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The PMO Maturity Cube, a Project Management Office Maturity Model.

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At the end of the 1990s and the beginning of the 2000s, the theme of project management offices (PMOs) was beginning to be widely discussed in various books (Block & Frame, 1998; Dinsmore, 1999; Bolles, 2002; Crawford, 2002; Englund, Graham, & Dinsmore, 2003; Kendall & Rollins, 2003; Hill, 2004; Williams & Parr, 2004; Letavec, 2006). Studies are more recent in academic literature (Dai & Wells, 2004; Hobbs & Aubry, 2007; Aubry, Hobbs, & Thuillier, 2008; Hurt &Thomas, 2009), and their conclusions about the contribution or value of PMOs are “ambiguous” (Hurt & Thomas, 2009, p. 55). In addition, one of the discoveries in the first study that presents a “reliable portrait of the population of PMOs” (Hobbs & Aubry, 2007, p. 82) was that the function of 50% of the PMOs studied was to “monitor and control their performance.” In other words, PMOs are concerned with assessing and measuring their own performance. Recent qualitative studies (Aubry, Hobbs, & Thuillier, 2008, p. 43) indicated that there is a degree of instability in the historical analysis of PMOs. This is a complex phenomenon and one that demands tools for evaluating the performance and constant reinvention of PMOs. Therefore, a maturity model, as applied to PMOs, was developed and tested with the objective of helping to take an academic discussion to another level of complexity and making it possible for PMOs to carry out their own self-assessment. On developing the model, the authors came to a conclusion that the better the PMO delivers its services, and only the ones related to the needed functions, the more the PMO is perceived delivering value to its organization.
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PMI Research and Education Congress 2010, Washington D.C., USA
The PMO Maturity Cube, a Project Management Office Maturity Model
Américo Pinto, Doctoral Candidate, SKEMA Business School, France
Marcelo F. De Matheus Cota, Doctoral Candidate, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil
Dr. Ginger Levin, SKEMA Business School, France
Keywords: project management office, maturity model, maturity, continuous improvement
Abstract
At the end of the 1990s and the beginning of the 2000s, the theme of project management offices
(PMOs) was beginning to be widely discussed in various books (Block & Frame, 1998; Dinsmore, 1999;
Bolles, 2002; Crawford, 2002; Englund, Graham, & Dinsmore, 2003; Kendall & Rollins, 2003; Hill, 2004;
Williams & Parr, 2004; Letavec, 2006). Studies are more recent in academic literature (Dai & Wells, 2004;
Hobbs & Aubry, 2007; Aubry, Hobbs, & Thuillier, 2008; Hurt &Thomas, 2009), and their conclusions about the
contribution or value of PMOs are “ambiguous” (Hurt & Thomas, 2009, p. 55). In addition, one of the
discoveries in the first study that presents a “reliable portrait of the population of PMOs” (Hobbs & Aubry,
2007, p. 82) was that the function of 50% of the PMOs studied was to “monitor and control their performance.”
In other words, PMOs are concerned with assessing and measuring their own performance.
Recent qualitative studies (Aubry, Hobbs, & Thuillier, 2008, p. 43) indicated that there is a degree of
instability in the historical analysis of PMOs. This is a complex phenomenon and one that demands tools for
evaluating the performance and constant reinvention of PMOs. Therefore, a maturity model, as applied to
PMOs, was developed and tested with the objective of helping to take an academic discussion to another
level of complexity and making it possible for PMOs to carry out their own self-assessment. On developing the
model, the authors came to a conclusion that the better the PMO delivers its services, and only the ones
related to the needed functions, the more the PMO is perceived delivering value to its organization.
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Introduction
Since the end of the 1990s, there has been a major movement worldwide toward the creation of
PMOs (project management offices) and this has grown in intensity during the present decade (Dai & Wells,
2004, p. 524; Hobbs & Aubry, 2007, p.74). Despite the common perception that a large number of the major
companies in the market have, at least one PMO in their organizational structure, Hurt and Thomas (2009, p.
55) indicated “the sustainability of PMOs is a tenuous issue.”
In fact, PMOs arose because of different needs, but the vast majority had a greater objective in
common: to obtain better results in those projects developed by the organization.
Over the last few years, while some of these initiatives have prospered and matured and created
noticeable value for the organization, others have lost their vigor and support and have suffered cuts and
reductions or have even been eliminated altogether. Additionally, Hobbs and Aubry (2007, p. 74) saw that
there was a significant variation in the structure, the roles assumed, and the perceived value of PMOs,
demonstrating the instability and the diversity of PMOs’ performance.
Successful PMOs are constantly being challenged to find the best way to ensure that their practices
continuously mature. This observation shows that, generally speaking, the perception of the value of those
PMOs that are not capable of evolving tends to diminish over time, because as the organization itself matures,
there is a demand for a PMO that is aligned with the new needs arising from this process of organizational
evolution. Aubry, Hobbs, and Thuillier (2008, p. 43) analyzed the history of four PMOs and saw that they
underwent a complex phenomenon of transformation every two years, on average, and that this came either
from the evolution process or from organizational instability. In other qualitative research, Aubry, Hobbs, and
Thuillier (2008, p. 554) concluded that organizational tensions are the primary motivation behind the
implementation and reconfiguration of PMOs, i.e., issues of organizational power and politics have to be
considered, and these issues further increase the complexity of managing PMOs.
Over the last few years, renowned authors (Crawford, 2002; Hill, 2004; Kerzner, 2005), institutions
(Software Engineering Institute [SEI], 2000), and even the Project Management Institute (2008) have
developed organizational maturity evaluation models. The objective of which is to facilitate the maturity
process in organizations by providing a structured path based on best market practices and to foster
continuous improvement. On the other hand, in this same period, if one ignores the fact that the maturing
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process of the organization as an entity is something very different in many aspects from the maturing of a
PMO as an organizational unit, no relevant initiative for creating specific points of reference for supporting the
evolution of a PMO has been identified. Despite there being a strong correlation between these two types of
maturity, reality shows that it is possible for a little prepared, i.e., immature, PMO to exist in more mature
organizations, given that the maturity of the PMO involves the degree of sophistication with which it is capable
of performing its functions and reaching its objectives.
One of the discoveries of the first study that presents a “reliable portrait of the population of PMOs”
(Hobbs & Aubry, 2007, p. 82) was that 50% of the PMOs studied have the function of monitoring and
controlling their own performance. In other words, PMOs are concerned with evaluating and measuring their
performance. And considering the lack of knowledge that exists about the maturity of PMOs, this article
suggests a specific new model for evaluating their maturity. Its objective is to allow a PMO, based on its
mission, to objectively evaluate its maturity level, considering the degree of sophistication with which it
performs each of the functions for which it is responsible, while also taking into consideration both the most
common functions of PMOs in the market (Hobbs & Aubry, 2007), as well as its own specific interests and
needs.
The Operating Philosophy of a PMO
But, what is a PMO? In literature (Block & Frame, 1998; Dinsmore, 1999; Bolles, 2002; Crawford,
2002; Englund, Graham, & Dinsmore, 2003; Kendall & Rollins, 2003; Hill, 2004; Williams & Parr, 2004; Dai &
Wells, 2004; Letavec, 2006; Hobbs & Aubry, 2007; Hurt &Thomas, 2009), there are countless different
responses to this question. Generally speaking, they all agree on one thing: it is the area in which certain
activities (also called functions) relating to project management are centered, and its objective is to help
organization achieve better results through projects.
