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Achievement Motivation

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Abstract

Motivational psychologists study what moves people to act and why people think and do what they do (Weiner, 1992). Motivation energizes and directs actions, and so it has great relevance to many important developmental outcomes such as school achievement, performance in other activity areas, and overall mental health. Fundamentally, motivational theorists and researchers work to understand the motivational predictors of choice, persistence, and effort (Wigfield, Eccles, Schiefele, Roeser, & Davis-Kean, 2006). Achievement motivation refers more specifically to motivation relevant to performance on tasks in which there are criteria to judge success or failure. Examples of these kinds of tasks are school activities, work activities, and competitive sport activities. In all such activities competence is a crucial part of motivation to achieve. Motivation in all forms is most directly observable in the level of energy in individual's behaviors.

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... Studies have shown that psychological health is associated with achievement motivation [33][34][35]. For example, research conducted by Deary et al. [36] about consultant doctors working in Scotland reveal that personal achievement is related to job stress, which can further affect job burnout. ...
... On the other hand, the pathway structure for staff indicated that psychological health did not directly affect their job performance, but instead could directly affect their social health and achievement motivation. This was consistent with previous studies, which confirmed psychological health contributed to social interactions [29] and was closely related to achievement motivation [35]. ...
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Background Employees are considered as one of the most important assets in many organizations, and their health well-being is critical to help achieve a sustainable and motivated workforce that is committed to delivering quality hospitality services through enhanced performance and productivity. Given the extent of the challenges and impact presented by the COVID-19 pandemic to the hospitality industry, it is timely to gain further insights on employees’ health well-being. The key purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between health-related quality of life, achievement motivation and job performance in the Taiwan hospitality industry, to acquire a better understanding of their relationships through the job performance pathway models. Methods This study has used a purposeful sampling technique to select the 10 highest-earning hospitality companies in Taiwan. A total of 292 questionnaires were collected from the employees of these hospitality companies. Based on the multi-dimensional concept of health-related quality of life (HRQoL), the relationships between the five key dimensions (i.e. psychological health, physical health, social health, achievement motivation, and job performance) were examined. To measure these dimensions, the survey questions were adapted from previous research such as the World Health Organization’s WHOQOL-BREF scale, Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire. Partial least squares - Structural Equation Modeling method was used to explore these dimensions, and two job performance pathway models (for manager and staff) were subsequently developed. Results and conclusions Findings showed that psychological health directly affected the manager’s job performance and physical health had a similar effect through social health. While psychological health had not affected the staff’s job performance, but it could affect achievement motivation through both direct and indirect effects of social health. The pathway models that were developed indicated that the manager’s job performance was mainly affected by psychological health and social health, whereas the key dimension that had affected the staff’s job performance was achievement motivation.
... A motivação, por exemplo, apresenta uma relação de reciprocidade com o empenho (Singh et al., 2002), constituindo, assim, um bom indicador desta variável. A motivação para o desempenho refere-se à motivação relacionada com a realização em tarefas para as quais existem critérios de avaliação de sucesso ou insucesso, sendo que a competência do aluno surge como parte crucial deste indicador do empenho (Wigfield & Cambria, 2010). Esta medida da motivação para a realização fornece informação útil relativamente aos objetivos que os alunos estabelecem para si (OECD, 2017) e surge, na literatura, com influência no desempenho do aluno (Liu & Chiang, 2019). ...
... Intrinsic motivation refers to behavior derived from internal factors such as interest or curiosity, and extrinsic motivation is driven by external rewards such as money, praise or fame [19]. Achievement motivation is the need to achieve the performance goal to be judged as competent [20]. ...
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The purpose of this study is to determine the moderating effects of the timing of reward determination and performance standards on the relationship between pay-for-performance and self-efficacy. It is an experimental study; the sample included 352 participants from Amazon Mechanical Turk, and an online experiment was conducted on an external website. The model was tested for mediation and moderation processes using regression analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results showed a mediating effect of self-efficacy between pay-for-performance and intrinsic motivation. A moderating effect of performance standards (absolute, relative, ambiguous) on the relationship between pay-for-performance and self-efficacy was also found. Moreover, performance standards were found to be more important moderators than the timing of reward determination. The theoretical contribution of this paper was to observe the concept of timing of reward determination and empirically validate self-determination theory. The results also infer that people measure their own efficacy or competence by comparing themselves with others more than with other performance standards. The use of absolute performance standards is recommended for sustainable self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation of employees. This study introduced the concept of the timing of reward determination (i.e., before or after completion of a performance-related task) and verified the moderating effect of performance standards.
