. The studies of the moderating effect of CSE were conducted in China, Denmark, and the US [31] [32] found that CSEs positively influence levels of life satisfaction, while also having important theoretical and practical implications. Moreover, CSEs are predictors of lower psychological pressure and higher welfare outcomes [33]. ...
Article
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This paper is the result of research on employee behavior in public organizations. The research intends to measure the extent to which the achievement of outcomes (job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and job performance) is influenced by core self-evaluation. In this case, the researcher considers the involvement of the organization in conducting organizational socialization as important to encourage the achievement of better outcomes. Therefore, in this study organizational socialization as a moderating variable. The study involved 203 recent Aceh Besar District Government recruits. Primary data was obtained by distributing online questionnaires to respondents via Google forms. Moderation Regression Analysis (MRA) and Multiple Regression (MR) were both subsequently employed in the conducting of this analysis. The results show that the CSE of new entrants has a positive impact on each work outcome. However, while OS supports the relationship, its role is not proven to engender greater job satisfaction.
... In particular, a more comprehensive measurement of happiness belief is urgently needed to address this issue and to clarify the conceptual differences between happiness belief and attitudes toward singlehood. Finally, researchers are also recommended to use double randomization designs [71] (see [72] for example) or half-longitudinal mediation model [73] (see [74] for example) to shed light on the causal relationship between the three target variables. ...
Article
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Background Lying flatism, a new emerging lifestyle by refusing to participate in consumerist lifestyles, is anticipated to be related to singlehood. Based on the Theory of Reasoned Action, we proposed a mediation model to examine the indirect relationship between feelings towards lying flatism and attitudes toward singlehood via individuals’ belief in that happiness can be achieved without romantic relationships (happiness belief). Methods Using purposive and snowball sampling methods, 232 single Malaysian young adults participated in an online experiment consisting of a writing task (to manipulate feelings toward lying flatism), single-item measures of manipulation checking and happiness belief, Attitudes toward Singlehood Scale, Negative Stereotyping of Single Persons Scale (a measure of singlism) and Fear of Being Single Scale. Results T-Test results support the writing task that successfully induced positive feelings toward lying flatism. Mediation analysis showed that the feelings toward lying flatism measured before the writing task, but not the manipulation of lying flatism, has an indirect relationship with attitudes toward singlehood via happiness belief, after controlling for gender, singlism, and fear of being single. Conclusions The findings offer preliminary support to the hypothetical relationships among feelings towards lying flatism, happiness belief, and attitudes toward singlehood. Implications of the findings are discussed.
... Thus, individuals' core self-evaluation will moderate the impact of work-leisure conflict on the negative emotion. Jiang et al. (2017) revealed that social support is a determinant of core self-evaluation. This shows that social support can weaken the influence of the loss of resources owing to work-leisure conflict, which leads to individuals' inability to control their emotional expression (deep and surface acting). ...
Article
This study examined the relationship between work-leisure conflict and emotional labor and tested the moderated-mediation effect of the need for recovery under different levels of supervisor support. It was based on a sample of 529 Taiwan front-line hospitality employees. The results indicate that work-leisure conflict is positively related to surface acting but negatively related to deep acting. The impact of work-leisure conflict on surface acting and deep acting is mediated by the need for recovery. However, this mediating effect is moderated by supervisor support. The results suggest that front-line employees’ work-leisure conflict issues are relevant to, and should be supported by, hospitality industry managers. In practical terms, these findings have significant implications for promoting inclusive and sustainable employment and decent performance for all in hospitality industry. 本研究验证了工作-休闲冲突与情绪劳务之关系并检验了在不同主管支持水平下,回复需求之调节型中介效果。本研究以一包含529位台湾一线餐旅业员工之样本为基础进行分析。结果显示,工作-休闲冲突与表层演出具正相关,而与深层演出具负相关。工作-休闲冲突对深层演出与表层演出的影响为回复需求所中介。然而,此中介效果会受到主管支持的调节。此结果阐明了一线员工的工作与休闲冲突议题与餐旅业管理者息息相关,并应得到管理者们的支持协助。在实务上,本研究的发现对于促进餐旅业员工享有具包容与永续性的雇用制度并能有合宜的表现具有重要的应用价值。
... Scholars believe that personality traits, including core self-evaluation, are closely correlated with social support and well-being outcomes [20][21][22]. Optimism, as a type of personality characteristic, is defined as the generalized tendency for individuals to expect positive results even when they encounter obstacles [23]. According to social-cognitive theory, personal expectations, such as optimism, have a significantly influential effect on behavior, goals, and functioning among humans [24]. ...
Even though an extensive body of previous research has examined the association between received intergenerational support and the well-being outcomes of older adults in a wide variety of contexts, few studies have been conducted to explore the impacts of intergenerational support on elders’ subjective well-being, especially the intermediary mechanisms in this process. The purpose of this study is to fill this gap by exploring the mediating role of optimism in the association between received intergenerational support and subjective well-being among the elderly in China, as well as the sex differences that exist between males and females. The findings show that the intergenerational support received from adult children is positively related to subjective well-being and that this relationship is partly mediated by optimism. Meanwhile, no significant sex difference was found in the interrelations between intergenerational support, optimism, and subjective well-being.
... There is agreement that self-understanding, through the evaluation of goals, strengths, challenges, and progress, provide a platform for self-regulation and action (Jiang et al., 2017). This finding aligns with the argument that individual reflection and evaluation of career management behaviour is crucial for future career success (Tims & Akkermans, 2017). ...