Among these activities or functions, we can highlight some, (e.g., providing the methodologies and
tools needed for managing projects; supporting top management by supplying reports and executive
information; lending support when it comes to planning and controlling projects; and even taking over
altogether by providing project managers from the beginning or helping “rescue” the management of certain
projects) that are considered strategic and are in trouble in terms of meeting objectives and providing benefits.
All these functions were highlighted in a recent study by Hobbs and Aubry (2007), who mapped out the 27
common PMO functions after receiving contributions from 500 professionals involved with PMOs worldwide.
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A PMO is often seen as a support area within the organization, in a similar way to the accounting,
marketing or IT areas. In most organizations, these areas are not considered to be an area that have their
own raison d’être, since their purpose is to support the development of the company’s principal activity.
However, we see crucial differences that make PMOs somewhat different from a traditional support area.
The requirement that the PMO should generate value is, in fact, something much more critical than
the demands normally seen in traditional support areas, the value of which is translated into benefits that are
not always noticeable or measurable. Unlike these areas, a PMO is being constantly questioned regarding its
contribution to the organization and is often seen as a type of operational overhead. The fact is that few
people would question the need for the existence of a marketing department or an accounting department.
Nevertheless, these same individuals would probably question the need for a PMO if the value generated by
the PMO is not clearly perceived.
So, in analyzing PMOs from another viewpoint, we can see that a PMO is truly a service provider
within the organization, given that an external service provider could have its contract cancelled at any time
because it is not adding sufficient value. In the same way, a PMO may also inadvertently lose all the support
and backing it has because it is unable to generate value and perceptible benefit that justify maintaining the
investment made.
Therefore, a PMO that intends to survive the ups and downs of the organization and the market needs
to see itself as a service provider that has customers whose needs must be fully served. This PMO evolves as
the organization matures, which means that its customers start having different and generally increasingly
sophisticated needs.
In other words, the success of a PMO involves its capacity to understand who its customers are, what
their needs are, and how to meet those needs by creating clear and sufficient benefits and generating
perceptible and measurable value. Its maturing process involves the skills to meet the new needs arising from
the maturing process of the organization and its customers, by offering new services, and making the level of
service more sophisticated in response to the demands that are made of it.
Types and Functions of PMOs
The complexity of the PMO phenomenon gives rise to a difficulty when it comes to establishing a
standard way of typifying them. By observing different PMOs in various organizations, it is possible to notice
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that there are significant differences, which make the task of summarizing into just a few types the diversity of
structures and ways of operating found in the complex world today.
In considering the extensive literature that exists on the subject it is possible to identify various
attempts that have been made at standardizing the way of typifying PMOs. Englund, Graham, and Dinsmore
(2003), for example, presented five types of PMOs: the single control project office, directed toward just one
project and that is more operational in the way it operates; the strategic project office, directed toward the
whole of the organization, and that operates strategically; the business unit project office, directed at an area
or department and that operates either strategically or tactically; the project support office, directed toward the
whole company, but that has an operational role; and finally, the project management center of excellence,
which focuses on continuous improvement and innovation.
The proposal of this PMO maturity model sums up the main standard ways of typifying PMOs in
essentially two principal dimensions: scope and approach.
The scope of a PMO comes from how wide reaching its actions within the organization are. Basically,
there are three mutually exclusive possibilities: the project-program PMO, the scope of which covers just one
of the organization’s projects or programs; the departmental PMO, which covers an area, department,
directorship, or business unit, i.e., just a part of the organization; and finally the corporate or enterprise PMO,
which covers the organization as a whole.
Approach has to do with how the PMO operates with its customers. This may be strategically,
tactically, or operationally, or it may operate with all three simultaneously. In fact, the driver of the approach of
a PMO must be its mission, which will define how strategic, tactical, or operational it should be. This approach
classification was ratified by Desouza and Evaristo (2006) when they identified that the roles of a PMO could
always be classified on three levels: strategic, tactical, and operational. Additionally, Hobbs and Aubry (2007,
p. 75) identified that different authors use different properties to characterize the typology of the PMO. One of
these properties is how the PMO provides services from the operational to the strategic approach often
associated with a progression from project management to portfolio management.
Common sense might lead us to a simplification of the idea that a PMO that covers the whole
organization (enterprise PMO) could be summed up as taking a strategic approach (strategic PMO). However,
the organizational practice is more complex. It is common to have an enterprise PMO that operates
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strategically, tactically, and operationally when it respectively provides service to top management, by
supporting portfolio management (strategic), providing a common methodology for the organization (tactical),
and also managing some important projects (operational). The reality may be a combination of these three
approaches in the scope each one provides (organizational, departmental, or program-project).
FIGURE 1. The Nine Quadrants Resulting From the Relationship Between Scope and Approach
Acting in a strategic way involves offering customers services that, in some form or other, have a link
with strategic issues of the organization, such as how to manage the organization’s portfolio of projects,
programs, and other work; provide information to top management for decision-making purposes and to
prioritize the portfolio and rebalance it as required; and monitor and implement strategy, etc.
Acting in a tactical way involves offering customer’s services that serve the needs of a group of
projects or individuals, such as developing a project management methodology, providing project
management tools, and training for managers and teams, etc.
Finally, acting in an operational way involves offering customers’ services directed at a project or
individual, such as supporting project planning and control, coaching/mentoring, managing a strategic project
and recovering a problem-beset project, etc.
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From research published by Hobbs and Aubry (2007), the 27 most common functions of PMOs were
identified. These functions represent the major services provided by PMOs and have become the reference
point for the models presented in this paper.
Considering the definitions for strategic, tactical, and operational approaches and based on the
academic and professional experience of the authors, each of these services was evaluated from two
aspects: if it was applicable to each and every type of scope of PMO, i.e., if it was valid for enterprise,
departmental, and project-program PMOs, and if it was service of a strategic, tactical or operational nature.
Scope
Approach
Services
Enterprise
Departmental
Program -
Project
Strategic
Tactical
Operational
1. Report project/program status (information)
to upper (senior) management
2. Develop and implement a standard project
management methodology
3. Monitor and control project/program
performance
4. Develop the competences (skills) of
professionals, including training
5. Implement and operate project management
information systems
6. Provide top management with advice
7. Coordinate and integrate the projects in the
portfolio; prioritize these projects and
rebalance them as required
8. Develop and maintain a project scoreboard
9. Promote project management awareness
within the organization
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Scope
Approach
Services
Enterprise
Departmental
Program -
Project
Strategic
Tactical
Operational
10. Monitor and control the performance of the
PMO itself
11. Participate in strategic planning
12. Provide mentoring for Project Managers
13. Manage one or more portfolios
14. Identify, select and prioritize new projects
15. Manage project files/documentation; setting
up a knowledge management repository
16. Manage one or more programs
17. Audit projects and programs
18. Manage customer interfaces
19. Provide a set of tools that can be
customized to meet the specific needs of
programs and projects
20. Provide specialized tasks (services) for
project managers
21. Allocate (and share) resources between
projects
22. Carry out post-project management reviews
(lessons learned)
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Scope
Approach
Services
Enterprise
Departmental
Program -
Project
Strategic
Tactical
Operational
23. Implement and manage the database of
lessons learned or knowledge repository
24. Implement and manage the risk and issues
database
25. Manage program benefits
26. Networking and environmental scanning,
mapping project relationships and
environment within the organization and
external to it
27. Recruit, select, evaluate and decide on the
salaries of project managers; establish a
project management career path
FIGURE 2. The 27 Functions (services) of Hobbs and Aubry (modified slightly), and their relationship with the
different types of scope and approach.