... Major theories of motivation emphasize that different aspects of beliefs, values and goals compose a motivational state that precedes decision-making and further action [12]. Thus, we claim that a discussion about the role of value and risk within beliefs and goals in KiPs is needed to properly define and understand how agents get motivated and decide to act. ...
Chapter
Knowledge-intensive Processes (KiPs) are a range of business processes which are rather unpredictable, highly variable, and very dependent on human knowledge and collaboration. Despite the recent efforts to provide comprehensive support for KiP management, there are still few discussions about how human aspects influence process execution. For example, in a disaster management KiP, why someone decides to take action when the action itself may put their own life at stake? This work aims to provide an ontological background for properly understanding human decision-making actions by analyzing cognitive states of agents participating in a KiP. We introduce a novel perspective of decisions seen as value and risk experiences, and a formal characterization of agents’ beliefs in a goal processing framework, which paves the way for precisely and systematically explaining decision-making towards process goals. We claim that these value-oriented conceptual models are capable of describing the rationale of decision-making in KiPs in terms of value and risk ascriptions and by a set of belief types that supports goal processing. In a practical example, the proposed conceptual models were applied in the analysis of a real-life KiP instance from the air traffic control domain.
... Al llegar a la adolescencia las creencias, valoraciones y metas van cambiando y, poco a poco, van volviéndose relativamente estables, viéndose influidas por los éxitos y los fracasos repetidos que se van experimentando. Por lo tanto, el paso del colegio al instituto puede ir acompañado en muchos casos de una reducción importante del interés, de la curiosidad y del disfrute por aprender, así como de una disminución en las creencias de competencia, pudiendo llegar a derivar, en último término, en absentismo y abandono escolar temprano (Wigfield, Byrnes y Eccles, 2006;Wigfield y Cambria, 2010). ...
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Dadas las graves consecuencias negativas de abandonar la escuela para el individuo y para la sociedad, los investigadores han tratado de identificar los factores que predicen el abandono con la esperanza de desarrollar intervenciones que mejoren los procesos de riesgo. Teniendo en cuenta las dificultades para medir y evaluar los factores que afectan a los abandonos que ya han ocurrido y asumiendo la relación entre la intención de abandono y el abandono real, parece esencial desarrollar una caracterización amplia de los estudiantes que tienen la intención de abandonar. En este punto, con una muestra de 267 alumnos españoles (48.7% mujeres; Mage=14.38; SD=1.09) que cursaban 2º (n=138) y 3º (n=129) de ESO se explora la incidencia de la repetición y el rendimiento académico sobre la intención de abandonar antes de completar la educación secundaria obligatoria.Los resultados de este trabajo sugieren que la probabilidad de que se dé una intención de abandono temprano es significativamente más alta entre quienes han repetido uno o dos cursos en la ESO que entre aquellos que no han repetido en ESO (OR= 8,769, IC 95% 2,304-33,378; Q=.79) y que la probabilidad de abandonar puede ser también más elevada entre los estudiantes que informan de rendimiento académico inferior a la media que entre quienes informan de rendimiento superior a la media (OR= 4,336, IC 95% ,968-19,421; Q=.64). Atendiendo a nuestros resultados, si bien no estar repitiendo actualmente o no haber repetido en EP podría garantizar, en cierta medida, la intención de completar los estudios, ni estos factores ni las bajas calificaciones se establecen como predictores directos de la intención de abandono temprano. A la luz de estos resultados cabe seguir explorando el perfil personal y motivacional del abandono escolar temprano.
... Second, the data used to build the profiles were assessed at one-time point, so they represent just one 'snapshot' concerning the SRL-relevant precursors of the preschoolers. Person-variables like shyness, tiredness, mood, and motivation could provide explanations for comparatively bad performance (Crozier & Hostettler, 2003;Matthews et al., 2002;Wigfield & Cambria, 2010), but were nevertheless not controlled for in the current study. Third, the reliabilities of the adapted measurement instruments to assess speech competency and executive functioning were less reliable than we expected based on findings of previous studies. ...
Article
During preschool age, three precursors to self-regulated learning (SRL) can be identified: general self-regulation ability, speech competence, and executive functioning. There is evidence for a large interindividual heterogeneity in these precursors which may have an impact on the development of SRL. This study (a) examined heterogeneity in SRL precursors by identifying different SRL precursor profiles and (b) examined the influence of the SRL precursor profiles on the benefit of an SRL intervention and the developmental time course of SRL. A latent profile analysis was conducted with 230 preschoolers. Four SRL precursor profiles were identified. In a sample of 191 preschoolers, we examined if these profiles showed differences in the benefits accrued from an SRL intervention. Higher general self-regulation ability and speech competence resulted in a large increase in SRL. The results confirmed the heterogeneity in SRL precursor abilities in preschoolers and suggested such precursors can influence the development of SRL.
