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Difference Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

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2/26/2017 DifferenceBetweenProkaryoticandEukaryoticCells|Structure,Characteristics,Comparison
http://pediaa.com/differencebetweenprokaryoticandeukaryoticcells/ 1/11
Home»Science»Biology»CellBiology»DifferenceBetweenProkaryoticandEukaryoticCells
DifferenceBetweenProkaryoticandEukaryotic
Cells
February25,2017 byLakna 7minread
0
MainDifference–Prokaryoticvs
EukaryoticCells
All living organisms can be divided into prokaryotes and
eukaryotes. Bacteria and archaea belong to prokaryotes.
Eukaryotes are the organisms in kingdom protista, fungi,
plantae and animalia. Prokaryotic cells don’t have possess
nucleus,nuclearmembranesandnucleoli.Buteukaryoticcells
consist of a true nucleus enclosed by two membranes. Thus,
thekeydifferencebetweenprokaryoticandeukaryoticcellsisthatprokaryoticcellsarelackingmembranebound
organellesincludingnucleuswhileeukaryoticcellsconsistofmembraneboundorganellesincludinganucleus.
Thisarticlelooksat,
1.WhatareProkaryoticCells
–StructureandCharacteristics
2.WhatareEukaryoticCells
–StructureandCharacteristics
3.WhatisthedifferencebetweenProkaryoticandEukaryoticCells
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2/26/2017 DifferenceBetweenProkaryoticandEukaryoticCells|Structure,Characteristics,Comparison
http://pediaa.com/differencebetweenprokaryoticandeukaryoticcells/ 2/11
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2/26/2017 DifferenceBetweenProkaryoticandEukaryoticCells|Structure,Characteristics,Comparison
http://pediaa.com/differencebetweenprokaryoticandeukaryoticcells/ 3/11
WhatareProkaryoticCells
Unicellularorganismswhichdon’thavemembraneboundorganelleslikenucleusandmitochondriaarereferredtoas
prokaryoticcells.Theseorganismsaredividedintotwogroupsdependingonthecomponentsofthecellwall:Bacteria
and Archaea. In prokaryotes, the cell membrane encloses watersoluble proteins, DNA and metabolites in the
cytoplasm.Theydonotpossessseparatecompartments,butmicrocompartmentsactasprimitiveorganelleswhichare
createdbyproteinshells.
Mostprokaryotesare0.2to2µminsize.Fourtypesofshapescanbeidentifiedinbacteria:sphericalshaped(cocci),
rodshaped(bacilli),spiralshaped(spirochaete) and commashaped (vibrio). Cyanobacteria also form largecolonies
andmyxobacteria containingmulticellularstages inthelife cycle.Bacteriaconsistofaprimitivecytoskeletonanda
cell wall made up of peptidoglycan: a polymer of linked carbohydrates and small proteins. Cell wall provides
protectiontothecell,maintainstheshapeandpreventsdehydration.Somebacteriapossessanoutermostlayercalled
capsulewhichissticky,helpingthecelltoattachtosurfaces.Flagella,awipelikestructurehelptomovebyactingas
arotormotor.Ontheotherhand,fimbriae,anumeroushairlikestructurealsohelptheattachment.
Somebacteriaconsistofaglycocalyxwhichcoversthecellmembranesurroundings.Bacterialcytoplasmisagellike
substancewhichdissolvesavarietyoforganicmoleculestogetherwithcellularcomponents.Small70Sribosomesare
present for the protein synthesis. Genomic DNA is found in a region called nucleoid in the cytoplasm. Bacteria
consist of a single circular chromosome. Some DNA pieces are found in the cytoplasm as circular plasmids. The
structureofaprokaryoticcellisshowninfigure1.
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Figure1:ProkaryoticCellStructure
Both bacteria and archaea exhibit asexual reproduction via binary fission. Bacterial gene transfer occurs in three
methods: transduction mediated by bacteriophages, conjugation mediated by plasmids, and natural transformation.
Thisiscalledhorizontalgenetransfer.Rodlikestructurescalledpiliallowthegenetictransfer.Archaealgenetransfer
occursthroughcytoplasmicbridges.
Sinceprokaryotes consist of great diversity,they obtain energy from inorganiccompoundslike hydrogen sulfide in
additiontothephotosynthesisandorganiccompounds.TheycanalsobealiveinharshconditionssuchasAntarctica
snowsurfaces, hot springs and undersea hydrothermal vents. Archaea are extremophiles, livingin extremes ofpH,
temperatureandradiation.Eukaryotesarethoughttobeevolvedfromprokaryotes.