This being the case, it is possible to conclude that there are 21 possible types of PMOs, considering
the three mutually exclusive scopes (enterprise, departmental, project-program) and the seven possible
approaches (strategic, strategic-tactical, strategic-operational, tactical, tactical-operational, operational and
strategic-tactical-operational).
What, therefore, defines the type of PMO is a combination of its scope and one of the seven possible
different approaches resulting from the services offered to its customers.
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The Maturity of the PMO
The degree of maturity of a PMO results from the extent to which it is capable of generating value for
its customers and for the organization as a whole. In a first analysis, it might be possible to suppose that the
maturity of a PMO might evolve in the sense of operating less operationally and more strategically. However,
a more careful assessment may provide us with a different view of the process by which a PMO matures.
In a simple analogy that will help us have a better understanding of the issue, we might imagine a
company’s organizational structure. At the lowest level we have, for example, a cleaner (acting operationally),
and at the highest level we have the president (acting strategically).
The question is: What is a mature cleaner? Is he a president? Or is he a professional who is capable
of using the best cleaning techniques and practices in order to comply with his operational mission? On the
other hand, what is an immature president? Is he a cleaner? Or is he a president with little experience and
knowledge, and therefore, incapable of fully fulfilling his strategic mission in the company?
In other words, the cleaner has an extremely important operational mission within the organization
and may do it in a simple or very sophisticated way, depending on his or her level of maturity. On the other
hand, the president also has his strategic mission within the company and, in turn, may carry it out in a trivial
or extremely sophisticated way. It all depends on the level of maturity of each one, considering their
respective functions and approach (operational or strategic).
Therefore, how could we state that, in order to mature, a PMO with an operational approach must
start adopting a strategic approach? The fact is that if its mission is to be operational, it can perform it in either
a mature way or not. The same goes for a PMO whose mission is to be strategic; it can perform it in a very
mature way or one that involves very little sophistication.
This being so, it is possible to have operational, or tactical PMOs with a high degree of maturity and
extremely immature strategic PMOs. Because a PMO may have multiple approaches (strategic, tactical, or
operational) depending on its mission, it would only make sense to analyze its maturity if we focus on what is
particular to each of these approaches.
It is, therefore, possible to conclude that a corporate PMO, for example, may have different levels of
maturity in each of its possible approaches. It might be very mature from the operational point of view and not
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very mature from the tactical and strategic points of view. If the mission of this PMO is, in fact, to be
operational we can say, therefore, that it is aligned with its objectives and generating the value expected by
the organization.
If we consider, therefore, that the PMO generates value through the functions it exercises, which are
translated into service for its customers, the maturity of a PMO may be summed up as being the degree of
sophistication with which it provides each service for which it is responsible.
In other words, there are different ways of providing a certain service: from the most trivial and simple
manner, which adds little value to the organization, to a more sophisticated and complex way, which
translates into more noticeable results and provides the organization as a whole with greater value.
To devise the maturity evaluation model that is proposed in this article, each of the 27 services
(adapted from the most common functions in PMOs, as presented by Hobbs and Aubry, 2007) was analyzed
to establish how applicable they were to the three different types of PMO scope: enterprise, departmental,
program-project (Figure 2).
Then, each of the services was analyzed as to their possible different levels of sophistication for
carrying them out, from the most trivial way to the most complicated. This determines the degree of maturity
when carrying it out. Some of the services of an enterprise PMO can be seen in the following:
Service: A.1.7 - Managing one or more portfolios (Scope: Enterprise/Approach: Strategic)
Levels of maturity in carrying out the service:
Level 0 The PMO does not provide this service.
Level 1 - The PMO maintains a list of active projects throughout the organization.
Level 2 - The PMO maintains a list of active projects and programs throughout the
organization and establishes their prioritization but does not follow a structured
portfolio management process.
Level 3 - The PMO maintains a list of active projects and portfolios, prioritizes them
throughout the organization, and establishes formal processes, acting as facilitator in
the definition (identification, categorization, evaluation, selection), development
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(prioritize, balance and commitment) and implementation (monitoring, review and
change management) of the portfolio.
Level 4 - The PMO maintains a list of active projects and portfolios, prioritizes them
throughout the organization, and establishes formal processes, acting as facilitator in
the definition (identification, categorization, evaluation, selection), development
(prioritize, balance and commitment) and implementation (monitoring, review and
change management) of the portfolio. The PMO uses an integrated system to
automate the organization's portfolio management process.
Service: A.2.1 - Develop and implement the project management methodology (Scope: Enterprise/Approach:
Tactical)
Levels of maturity in carrying out the service:
Level 0 - The PMO does not provide this service.
Level 1 - The PMO has developed a basic methodology for the organization, but it is
not used consistently on all projects.
Level 2 - The PMO has developed a standard methodology for the organization,
aligning possible existing methodologies in different areas, and the methodology used
in most projects in the organization.
Level 3 - The PMO has developed a standard methodology for the organization, and it
is used by all projects as it is mandatory unless a specific waiver is requested and
approved.
Level 4 - The PMO has developed and improved the standard methodology for the
organization focusing on best practices and continuous improvement.
Service: A.3.3 - Monitor and control project /program performance (Scope: Enterprise/Approach: Operational)
Levels of maturity in carrying out the service:
Level 0 - The PMO does not provide this service.
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Level 1 - The PMO monitors and controls the project /program performance
considering time, cost, quality and customer satisfaction and provides follow-up
reports without analysis upon request.
Level 2 - The PMO monitors and controls the project /program performance
considering time, cost, quality, and customer satisfaction and analyzes the available
data.
Level 3 - The PMO monitors and controls the project /program performance
considering time, cost, quality, and customer satisfaction, analyzes data, and takes
preventive and corrective actions working proactively with project /program manager
and senior management.
In the proposed model, each of the services offered by a PMO can have up to four levels of maturity,
according to their scope and approach, as described in detail in Appendix A.
The PMO Maturity Cube
The PMO Maturity Cube results from unifying the concepts presented previously, which have all been
consolidated into one specific model for evaluating the maturity of PMOs for any type of organization.
The three dimensions that comprise the cube are scope (enterprise, departmental, or program-project),
approach (strategic, tactical, or operational) and finally the maturity level (basic, intermediate, or advanced).
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FIGURE 3. The Three Dimensions of the PMO Maturity Cube
Using a specific questionnaire for each PMO scope, the model identifies which services are offered
under each different approach and with determines the level of sophistication of their implementation.