Article
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An understanding of career competencies is critical for the progression of academic careers, as it influences the availability of adequate and capable academic staff at all levels within universities. The study aimed to explore and describe the career competencies that academics demonstrate to successfully progress in their careers, while theoretically underpinned by an integrated competency framework. This report is based on the qualitative experiences, gathered through semi-structured interviews of eight academic staff in various career phases, in a South African university. Data was thematically analysed, while a deductive modality was adopted to identify the competencies. The findings align very closely with the dimensions of the integrated competency framework, including reflective competencies: gap analysis, self-evaluation, social comparison, and goal orientation; communicative competencies: information seeking and negotiation; and behavioural competencies: strategy alignment, control and agency, university awareness, continuous learning and collaboration. Whilst the study did not include a comparative analysis, it is interesting to note that strategy alignment was the most commonly found competency, with negotiation only demonstrated by more senior academics. A career competency approach provides leaders and development practitioners in the higher education sector with factors to consider, as they attempt to understand holistic development for academic career progression. Moreover, how to assist and support the development of academic career progression. It offers academics a keen awareness, as a personal resource, to engage and navigate self-directed career management behaviour.
... Previous investigations have shown that CSE was linked to different dimensions of well-being. For instance, CSE was positively associated with increased life satisfaction (Extremera & Rey, 2018;Hsieh & Huang, 2017;Jiang & Jiang, 2015;Jiang et al., 2017;Judge, 2009;Piccolo et al., 2005;Liu et al., 2016;Rey & Extremera, 2015;Song et al., 2013), job satisfaction (Hsieh & Huang, 2017;Shi et al., 2015), career satisfaction (Holtschlag et al., 2018), and positive affect (Extremera & Rey, 2018;Liu et al., 2016;Tsaousis et al., 2007). CSE was also associated with negative affect (Extremera & Rey, 2018;Liu et al., 2016), loneliness (Zhao et al., 2018), as well as lower physical and psychological problems (Creed et al., 2009;Tsaousis et al., 2007). ...
Article
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Core self-evaluations (CSE) is conceptualized as a higher-order personality construct underpinned by locus of control, self-esteem, self-efficacy, and neuroticism. Studies have shown that CSE predicts a variety of well-being outcomes. Yet, little is known on how CSE relates to well-being in different settings. This study addresses extant research gaps through examining the moderating role of relational mobility on the relationship between CSE and psychological well-being (PWB) among undergraduate students in the U.S. and the Philippines. Results showed that both CSE and relational mobility were positively associated with PWB in both contexts. However, the association between relational mobility and psychological well-being was stronger in the Philippines than in the United States. Across the Filipino and U.S. samples, relational mobility moderated the associations of CSE with PWB such that for those who had higher perceptions of relational mobility, CSE may be linked to higher PWB. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... Posamezniki, ki imajo visoko stopnjo jedrnega samovrednotenja, sami sebe zaznavajo kot sposobne, vredne in kompetentne za soočanje s problemi tako v delovnem kot nedelovnem okolju. Posamezniki, ki imajo nizko stopnjo jedrnega samovrednotenja, pa sami sebe zaznavajo kot nevredne in nesposobne, kar privede do nižje psihološke dobrobiti in nezadovoljstva z življenjem (Jiang et al., 2017). Koncept jedrnega samovrednotenja je dokazano povezan s pomembnimi delovnimi rezultati -z zadovoljstvom pri delu (Chhabra, 2018), delovno uspešnostjo (Kirmani, Attiq, Bakari & Irfan, 2019) ter z organizacijsko pripadnostjo (Peng et al., 2016). ...
Chapter
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Namen raziskave je bil prispevati k izboljšanju učinkovitosti učenja in poučevanja s simulacijami poslovnega sestanka v angleškem jeziku na visokošolski stopnji izobraževanja. Analiza specializiranega korpusa simulacij poslovnega sestanka študentov v angleškem jeziku SAPS in korpusa poslovnih sestankov poslovnežev je pokazala, v čem se interakcija študentov poslovnih in ekonomskih ved razlikuje od interakcije poslovnežev na poslovnih sestankih v angleškem jeziku. Rezultati raziskave omogočajo oblikovanje bolj celostnih rešitev za usposabljanje za poslovne sestanke, da bodo ta spoznanja lahko postala del širše izobraževalne in poslovne skupnosti, kar bo zagotovilo lažje vključevanje v mednarodno poslovno okolje in nadaljnje avtonomno in vseživljenjsko učenje angleškega jezika.
... Individuals with high core self-evaluations have low levels of negative emotion and ego depletion in response to work-leisure conflict, which is of great importance to individuals' core self-evaluations. Some studies have suggested that core self-evaluations are affected by feedback (Jiang et al., 2017). Positive feedback is conducive to the improvement of core self-evaluations, while negative feedback is detrimental to core self-evaluations. ...
Article
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The negative effect of work-leisure conflict has attracted the attention of researchers. However, no previous research has determined the relationship between work-leisure conflict and ego depletion. Therefore, this study explores the relationship between daily work-leisure conflict and ego depletion, as well as the role of individuals’ negative emotions and core self-evaluations in this process based on ego depletion theory. Through the method of daily diary research, 77 employees were tracked for 7 consecutive work days. The results show that work-leisure conflict is positively related to employee ego depletion, that the negative emotions play a mediating role in this relationship and that core self-evaluations moderate the indirect effect of work-leisure conflict on ego depletion through negative emotions. In this study, daily diary method is used to verify the dynamic characteristics of work-leisure conflict, negative emotions and ego depletion, and some new insights into how to reduce employee ego depletion are provided.
