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effect of green banana and red apple on aspirin ulcerated rats

Authors:

Abstract

Abstract Background: Peptic ulcer and hyperacidity are very common and one of the major gastro-intestinal disorders causing human suffering today. Green banana and red apple are rich sources of fiber and antioxidant, known to have antiulcerative properties. Aims: This study was conducted to investigate the biochemical effects of ulcer on experimental animals .Also to study the anti-ulcer activity of unripe banana and red apple at two doses of (10% and 20% of normal diet) supplementation to normal and ulcerated male adult albino rats by acetyl salicylic acid, antioxidants, complete blood picture and changes in gastric mucosa. Materials and Methods: 100 male adult albino rats were divided into ten groups, five groups played as healthy and the others were the ulcerated groups. Control group and ulcer control group fed balanced diet, while other groups fed balanced diet supplemented with unripe banana and red apple at two doses of (10% and 20% of normal diet) while ulcerated rats were fastened 48 hours and were given acetyl salicylic acid (aspirin) oral suspension at a dose level of 200mg/kg of body weight before sacrificed by six hours. Results: The present study showed that aspirin administration at a dose level of 200mg/kg of body weight caused a significant increase in the level of serum malondialdehyde and serum alkaline phosphatase and a significant decrease in the level of nitric oxide. Plasma catalase activity, reduced glutathione level and erythrocyte Superoxide dismutase activity significantly decreased compared to control group. Total titrable acidity, ulcer index, percent of ulceration and ulcer score were significantly increased in ulcer control group while mucosal thickness and relative weight of stomach were significantly decreased in ulcer control group compared to control group. Aspirin administration significantly decreased the level of hemoglobin , hematocrit, red blood cells count and platelets count but increased the level of white blood cells count , neutrophiles count and lymphocytes count .Consumption of green banana and red apple at two doses of (10% and 20% of normal diet) by healthy and ulcerated rats resulted in a significant decrease in oxidative biomarkers and significant improvement in antioxidants levels, complete blood picture, total titrable acidity, ulcer index, percent of ulceration and ulcer score as well as mucosal thickness and relative weight of stomach as compared with ulcerated and healthy rats. Conclusion: Our results suggested that both green banana and red apple at two doses of (10% and 20% of normal diet) had antiulcerative and anti-inflammatory effects which were probably mediated by strong antioxidants (leucocyanidin in green banana and quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid in red apple ). Keywords: Aspirin, ulcerated rats, green banana, red apple, oxidative biomarkers, antioxidants, complete blood picture.
Effect of Green Banana and Red Apple on Aspirin
Ulcerated Rats
Fatma, A.Khalil, Nahla, H.Ali, Lamiaa, A.A.Barakat and Alyae, M.S.
Biochemistry and Nutrition Department, Women’s College, Ain Shams University,
Cairo, Egypt.
Abstract
Background: Peptic ulcer and hyperacidity are very common and one of the major
gastro-intestinal disorders causing human suffering today. Green banana and red apple
are rich sources of fiber and antioxidant, known to have antiulcerative properties. Aims:
This study was conducted to investigate the biochemical effects of ulcer on experimental
animals .Also to study the anti-ulcer activity of unripe banana and red apple at two doses
of (10% and 20% of normal diet) supplementation to normal and ulcerated male adult
albino rats by acetyl salicylic acid, antioxidants, complete blood picture and changes in
gastric mucosa. Materials and Methods: 100 male adult albino rats were divided into
ten groups, five groups played as healthy and the others were the ulcerated groups.
Control group and ulcer control group fed balanced diet, while other groups fed balanced
diet supplemented with unripe banana and red apple at two doses of (10% and 20% of
normal diet) while ulcerated rats were fastened 48 hours and were given acetyl salicylic
acid (aspirin) oral suspension at a dose level of 200mg/kg of body weight before
sacrificed by six hours. Results: The present study showed that aspirin administration at
a dose level of 200mg/kg of body weight caused a significant increase in the level of
serum malondialdehyde and serum alkaline phosphatase and a significant decrease in the
level of nitric oxide. Plasma catalase activity, reduced glutathione level and erythrocyte
Superoxide dismutase activity significantly decreased compared to control group. Total
titrable acidity, ulcer index, percent of ulceration and ulcer score were significantly
increased in ulcer control group while mucosal thickness and relative weight of stomach
were significantly decreased in ulcer control group compared to control group. Aspirin
administration significantly decreased the level of hemoglobin , hematocrit, red blood
cells count and platelets count but increased the level of white blood cells count ,
neutrophiles count and lymphocytes count .Consumption of green banana and red apple
at two doses of (10% and 20% of normal diet) by healthy and ulcerated rats resulted in a
significant decrease in oxidative biomarkers and significant improvement in antioxidants
levels, complete blood picture, total titrable acidity, ulcer index, percent of ulceration and
ulcer score as well as mucosal thickness and relative weight of stomach as compared with
ulcerated and healthy rats. Conclusion: Our results suggested that both green banana and
red apple at two doses of (10% and 20% of normal diet) had antiulcerative and anti-
inflammatory effects which were probably mediated by strong antioxidants
(leucocyanidin in green banana and quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid
in red apple ).
Keywords: Aspirin, ulcerated rats, green banana, red apple, oxidative biomarkers,
antioxidants, complete blood picture.
Introduction
Peptic ulcer is a major health hazard both in terms of morbidity and mortality. It occurs
due to imbalance between offensive (acid-pepsin secretion. Helicobacter pylori (H.
pylori), bile, increased free radicals and decreased antioxidants) versus impaired mucosal
resistance (mucus, bicarbonate secretion, prostaglandins, blood flow and the process of
restitution and regeneration after cellular injury) (1).Gastric ulcer is referred to that
restricted to the stomach, while ulcers of the stomach and duodenum together are known
as peptic ulcers .Gastric ulcer is conventionally classified as acute and chronic, which are
produced under different conditions (2).
Gastric ulcer is a complex poly causal disease and is known to develop due to
imbalance between aggressive and protective factors (3).Several endogenous and
exogenous factors are responsible for gastric ulceration. These include H. pylori
infection, increased production of gastric acids, pepsin and stomach juices, certain types
of medicines, notably the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and even
personal factors such as consumption of tobacco, alcohol and caffeine, as well as
emotional and physical stresses. The pathogenesis is caused both by topical (4) and
systemic effects (5), the latter primarily involving inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX)
isozymes, and the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB)
mediated modulation of the levels of adhesion molecules and pro-inflammatory cytokines
and chemokines (6). Further, factors such as production of free radicals, inhibition of cell
proliferation, and infiltration of inflammatory cells are also involved in the pathogenesis
of ulcer.