Each of the three questionnaires (enterprise, departmental, and program-project) is divided into three
parts: assessment of strategic services, assessment of tactical services, and assessment of operational
services. When completing the questionnaire, organizations provide information about their current level of
maturity in each service provided for that particular scope and the target level of maturity for the PMO that is
being analyzed.
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ENTERPRISE PMO QUESTIONNAIRE
Tactical Services Assessment
A.2.1 - How does the PMO develop and implement the project management
methodology?
Current
Level
Target
Level
Level 0 The PMO does not have this function
Level 1 - The PMO has developed a basic methodology for the organization,
but it is not used consistently on all projects.
X
Level 2 - The PMO has developed a standard methodology for the
organization, aligning possible existing methodologies in different areas, and
the methodology used in most projects in the organization.
Level 3 - The PMO has developed a standard methodology for the
organization, and it is used by all projects, as it is mandatory unless a specific
waiver is requested and approved.
X
Level 4 - The PMO has developed and improved the standard methodology for
the organization focusing on best practices and continuous improvement.
FIGURE 4. Example of a question from the PMO Maturity Cube model Questionnaire for an Enterprise PMO
Each level corresponds to a specific number of points, and when the questionnaire has been
completed, the total points corresponding to the organization’s current situation and the situation desired by
the organization are obtained, divided into strategic, tactical, and operational approaches. Based on these
scores, the current and target maturity levels are calculated.
The current maturity level in each of the approaches is calculated by comparing the points relative to
the current situation in the organization with the total possible number of points for the model as a whole. The
target maturity level is calculated by comparing the points relative to the desired situation in the organization
with the total possible number of points for the model as a whole.
The current and target maturity levels are represented in percentages. The current maturity level
represents to what extent the PMO provides all the possible services of a PMO when it is most mature. The
target maturity, on the other hand, represents the level the PMO would like to reach, a situation in which it
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would fully adhere to its objectives and mission, considering only those services that are really of interest to it
in the target maturity levels.
Maturity levels with percentages between 0% and 33% are considered basic. Levels between 34%
and 66% are considered intermediate. Finally, maturity levels between 67% and 100% are considered
advanced.
To illustrate this approach, we present real case studies where the PMO maturity cube model has
been applied. All these companies were invited to participate and the authors coordinated the application of
the model during a formal meeting. The questions were answered by the PMO’s leaders supported by their
teams. At the end, the leaders were asked for a quick comment about the experience, including their
perception about the strengths and weaknesses of the proposed model. Based on this feedback, the authors
promoted adjustments in the model and reapplied the questionnaire in these same companies, obtaining
these final numbers and the PMO’s leaders comments about the experience of applying the model presented
in the following.
Company
Sector
Scope of the PMO
Approach of the PMO
Strategic
assessment
Tactical
assessment
Operational
assessment
Current level
33%
Basic
41%
Intermediate
57%
Intermediate
A
Consumer goods
Enterprise
Maturity
Target level
53%
Intermediate
62%
Intermediate
65%
Intermediate
Comments:
The mission of the enterprise PMO evaluated is to serve the needs of project managers, line managers, and
top management. Today, the main operating focus of the PMO is still concentrated on operational support
services and project planning and control. However, the PMO wants to assume more and more tactical and
strategic functions.
Perception of the model by the evaluated company: “The model is really useful for providing an overview of
how our PMO can evolve in the right direction” Manager of the PMO.
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Company
Sector
Scope of the PMO
Approach of the PMO
Strategic
assessment
Tactical
assessment
Operational
assessment
Current level
48%
Intermediate
44%
Intermediate
25%
Basic
B
Financial services
Enterprise
Maturity
Target level
59%
Intermediate
57%
Intermediate
29%
Basic
Comments:
This enterprise PMO has been operating since 2004 and is strategic and tactical in nature, with few
operational functions. Its objectives are to evolve more strongly in functions relating to portfolio management,
in addition to continuing to evolve and spread project management practices to all the organization’s
corporate projects.
Perception of the model by the evaluated company: “An excellent instrument for self-assessing the maturity of
the PMO. The model allowed us to see more clearly exactly where we are and where we can get to”
Executive Manager of the PMO.
Company
Sector
Scope of the PMO
Approach of the PMO
Strategic
assessment
Tactical
assessment
Operational
assessment
Current level
53%
Intermediate
65%
Intermediate
15%
Basic
C
Telecommunications
Enterprise
Maturity
Target level
83%
Advanced
75%
Advanced
25%
Basic
Comments:
The mission of this enterprise PMO is to meet the needs of top management, as well as providing methods,
standards, and resources that can be used by projects in the organization. The main objective of this PMO
over the next few months is mainly to increase its maturity in the strategic area.
Perception of the evaluated company: “A very good model. Practical, objective and well grounded. It will
undoubtedly be very valuable for our development” Manager of the PMO.
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Company
Sector
Scope of the PMO
Approach of the PMO
Strategic
assessment
Tactical
assessment
Operational
assessment
Current level
31%
Basic
42%
Intermediate
53%
Intermediate
D
Insurance
Departmental
Maturity
Target level
58%
Intermediate
63%
Intermediate
85%
Advanced
Comments:
The mission of this departmental PMO is to provide services for the IT area, particularly in meeting the tactical
and operational needs of project managers, as well as the strategic needs of the executive management.
There are still some significant tactical and operational gaps in the way this PMO operates with regard to
existing needs, mainly with regard to operational services. This PMO is going through a restructuring process,
which involves expanding its staff numbers so that it can provide the service it proposes.
Perception of the evaluated company: “The results undoubtedly portray the exact reality of our PMO. It’s
really very interesting to have a reference point like this that can help us outline our action plans” Manager
of the PMO.
Company
Sector
Scope of the PMO
Approach of the PMO
Strategic
assessment
Tactical
assessment
Operational
assessment
Current level
78%
Advanced
44%
Intermediate
72%
Advanced
E
Financial services in
public administration
Departmental
Maturity
Target level
78%
Advanced
50%
I Intermediate
82%
Advanced
PMI Research and Education Congress 2010, Washington D.C., USA
Comments:
This departmental PMO was established in 2002, and its mission is to provide services for the financial
institutions’ supervision area. In the perception of its managers, the PMO already has a consolidated
operation that provides services on a strategic level and can advance further in services directed at
supporting project managers.
Perception of the evaluated company: “We see the great value of this tool since it allows for self-application,
intentions to improve can be immediately registered, and we can carry out a comparison over time of the
focus of our operations” Manager of the PMO.
Company
Sector
Scope of the PMO
Approach of the PMO
Strategic
assessment
Tactical
assessment
Operational
assessment
Current level
9%
Basic
35%
Basic
18%
Basic
F
Energy
Departmental
Maturity
Target level
19%
Basic
68%
Advanced
75%
Advanced
Comments:
The mission of this departmental PMO is to provide services to the engineering area, with a focus on tactical
and operational aspects.
This PMO was recently set up, but it expects to achieve great results within 12 months. Because of the short
time, it has been in existence there are still some big gaps in terms of its current level versus that of its target
level, but, action plans are being put together, and the forecast is for results in the short and medium terms.
Perception of the evaluated company: “As we are just starting out a reference point like this is very valuable.
There’s no doubt that we shall use the model to help us evolve” Coordinator of the PMO.