... It is important to mention thatJudge et al. (1997) formulated the concept by aggregating all traits, which led them to be self-evaluative, fundamental, and wide in scope.Individuals with positive or high CSE perceive themselves as capable, worthy, and competent, dealing with issues in non-work and work situations. On the other hand, individuals with negative or lower CSE see themselves as not worthy and capable, resulting in lower psychological well-being and life satisfaction(Jiang et al., 2017). Consequently, individual's satisfaction with their perceived value in the organization and compliance with objectives directly affect motivation, engagement, and involvement(Judge et al., 2003).The concept of CSE is related to important work criteria. ...
Thesis
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Master thesis on the effects of workplace flexibility and core self-evaluations on organizational citizenship behavior. It can be accessed here: https://repozitorij.uni-lj.si/IzpisGradiva.php?id=100441&lang=eng
... Their results also showed that individuals with positive CSEs tend to be happier and to have a positive outlook on life. Such people also believe themselves to have greater control over life's events (Jiang et al., 2017), further improving their PWB. Taking all this together, we hypothesize that: ...
Article
Purpose How or whether dimensions of work-to-family enrichment (WFE) mediate the relationship between an individual's core self-evaluations (CSEs) and their psychological well-being (PWB) is yet to be explained. The purpose of this study is to examine the role of three WFE dimensions in mediating between CSEs and PWB in Indian bank employees. Design/methodology/approach The present study collected data from 222 full-time bank employees working in Indian nationalized banks. The authors tested the study hypotheses using parallel mediation analysis. Findings The result showed positive associations among CSEs, all WFE dimensions (development, affect and capital-based) and PWB. Parallel mediation analysis suggested that two WFE dimensions (affect and capital-based) mediated the relationship between CSEs and PWB. Research limitations/implications The use of a single source of data (Indian nationalized banks) limits the generalizability of the findings. Practical implications Senior management at these banks may build a happier and more satisfied workforce by implementing appropriate training and personality development programs. Empowering and rewarding employees for the desired performances may help them appreciate their self-worth, enrich their quality of life (by gaining positive resources from work-family interactions) and ultimately improve their PWB. Originality/value The research literature has been relatively silent on the mediating role of individual dimensions of WFE. The present study adds to the existing body of knowledge by exploring the role of individual dimension-based WFE in the relationship between CSEs and PWB.
... There is therefore a rationale to involve resilience and positive affect into examination of the relationship between perceived social support and life satisfaction. Some studies have found that social support may impact life satisfaction through mediators such as self-esteem (Stroebe et al. 1996), loneliness (Tian 2016), self-control (Tu and Yang 2016), and core self-evaluation (Jiang et al. 2017), which helps us understand associations among these factors. Based on previous literature, social support, resilience and positive affect are also significantly protective factors that can mitigate the harmful effects of substance-users' life satisfaction. ...
Article
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This study was designed to analyze how perceived social support is correlated with life satisfaction through mediators of resilience and positive affect. A total of 397 Chinese individuals with substance-use disorders were asked to complete the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). Structural Equation-Modeling (SEM) results indicated that resilience fully mediated the relationship between perceived social support and life satisfaction and also revealed that the paths from social support through resilience and positive affect to life satisfaction were significant, although positive affect was not found to mediate the link between social support and life satisfaction. Finally, a multiple group analysis indicated that females with high resilience scores were more likely to exhibit greater positive affect than males. This study offers a practical application for health professionals seeking to implement effective interventions and improve the well-being of individuals with substance-use disorders.
... Different to general social support, career social support is a domain-specific social support related to career-relevant tasks or issues. More specifically, it includes information and advice about career planning, financial support for job search behavior, comfort and encouragement after unsuccessful interviews, and other resources that individuals can obtain from their social networks such as parents, siblings, teachers, friends, and relatives (Hou et al., 2010;Jiang et al., 2017). Numerous empirical findings have shown that social support has significant positive impacts on college students' employability (Michailidis et al., 2017), career self-efficacy (Wang and Fu, 2015), career maturity (Cho and Choi, 2007), and career preparation (Hirschi et al., 2011). ...
Article
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This study examines the underlying mechanism that connects career social support with employability through a survey of 392 Chinese college students. The results showed that career social support had a positive effect on career adaptation and employability of college students, and career adaptation mediated the association between career social support and employability. Furthermore, proactive personality was found to play a moderating role in linking career adaptation and employability. More specifically, higher levels of a proactive personality strengthen the enhancing effect of career adaptation on the employability of college students. Therefore, there was a moderated mediation effect between career social support and employability of college students.
... To facilitate employees to use their strengths at work, employer organisations should build a harmonious interpersonal relations climate that is effective in cultivating employees' CSE (Yan & Su, 2013) . Providing career social support for employees is also an important path to enhance the level of employees' CSE (Jiang, Wang, Jing, Wallace, Jiang, & Kim, 2017) . In addition, when developing the CSE of employees, it is necessary for employer organisations to enhance employees' perceptions of organisational support for strengths use . ...
Article
This study attempted to explore the impact of core self-evaluations (CSE) on employee strengths use, as well as the moderating effect of perceived organisational support for strengths use (POS for strengths use) on the relationship. We hypothesised and tested a moderated conceptual model drawing on a three-wave employee-level survey involving 189 employees of Chinese firms (females = 44.4%; managers = 43.9%; aged between 23 and 30 years old = 53.4%; organisational tenure between 2 and 8 years = 52.9%). The results showed that CSE had a positive influence on employee strengths use and POS for strengths use augmented the impact of CSE on employee strengths use. Specifically, when POS for strengths use was high, CSE were more positively related to strengths use behaviour. However, when POS for strengths use was low, CSE could not significantly affect strengths use behaviour. Employer organisations should seek to support employees high in CSE with strengths-based human resource practices to maximise deployment of their strengths.