WhatareEukaryoticCells
Eukaryotes are unicellular or multicellular organisms,
which have membraneenclosed organelles such as
specially nucleus, mitochondria, golgi apparatus and
chloroplasts in plants. Multicellular eukaryotes contain
specialized tissues made by different types of cells.
Eukaryotes can be identified under four kingdoms:
KingdomProtista, Kingdom Plantae, KingdomFungi, and
KingdomAnimalia.
Aeukaryoticcellislargerinsize(10to100µm)compared
to prokaryotes. In eukaryotes, various cell types such as
animalcells,plantcellsandfungalcellscanbeidentified.Eukaryoticcytoskeletonis composed of microfilaments,
microtubulesandintermediatefilaments.Itplaysavitalroleincellularorganizationanditsshape.Plantsandfungi
possessacellwallmadeupofcellulose,hemicellulose,pectinandchitinrespectively.
Eukaryotic cells are composed of a variety of membranebound organelles. The nucleus is enclosed by two
membranescalled nuclearenvelop.Nuclearmembrane formstheendoplasmicreticulum(ER)whichisinvolved in
proteinmaturation and transportation.Ribosomes are large, 80S in size and they are bound to the ER. Ribosome
boundERisreferredtoasroughER.Vesiclesarepresentfor thetransformationof variousmoleculeswithin thecell
such as golgi bodies, lysosomes and peroxizomes. Mitochondria is also surrounded by two phospholipid bilayers.
TheycovertsugarintoATPstoutilizeasenergy.Plantcellscontainchloroplastsforthephotosynthesis.Thestructure
ofatypicalplantcellisshowninfigure2.
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Figure2:Plantcellstructure
Usually,eukaryotesarecomposedofmorethanonechromosomesinthe nucleus.Thesechromosomesarelinearand
most of the times they exist in multiple copies called homologous. Eukaryotes reproduce either asexually through
mitosisorsexuallythroughmeiosisfollowedbythefusionofgametes.
DifferenceBetweenProkaryoticAndEukaryoticCells
Definition
ProkaryoticCell:Prokaryoticcellsdon’tpossessnucleusandmembraneboundorganelles.
EukaryoticCell:Eukaryoticcellspossessmembraneboundorganellesincludingthenucleus.
Sizeofthecell
ProkaryoticCell:Thesecellsarenormally0.2to2µmindiameter.
EukaryoticCell:Thesecellsarenormally10to100µmindiameter.
Nucleus
ProkaryoticCell:Prokaryoticcellshavenotruenucleus,nonuclearmembranesornucleoli.
EukaryoticCell:Eukaryoticcellsconsistofatruenucleuswithnuclearmembranesandnucleoli.
DNA
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Prokaryotic Cell:Prokaryotic cells consist of single, circular DNA molecule in the nucleoid, They don’t have
histonesorexons.
EukaryoticCell:Eukaryoticcellsconsistofmultiple,linearchromosomesinthenucleus.TheycontainHistones,and
exons.
MembraneboundOrganelles
ProkaryoticCell:Prokaryoticcellsdonothavemembraneboundorganelles.
EukaryoticCell:Membraneboundorganellessuchasmitochondria,chloroplast,ERandvesiclesarepresent.
Flagella
ProkaryoticCell:Flagellaaremadeupoftwoproteins.
EukaryoticCell:Somecellswithoutcellwallcontainflagella.
Glycocalyx
ProkaryoticCell:Glycocalyxactsasacapsule.
EukaryoticCell:Someeukaryoticcellsthatdon’thavecellwallspossessaglycocalyx.
CellWall
ProkaryoticCell:Prokaryoticcellsaremostlymadeupofpeptidoglycans.Theyarechemicallycomplex.
Eukaryotic Cell:Eukaryotic cells are made up of cellulose, chitin and pectin. Prokaryotic cells are chemically
simple.
PlasmaMembrane
ProkaryoticCell:Carbohydratesandsterolsarenotfoundintheplasmamembrane.
EukaryoticCell:Carbohydratesandsterolsservesasreceptorsontheplasmamembrane.
Cytoplasm
ProkaryoticCell:Prokaryoticcellsareprimitivecytoskeletonwithnocytoplasmicstreaming.
EukaryoticCell:Eukaryoticcellshavecomplexcytoskeletonwithcytoplasmicstreaming.