PMI Research and Education Congress 2010, Washington D.C., USA
Company
Sector
Scope of the PMO
Approach of the PMO
Strategic
assessment
Tactical
assessment
Operational
assessment
Current level
15%
Basic
49%
Intermediate
58%
Intermediate
G
Retail
Project-Program
Maturity
Target level
0%
Basic
49%
Intermediate
58%
Intermediate
Comments:
The mission of this project-program PMO is to support the organization’s SAP implementation project, with a
particular focus on operational and tactical aspects.
This is an outsourced PMO so its functions are predefined in the contract with the customer. So, from the
tactical and operational points of view, the PMO’s current levels of maturity are fully aligned with the target
levels, given that this is necessary in order to comply with the contract’s statement of work and terms and
conditions
It is interesting to note that when the model was being applied that this PMO is providing some of the strategic
services. However, these do not fall within the scope of the contract and may mean that the PMO is losing
focus in its operations. Therefore, we conclude that in the strategic area the PMO may “regress,” given that
the target level is 0%, i.e., fully discontinuing any service of this nature. In this way, the PMO will begin to be
fully aligned with its mission, which is to provide the tactical and operational services that have been pre-
defined by contract. The organization further may wish to re-evaluate the operation of the PMO and decide to
establish a PMO that is staffed by people who work for the corporation in order to perform the strategic
mission of a PMO and using contractor support to focus on operational and tactical aspects.
Perception of the evaluated company: “The model helped us see that we were using our resources for
activities that were not part of our objective. Our problem was not a lack of resources, but the poor use of
those resources. Instead of focusing on our main objective we’ve discovered that we are becoming less
efficient in other activities that, in fact, in activities that our customer does not expect us to provide” Director
of the consultancy company.
PMI Research and Education Congress 2010, Washington D.C., USA
Company
Sector
Scope of the PMO
Approach of the PMO
Strategic
assessment
Tactical
assessment
Operational
assessment
Current level
22%
Basic
45%
Intermediate
43%
Intermediate
H
Textile
Project-Program
Maturity
Target level
33%
Basic
57%
Intermediate
57%
Intermediate
Comments:
The mission of this project-program PMO is to support the program for implementing a new production line,
with a focus on tactical, strategic and operational aspects.
The program involves various subcontractors, and one of the challenges of the PMO is to ensure they are
integrated. Furthermore, the PMO supplies overall standards for the in-house team and the subcontractors,
as well as supplying information to the executive management for decision-making purposes.
Generally speaking, this PMO only needs to fill a small gap in terms of its evolution in order to fully comply
with its mission and meet the needs of its customers.
Perception of the evaluated company: “The model was very useful when it came to giving us an overview of
our current situation and in which alternatives we must invest in the future. As our program has an end-date,
and we have no additional time, we need to ensure that the PMO gets up to cruising speed as soon as
possible. I believe the model is fundamental for giving us the speed we need in the decisions we have to take
about what is most important to introduce from now on” Leader of the PMO.
Conclusion
After a detailed assessment of the contribution made by countless books and recent academic
literature about PMOs, we were able to confirm the complexity and diversity of the phenomenon. We can see
that there is still a need to provide a self-assessment tool in view of the wide range of possible PMO functions.
Furthermore, this maturity assessment model provides the required comparison between the functions
already existing in the PMO and the whole model and, at the same time, allows the PMO to identify only the
target functions, thereby producing an assessment relative to existing and perceived needs. On developing
the model, the authors came to a conclusion that the better the PMO delivers its services, and only the ones
related to the needed functions, the more the PMO is perceived delivering value to its organization.
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In addition, the PMO maturity assessment tool allows the perceived improvement intentions to be
recorded when the maturity assessment is being carried out, which helps produce an action plan. The
simplicity of the method allows it to be self-applied by PMOs, without the need to hire consultancy services.
Additional research can be performed in this area to refine the model and to raise continually the
maturity level of PMOs of those organizations that perceive the value of managing projects.
The PMO Maturity Cube tool can be freely accessed at www.pmomaturitycube.org.
PMI Research and Education Congress 2010, Washington D.C., USA
References
Aubry, M., Hobbs, B., & Thuillier, D. (2008a). Organisational project management: An historical approach to
the study of PMOs. International Journal of Project Management, 26(1), 3843.
Aubry, M., Hobbs, B., & Thuillier, D. (2008b). The project management office as an organisational innovation.
International Journal of Project Management, 26(5), 547555.
Bolles, D. (2002). Building project management centers of excellence. New York: Amacom.
Block, T. R., & Frame, J. D. (1998). The project office A key to managing projects effectively. Menlo Park,
CA: Crisp Publications.
Crawford, K. J. (2002). The strategic project office. New York: Marcel Dekker.
Dai, C. X., & Wells, W. G. (2004). An exploration of project management office features and their relationship
to project performance. International Journal of Project Management, 22, 523-532.
Desouza, K. C., & Evaristo, J. R. (2006). Project Management Offices: A case of knowledge-based
archetypes. International Journal of Information Management, 26(7), 414423.
Dinsmore, P. C. (1999). Winning in business with enterprise project management. New York: Amacom.
Englund, R. L., Graham, R. J., & Dinsmore, P. C. (2003). Creating the project office - A manager's guide to
leading organizational change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Hill, G. M. (2004). The complete project management office handbook. Boca Raton, FL: Auerbach
Publications.
Hobbs, B., & Aubry, M. (2007). A multi-phase research program investigating project management offices
(PMOs): The results of phase 1. Project Management Journal, 38(1), 7486.
Hurt, M., & Thomas, J. L. (2009). Building value through sustainable project management offices. Project
Management Journal, 40(1), 5572.
Letavec, C. (2006). Program management office: Establishing, managing and growing the value of a PMO.
Fort Lauderdale, FL: J. Ross Publishing.
PMI Research and Education Congress 2010, Washington D.C., USA
Kendall, G. I., & Rollins, S. C. (2003). Advanced project portfolio management and the PMO, multiplying ROI
at warp speed. Boca Raton, FL: J. Ross Publishing.
Kerzner, H. (2005). Using the project management maturity model: Strategic planning for project
management. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Project Management Institute. (2008). Organizational project management maturity model (OPM3®) (2nd ed.).
Newtown Square, PA: Project Management Institute.
Software Engineering Institute. (2000). CMM - The capability maturity model guidelines for improving the
software process. Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Mellon Software Engineering Institute.
Williams, D., & Parr, T. (2004). Enterprise program management, delivering value. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave
Macmillan.
PMI Research and Education Congress 2010, Washington D.C., USA
About the Authors
Americo Pinto, PMP, MBA
contato@americopinto.com.br
Americo Pinto is a Project Management Specialist and Researcher, with a strong experience in large projects
in Latin America and Europe.
He has more than 15 years of experience in Portfolio and Project Management. He worked as a Senior
Executive and Project Manager in companies such as Arthur Andersen, Deloitte and Dinsmore Associates.
Currently, he is the Executive Director of international operations of the Compass Research Center, the
research arm of Compass International. Formerly, Americo was the head for the project management
consulting practice for Brazil and Latin America at Compass International.