... In this same line, one could argue that as people with high CSE are characterized by their predisposition to take new challenges and their ability to solve difficult tasks ( Judge et al., 2016), this would allow them to ac- quire new skills, experience positive moods, and obtain greater rewards on a domain (e.g., the workplace), all of which could be used in other domains (e.g., the family), resulting in higher enrichment. That is to say, as there is evidence that people with high CSE are more sensi- tive to positive stimuli (Chang, Ferris, Johnson, Rosen, & Tan, 2012), they are likely to experience more posi- tive moods, achieving a better fit with their environment ( Jiang et al., 2017). Therefore, and although there is no solid body of evidence to allow a conclusive position on the relationship between CSE and WFE, in the light of the available knowledge and the theoretical framework of the construct, we could hypothesize that: Hypothesis 1. CSE will be positively correlated with W→FE (and with F→WE). ...
Article
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The aim of this study was twofold: to analyze the possible relationships between employees' personality (as measured by core self-evaluations or CSE) and their feelings of work-family enrichment (WFE); and to examine whether distributive justice perceptions act as a mediator in such relationships. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to collect data from 386 employees in public and private organizations located in Argentina. Structural equation modelling was used to examine two integrative models that combined CSE, distributive justice, and WFE. Results reveal a good fit of the full mediation model (S-Bx2 = 3.18, GFI= .99, CFI= .99, RMSEA= .03), in which distributive justice perceptions fully mediated the relations between CSE and WFE (y = .13, IC= [-.03; .27]) and between CSE and FEW (y = .09, IC= [-.08; .25]). Findings are discussed in the light of its theoretical and practical implications. The study provides valuable information for organizational authorities and HR managers to focus their efforts on both the development of CSE traits and the creation of fair and equitable work environments.
... Such traits have been shown to assist individuals to adapt and progress positively to different career contexts. Although empirical work has not yet investigated the mediating effects of core self-evaluations on the relationship between career exploration and career outcomes, the literature suggests that individuals' reflections upon and/or analysis of individual and contextual factors enhance their core self-evaluations (Jiang et al., 2017;K. M. Park, 2007;Stumpf & Tymon, 2012), which in turn can lead to positive career outcomes, such as reduced decision difficulties (Di Fabio, Palazzeschi, & Bar-On, 2012) and increased career role success (Ferris et al., 2013). ...
Article
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To move forward in their career journeys, individuals engage in career exploration by reflecting upon both personal (i.e., internal) and contextual (i.e., external) factors. The extent to which this exploration is effectively processed drives individuals' attitudes, behaviors, and other career- and work-related outcomes. Over the last two decades, a growing body of empirical research has been undertaken in relation to career exploration. However, debate continues as to how career exploration should be conceptualized and measured, which factors influence its development, and how and when it affects individuals' career and work outcomes. The present study undertakes a review of the career exploration literature to identify research gaps and assist in the development of an agenda for future work. In particular, the review reveals the need to integrate a dynamic life-span perspective to enhance our understanding of career exploration and the need for future research to identify the key mechanisms that explain the effects of career exploration and the contingencies of any such effects. Additionally, future research should investigate individuals' real-time experiences, adopt longitudinal and experimental designs, broaden the current narrow focus of studies on students to include employees, examine multilevel phenomena, and examine the effects of institutional and economic contexts on individuals' career exploration.
Article
Individuals who have experienced incarceration are an underserved population in need of career development to reduce barriers to employment. Given the high rates of disability and health concerns for individuals who have been previously incarcerated, this study explored the relationships between individual health functioning, vocational identity, core self-evaluations, and community integration. Using structural equation modeling structural regression, results showed that functional difficulties negatively impact vocational identity and core self-evaluations. Conversely, core self-evaluations significantly improve community integration and mediate a positive relationship between vocational identity and community integration. Career development activities aimed at core self-evaluations and increasing meaning in employment may reduce some of the barriers experienced by individuals post incarceration.
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The Covid-19 pandemic exposed individuals to intense restrictions and social isolation, as well as the possibility of deterioration of physical health. In the pandemic period, the Internet has become the principal avenue for social interaction, leisure related activities, and school-work pursuits for most people and consequently problematic Internet use (PIU) has increased dramatically in this period. Modeling of PIU among university students - considered one of the most negatively affected groups at this time - along with PIU subconstructs as well as indicators of psychological well-being - life satisfaction, loneliness, and hostility - will be valuable in directing future studies. This study examined the effects of the psychological well-being indicators of life satisfaction, loneliness, and hostility on PIU constructs; the preference for online social interaction, Internet use for mood regulation, and deficient self-regulation of Internet use during the Covid-19 pandemic social isolation period. Participants were 418 undergraduate students from a public university (130 male and 288 female). Results revealed that young adults with low life satisfaction have been more likely to problematically use the Internet to regulate their mood during the Covid-19 pandemic. Hostility and loneliness between which there is a moderately strong direct relationship, were similarly related to deficiently self-regulated Internet use. Moreover, individuals experiencing feelings of loneliness are more likely to use the Internet problematically for online social interaction purposes, while those experiencing feelings of hostility are more likely to use it problematically for mood regulation purposes. Given the significant relationships between indicators of psychological well-being and PIU, higher education institutions should take measures to prevent PIU behaviors in their students in case they face potential periods of social isolation.