Many of the ulcerogens generate excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS), which
disrupts the balance between the defensive and offensive factors such as levels of
cytokines, prostaglandins (PGs) and enzymes (COXs, NOS etc.), pro- and antiangiogenic
as well as tissue growth parameters. The ability of the gastric mucosa to resist injuries by
endogenous secretions (acid, pepsin and bile), and by ingested irritants (e.g. alcohol and
NSAIDs) is attributed to a number of factors that have been collectively referred to as
“mucosal defense” (7) .Mucosal defense system consists of the endogenously released
PGs, the mucosal epithelium, growth factors (Epidermal growth factor (EGF), Vascular
endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Basic fibroblast growth factor(bFGF) etc.), cytokines
(tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-α), Interleukin-1 (IL-1) etc.), and the antioxidant
systems, all of which play a crucial role in both prophylactic and healing actions (8).
Wound formation and healing are dynamic processes of extracellular matrix (ECM)
remodeling that are mainly influenced by the metalloproteinases (MMPs). Specific
treatment for stomach and duodenal ulcers is decided by the physician on the basis of
patient’s age, overall health, medical history, extent of the pathogenesis, tolerance for
medications, procedures, or therapies, and expectations or preference. Earlier, the major
approach towards therapy was targeted to reduce the secretion of gastric acids, which
were considered as the sole cause of ulcer formation. Now, the treatment modality has
changed to potentiation of the mucosal defense along with reduction of acid secretion (9).
The non- steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID’s) are recognized as the most
common etiologic factors associated with gastric ulcer (10). The aspirin injures the
gastrointestinal mucosa and because oxygen-derived free radicals mediate injury of this
mucosa, oxy-radicals may play a pathogenetic role in the evolution of aspirin induced
erosive gastritis (11). Aspirin induced ulcer has been used as a model for the evaluation
of antiulcerogenic agents (12).
ROS may interact with cellular proteins, lipids and DNA, causing alterations in cell
function. Cells have several ways to alleviate the effects of oxidative stress. They can
either repair the damage or directly reduce the pro-oxidative state via enzymatic and non-
enzymatic antioxidants. Non-enzymatic (vitamins E and C, flavonoids, etc.) and
enzymatic (superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase
(CAT) antioxidants have been shown to scavenge free radicals and ROS (13).
Flavonoids and other polyphenols are popular secondary metabolites with potential
health benefits, and constitute important part of human diets. Most of the health benefits
including their gastroprotective property are attributed to their free radical scavenging
antioxidant activity that, in turn, can modulate the arachidonic acid metabolism. They
promote mucosa, diminish acid secretion, and inhibit production of pepsinogen and PG to
provide cytoprotection (14).In addition, they also alter GSH metabolism, scavenge free
radicals and inhibit Ca2+ influx (15). Anthocyanins are naturally occurring phenolics that
impart color to fruits, vegetables, and plants. They also possess an array of health-
promoting benefits, due to their antioxidant activity (16). Besides the antioxidative role,
their strong protein binding ability ensures effective covering of the stomach surface,
explaining the gastro-protective action (17).
The protective property of some fruits against ulcerogenesis in mice was attributed to
its polysaccharides. The pectic polysaccharide composed mainly of galactose and
galacturonic acid along with some other sugars are more potent and could also reduce
gastric injury induced by HCl-ethanol, indomethacin and pylorus ligation (PL) by
increasing mucus secretion (18).
The protective capacity of fresh green sweet bananas cannot be confined to only one
active component. Pectin phosphatidylcholine and polyphenolic flavonoid
(leucocyanidin) may protect gastric mucosa (19).
Apple prevents exogenous damage to human gastric epithelial cells in vitro and to the
rat gastric mucosa in vivo. This effect seems to be associated with the antioxidant activity
of apple phenolic compounds. The preventive effect of apples against many chronic
diseases, such as lung cancer, asthma and cardiovascular diseases, found in several
epidemiological investigations by is at least in part attributed to its polyphenol
constituents. A diet rich in apple antioxidants might exert a beneficial effect in the
prevention of gastric diseases related to generation of reactive oxygen species (20) and
(21). Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin,
phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. Catechin or
chlorogenic acid (the main phenolic components of apple) were equally effective in
preventing oxidative injury to gastric cells and it was found that golden delicious had the
lowest concentration of flavonoids when compared to red delicious apples. In the United
States, apples rank second after banana among consumed fresh fruits, providing 22% of
total polyphenol intake (22) and (23).
Materials and Methods
Animals
This study was carried on healthy adult male albino rats weighing between (150±5g),
supplied from the Animal House Of Research Institute Of Ophthalmology, Giza, Egypt.
Animals were maintained on a natural light/dark cycle and given food and tap water ad
libitum.
Experimental Design
The bananas used in this work were unripe bananas were purchased from local market,
peeled, sliced and freshly added while the red apples were purchased fresh from local
market, sliced and freshly added.
Animals randomly enrolled into ten groups of ten animals each and treated as
following: Group I: healthy rats fed on balanced diet according to Reeves et al.
(24);Group II: healthy rats fed on balanced diet + 10% banana; Group III: healthy rats fed
on balanced diet + 20% banana;
Group IV: healthy rats fed on balanced diet + 10% apple; Group V: healthy rats fed on
balanced diet + 20% apple; Group VI: ulcerated rats fed on balanced diet ; Group VII:
ulcerated rats fed on balanced diet + 10% banana; Group VIII: ulcerated rats fed on
balanced diet + 20% banana; Group IX: ulcerated rats fed on balanced diet + 10% apple;
Group X: ulcerated rats fed on balanced diet + 20% apple.
At the end of the experimental period for ulceration induction , rats from group
(6,7,8,9,10) were fastened 48 hours and were given acetyl salicylic acid (aspirin) oral
suspension at a dose level of 200mg/kg of body weight according to Kannappan et al.