... Motivation is concerned with activities individuals use to pursue a particular goal [68] and can involve intrinsic (self) motivation [69] or achievement (performance) motivation [70]. Resilience is having the ability to resist being damaged by adversity or being able to "bounce back" after the adversity [71]. ...
Article
Purpose: First-time assistance dog handlers experience a profound life change when they bring an assistance dog into their home. Therefore, this article investigates the broad context of handlers’ lived experiences prior to and throughout the first year after acquiring an assistance dog. Materials and methods: To understand holistic experiences better, semi-structured interviews were conducted with first-time assistance dog handlers (n = 7), parents (n = 7), assistance dog instructors (n = 6), carers/other individuals (n = 3) at four time points: before an individual received an assistance dog, and then at three further times for up to one year after they received the assistance dog. Results: Inductive content analysis revealed that four main contextual factors (societal, social support, environmental and personal) influenced the lived experience of working with an assistance dog. Many of these factors were outside of the handler and the assistance dog organization’s control, and they were shown to cause many challenges for handlers. Conclusion: These factors must, therefore, be taken into consideration when organizations make decisions about placing an assistance dog. • IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION • Societal influences can both hinder and facilitate the benefits first-time handlers receive with their assistance dog in public. • Support from others is important to successfully integrate an assistance dog into a first-time handler’s life. • A handler’s level of environmental control can influence their experiences with their assistance dog. • Personal factors such as a handler’s experience of disability and motivation or resilience can impact experiences with their assistance dog.
... Winning must be kept in perspective alongside other valuable aspects of youth sport, such as social development, fun, and fitness (David, 2019). Winning a competition is not a prerequisite for future life success, and it is more important to promote all three orientations, not merely winning, in whatever activity adolescents choose to do (Wigfield and Cambria, 2010). At the same time, as one of only three subscales in the SOQ-CA, the win orientation is also a necessary aspect of sport orientation in adolescents. ...
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A noted decrease in adolescent physical activity in the past decade has resulted in an increase in health risks. Sport orientation correlates closely with physical activity. A sufficient assessment scale that measures an individual’s sport orientation is important to measure an adolescent’s physical inactivity. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a short version of the Sport Orientation Questionnaire for Chinese Adolescents (SOQ-CA). Based on Gill’s SOQ and previous literature, an initial 30-item questionnaire was developed to create the original SOQ-CA. A five-point Likert scale was used to measure by self-report. In this study, three surveys were conducted. Volunteer participants completed 1,235 valid questionnaires. The data of the first collection sample (n = 486) were split randomly into two groups, sample 1 (n = 150) used for exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and sample 2 (n = 336) for confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The data of the second (n = 377) and third (n = 372) collection samples were used to perform test–retest reliability, internal consistency, and CFA of the SOQ-CA. The SOQ-CA obtained good reliability and validity through both EFA and CFA. The development of the SOQ-CA provides an opportunity to develop further theories and practices regarding the assessment of both sport motivation and individual achievement orientation. The application of the SOQ-CA in China would be significant for monitoring the development of adolescent physical activity and aiding in the implementation of policies.
... Furthermore, the external rating is based on multiple observations, whereas the direct measurement tool developed only delivers data from one point in time. Using data from only one point in time is risky because preschoolers' performance in the SRL measurement tool could be influenced by different individual-related variables like mood, shyness, tiredness, and motivation in the moment of testing (Crozier & Hostettler, 2003;Matthews et al., 2002;Wigfield & Cambria, 2010)a risk which was also taken in account when building homogenous profiles of preschoolers (Study 3). The (b) well-established EF measurement tool (Tower of London; Shallice, 1982) showed questionable reliability in our sample. ...
... As early as 1997, Vallerand's research advanced the psychology of motivation by acknowledging the existence of non-intrinsic, yet internalised, motivations that can be associated with complex motivations. The psychological literature reveals that the complex motivation of achievement refers more specifically to an individual's 'performance on tasks' (Wigfield and Cambria, 2010). Motivation in these forms is most directly observable as the level of sustained energy involved over time in individuals' entrepreneurial behaviour. ...