Article
BACKGROUND: Although the majority of childhood cancer survivors make successful transitions to adulthood, research suggests that a significant group experiences ongoing medical concerns, such as psychological distress, that significantly impact the achievement of crucial social roles including employment. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between career decision making, core self-evaluations, and perceived internal and external barriers to employment in a sample of young adult central nervous system tumor survivors. METHOD: A sample of 110 young adult survivors of pediatric central nervous system tumors was surveyed. Mediation analysis with structural equational modeling was used to correlate a number of different measures (Career Decision Making [CTI], Perceived Employment Barriers [PEB], and Core-Self Evaluations [CSE]). RESULTS: The presence of both significant direct and indirect effects of career decision making on perceived employment barriers implied that there was a partial mediating effect of core self-evaluations on the association between career readiness and employment barriers. CONCLUSION: Career decision-making is a robust construct that can be applied to young adult central nervous system tumor survivors in effort to gain more insight into the vocational psychological factors that impact career development and employment in this group. Core self-evaluations was found to be a mediator between career decision making and perceived career barriers.
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This article explores the multifaceted nature of the individual motivations behind engaging in competition. In doing so, we investigate the theoretical and empirical links between general trait competitiveness and the three competitive attitudes: personal development, hypercompetition, and competition avoidant, as moderated by core self-evaluation. Findings indicate that it is not merely the level of general trait competitiveness that influences an individuals attitude towards competing, but heightened levels of core self-evaluation decrease the neurotic and unhealthy competitive attitudes of hypercompetitive and competition avoidant individuals. We discuss the implications for these relationships.
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Whereas a vast amount of research has demonstrated the association between core self-evaluations (CSE) and well-being indicators, few studies have specifically focused on the ways in which CSE might facilitate an increased well-being. This study assesses whether perceived stress might either be a potential mediator and/or moderator in the relationship between CSE and life satisfaction in two independent samples: middle-aged adults (N = 320) and young adults (N = 473). In both samples, participants completed a battery of questionnaires composed of a CSE scale, perceived stress scale and life satisfaction scale. Bootstrap analyses showed that perceived stress partially mediated the relationship between CSE and life satisfaction in both samples. However, moderation analyses failed to support that perceived stress moderated the influence of CSE on life satisfaction either in middle-aged adults or young adults samples. The implications of these findings for research and practice are discussed.
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Using a social exchange framework, the present study explores the role of group cohesion as a moderator of the relationship between the four dimensions of organizational justice and affective commitment. The hypotheses are tested using a sample of 142 employees of a pharmaceutical company. Results indicate that the relationship between distributive, interpersonal, and informational justice and affective commitment was stronger for individuals who reported high levels of work group cohesion. The relationship between procedural justice and affective commitment was unaffected by work group cohesion. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.
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The development of a self-report measure of subjectively assessed social support, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), is described. Subjects included 136 female and 139 male university undergraduates. Three subscales, each addressing a different source of support, were identified and found to have strong factorial validity: (a) Family, (b) Friends, and (c) Significant Other. In addition, the research demonstrated that the MSPSS has good internal and test-retest reliability as well as moderate construct validity. As predicted, high levels of perceived social support were associated with low levels of depression and anxiety symptomatology as measured by the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. Gender differences with respect to the MSPSS are also presented. The value of the MSPSS as a research instrument is discussed, along with implications for future research.
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Tests of assumed mediation models are common in the organizational sciences. However, the validity of inferences about mediation is a function of experimental design and the setting of a study. Regrettably, most tests of mediation have relied on the application of so-called ``causal modeling'' techniques to data from nonexperimental studies. As we demonstrate, inferences about the validity of assumed mediation models are highly suspect when they are based on the findings of nonexperimental research. One of the many reasons for this is the failure of the model being tested to be consistent with reality. Valid research-based inferences about mediation are possible. However, inferences from such tests are most likely to be valid when they are based on research that uses randomized experimental designs. Strategies for conducting research using these and other designs are described. Finally, we offer a set of conclusions and recommendations that stem from our analysis.
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Core self-evaluation (CSE) represents the fundamental appraisals individuals make about their self-worth and capabilities. CSE is conceptualized as a higher order construct composed of broad and evaluative traits (e.g., self-esteem and generalized self-efficacy). The authors review 15 years of CSE theory and research, focusing in particular on the outcomes, mediators, and moderators of CSE via qualitative and quantitative literature reviews. Meta-analytic results support the relation of CSE with various outcomes, including job and life satisfaction, in-role and extra-role job performance, and perceptions of the work environment (e.g., job characteristics and fairness). The authors conclude with a critical evaluation of CSE theory, measurement, and construct validity, highlighting areas of promise and concern for future CSE research. Key topics requiring further research include integrating CSE within an approach/avoidance framework, ruling out alternative explanations for the emergence of the higher order construct, testing the possibility of intraindividual change in CSE, evaluating the usefulness of CSE for staffing and performance management, and moving beyond CSE to also consider core external evaluations.