Americo Pinto works as a professor at Brazil’s most prestigious universities, teaching various project
management courses to MBA students. He is also a Doctoral Candidate at Skema Business School/ESC-
Lille, France.
For six years he have been Vice-President at PMI Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Chapter. In this volunteer position he
was in charge of several initiatives on project management development.
Americo Pinto has two Project Management books published in Brazil and has a PMP certification, a Business
Administration Degree and also a MBA.
Marcelo F. de Matheus Cota, PMP, MSc.
marcelo.cota@bcb.gov.br
Marcelo Cota is a professor at Brazil’s most prestigious universities, teaching various project management
courses to MBA students.
He is also a Doctoral Candidate in Project Management at the University of São Paulo, Brazil.
He is the Head of Division at Corporate PMO of Banco Central do Brasil, being responsible for the corporate
maturity efforts in project management.
Ginger Levin, PhD., PMP, PgMP
ginlevin@aol.com
Dr. Ginger Levin is a Senior Consultant and Educator in project management. Her specialty areas are portfolio
management, the PMO, metrics, and maturity assessments. She is certified as a PgMP and PMP as well as
an OPM3 Assessor and Consultant. She is an Adjunct Professor for UWP in its M.S. in PM Program, for ESC
Lille in its masters and doctoral programs in PM and is a Visiting Professor for RMIT in its DPM Program and
a Registered Examiner for UTS Sydney.
Her PM consulting clients include Bank One, UPS, Citibank, SAP, the FDA, GE, IBM, John Deere, and USDA.
Earlier, she worked in the U.S. Government -- FAA, OPM, DOT, and GAO.
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She is the co-author of "Implementing Program Management", "Project Portfolio Management", "Metrics for
Project Management", "Achieving Project Management Success with Virtual Teams", "Advanced Project
Management Office", "Essential People Skills for Project Managers", "The Business Development CMM", and
PMP Challenge! PMP Study Guide, and PgMP Study Guide.
PMI Research and Education Congress 2010, Washington D.C., USA
Appendix A Enterprise PMO, Departmental PMO And Project-Program PMO Questionnaires
Observation: The 27 functions (services) of Hobbs and Aubry (2007) were modified slightly to become more
comprehensive.
A) ENTERPRISE QUESTIONNAIRE
A.1) STRATEGIC ASSESSMENT
A1.1) How does the PMO provide advice to the senior management?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO is asked by top management to give its position on issues relating to making
strategic decision once in a while.
Level 2 - The PMO is frequently asked by top management to give its position on issues relating to
making strategic decision, however, its involvement is not formally established.
Level 3 - The PMO is frequently asked by top management to give its position on issues relating to
making strategic decision and its involvement is formally established.
A.1.2) How does the PMO coordinate and integrate the organization's portfolio?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO identifies interdependencies between the projects and programs of the
organization, but it does not keep track of the changes in interdependencies.
Level 2 - The PMO identifies and tracks interdependencies between the projects and programs of the
organization, informing and triggering the managers of project /programs and stakeholders in case of
need, rebalancing, and other changes.
Level 3 - The PMO identifies and tracks interdependencies between the projects and programs of the
organization, acting proactively to ensure the realization of the portfolio and providing preventive and
corrective actions as required.
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A.1.3) How does the PMO develop and maintain a strategic framework of projects and programs
(scoreboard)?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO provides information on projects and programs of the organization, but these are
limited to a view on each individual project, with no analysis of the results expected of business and
dependencies between projects and programs, risk and deadlines of the portfolio.
Level 2 - The PMO provides information on projects and programs of the organization (with analysis
of the results expected of business and dependencies between projects and programs, risk and
maturity of the portfolio) in a scoreboard, but this is not often used by senior management to support
decision making.
Level 3 - The PMO provides information on projects and programs of the organization (with analysis
of the results expected of business and dependencies between projects and programs, risk and
maturity of the portfolio) in a scoreboard, but this is regularly used by senior management to support
decision making.
A.1.4) How does the PMO promote project management awareness in the organization?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO raises awareness of Project Management to the intermediate level of organization,
including mid-level managers.
Level 2 - The PMO takes actions to raise awareness of Project Management at all levels of the
organization, including senior management. The PMO develops and publishes policies and guidelines
for the management of projects in the organization.
Level 3 - The PMO establishes and implements a structured plan to promote Project Management at
all levels of the organization. The PMO reviews and improves policies and guidelines for project
management in the organization.
A.1.5) How does the PMO monitor and control its own performance?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
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Level 1 - The PMO informally asks its customers to feedback on its performance.
Level 2 - The PMO formally ask its customers for feedback on its performance.
Level 3 - The PMO formally asks its customers to gain feedback on its performance and to obtain
performance indicators for the processes under its responsibility, continually demonstrating its
performance to its customers.
Level 4 - The PMO formally ask its customers to gain feedback on its performance and to obtain
performance indicators for the processes under its responsibility, continually demonstrating its
performance to its customers. In addition, the PMO shares goals with its customers and structures
itself to promote continuous improvement and increases in its maturity, assessing the need for
removal, maintenance, or creation of new services.
A.1.6) How does PMO participate in the strategic planning process?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO informally and occasionally participates in the strategic planning process of the
organization.
Level 2 - The PMO informally and regularly participates in the strategic planning process of the
organization.
Level 3 - The PMO formally and regularly participates in the strategic planning process of the
organization.
A.1.7) How does the PMO manage one or more portfolios?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO maintains a list of active projects throughout the organization.
Level 2 - The PMO maintains a list of active projects and programs throughout the organization and
establishes their prioritization but does not follow a structured portfolio management process.
Level 3 - The PMO maintains a list of active projects and portfolios, prioritizes them throughout the
organization, and establishes formal processes, acting as facilitator in the definition (identification,
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categorization, evaluation, selection), development (prioritize, balance and commitment) and
implementation (monitoring, review and change management) of the portfolio.
Level 4 - The PMO maintains a list of active projects and portfolios, prioritizes them throughout the
organization, and establishes formal processes, acting as facilitator in the definition (identification,
categorization, evaluation, selection), development (prioritize, balance, and commitment) and
implementation (monitoring, review, and change management) of the portfolio. The PMO uses an
integrated system to automate the organization's portfolio management process.
A.1.8) How does the PMO identify, select and prioritize new projects and programs?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO identifies, selects, and prioritizes new projects and programs throughout the
organization without defined criteria and without a relationship between strategic goals and the
existing portfolio.
Level 2 - The PMO identifies, selects and prioritizes new projects and programs throughout the
organization based on criteria, but without a clear and precise relationship between the strategic goals
and the existing portfolio.
Level 3 - The PMO provides the entire organization with a formal process of identification, selection
and prioritization of new projects and programs based on categories and pre-established criteria.
A.1.9) How does the PMO manage the benefits of the projects and programs?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO monitors the achievement of expected benefits for each project/program of the
organization only during its execution, evaluating the results comparing them with the original
strategic goals of the project/program.
Level 2 - The PMO monitors the achievement of expected benefits for each project/program of the
organization during its execution and after closure evaluating the results and comparing them with the
original strategic goals of the project/program.
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A.1.10) How does the PMO map the relationships and the environment of projects and programs in and out of
the organization?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO identifies the stakeholders of the organization's portfolio and takes actions to
develop a strategy for stakeholder management.