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This paper contributes to the theory of social entrepreneurship (SE) by analysing five generic motivations (extrinsic, intrinsic and complex motivations; employment status; and start-up capital) that credibly influence individuals’ intention to engage in SE. This research uses an exploratory and inductive methodology in analysing the literature across four schools of thought based on the research conceptual model and developed six research propositions for further empirical testing. As a major contribution, this paper suggests for the first time that ‘complex motivation’ may have a significant role in social venturing.
... The positive consequences of being evaluated as high performing have been shown for various aspects of interpersonal interactions: (a) When a speaker (e.g., in politics or television) is evaluated as competent, his/her statements are perceived as more convincing and persuasive by others [3]; (b) groups give influence and power to members who are considered competent [4,5], for example, by nominating them as leaders [6]; and (c) being evaluated as high performing is a catalyst for career success; for example, employees who are perceived as more competent than other team members get promoted more quickly and more often [7]. As high performance is rewarded with numerous incentives, people strive to be evaluated as high performing and successful in different domains of their professional lives [8]. ...
Article
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This study compared the impacts of actual individual task competence, speaking time and physical expressiveness as indicators of verbal and nonverbal communication behavior, and likability on performance evaluations in a group task. 164 participants who were assigned to 41 groups first solved a problem individually and later solved it as a team. After the group interaction, participants’ performance was evaluated by both their team members and qualified external observers. We found that these performance evaluations were significantly affected not only by task competence but even more by speaking time and nonverbal physical expressiveness. Likability also explained additional variance in performance evaluations. The implications of these findings are discussed for both the people being evaluated and the people doing the evaluating.
... Motivation is little confusing as it varies from factors to factors and situation to situation. According to researchers Wigfield and Cambria, "Motivation energizes and directs actions, and so it hasgreat relevance to many important developmental outcomes"(Wigfield & Cambria, 2010) ...
Conference Paper
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The biggest challenge faced by corporates today is to understand the expectations of people belonging to Gen Z, who are or soon will be entering the workplaces. GenZ is born and raised with social web, they are digital centric and technology is their identity. This generation is entering the companies and will be dominating the workplaces in terms of numbers in the coming years. They seem to have a different attitude towards work than the previous generation. When the complete focus of organizations is on employee’s happiness and satisfaction, it becomes utterly important for them to understand the workplace expectations of the coming generations and device HR practices accordingly. Companies may need to rethink their existing practices to accommodate the Gen Y and give them the comfort level to help them perform their best in the organization. Gen Z is slowly entering their first jobs with their own set of expectations and preferences. The study aims to highlight the specific characteristics of Gen Z and how they are different from the previous generations. The study also aims to identify and explore the expectations and priorities of GenZ regarding what motivates them the most at their workplace.
... Motivation is a term used to describe a person's behavior, desires and needs, and is defined as the sincere and willing fulfillment of what is to be done to achieve something. Motivation, which enables the individual to be emotionally satisfied while mobilizing for his/her goals, is a phenomenon that directs the individual to work, prod him/her into action and arouses desire in this regard (Wigfield & Cambria 2010;Clancy, 2016). In other words, as well as being a general concept that includes wishes, desires, needs, impulses, interests, motivation gives energy and direction to behavior (Cüceloğlu, 1999;Aydın, 2001;Ergül, 2005). ...
... A category that is investigated at different levels of education, and that has been understood as an essential component of the educational process, is Motivation (Weiner, 1990;Wigfield and Cambria, 2010). This concept encompasses everything that drives the person to act, to do things in their life, to choose a behavior in the face of each need, which is why, in the case of Education, it exerts great influence on the way in which the Student behaves in front of the Learning Process (Petri and Govern, 2012). ...
Article
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Introduction. The objective of this work is to present the results of the adaptation and validation process of the Motivated Scale Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) in university students in Colombia. Method. The research is framed in the so-called instrumental studies, which seek to adapt, validate and analyze the psychometric properties of an instrument. The adapted and validated version is called the Learning Motivation Questionnaire (CMA). The data was obtained from a convenience sample of 2,067 students from all over the country for the exploratory phase and 660 students for the confirmatory phase. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was applied. For this, SPSS version 25 and AMOS version 24 software were used. The statistical techniques used to determine the confirmatory validity of the instrument are structural equations (SEM). The process developed in each phase of the investigation and the final SEM model, represented in a Path diagram, are presented. In addition, the convergent and discriminant validity analysis was carried out, based on the Composite Reliability (CR), Cronbach's Alpha and the Omega Coefficient, average variance extracted (AVE), and a predictive validity analysis. Results. The result is a 19-item instrument, divided into five subscales, with a goodness-of-fit model, adequate to the thresholds proposed by the theory, where the Learning Control Beliefs (CCA) dimension was eliminated from the model in the process of analysis. factorial analysis. The new questionnaire is valid and reliable; presents low prediction of academic performance Discussion and Conclusions. The questionnaire, adapted and validated, provides information to those who can use MSLQ in the country to understand the results of their investigations. In addition, it offers the international community new empirical evidence on the psychometric properties of the MSLQ Motivation Scale.