(25),after 6 hours rats were sacrificed under diethyl ether anesthesia but rats from
group (1,2,3,4,5) were sacrificed under diethyl ether anesthesia after overnight fasting
.Blood samples were collected from the hepatic portal vein into three dry clean centrifuge
tubes. The first tube contains ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) anticoagulant for
separation of whole blood. The second tube for separating serum by allowing blood
samples left for 15 minutes at temperature of 25˚c then centrifuged at 4000 r.p.m. for 20
minutes by using EBA8 centrifuge, diameter=9.8 cm (made in china). The third tube
contains ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) anticoagulant ,then centrifuged for 20
minutes at 4000 rpm and plasma kept in plastic vials at -20˚c till used in biochemical
analysis. Abdomen opened at greater curvature, stomachs ligated from esophageal
opening and removed, opened at greater curvature, gastric juice collected and centrifuged
.Rats organs (Liver, stomach , pancreas, kidney and heart) immediately removed and
rinsed with cold saline solution (NaCl 0.9%).Then blotted on filter paper , weighed and
calculated the relative organs weight.
Biochemical analysis
whole blood was analyzed for the immediate determination of complete blood picture
(CBC) by Dacie and Lewis (26) and non enzymatic antioxidants such as glutathione
(GSH)by Beutler et al. (27) and the separation of red blood cells for the assay of
antioxidant enzymes (Superoxide dismutase) by Nishikimi et al.(28).Serum was analyzed
for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity by Belfield and Goldberg (29),malondialdehyde
concentration (MDA)by Draper and Hadley (30) and nitric oxide (NO) concentration by
Montgomery et al.(31).Plasma was analyzed for Catalase (CAT) activity by Aebi (32) .
gastric juice was analyzed for determination of titrable acidity Abdelaziz et al. (33).
Microscopical examination
Stomach was incised along the greater curvature and ulceration was scored by Raju (34).
Evaluation of degree of ulceration was expressed in terms of ulcer score which is
calculated by dividing the total number of ulcers in each group by number of rats in that
group Robert et al. (35).The degree of ulceration was also expressed as ulcer index and
calculated by multiplying ulcer score ×100 Radwan et al.(36).
Stomach were dissected out and fixed instantaneously in 10% formal saline for 24
hours. Paraffin blocks were prepared and 5μm thick sections were subjected to the
Histological Study by H&E Kiernan (37)and Morphometric Study using Leica Qwin 500
LTD computer assisted image analysis system in the assessment of the thickness of
gastric epithelium.
Statistical analysis:-
Statistical analysis was done by using SPSS 11.5 statistical software completely
randomization design in factorial arrangement (ANOVA; F-test) and one way
classification to determine least significant difference (L.S.D) Steel and Torrie (38).
Results
Effect of dietary green banana and red apple at two tested doses (10 % and 20 %) of
normal diet on body weight (g), food intake (g /day), and feed efficiency ratio(FER)( %)
in healthy and ulcerated rats
As shown in table(1) the biological evaluation indicated that in general values of food
intake of control rats exceeded the values of corresponding ulcerated rats, also the values
of change in body weight affected for far on FER that appeared as marked significantly
decrease in ulcerated rats. While the treatment rats with green banana and red apple
caused a significant decrease as a result of their high content of fiber.
Effect of dietary green banana and red apple at two tested doses (10 % and 20 %) of
normal diet on serum malondialdehyde (MDA) level (µmol/L), nitric oxide level (µmol/L)
and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity (IU/L) in healthy and ulcerated rats
As shown in table (2)aspirin induced oxidative stress which is reflected in the
significant increase in the value of MDA by 181.77 % in aspirin ulcerated rats in
comparison with healthy control rats, the reduction percentage were found in green
banana and red apple treated groups and also the other groups , beside oxidative stress
aspirin induced tissue inflammation which is reflected in the significant increase in the
activity of ALP by 111.25 % in aspirin ulcerated rats in comparison with healthy control
rats, the treatment with green banana and red apple at the tested doses significantly
reduce ALP activity by 20.80 %, 23.78 %, 36.35 % and 46.39 % for (10 % and 20 %)
banana and apple treated ulcerated groups , on the other hand aspirin caused a significant
decrease in NO level by 34.98 % in comparison with healthy control rats, treatment with
green banana and red apple were significantly increase the percentage and improve nitric
oxide level which has a protective role on gastric mucosa.
The effect of supplemented experimental diets on Plasma catalase activity (U/L), reduced
glutathione level (mg/dl), and erythrocyte Superoxide dismutase activity (U/ml)
As shown in table (3) there were significant decrease in antioxidant enzyme activities as
SOD and catalase as well as the antioxidant non-enzyme level of GSH , the reduction
percentage were 47.35 %, 47.10 %, and 35.85 % respectively in aspirin ulcerated rats in
comparison with healthy control rats. Treatment with green banana and red apple were
significantly increase the percentage and improved anti-oxidative enzymes activities as
well as anti-oxidative non-enzyme level.
Effect of supplemented experimental diets on complete blood picture
As shown in table (4, 5,6,7,8, and9) the hematological evaluation for blood cellular
fraction RBC’S, WBC’S and platelets while RBC’S indices as hemoglobin and
hematocrit also measured. There are reduction in RBC’S, platelets, hemoglobin , and
hematocrit and raise in WBC’S, while it is clear from the results that the groups that
treated with green banana and red apple leads to improvement in the decrement and
increment caused by aspirin.
Effect of supplemented experimental diets on total titrable acidity (Meq/L)
As shown in table (10) aspirin caused increased gastric acid production and
secretion which is reflected in the significant increase in the value of total titrable
acidity by 46.08 % in aspirin ulcerated rats in comparison with healthy control rats,
the reduction percentage were found in green banana and red apple treated groups
and also the other groups.
Effect of supplemented experimental diets on mucosal thickness (mm) and
relative weight of stomach (g %)
As shown in table(11) aspirin caused a significant decrease in mucosal thickness by
97.45% and relative weight of the stomach by 14.13% while the treatment with green
banana and red apple showed a significant increase in mucosal thickness and relative
weight of stomach to reach the levels of healthy rats.
Effect of supplemented experimental diets on ulcer score, ulcer index, and percent of
ulceration (%)
As shown in table (12) stomach sections of ulcerated rats showed increased the value
of ulcer index, percent of ulceration and ulcer score. While the treatment with green
banana and red apple showed fewer degeneration and stomach appear more or less like
control as well as reduced the value of ulcer index, percent of ulceration and ulcer score.