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Past research suggests that interactional justice plays a pivotal role in facilitating high-quality leader–member exchange (LMX), with downstream implications for employee performance. However, the broader context in which these effects unfold has received scarce attention. Drawing from deontic justice and social exchange theories, we suggest that interactional justice differentiation is an important contextual moderator of the link between interactional justice and LMX. Specifically, we argue that high interactional justice differentiation attenuates the link between interactional justice and LMX, in turn influencing the effects of interactional justice on employee task and creative performance. Results from two studies employing both experimental and multisource, multilevel survey designs provide convergent support for the hypothesized model. We conclude by highlighting several key theoretical and practical implications of our findings. Copyright
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Identifying causal mechanisms has become a cornerstone of experimental social psychology, and editors in top social psychology journals champion the use of mediation methods, particularly innovative ones when possible (e.g. Halberstadt, 2010, Smith, 2012). Commonly, studies in experimental social psychology randomly assign participants to levels of the independent variable and measure the mediating and dependent variables, and the mediator is assumed to causally affect the dependent variable. However, participants are not randomly assigned to levels of the mediating variable(s), i.e., the relationship between the mediating and dependent variables is correlational. Although researchers likely know that correlational studies pose a risk of confounding, this problem seems forgotten when thinking about experimental designs randomly assigning participants to levels of the independent variable and measuring the mediator (i.e., "measurement-of-mediation" designs). Experimentally manipulating the mediator provides an approach to solving these problems, yet these methods contain their own set of challenges (e.g., Bullock, Green, & Ha, 2010). We describe types of experimental manipulations targeting the mediator (manipulations demonstrating a causal effect of the mediator on the dependent variable and manipulations targeting the strength of the causal effect of the mediator) and types of experimental designs (double randomization, concurrent double randomization, and parallel), provide published examples of the designs, and discuss the strengths and challenges of each design. Therefore, the goals of this paper include providing a practical guide to manipulation-of-mediator designs in light of their challenges and encouraging researchers to use more rigorous approaches to mediation because manipulation-of-mediator designs strengthen the ability to infer causality of the mediating variable on the dependent variable.
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This study examined core self-evaluations (CSEs) and coping styles as mediators of the relationship between social support and well-being. Participants included 722 Chinese university students who completed the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, the Core Self-Evaluations Scale, the Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Social support, CSEs, and positive coping were positively correlated with life satisfaction and positive affect and negatively correlated with negative affect. Negative coping was positively correlated with negative affect and negatively correlated with family support. CSEs and coping styles partially mediated the effects of social support on life satisfaction and positive affect. Furthermore, CSEs completely mediated the link between negative affect and social support. High social support improved self-evaluations; this, in turn, contributed to higher levels of well-being. Social support also decreased the negative effects of coping on life satisfaction and positive affect. Specifically, individuals with high social support were more likely to develop more positive and less negative coping; this resulted in higher levels of life satisfaction. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the relations between these factors. Future studies should examine the mediational model using multiple methods.
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This study was designed to test the relationship between perceived social impact, social worth, supervisor-rated job performance (one month later), and mediating effects by commitment to customers and work engagement. The hypotheses were tested with SEM analysis in a field study with 370 customer service employees from bank, retail, and sales positions. Results confirm that perceived social impact is associated with better job performance and that this relationship is mediated by work engagement. Furthermore, results support a second mediating mechanism in which perceived social impact and social worth are associated with engagement through affective commitment to customers. Finally, it was found that engaged employees are rated as better performers by supervisors one month later. This study supports the motivational approach to performance and highlights the role that interactions with customers may play in motivating service employees. Practical implications are discussed highlighting the need to consider the social dynamics in service contexts.
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We conducted a longitudinal test of a social cognitive model of academic adjustment in a sample of 732 engineering students. The model, designed to explain students' satisfaction with and intentions to persist in their majors, integrated features of social cognitive career theory's (SCCT) segmental models of satisfaction, interest, choice, and performance (Lent & Brown, 2006; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994). Students completed measures of academic support, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, interests, satisfaction, positive affect, and intended persistence at three time points (at the end of their second, third, and fourth semesters in engineering). A bidirectional version of the model offered good fit to the data, both in the larger sample and across gender and racial/ethnic groups. Self-efficacy was the most reliable direct predictor of academic satisfaction and intended persistence across the third and fourth semesters, though other social cognitive variables also contributed, either directly or indirectly, to predictions at one time point or the other. We consider implications of the findings for further research and practice on academic adjustment and persistence in STEM fields.
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Interest in the problem of method biases has a long history in the behavioral sciences. Despite this, a comprehensive summary of the potential sources of method biases and how to control for them does not exist. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine the extent to which method biases influence behavioral research results, identify potential sources of method biases, discuss the cognitive processes through which method biases influence responses to measures, evaluate the many different procedural and statistical techniques that can be used to control method biases, and provide recommendations for how to select appropriate procedural and statistical remedies for different types of research settings.
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Career indecision can be divided into two categories: developmental and chronic indecision. The former is generally viewed as a developmentally normal problem resulting from a lack of information on the self and on the world of work, whereas the latter is defined as a pervasive inability to make a decision about one’s career. The goals of the present study were to test the validity of this typology of career indecision and to explain these types of indecision as a function of self-efficacy, autonomy, and support from parents and friends. Based on a 3-year longitudinal design with college students (N = 325), results provided validity for this typology by revealing the presence of two indecision groups (chronically undecided and developmentally undecided) and a group of students who are decided. In addition, results indicated that self-efficacy and autonomy are important dimensions that make it possible to distinguish between these three groups.
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This study among haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients aimed to investigate the influence of social support on mental health and locus of control (the extent to which individuals believe that they can control events that affect them). The findings reveal the importance of understanding the illness and treatment beliefs of renal patients and the contribution of social support to their mental health.
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This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does not tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal reliability. Scores on the SWLS correlate moderately to highly with other measures of subjective well-being, and correlate predictably with specific personality characteristics. It is noted that the SWLS is suited for use with different age groups, and other potential uses of the scale are discussed.
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The mental health of the elderly is an important issue in the area of health psychology. This study investigated the effect of intergeneration social support on the subjective well-being of 429 elderly participants. Results suggested that intergeneration social support, self-esteem, and loneliness were significantly correlated to subjective well-being. Structural equation modeling indicated that self-esteem and loneliness partially mediated the effect of intergeneration social support on subjective well-being. These findings provided insights into the effect of intergeneration social support on the subjective well-being of the elderly.