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The figure of entrepreneurship is given as a possible solution that can guarantee labour insertion, but also allows its inclusion in disparate societies. The aim of the study was to validate by means of a confirmatory factor analysis a measurement model to determine the profile of the university entrepreneur that from the constructs proposed in the Entrepreneurial Attitude Orientation Scale (EAO) can be tested in the university context in particular. The study corresponds to a quantitative approach, non-experimental design, cross-sectional, carried out in a private university in Lima, Peru, where 271 undergraduate and postgraduate students were selected. A confirmatory factor analysis was carried out to check the sustainability of the instrument. The proposed model corroborated the main fit indicators of the confirmatory factor analysis, the covariances between constructs are highly significant and positive, so the structure is confirmed by the data. The findings allow us to approve and corroborate the empirical sustainability of the Entrepreneurial Attitude Orientation Scale (EAO) for the entrepreneurial profile model in Peruvian university students.
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The science learning environment is an important factor in students’ attitudes toward their science experiences in school, as well as toward science courses. This study compares how learning in different laboratory environments (hands-on or virtual) influences these attitudes for middle school (7th grade) students. Participants were 143 seventh-grade students from a public school. They were enrolled in four different seventh-grade science classes, all taught by a single teacher. Pretest and post-test responses were compared to investigate participants’ attitudes toward different forms of laboratories and toward science courses. Data were gathered by giving students an attitude questionnaire (pretest and post-test) and by conducting interviews (post-test). Findings revealed that laboratory experiences have a strong impact on middle school students’ attitudes toward science; after working with the laboratory environment (either hands-on, virtual, or in a combination) students had a more positive attitude toward science. Data based on the questionnaire revealed no differences in attitudinal improvement between hands-on, virtual, or combinations of these labs, although descriptive data suggested that virtual labs are more effective for attitude change than hands-on labs. This may be linked to students’ overall, but slight, preference for virtual laboratories over hands-on laboratories, as became apparent from the interviews.
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This chapter reviews the recent research on motivation, beliefs, values, and goals, focusing on developmental and educational psychology. The authors divide the chapter into four major sections: theories focused on expectancies for success (self-efficacy theory and control theory), theories focused on task value (theories focused on intrinsic motivation, self-determination, flow, interest, and goals), theories that integrate expectancies and values (attribution theory, the expectancy-value models of Eccles et al., Feather, and Heckhausen, and self-worth theory), and theories integrating motivation and cognition (social cognitive theories of self-regulation and motivation, the work by Winne & Marx, Borkowski et al., Pintrich et al., and theories of motivation and volition). The authors end the chapter with a discussion of how to integrate theories of self-regulation and expectancy-value models of motivation and suggest new directions for future research.
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In this article, we argue for a change in how researchers study motivation to learn. We believe that research can provide better explanations of the origins and outcomes of behavior, and thus be more useful, if we focus on how motivation develops and why it changes. We suggest reframing motivation research in education by extending the current focus on beliefs to studying the transactions among persons engaged in specific classroom activities over time. We present one approach from developmental psychology—Rogoff's three planes—that attempts to account for this transaction. We then present examples of current motivation research to illustrate how this approach has been applied. We believe that using this framework can produce new results that are meaningful for both researchers and practitioners who want to understand and foster motivation in education.
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A motivational science perspective on student motivation in learning and teaching contexts is developed that highlights 3 general themes for motivational research. The 3 themes include the importance of a general scientific approach for research on student motivation, the utility of multidisciplinary perspectives, and the importance of use-inspired basic research on motivation. Seven substantive questions are then suggested as important directions for current and future motivational science research efforts. They include (1) What do students want? (2) What motivates students in classrooms? (3) How do students get what they want? (4) Do students know what they want or what motivates them? (5) How does motivation lead to cognition and cognition to motivation? (6) How does motivation change and develop? and (7) What is the role of context and culture? Each of the questions is addressed in terms of current knowledge claims and future directions for research in motivational science.