Effect of supplemented experimental diets on microscopical examination of the stomach
As shown in figures (1,2,3,4,5,and6) histological examination of stomach sections of
ulcerated rats showed multiple swollen cells with vacuolated cytoplasm of the gastric
glands, some ballooned cells with vacuolated cytoplasm and the loss of the architecture
of some glandular cells, degradation of the superficial cells with decreased thickness of
the mucosa and dilatation of the blood vessels of the lamina propria and submucosa,
superficial ulceration of the gastric mucosa, ulceration includes all thickness of the
gastric mucosa as well as wide separation of gastric glands in the lamina propria while
the treatment with green banana and red apple showed fewer degeneration and stomach
appear more or less like control .
Discussion
The objective of the current study was to examine the antiulcerogenic properties of green
banana and red apple at the two tested doses of (10% and 20% of normal diet) on
oxidative biomarkers, antioxidants, complete blood picture, gastric mucosa, and gastric
acidity and on microscopical changes in gastric mucosa. Previous study by Maria et al.
(39) reported that the hypothesis of weight loss with increased intake of fruits is based on
three premises: the low-energy density of most fruits, their higher fiber composition, and
a less striking variation of diets high in fruit. In support of this hypothesis, a recent
review indicated that, under fixed energy intake, soluble or insoluble fiber intake
increases post meal satiety and decreases subsequent hunger. Another study by Sabine et
al. (40) reported that apple dietary fiber in experimental diets led to lower weight gain.
The study of Costa et al. (41) reported that our data could not explain the feeling of
gastric fulfillment which is frequently reported as the common side effect in ulcer
treatment with high doses of unripe banana. The users complain they cannot eat
normally, which would, in the end, lead to body weight loss. Ulceration is also associated
with significant weight loss as a result of oxidative stress and decreased appetite
associated with ulceration.
There is substantial evidence to support the claim that reactive oxygen species are
involved in gastric injury caused by aspirin exposure. The oxygen derived free radicals
play a key role in the mechanism of aspirin induced acute gastric mucosal lesions (42)
leading to increased oxidative biomarkers as malondialdehyde. The highly reactive
oxygen metabolites, especially hydroxyl radicals, act on unsaturated fatty acids of
phospholipid components of membranes to produce malondialdehyde, a lipid
peroxidation product (43). The significant increase in MDA level in aspirin ulcerated rats
when compared to normal rats and explained that NSAIDs lead also to leukocyte
infiltration which is a major source of a superoxide radical anion that reacts with cellular
lipids, forming lipid peroxides metabolized to MDA. In agreement with this, depletion of
GSH and raise MDA was observed indicating tissue oxidative stress (44) .Alkaline
phosphatase activity has been reported to be increased in diseases of gastrointestinal
lumen (45).The release of this enzyme has been suggested to play a role in tissue
necrosis associated various models of gastrointestinal ulceration and increased activity of
this enzyme may be found in damaged tissues due to decreased mucosal prostaglandins
caused by aspirin administration(46).The use of alkaline phosphatase as a marker for
polymorph neutrophil infiltration to the site of injury and ulcer is a process associated
with inflammation and neutrophil infiltration and so increased level of alkaline
phosphatase(47).The significant decrease in NO level in aspirin ulcerated rats when
compared to normal rats as the decrease in mucosal NO level following aspirin induced
injury as aspirin causes PGEs depletion by inhibiting COX activity resulting in
decreased intracellular cAMP and trans-membrane uptake of l-arginine , the source of
NO from outside the cell(44). The decreased NO level following aspirin administration as
a protective and curative role of NO as well as prostaglandins due to NO ability to
influence the same components of mucosal defense as do prostaglandins (48).The
decreased (MDA) level following green banana and red apple treatment is caused by
polyphenols, flavonoids and antioxidative properties of fresh green banana and red apple
that can fight and reduce the increased level of (MDA). Red apple and green banana
contain different types of polyphenolic compounds indeed, the protective effect of these
polyphenolic compounds might include the ability to dilate arteries by stimulating rapid
formation of nitric oxide (NO), formed by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) (49).
Previous study by Juskiewicz et al. (50) showed that the addation of flavonoid extract
decreased the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) , what should be connected with
metabolism of flavonoids absorbed from the digestive tract, and due to green banana and
red apple content of different flavonoids, as apples contain a variety of phytochemicals,
including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, while green banana
polyphenolic flavonoid (leucocyanidin) their intake leads to decreased inflammation and
correction of (ALP).
Biological systems have evolved with endogenous defense mechanisms to help protect
against free radical induced cell damage. Catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase
(SOD) are antioxidant enzymes, which metabolizes toxic oxidative intermediates. They
require micronutrients as cofactors such as selenium, iron, copper, zinc, and manganese
for optimum catalytic activity and effective antioxidant defense mechanisms (51) .In our
study ulceration has been postulated to have multiple effects on the target cells including
generation of reactive oxygen species and induction of intracellular oxidative stress there
by disrupting normal cellular development and differentiation . Previous investigation
showed that administration of NSAIDs decreased both enzymatic and non enzymatic
antioxidant levels and produced oxidative stress (52).SOD is an important endogenous
antioxidant enzyme that acts as the first line defense system against ROS which
scavenges superoxide radicals. SOD catalyzes superoxide to H2O2 and O2 while CAT
converts H2O2 to water and molecular oxygen preventing the oxidative damage.
Glutathione (GSH) is a tripeptide and a powerful antioxidant present within the cytosol of
cells and is the major intracellular non protein thiol compound (NPSH). GSH is important
in maintaining –SH groups in other molecules including proteins, regulating thiol
disulfide status of the cell, and detoxifying foreign compounds and free radicals (51)and
(53) . In this study, SOD and CAT activities as well as GSH level significantly decreased
in ulcerated rats and increased respectively on the treatment with green banana and red
apple. The study of Thamotharan et al. (54) supported our results since they stated that
aspirin produced depletion of enzymatic antioxidant like CAT and SOD, also decreased
the level of GSH which is a non enzymatic antioxidant due to consumption of enzymatic
antioxidant and non enzymatic antioxidant in fighting oxidants formed after aspirin
ulceration.
Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin
and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. Catechin or chlorogenic acid
(the main phenolic components of apple) were equally effective in preventing oxidative
injury to gastric cells .Golden delicious had the lowest concentration of flavonoids when
compared to red delicious apples. In the United States, apples rank second after banana
among consumed fresh fruits, providing 22% of total polyphenol intake (22) and (23).
The protective capacity of fresh green sweet bananas cannot be confined to only one
active component. Pectin, phosphatidylcholine, and polyphenolic flavonoid
(leucocyanidin) may protect gastric mucosa (19).
Aspirin caused decrease in RBC, Hb, and HCT, which is due to hemorrhage and
bleeding associated with ulcer formation process. PLT also affected by aspirin and
ulceration process as a result of clot formation to inhibit more bleeding and loss of blood,
while leucocytosis observed in the present study indicates an immune system response to
inflammation caused by ulcer process and also may be due to secondary infection which
may be contracted after the weakening condition of the rats. Here, we demonstrate the
aspirin treatment to animals resulted in significant abrogation of the hematological
indices while the present treatment normalized these indices and the green banana and
red apple protective effects are most likely due to their natural constituent of iron and
antioxidants potential. Gastric ulcers, bleeding and perforation are serious side effects
which are observed in long term NSAID therapy. Chronically administrated NSAIDs
induce clinically significant gastric mucosal damage by two mechanisms: direct mucosal
irritation and prostaglandin inhibition. In the literature there are some experimental
models of long term NSAID therapy-induced gastric ulcers in animals (55).
The study of Izzettin et al. (56) reported that Post-treatment with NASIDs hemoglobin
and hematocrit levels were lower than those measured before the treatment; this could be
due to the NSAID-induced blood loss in the animals. Another study of Wang et al. (57)
reported that the macroscopic findings of the opened stomach showed hemorrhagic
gastric ulcers covered with coagulated blood were more apparent in the aspirin
administered group than the control due to decreased prostaglandins level by aspirin
intake. The RBC membrane is rich in poly unsaturated fatty acids which are very
susceptible to free radical mediated peroxidation. Membrane to induce lipid peroxidation
and eventually cause hemolysis , while reported that lipid peroxidation is associated with
a wide variety of toxological effects , including decreased membrane fluidity and
function , impaired mitochondrial and Golgi apparatus functions, and inhibition of
enzymes(58) . MDA is an end product of lipid peroxidation and is a frequently measured
index of these processes. MDA can cross –link with membrane constituents of RBC. The
deformability of destructed RBC and increased RBC hemolysis may be due to increased
production of free radicals. Gastric ulcer associated with the use of aspirin is a major
problem. Many factors such as gastric acid and pepsin secretion, gastric microcirculation,
prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) content (59), and pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1
and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) - (60) play important roles in the genesis of gastric
mucosal damage, and its subsequent development (61) and (62). Inflammation and
neutrophil infiltration are also important in the pathogenesis of the gastric damage
induced by NSAIDs (63). The inflammation induced in the gastric mucosa by aspirin is
accompanied by increased TNF- production (64), which augments neutrophil-derived
superoxide generation (65) and stimulates IL-1 production, leading to neutrophil
accumulation (66) and (67). Activation of neutrophils into the stomach appears to
contribute to the gastric mucosal lesions induced by NSAIDs. Therefore, we may
postulate that infiltration of neutrophils in rat gastric mucosa after the administration of
aspirin could occur in response to the gastric production of pro-inflammatory cytokines,
resulting in the development of gastric mucosal lesions secondary to neutrophil
accumulation (67). Inflammation is an immune response; a response to an
infection, an irritation, or an injury. Immune cells are called to the site through the
blood stream. The blood vessels near the site become miraculously permeable
and the site becomes warm and red due to the increased blood flow (warm,
hence inflammation). Neutrophils and macrophages engulf microorganisms and
phagocytes are called in. Some immune cells try to “eat” the invaders; others
excrete hydrogen peroxide (and other oxidative chemicals) trying to kill them so
they can be cleaned up by the phagocytes and friends. Inflammation is a part of
the body’s natural defense system against injury and disease. Pro-inflammatory
cytokines are the part of our immune systems that attack and kill cells with
oxidative chemicals. The study of Wang et al. (58) reported that the macroscopic
findings of the opened stomach a showed inflammatory exudates were more apparent in
the aspirin administered group than the healthy control group .Flavonoids are a
ubiquitous group of polyphenolic substances that are widely distributed in the plant
kingdom and have been reported to act in the gastrointestinal tract as either antiulcer,
antispasmodic, antisecretory or antidiarrhoeal agents (68).Flavonoids are known to
inhibit the enzyme activity of histidine decarboxylase and, thus, reduce the formation of
histamine in the gastric mucosa (69). They also stimulate the mucosal content of
prostaglandins and mucus in gastric mucosa resulting in cytoprotective effects. Several of
them prevent gastric mucosal lesions produced by various models of experimental ulcer,
and protect the gastric mucosa against different necrotic agents (70). Oxygen-derived free
radical have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of clinical disorders,
resulting in the production of gastric damage by physical, chemical and psychological
factors that cause gastric ulceration in humans and experimental animals. Flavonoids are
known for their significant oxygen radical-scavenging properties in vivo and in vitro,
affecting various steps in the arachidonate cascade via cyclo-oxygenase or lipoxygenase
(68). Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin,
phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. While banana
contain leucocyandin, these flavonoids improve blood picture and reduced the
inflammation caused by aspirin.
Aspirin is a commonly used nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAIDs) and a
potent cyclooxygenase inhibitor which suppresses gastro duodenal bicarbonate secretion
reduces endogenous prostaglandin biosynthesis and disrupts the mucosal barrier as well
as mucosal blood flow (71). Aspirin increases acid secretion and produce
microvasculature damage by generation of free radicals (72). In parietal cells, H+ ion
secretion is an oxidant process. H+ ion dissociates from H20 or H2CO3- also in an oxidant
process. H+ is pumped out in exchange with K+ as an active transport process and Cl- ion
in exchange with HCO3- in basolateral membrane of parietal cells (73). Cl- ion is then
pumped and transported into gastric lumen. These increase oxidant process and increase
hydrogen peroxide production. In presence of Cl- and H2O2, hydrochloric acid will be
formed and this is a very toxic oxidant. This will results in mucosal membrane lipid
peroxidation and mucosal soreness and disruption (74). Synthetic non-steroidal anti-
inflammatory (NSAIDS) like aspirin causes mucosal damage by interfering with
prostaglandin synthesis, increasing acid secretion and block diffusion of H+ (75).