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This study examines the role of personality traits, core self-evaluation, and emotional intelligence (EI) in career decision-making difficulties. Italian university students (N= 232) responded to questions on the Big Five Questionnaire, Core Self-Evaluation Scale, Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory, and Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire. It was found that EI adds significant incremental variance compared with personality traits and core self-evaluation in predicting career decision-making difficulties. The results draw attention to the unique role of EI in career decision-making difficulties, offering new research opportunities and intervention possibilities.
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Latent Variable Models and Factor Analysis provides a comprehensive and unified approach to factor analysis and latent variable modeling from a statistical perspective. This book presents a general framework to enable the derivation of the commonly used models, along with updated numerical examples. Nature and interpretation of a latent variable is also introduced along with related techniques for investigating dependency. This book: Provides a unified approach showing how such apparently diverse methods as Latent Class Analysis and Factor Analysis are actually members of the same family. Presents new material on ordered manifest variables, MCMC methods, non-linear models as well as a new chapter on related techniques for investigating dependency. Includes new sections on structural equation models (SEM) and Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods for parameter estimation, along with new illustrative examples. Looks at recent developments on goodness-of-fit test statistics and on non-linear models and models with mixed latent variables, both categorical and continuous. No prior acquaintance with latent variable modelling is pre-supposed but a broad understanding of statistical theory will make it easier to see the approach in its proper perspective. Applied statisticians, psychometricians, medical statisticians, biostatisticians, economists and social science researchers will benefit from this book.
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P. Spector (see record 1987-33304-001) concluded that there was little evidence of method variance in multitrait–multimethod data from 10 studies of self-reported affect and perceptions at work, but L. J. Williams et al (see record 1989-31744-001) concluded that method variance was prevalent. These studies were extended by examining several important but often neglected issues in assessing method variance. A direct-product model is described that can represent multiplicative method effects and propose that model assumptions, individual parameters, and diagnostic indicators, as well as overall model fits, be carefully examined. Reanalyses indicate that method variance in these studies is more prevalent than Spector concluded but less prevalent than Williams et al asserted. The methods can have multiplicative effects, supporting the claim made by D. T. Campbell and E. J. O'Connell (1967, 1982). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In this article, we provide guidance for substantive researchers on the use of structural equation modeling in practice for theory testing and development. We present a comprehensive, two-step modeling approach that employs a series of nested models and sequential chi-square difference tests. We discuss the comparative advantages of this approach over a one-step approach. Considerations in specification, assessment of fit, and respecification of measurement models using confirmatory factor analysis are reviewed. As background to the two-step approach, the distinction between exploratory and confirmatory analysis, the distinction between complementary approaches for theory testing versus predictive application, and some developments in estimation methods also are discussed.
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This paper studies the evolution of life satisfaction over the life course in Germany. It clarifies the causal interpretation of the econometric model by discussing the choice of control variables and the underidentification between age, cohort and time effects. The empirical part analyzes the distribution of life satisfaction over the life course at the aggregated, subgroup and individual level. To the findings: On average, life satisfaction is mildly decreasing up to age fifty-five followed by a hump shape with a maximum at seventy. The analysis at the lower levels suggests that people differ in their life satisfaction trends, whereas the hump shape after age fifty-five is robust. No important differences between men and women are found. In contrast, education groups differ in their trends: highly educated people become happier over the life cycle, where life satisfaction decreases for less educated people.
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Employee turnover is a major concern because of its cost to organizations. Although theory supports the influence of nonwork factors on turnover, our understanding of the degree to which nonwork factors relate to actual turnover behavior is not well developed. Using a sample of 5505 U.S. Army officers, we assessed the extent to which spouse career support related to reduced turnover four years later through work interfering with family (WIF) and job satisfaction as mechanisms. Results revealed that spouse career support decreased the odds of turnover, and WIF and job satisfaction sequentially mediated this relationship, with lower WIF and higher job satisfaction reducing the odds of turnover. Practical implications of using family support systems as retention interventions are discussed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Subjective well-being has often been studied as a context-free construct, reflecting overall life satisfaction and characteristic levels of positive affect and negative affect. But there has also been much interest in domain-specific aspects of subjective well-being, such as job satisfaction. The authors provide a brief overview of the two primary conceptual approaches to the study of well-being in psychology and consider job satisfaction in relation to one of them (the hedonic approach). They then describe a newly developed social cognitive model that is designed to capture the interplay among multiple (e.g., affective, cognitive, behavioral, social) sources of job satisfaction. The model's potential implications for career assessment and intervention are also considered.
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This article begins with a brief overview of the theories underlying the development of the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale (CDMSE; Taylor & Betz, 1983), specifically Bandura's self-efficacy (1977, 1986) theory and Crites's career maturity theory (1978). Research on the correlates and consequences of career decision- making self-efficacy is reviewed, especially that showing the strong relationships of career self-efficacy to career indecision and other indices of problems in career decision-making. This article also reviews the uses of the CDMSE in the design and evaluation of educational and counseling interventions designed to increase perceptions of self-efficacy in relationship to the process of career decision-making.
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This study examined the predictive value of social support (SS) and emotional intelligence (EI), and their interaction effects, on subjective well-being (SWB) beyond variance already explained by personality and sociodemographic variables. Participants were 267 adults (196 female) who anonymously completed measures of satisfaction with life, positive and negative affect, social support, emotional intelligence, personality and social desirability. Exploratory hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that SS and EI, and their interaction effects, significantly predicted SWB, and explained 44%, 50%, and 50% of the variance in SWL, positive affect (PA), and negative affect (NA) respectively. At step-two SS predicted NA and SWL, at step-three EI predicted PA and SWL, and at step-four one interaction effect was significant (SS: Significant Other×EI for PA). This study elucidates the predictive value of SS, EI and their interaction on SWB, and provides the first published insight into a possible conditional relationship between SS and SWB with regard to EI, suggesting that SS may not always be necessary for SWB. Implications are discussed, highlighting that the relationship between SS, EI and SWB is more complex than previous literature suggests.
