The field of information systems design (ISD) is in a state of fragmentation; further, it has proved not easy to integrate embracing ontology and pluralist epistemology into user-friendly methodologies able to facilitate disciplinary and creative ISD actions. These difficulties are addressed via an Oriental approach, WSR (relations with the world, the mind and others), which draws upon ancient Chinese thought and contemporary management practice in China. WSR has been used to help IS developers and users in viewing ISD as a technical–cognitive–social whole, shaping ISD as an issue–task matrix, guiding ISD as a spiral learning and bubble-management process, enhancing participation by transforming management–ISD methodologies, and identifying further research areas. It is suggested that ISD will benefit from conscious mutual learning between the Western spirit of critical rigour and the Eastern flexible pragmatic mindset.
Jainism is an ancient religion from India that teaches that the way to liberation and bliss is to live a life of harmlessness and renunciation. It began in the 6th century as a reformation movement within Hinduism. Vardhaman Mahavir was the founder of Jainism religion. According to Jainism teachings, knowledge is the essential quality of each individual soul. Jain epistemology thus becomes vital in Jain philosophy. This study is a different prevailing views in Jainism and Jaina Philosophy regarding the epistemology, perception, intelligence, standpoints, Nayas and viewpoints. The main objective of this paper is to identify the main characteristics of epistemology in Jainism religion. Research methodology used in the study was largely based on qualitative approach which analyses the relevant documentary sources from books, journals and web sites relating to this area. A descriptive research design with survey method was applied in this study. According to the study can be identified Jainism knowledge is of five kinds as Mati, Sruthi, Avadhi, Mahaparyaya and Kevala. The first two kinds of knowledge are regarded as indirect knowledge and remaining three as direct knowledge. The essential nature of jiva is consciousness which is made up both perception and discerning knowledge. Jain philosophers identify five stages to perception such as Vyanjanagraha, Arthvagraha, Iha, Avaya and Dharana. The Jain religion preaches the doctrines of Ahimsa, Satya, Asteya, Brahmacharya and Aparigraha. The Nayas are classified in various ways. This can be concluded by epistemology in Jainism is a critical doctrine in India which have discussed several different prevailing views.
In modern science, the synthesis of “nature/mind” in observation, experiment, and explanation, especially in physics and biology increasingly reveal a non-linear totality in which subject, object, and situation have become inseparable. This raises the interesting ontological question of the true nature of reality? Western science as seen in its evolution from Socratic Greece has tried to understand the world by objectifying it, resulting in dualistic dilemmas. Indian science, as seen in its evolution from the Vedic times (1500–500 bc) has tried to understand the world by subjectifying our consciousness of reality. Within the Hindu tradition, the Advaita-Vedanta school of philosophy offers possibilities for resolving not only the Cartesian dilemma but also a solution to the nature of difference in a non-dualistic totality. We also present the Advaita-Vedanta principle of superimposition as a useful approach to modern physical and social science, which have been increasingly forced to reject the absolute reductionism and dualism of classical differences between subject and object.
he absence of widespread agreement concerning the best conceptual framework and most-practical clinical meth- ods in integrative medicine reflects important unresolved philosophical problems about the nature of health and illness. It is only through the analysis of philosophical problems related to observation, evidence, and causality in medicine that a rigorous methodology for clinical integrative medicine will evolve. This 4-part paper began last issue with a brief review of Western medicine's philosophical origins, which I extend in this essay to an examination of the philosophical assumptions under- lying non-Western systems of medicine. I explore the significance of the resulting "philosophical gap" between Western biomedi- cine and non-Western systems of medicine, arguing that "ways of seeing" illness and health phenomena are embedded in various systems of medicine based on incongruent metaphysical assumptions. These differences occur because all systems of medicine continuously evolve in the broader context of social, technological, and economic influences. Eastern and Indigenous Healing Systems vs Western Medicine