Hypersecretion of gastric acid is a pathological condition, which occurs due to
uncontrolled secretion of hydrochloric acid from the parietal cells of the gastric mucosa
through the proton pumping H+ K+-ATPase (76). Antioxidants have been shown to inhibit
free radical formation .The antioxidant properties of flavonoids are due to their ability to
directly scavenge some radical species. The antioxidant constituents in green banana and
red apple scavenge radical species leading to decreased total acidity output in ulcer
treated groups in comparison with ulcer control group.
Aspirin reduces endogenous prostaglandin biosynthesis as a result of cyclooxygenase
inhibition resulting in decreased mucin level and reduced protein concentration as a
result of accumulation of toxic free radicals in the mucosal cells (77) resulting in
decreased both mucosal thickness and relative weight of stomach. Green banana and red
apple provided protection against the action of aspirin by increase in protein and mucin
content of the gastric mucosal tissue However, the effects observed in several
experimental models of ulcers appears to be due to banana’s ability to stimulate growth
of gastric mucosa (78). This stimulatory effect was also found in normal rats and the
increased mass of mucosa and the increased production of mucus were probably
responsible for the protective effect against aspirin. The stimulatory effect of banana on
mucosa growth was probably also responsible for the rapid healing of ulcers in rats
treated with banana after aspirin administration. The regenerated mucosa cells would
rapidly seal damaged areas with a secretory layer of mucus and prevent further erosions
due to gastric HCl and pepsin (78). Procyanidins oligomers phenolic in apple with a
higher degree of polymerization demonstrate greater ability to bind to the surface of
mucosal tissue and act as a protective coating having a radical scavenging activity (79).
Aspirin has been reported to produce ulcers both by local and systemic effects. Aspirin
has direct irritant effects by increasing the H+ ion transport .On the mucosal epithelial
factors, it decreases mucin, surface-active phospholipids bicarbonate secretion mucosal
proliferation and on microvasculature produced damage by formation of free radical (80).
The study of Thamotharan et al. (54) supported our results since they stated that there
was significant increase in ulcer score and ulcer index and high percentage of ulceration
in aspirin ulcerated group than normal control group as a result of decreased
prostaglandin synthesis by inhibition of cyclooxygenase enzyme resulting in stomach
tissue damage and apoptosis. Many reports have demonstrated that most injury of
gastric mucosa can be reduced by pretreatment with scavengers of reactive oxygen
species (81) the advantage in anti-ulcerative action of phenolics in apple might be due to
the high concentration of procyanidins and their binding ability to mucosal tissue (82)
which could help in maintaining the antioxidant action in the gastric wall. In addition to
phenolics, pectin in apple fruit may function as an anti-ulcerative factor. Several
researchers have reported that pectic polysaccharides may be responsible for anti-
ulcerative activity (83). One mechanism proposed to explain this activity is the binding of
pectic polysaccharides to the surface mucosa, which is thought to produce a protective
coating (83) leading to formation of protective mucosal coating and reduced lesion
formation. Pectin , phosphatidylcholine, and polyphenolic flavonoid (leucocyanidin)
from green banana (19) protect gastric mucosa in the same way as red apple also
banana’s ability to stimulate growth of gastric mucosa (80) as well as its ability to
decrease gastric secreations (80) leads to reduced gastric lesion and prevent further
erosions.
Exposure of the gastric mucosa to necrotizing agents like aspirin causes gastric ulcers and
induces a major damage of superficial epithelial cells on gastric mucosa. Ulceration
produced by aspirin has been suggested to be attenuated by an H2 antagonists, implicating
its anti-secretory property as well (84).Aspirin causes necrosis of the gastric tissues
leading to ulceration, multiple epithelial cells recruited dark nuclei, called Pyknosis or
karyopyknosis that means the irreversible condensation of chromatin in the nucleus of a
cell undergoing necrosis (85) or apoptosis (86). In addition, multiple epithelial cells
revealed vacuolated cytoplasm, indicative of necrosis as in accordance with (87) who
deduced that some of the major morphological changes that occur with necrosis include
cell swelling with formation of cytoplasmic vacuoles. Also, it could be explained by
reduced activity of cellular ATPase results in failure of sodium pump mechanism that
responsible for water and electrolytes control. So, cells accumulate water that caused
cellular degeneration (87). Both cellular necrosis and apoptosis in the gastric epithelium
of the current study could explain the focal epithelial discontinuity that might be reaching
to the surface and reduced gastric mucosal thickness. Changes of the gastric mucosal
thickness confirmed by statistical measurement and analysis. Reactive oxygen species
have been implicated in the etiology and pathophysiology of gastrointestinal
inflammation and gastric ulcers. Hence, there is a need for agents to minimize and repair
free radical-induced damage. The antioxidants play a key role in these defense
mechanisms. Formulations with potent antioxidant actions have been reported to be
effective in the cytoprotection and/or healing in the experimentally induced peptic ulcers
(88).Apple and banana antioxidants play a key role in preventing this oxidative stress as well as their curative role on gastric ulcer tissues. Procyanidins oligomers
phenolic in apple with a higher degree of polymerization demonstrate greater ability to
bind to the surface of mucosal tissue and act as a protective coating having a radical
scavenging activity (81). The stimulatory effect of banana on mucosa growth was
probably also responsible for the rapid healing of ulcers in rats treated with banana after
aspirin administration. The regenerated mucosa cells would rapidly seal damaged areas
with a secretory layer of mucus and prevent further erosions due to gastric HCl and
pepsin (80).