Level 2 - The PMO identifies the stakeholders of the organization's portfolio, analyzes their
expectations, establishes a strategy to manage relationships and proactively works to implement it.
Besides, the PMO looks for benchmarking in project management with other organizations.
A.2) TACTICAL ASSESSMENT
A.2.1) How does the PMO develop and implement the project management methodology?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO has developed a basic methodology for the organization, but it is not used
consistently on all projects.
Level 2 - The PMO has developed a standard methodology for the organization, aligning possible
existing methodologies in different areas, and the methodology used in most projects in the
organization.
Level 3 - The PMO has developed a standard methodology for the organization, and it is used by all
projects as it is mandatory unless a specific waiver is requested and approved.
Level 4 - The PMO has developed and improved the standard methodology for the organization
focusing on best practices and continuous improvement.
A.2.2) How does the PMO develop skills in project management?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO responds reactively to the organization's project management training needs.
Level 2 - The PMO proposes project management training for the entire organization.
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Level 3 - The PMO establishes a plan for developing skills in project management throughout the
organization, including training, certification, and graduate courses.
Level 4 - The PMO establishes a specific career path in project management for the entire
organization, supported by a plan for corporate development of project management knowledge,
skills, and competencies, which includes training, certification and graduate courses.
A.2.3) How does the PMO implement and manage project information systems?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO provides a project management information system for use throughout the
organization, focusing on monitoring and control, which is used by managers of project /programs and
stakeholders in most projects/programs of the organization, but this system does not use an
integrated database.
Level 2 - The PMO provides a project management information system for use throughout the
organization, focusing on monitoring and control, which is used by managers of projects/programs
and stakeholders in most projects/programs of the organization with an integrated database.
Level 3 - The PMO provides a project management information system for use throughout the
organization, focusing on monitoring and control, which is effectively used by managers of
projects/programs and stakeholders in all projects/programs of the organization with an integrated
database.
A.2.4) How does the PMO manage interfaces with customers?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO monitors the progress of projects and programs of the organization but is not
involved with customer relationship management.
Level 2 - The PMO evaluates customer satisfaction, but does not directly interface with the customers
of the organization's projects and programs.
Level 3 - The PMO is responsible for customer relationship management of all the organization's
projects and programs.
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A.2.5) How does the PMO provide a set of tools for project management?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO provides tools for use in the organization but they are not standardized and
integrated.
Level 2 - The PMO provides tools, available for all organization, that are standardized and integrated
to existing processes and methodologies, but the tools are not used in most cases to their fullest
extent.
Level 3 - The PMO provides tools, available for all organization, that are standardized and integrated
to existing processes and methodologies, and the tools are fully used on most projects and programs.
A.2.6) How does the PMO allocate and share resources between projects?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - PMO operates in a reactive form in allocating and sharing resources between projects
throughout the organization.
Level 2 - The PMO recognizes the importance of a resource pool, but lacks authority to allocate or
share resources between projects in the organization.
Level 3 - The PMO has established a resource pool and has the authority to allocate and share
resources between projects in the organization.
A.2.7) How does the PMO implement and manage the lessons learned database?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO stores the lessons learned from projects but does so in an unstructured way.
Level 2 - The PMO consolidates the lessons learned from projects of the organization and has set up
a database for them.
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Level 3 - In addition, the PMO implements and disseminates a system with a single point of entry to
retrieve lessons learned from projects throughout the organization.
A.2.8) How does the PMO implement and manage the risk database?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO has set up a risk database.
Level 2 - The PMO uses a risk breakdown structure and consolidates the risks managed in each
project in the organization using a risk database.
Level 3 - In addition, the PMO is able to use the lessons learned database to access risks from other
projects in the organization.
A.2.9) How does the PMO select, manage, and evaluate project managers?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO recruits, selects, evaluates, and determines salaries of project managers as
requested.
Level 2 - The PMO establishes criteria for use in the entire organization for recruiting, selecting, and
evaluating project managers.
Level 3 - In addition, the PMO establishes a career path for project managers and determines the
salary structure at each level.
A.3) OPERATIONAL ASSESSMENT
A.3.1) How does the PMO provide specialized services for the project manager?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO provides the project managers with basic project management support such as:
preparing documentation, preparing of schedules, and facilitating meetings.
Level 2 - The PMO provides project managers advanced services and support such as: risk analysis,
development and management of contracts, and project recovery.
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A.3.2) How does the PMO provide information to senior management of the status of projects that are under
way?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO collects status information, prepares reports and distributes them to senior
management / sponsors but is not responsible for analysis nor does it take corrective action based on
data in the reports.
Level 2 - The PMO receives status information, analyzes it and provides reports to senior
management / sponsors and informs them if there are specific problems in which their assistance is
needed.
Level 3 - The PMO receives status information, analyzes it, and provides reports to senior
management / sponsors of the organization, informs them if there are problems and assists them in
resolving problems as requested.
A.3.3) How does the PMO monitor and control project / program performance?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO monitors and controls the project/program performance considering time, cost,
quality and customer satisfaction, and provides follow-up reports without analysis upon request.
Level 2 - The PMO monitors and controls the performance of projects/programs considering time,
cost, quality, and customer satisfaction and analyzes the available data.
Level 3 - The PMO monitors and controls the performance of projects/programs considering time,
cost, quality and customer satisfaction, analyzes data, and takes preventive and corrective actions
working proactively with project/program managers and senior management.
A.3.4) How does the PMO provide mentoring for project managers?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
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Level 1 - The PMO provides mentoring throughout the organization when requested. The mentoring
involves supporting project planning and control and transferring technical knowledge to the project
manager or to his or her team.
Level 2 - The PMO identifies needs and proactively provides mentoring throughout the organization.
The mentoring involves supporting project planning and control, to transfer technical knowledge to the
project manager or to his or her team.
Level 3 - The PMO identifies needs and proactively provides mentoring throughout the organization.
The mentoring involves supporting project planning and control, transferring technical knowledge to
the project manager or his or her team, and assisting them with the development or enhancement of
interpersonal skills.
A.3.5) How does the PMO manage and collect project files and documentation?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO captures and stores documents for projects across the organization, without
specific analysis and information retrieval; few people use available data.
Level 2 - The PMO captures and stores documents for projects across the organization, without
specific analysis and information retrieval but provides guidance to individuals who wish to use these
documents.
Level 3 - The PMO has a structured process with the goal of capturing and storing documents for
projects across the organization, analyzing the quality of documentation and providing mechanisms
for users to locate needed information.
A.3.6) How does the PMO manage one or more programs or projects?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO assists managers on occasion but does not have a methodology in place or tools
to use.
Level 2 - The PMO provides assistance to project/program managers whenever requested but does
not have a methodology in place or tools to use.
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Level 3 - The PMO provides assistance to project/program managers with a standard methodology
and tools for their use.
A.3.7) How does the PMO conduct project audits?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO performs audits upon request or if there is a major problem identified by senior
managers who requests feedback.
Level 2 - The PMO acts proactively throughout the organization, following established audit
procedures for projects. In addition, the audit results are used to provide feedback. The PMO realizes
there is significant resistance from project managers when an audit is under way.