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Ribosomes
ProkaryoticCell:Prokaryoticcellsaresmallinsize,70S.
EukaryoticCell: Eukaryotic cells arelargein size, 80S.70Sribosomesarepresentinorganelleslikemitochondria
andchloroplast.
CellDivision
ProkaryoticCell:Celldivisionoccursthroughbinaryfission.
EukaryoticCell:Celldivisiontakesplacethroughmitosis.
SexualReproduction
ProkaryoticCell:Nosexualreproduction,horizontalgenetransferandrecombinationcanbeobserved.
EukaryoticCell:Sexualreproductionhappensthroughmeiosis.
Examples
ProkaryoticCell:Bacteriaandarchaeaareexamples
EukaryoticCell:Protista,fungi,plantsandanimalsareexamples.
Conclusion
Prokaryoticcellstransporttheir metabolites through the cytoplasm, but eukaryotic cells consistofdifferentkindsof
vesiclestotransportdifferentmetabolites.Proteinsynthesis in eukaryotic cells occurs in 80Sribosomesattachedto
theER.Synthesisedpolynucleotidechainsenter the ER. Protein folding and transportation intovariouspartsofthe
cellaremaintainedbytheER.Therefore,thekeydifferencebetweenprokaryoticandeukaryoticcellsstemsfromthe
presenceorabsenceofthenucleusandthemembraneboundorganelles.
Reference:
1.“Prokaryote”.Wikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia,2017.Accessed22Feb2017
2.“Prokaryoticcells”.KHANACEDAMY,2017.Accessed22Feb2017
3.“Eukaryote”.Wikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia,2017.Accessed22Feb2017
4.“Eukaryoticcells”.LearnScienceatScitable,NatureEducation,2017.Accessed22Feb2017
ImageCourtesy:
1.“Averageprokaryotecellen.svg”.ByMarianaRuizVillarreal,LadyofHats–Ownwork(PublicDomain)via
CommonsWikimedia
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AbouttheAuthor:Lakna
Lakna,agraduateinMolecularBiology&Biochemistry,isaMolecularBiologistandhasa
broadandkeeninterestinthediscoveryofnaturerelatedthings
2.“Plantcellstructureen.svg”.ByLadyofHats–SelfmadeusingAdobeIllustrator(PublicDomain)viaCommons
Wikimedia
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It is known that some microorganisms of soil such as some bacterial and fungal species have efficient roles in plant as antagonists against pathogenic microorganisms. For example; Escherichia coli has antagonistic activity against Aspergillus Niger”. Aspergillus Niger is one of pathogenic fungi present in the Environment, it is present in agricultural soil of plant and causes substantial aliments for plant that lead to huge crops yield loss. In this study, the antagonistic activity of Klebsiella spp., Escherichia coli, Bacillus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. bacteria was examined against Aspergillus Niger pathogenic fungi isolated from peat moss soil of celery plant by using disk-diffusion agar technique. Bacterial cells were cultured and grown on nutrient agar media and the fungal cells were cultured and grown on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar media. After that, bacterial and fungal colonies were purified to one type of each one. Subsequently, bacterial type was identified by Gram Staining kit and some biochemical tests such as Lysine, urease, triple sugar iron and motility tests, while fungal type was identified by observing it under the microscope. Finally, the bacteria against fungi was examined by putting the cells of klebsiella spp., Escherichia coli , Bacillus spp., Staphylococcus spp. as antibiotic disk on streaked Aspergillus Niger on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar plates and streaking bacterial cells and fungal cells half in half on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar. The results of this study proved that Aspergillus niger grew normally in the presence of klebsiella while grew in the presence of Escherichia coli coli, Bacillus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. as antagonists by 10%, 36% and 75%, respectively. klebsiella might not produce any enzymes have the ability to dissolve the Aspergillus Niger cell wall as chitinase enzyme while the different antagonistic activities of Escherichia coli , Bacillus spp., Staphylococcus spp. were because they might produce chitinase enzyme at different rates. In conclusion, not all Bacterial species of soil have antagonistic activity against pathogenic microorganisms in which klebsiella had not antagonistic activity or was not able to be antifungal agent against Aspergillus Niger. Whereas Escherichia coli , Bacillus spp., Staphylococcus spp. had varies effects as antifungal growth agents according to the difference in the production of pathogenic fungal cell wall lytic enzymes. Key words: Klebsiella, Aspergillus Niger, Antagonistic activity, fungi, Bacteria, Escherichia coli, Bacillus, and Staphylococcus.
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