Table (1):The effect of dietary green banana and red apple at two tested doses (10 % and
20 %) of normal diet on change in body weight (g), food intake (g /day), and feed
efficiency ratio(FER)( %) in healthy and ulcerated rats
Groups change in body
weight (g)
food intake
(g /day)
feed efficiency
Ratio (%)
Control 29.91±0.72a9.78±0.24 0.19±0.28a
10% banana 27.83±0.64b9.37±0.51 0.09±0.005b
20% banana 25.78±0.83c8.71±0.69 0.10±0.006b
10% apple 26.00±1.03c9.18±0.84 0.09±0.005b
20% apple 24.59±1.22d8.81±0.59 0.09±0.005b
Ulcer 29.75±0.65a9.78±0.24 0.10±0.001b
Ulcer+10% banana 27.65±0.61b9.34±0.83 0.10±0.002b
Ulcer+20% banana 25.62±1.09c8.65±0.71 ` 0.09±0.003b
Ulcer+10% apple 26.28±0.99c9.28±0.92 0.09±0.005b
Ulcer+20% apple 24.50±1.13d9.00±0.65 0.08±0.008b
L.S.D (p≤0.05) 0.90 0.65 0.08
Table (2) :The effect of dietary green banana and red apple at two tested doses (10 % and
20 %) of normal diet on serum malondialdehyde (MDA) level (µmol/L), nitric oxide
level (µmol/L) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity (IU/L) in healthy and ulcerated
rats
L.S.D (p≤0.05) 0.37 0.95 1.32
Table (3): The effect of dietary green banana and red apple at two tested doses (10 % and
20 %) of normal diet on plasma catalase activity (U/L), reduced glutathione level (mg/dl),
and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity (U/ml) in healthy and ulcerated rats
Groups Malondialdehyde
(µmol/L)
Nitric oxide
(µmol/L)
ALP
(IU/L)
Control 2.14 ± 0.09f18.12±0.85f24.00±0.80 f
10% banana 1.88 ± 0.14g23.93±0.71d22.15±0.49 g
20% banana 1.79 ± 0.19 g 26.21±0.92c20.43±0.24 h
10% apple 1.59 ± 0.16 g 30.27±0.61b19.00±0.73 i
20% apple 1.20 ±0.09 h 36.18±0.62a16.55±1.00 j
Ulcer 6.03 ±0.79a11.78±0.66j50.70±1.14a
Ulcer+10% banana 4.80 ± 0.40b13.41± 1.67i40.15±0.73b
Ulcer+20% banana 4.19 ±0.64c14.65±1.12h38.64±0.74c
Ulcer+10% apple 3.81± O.23d16.60±0.90g32.27±3.61d
Ulcer+20% apple 3.16 ±0.12e19.78±0.76e27.18±0.71e
Groups Catalase
(U/L)
Reduced
glutathione
(mg/dl)
Superoxide
dismutase
(U/ml)
Control 99.25 ±2.50 d78.35± 1.12 e307.02 ± 3.28 e
10% banana 103.87± 1.31c81.12±0.90 d 314.83 ±2.89 d
20% banana 104.12 ± 1.75 c81.88± 0.61 c324.92 ±2.43 c
10% apple 106.25± 1.70 b83.93± 0.73 b340.55 ± 2.43 b
20% apple 108.25± 1070 a86.51± 0.67 a355.88 ±2.03 a
Ulcer 52.25± 1.70 i50.26± 1017 j162.39± 3.53 j
Ulcer+10% banana 64.75±2.50 h55.43± 0.62 i194.93 ± 4.22 i
Ulcer+20% banana 72.37± 1.25 g58.20± 0.77 h210.85 ± 16.00h
Ulcer+10% apple 77.87± 1.31 f60.73± 0.40 g242.57± 1.76 g
Ulcer+20% apple 82.62±1.79 e66.54± 0.80 f281.90± 5.41 f
L.S.D (p≤0.05) 1.76 0.79 5.83
Table (4): The effect of dietary green banana and red apple at two tested doses (10 % and
20 %) of normal diet on hemoglobin (Hb, g/dl) and hematocrit (Hct %) in healthy and
ulcerated control rats :
Groups Hemoglobin
(g/dl)
Hematocrit
(%)
Control 15.13±0.44a28.82±0.17b
10% banana 15.15±0.18a29.07±0.88b
20% banana 15.27±0.23a30.20±0.62b
10% apple 15.20±0.18a29.75±1.23b
20% apple 15.29±0.28a32.50±4.76a
Ulcer 8.60±0.60b21.15±0.31c
L.S.D (p≤0.05) 0.59 1.37
Table (5): The effect of dietary green banana and red apple at two tested doses (10 % and
20 %) of normal diet on hemoglobin (Hb, g/dl) and hematocrit (Hct %) in ulcerated rats
Groups Hemoglobin
(g/dl)
Hematocrit
(%)
Before ulcer After ulcer Before ulcer After ulcer
Ulcer 13.67± 0.45a8.60±0.60c28.75±0.45 a 21.15±0.31b
Ulcer+10% banana 14.75± 0.52 a 10.02 ±0.17b29.62±0.92 a 22.60±0.45b
Ulcer+20% banana 15.02 ± 0.66 a 11.40± 0.33b29.82±0.65 a 23.52±0.29b
Ulcer+10% apple 14.89± 0.79 a 10.45± 0.40b29.70±0.55 a 22.80±0.29b
Ulcer+20% apple 15.12± 0.49 a 13.30±1.02ab 29.89±1.08 a 27.87±2.67a
L.S.D (p≤0.05) 1.62 2.74
Table (6):The effect of dietary green banana and red apple at two tested doses (10 % and
20 %) of normal diet on red blood cells count (RBC’s, 106/µl) and platelets count(PLT,
103/µl) in healthy and ulcerated control rats
Groups RBC’s
(106/µl)
Platelets
(103/µl)
Control 5.35±0.41c553.50±23.00ab
10% banana 6.65±0.29b553.25±28.00ab
20% banana 7.12±0.45b572.00±80.00a
10% apple 6.90±0.55b563.50±15.00a
20% apple 8.07±1.09a582.500±40.00a
Ulcer 3.35±0.31d397.00±28.97b
L.S.D (p≤0.05) 0.78 32.11
Table (7):The effect of dietary green banana and red apple at two tested doses (10 % and
20 %) of normal diet on red blood cells count (RBC’s, 106/µl) and platelets count(PLT,
103/µl) in ulcerated rats :
Groups RBC’s
(106/µl)
Platelets
(103/µl)
Before ulcer After ulcer Before ulcer After ulcer
Ulcer 5.67±0.51b3.35±0.31bc 556.25±27.53a397.00±28.97c
Ulcer+10% 6.81±0.24ab 4.05±0.31b557.00±25.00a416.75±18.11bc
banana
Ulcer+20%
banana
7.82±1.11a4.72±0.70b557.00±25.28a455.75±40.40b
Ulcer+10%
apple
7.00±0.46a4.20±0.17b557.50±25.21a432.75±13.93bc
Ulcer+20%
apple