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Understanding communication processes is the goal of most communication researchers. Rarely are we satisfied merely ascertaining whether messages have an effect on some outcome of focus in a specific context. Instead, we seek to understand how such effects come to be. What kinds of causal sequences does exposure to a message initiate? What are the causal pathways through which a message exerts its effect? And what role does communication play in the transmission of the effects of other variables over time and space? Numerous communication models attempt to describe the mechanism through which messages or other communication-related variables transmit their effects or intervene between two other variables in a causal model. The communication literature is replete with tests of such models. Over the years, methods used to test such process models have grown in sophistication. An example includes the rise of structural equation modeling (SEM), which allows investigators to examine how well a process model that links some focal variable X to some outcome Y through one or more intervening pathways fits the observed data. Yet frequently, the analytical choices communication researchers make when testing intervening variables models are out of step with advances made in the statistical methods literature. My goal here is to update the field on some of these new advances. While at it, I challenge some conventional wisdom and nudge the field toward a more modern way of thinking about the analysis of intervening variable effects.
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Core self-evaluation (CSE) represents the fundamental appraisals individuals make about their self-worth and capabilities. CSE is conceptualized as a higher order construct composed of broad and evaluative traits (e.g., self-esteem and generalized self-efficacy). The authors review 15 years of CSE theory and research, focusing in particular on the outcomes, mediators, and moderators of CSE via qualitative and quantitative literature reviews. Meta-analytic results support the relation of CSE with various outcomes, including job and life satisfaction, in-role and extra-role job performance, and perceptions of the work environment (e.g., job characteristics and fairness). The authors conclude with a critical evaluation of CSE theory, measurement, and construct validity, highlighting areas of promise and concern for future CSE research. Key topics requiring further research include integrating CSE within an approach/ 81 Acknowledgements: This article was accepted under the editorship of Talya N. Bauer. All authors contributed equally to this research (names are listed alphabetically). We thank Robin Fenty, Oliver Rosen, and Oscar Shatner for their assistance with preparing the manuscript.
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"The career is dead - long live the career!" 1 Such is the mixed message regarding careers that we are carrying into the next millennium. The business environment is highly turbulent and complex, resulting in terribly ambiguous and contradictory career signals. Individuals, perhaps in self-defense, are becoming correspondingly ambivalent about their desires and plans for career development. The traditional psychological contract in which an employee entered a firm, worked hard, performed well, was loyal and committed, and thus received ever-greater rewards and job security, has been replaced by a new contract based on continuous learning and identity change, guided by the search for what Herb Shepard called "the path with a heart." In short, the organizational career is dead, while the protean career is alive and flourishing. In this special issue of The Executive we will examine the ways the career environment and the executive of the 21st century will shape the direction of careers in the years to come. In this opening paper, we will provide a brief overview of the emerging career landscape, for both organizations and individuals. Then we will turn to an overview of the papers in this Special Issue and then to the papers themselves.
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This study examined the mediating effect of core self-evaluations on the relationship between social support and life satisfaction in Chinese adults. Three hundred and forty-two (141 males and 201 females) from Mainland China completed the Multi-Dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, the Core self-evaluations scale and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Correlational results indicated that social support was associated with core self-evaluations and life satisfaction, and core self-evaluations were associated with life satisfaction. Results using structural equation modeling showed that core self-evaluations partially mediated the relationship between social support and life satisfaction. Moreover, multi-group analyses indicated that the paths in the mediation model did not differ across gender. The significance and limitations of the results are discussed.
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Taking the social exchange perspective, we examine the process (black box) linking human resource practices and organizational commitment and superior rating performance. Using procedural justice, organizational support and trust, as relational exchange mechanisms, we evaluate which such complex psychological states mediate the relationship between HRM practices and performance. On the basis of a sample of 1,219 employees from a Canadian hospital, our results indicate that HRM practices can stimulate greater in-role and extra-role performance if they are perceived as signs of support and procedural justice. Consequently, we find that that the sole implementation of HRM practices, however innovative they may be, does not suffice to improve behavioral performance. Our study thus contributes to a better understanding of the ‘black box’ phenomenon that links HRM practices to organizational performance indices. Because of the number of psychological states studied, our research enriches knowledge of the social exchange mechanisms.
Article
This volume is a complete guide to carrying out your own structural equation modelling (SEM) project. Assuming no previous experience of the subject, and a minimum of mathematical knowledge, this is the ideal guide for those new to SEM. Each chapter begins with learning objectives, and ends with a list of the new concepts introduced and questions to open up further discussion. Exercises for each chapter, including the necessary data, can be downloaded from the book's website. Helpful real life examples are included throughout, drawing from a wide range of disciplines including psychology, political science, marketing and health. Introduction to Structural Equation Modelling using SPSS and AMOS provides engaging and accessible coverage of all the basics necessary for using SEM, making it an invaluable companion for students taking introductory SEM courses in any discipline. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Relations among employment status, social support, and life satisfaction were examined in a sample of 292 community-living elderly (aged 65–97 yrs) as part of a larger investigation of the role of stressful life experiences and social support in the health of the elderly. Results of a path analysis suggested that the number of hours worked at a paying job, lower levels of depression, and greater perceived social support were directly related to higher levels of life satisfaction. Furthermore, social support mediated the effects of volunteer positions on life satisfaction. These findings are discussed in relation to previous research on vocational issues among the elderly. Limitations of this study are mentioned, and suggestions for future research are offered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)