8.07±1.20a6.05±0.73ab 558.75±41.70a500.00±26.09b
L.S.D (p≤0.05) 1.27 54.79
Table (8) : The effect of dietary green banana and red apple at two tested doses (10 % and
20 %) of normal diet on white blood cells count (WBC’s, 103/µl), neutrophiles count
(NEUT, 103/µl) and lymphocytes count (LYM, 103/µl) in healthy and ulcerated control
rats
Groups WBC’s
(103/µl)
NEUT
(103/µl)
LYM
(103/µl)
Control 6.61±0.36 b 2.76±0.4 b 4.50±0.35 b
10% banana 6.54±0.56 b 2.60±0.18 b 4.26±0.27 b
20% banana 6.41±0.87 b 2.17±0.5 b 3.92±0.66 b
10% apple 6.45±0.59 b 2.58±0.1 b 4.08±0.59 b
20% apple 6.20±0.38 b 2.01±0.5 b 3.91±0.93 b
Ulcer 9.90±0.25 a 6.20±0.21 a 6.70±0.91 a
L.S.D (p≤0.05) 0.87 0.86 0.66
Table (9) : The effect of dietary green banana and red apple at two tested doses (10 % and
20 %) of normal diet on white blood cells count (WBC’s, 103/µl), neutrophiles count
(NEUT, 103/µl) and lymphocytes count (LYM, 103/µl) in ulcerated rats
Groups WBC’s
(103/µl)
NEUT
(103/µl)
LYM
(103/µl)
Before ulcer After ulcer Before
ulcer
After
ulcer
Before
ulcer
After
ulcer
Ulcer 7.24±0.49 bc 9.90±0.25a3.87±1.59b6.20±0.2a4.10±0.16b6.70±0.9a
Ulcer+10%
banana
6.56±0.73c8.70±0.51b2.59±1.01bc 4.00±0.2b4.15±0.23b6.05±0.3a
Ulcer+20%
banana
7.70±0.78 bc 8.60±0.35b2.92±0.41bc 3.50±0.3b4.80±0.80b5.22±0.3ab
Ulcer+10%
apple
6.97±1.54 bc 8.65±0.41b3.07±1.19b3.90±0.4b3.91±0.40bc 5.30±04 ab
Ulcer+20%
apple
7.90±0.94b7.09±0.65bc 3.88±0.45b3.40±1.2b4.15±0.79b4.36±0.9b
L.S.D
(p≤0.05)
0.97 1.03 0.88
Table (10): The effect of dietary green banana and red apple at two tested doses (10 %
and 20 %) of normal diet on total titrable acidity (Meq/L) in healthy and ulcerated rats
Groups Total titrable acidity
(Meq/L)
Control 43.00±2.27 f
10% banana 40.32±0.78 g
20% banana 38.85±0.62 h
10% apple 36.52±0.33 i
20% apple 33.17±0.23 j
Ulcer 79.75±2.10 a
Ulcer+10% banana 70.37±0.47 b
Ulcer+20% banana 64.25±0.50 c
Ulcer+10% apple 59.25±0.50 d
Ulcer+20% apple 45.50±0.40 e
L.S.D (p≤0.05) 1.09
Table (11): The effect of dieary green banana and red apple at two tested doses (10 % and
20 %) of normal diet on mucosal thickness (mm) and relative weight of stomach (g %) in
healthy and ulcerated rats
Groups Mucosal thickness (mm) Relative weight of
stomach (g %)
Control 614.62±27.55ab 0.92± 0.06d
10% banana 615.81±26.54ab 0.96±0.03cd
20% banana 630.68±37.11ab 1.02±0.03b
10% apple 640.74±29.47a1.28± 0.07a
20% apple 660.62±45.63a1.32± 0.05a
Ulcer 153.66±17.88f0.79 ±0.05e
Ulcer+10% banana 225.52±19.21e0.83±0.05e
Ulcer+20% banana 277.39±29.78d0.82± 0.14e
Ulcer+10% apple 506.92±76.91c0.93 ± 0.03cd
Ulcer+20% apple 577.18±31.01b0.98±0.03bc
L.S.D (p≤0.05) 26.39 0.06
Table (12): The effect of dietary green banana and red apple at two tested doses (10 %
and 20 %) of normal diet on ulcer score, ulcer index, and percent of ulceration (%) in
ulcerated rats
Groups ulcer score ulcer index percent of ulceration
(%)
Ulcer 9.5 a 950 a 100a
Ulcer+10% banana 8 b 800 b 85.7b
Ulcer+20% banana 7.5 c 750 c 71.4c
Ulcer+10% apple 6 d 600 d 43 d
L.S.D (p≤0.05) 0.43 46.38 14.00
Fig. (1): Photomicrograph of a section in the rat stomach of control group 1 showing the
mucosa which consists of tubular straight gastric glands (↓), extend to the level of
muscularis mucosa. (H. & E. x200)
Fig. (2): Photomicrograph of a section in the rat stomach of ulcer control group showing
ulceration (U) includes all thickness of the gastric mucosa. . (H. & E. x400)
Fig. (3): Photomicrograph of a section in the rat stomach of ulcerated group treated with
10% banana showing some swollen cells with vacuolated cytoplasm (↓) of the gastric
glands. Note moderate dilatation of blood vessels (V) (H. & E. x400)
Fig. (4): Photomicrograph of a section in the rat stomach of ulcerated group treated with
20% banana showing restore thickness of the gastric mucosa with moderate dilatation of
the blood vessels (V). (H. & E. x200)
Fig. (5): Photomicrograph of a section in the rat stomach of ulcerated group treated with
10 % apple showing restore thickness of the gastric mucosa with localized loss of cells
(L). Note dilatation of the blood vessels (V). (H. & E. x200)
Fig. (6): Photomicrograph of a section in the rat stomach of ulcerated group treated with
20 % apple showing restore thickness of the gastric mucosa with minimal dilatation of
the blood vessels (V).(H. & E. x200)
Conclusion
The current study proved the efficiency of using both green banana and red apple at two
doses of (10% and 20% of normal diet) had antiulcerative and anti-inflammatory effects
which were probably mediated by strong antioxidants (leucocyanidin in green banana
and quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid in red apple ).
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