Level 3 - The PMO acts proactively throughout the organization, following established audit
procedures for projects. In addition, the audit results are used to provide feedback. The PMO realizes
that there is some resistance, but most people recognize the value of the audit work.
A.3.8) How does the PMO conduct post-reviews of project management (lessons learned)?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO facilitates the process of capturing lessons learned, as it is directly involved in
project meetings and events.
Level 2 - The PMO facilitates the process, analyzes, consolidates and submits proposals for
continuous improvement on projects.
Level 3 - In addition, the PMO provides a process to reuse the lessons learned in future projects
across the organization.
B) DEPARTMENTAL QUESTIONNAIRE
B.1) STRATEGIC ASSESSMENT
B.1.1) How does the PMO provide advice to the department senior management?
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Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO is asked by top management to give its position on issues relating to making
strategic decision once in a while.
Level 2 - The PMO is frequently asked by top management to give its position on issues relating to
making strategic decision, however, its involvement is not formally established.
Level 3 - The PMO is frequently asked by top management to give its position on issues relating to
making strategic decision and its involvement is formally established.
B.1.2) How does the PMO coordinate and integrate the department's portfolio?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO identifies interdependencies between the projects and programs of the
department, but it does not keep track of the changes in interdependencies.
Level 2 - The PMO identifies and tracks interdependencies between the projects and programs of the
department, informing and triggering the managers of projects/programs and stakeholders in case of
need, rebalancing, and other changes.
Level 3 - The PMO identifies and tracks interdependencies between the projects and programs of the
department, acting proactively to ensure the realization of the portfolio and providing preventive and
corrective actions as required.
B.1.3) How does the PMO develop and maintain a strategic framework of departmental projects and programs
(scoreboard)?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO provides information on projects and programs of the department, but these are
limited to a view on each individual project, with no analysis of the results expected of business and
dependencies between projects and programs, risk, and deadlines of the portfolio.
Level 2 - The PMO provides information on projects and programs of the department (with analysis of
the results expected of business and dependencies between projects and programs, risk and maturity
PMI Research and Education Congress 2010, Washington D.C., USA
of the portfolio) in a scoreboard, but this is not often used by senior management to support decision
making.
Level 3 - The PMO provides information on projects and programs of the department (with analysis of
the results expected of business and dependencies between projects and programs, risk and maturity
of the portfolio) in a scoreboard, but this is regularly used by senior management to support decision
making.
B.1.4) How does the PMO promote project management awareness in the department?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO raises awareness of project management to the intermediate level of the
department including mid-level managers.
Level 2 - The PMO takes actions to raise awareness of project management at all levels of the
department, including senior management. The PMO develops and publishes policies and guidelines
for the management of projects in the department.
Level 3 - The PMO establishes and implements a structured plan to promote project management at
all levels of the department. The PMO reviews and improves policies and guidelines for project
management in the department.
B.1.5) How does the PMO monitor and control its own performance?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO informally asks its customers to feedback on its performance.
Level 2 - The PMO formally ask its customers for feedback on its performance.
Level 3 - The PMO formally asks its customers to gain feedback on its performance and to obtain
performance indicators for the processes under its responsibility, continually demonstrating its
performance to its customers.
Level 4 - The PMO formally ask its customers to gain feedback on its performance and to obtain
performance indicators for the processes under its responsibility, continually demonstrating its
PMI Research and Education Congress 2010, Washington D.C., USA
performance to its customers. In addition, the PMO shares goals with its customers and structures
itself to promote continuous improvement and increases in its maturity, assessing the need for
removal, maintenance, or creation of new services.
B.1.6) How does PMO participate in the department strategic planning process?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO informally and occasionally participates in the strategic planning process of the
department.
Level 2 - The PMO informally and regularly participates in the strategic planning process of the
department.
Level 3 - The PMO formally and regularly participates in the strategic planning process of the
department.
B.1.7) How does the PMO manage one or more departmental portfolios?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO maintains a list of active projects throughout the department.
Level 2 - The PMO maintains a list of active projects and programs throughout the department and
establishes their prioritization but does not follow a structured portfolio management process.
Level 3 - The PMO maintains a list of active projects and portfolios, prioritizes them throughout the
department and establishes formal processes, acting as facilitator in the definition (identification,
categorization, evaluation, selection), development (prioritize, balance, and commitment) and
implementation (monitoring, review, and change management) of the portfolio.
Level 4 - The PMO maintains a list of active projects and portfolios, prioritizes them throughout the
department, and establishes formal processes, acting as facilitator in the definition (identification,
categorization, evaluation, selection), development (prioritize, balance and commitment) and
implementation (monitoring, review and change management) of the portfolio. The PMO uses an
integrated system to automate the department's portfolio management process.
PMI Research and Education Congress 2010, Washington D.C., USA
B.1.8) How does the PMO identify, select and prioritize new departmental projects and programs?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO identifies, selects, and prioritizes new projects and programs throughout the
department without defined criteria and without a relationship between strategic department goals and
the existing portfolio.
Level 2 - The PMO identifies, selects and prioritizes new projects and programs throughout the
department based on criteria, but without a clear and precise relationship between the strategic
department goals and the existing portfolio.
Level 3 - The PMO provides the department with a formal process of identification, selection and
prioritization of new departmental projects and programs based on categories and pre-established
criteria.
B.1.9) How does the PMO manage the benefits of the departmental projects and programs?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO monitors the achievement of expected benefits for each project/program of the
department only during its execution, evaluating the results comparing them with the original strategic
goals of the project/program.
Level 2 - The PMO monitors the achievement of expected benefits for each project/program of the
department during its execution and after closure evaluating the results and comparing them with the
original strategic goals of the project/program.
B.1.10) How does the PMO map the relationships and the environment of projects and programs in and out of
the department?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO identifies the stakeholders of the department's portfolio and takes actions to
develop a strategy for stakeholder management.
PMI Research and Education Congress 2010, Washington D.C., USA
Level 2 - The PMO identifies the stakeholders of the department's portfolio, analyzes their
expectations, establishes a strategy to manage relationships and proactively works to implement it.
Besides, the PMO looks for benchmarking in project management with other organizations.
B.2) TACTICAL ASSESSMENT
B.2.1) How does the PMO develop and implement the department's project management methodology?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO has developed a basic methodology for the department, but it is not used
consistently on all projects.
Level 2 - The PMO has developed a standard methodology for the department, aligning possible
existing methodologies in different areas, and the methodology used in most projects in the
department.
Level 3 - The PMO has developed a standard methodology for the department, and it is used by all
projects as it is mandatory unless a specific waiver is requested and approved.
Level 4 - The PMO has developed and improved the standard methodology for the department
focusing on best practices and continuous improvement.
B.2.2) How does the PMO develop skills in project management?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO responds reactively to the department's project management training needs.
Level 2 - The PMO proposes project management training for the department.
Level 3 - The PMO establishes a plan for developing skills in project management throughout the
department, including training, certification and graduate courses.
Level 4 - The PMO establishes a specific career path in project management for the department,
supported by a plan for corporate development of project management knowledge, skills, and
competencies, which includes training, certification and graduate courses.
PMI Research and Education Congress 2010, Washington D.C., USA
B.2.3) How does the PMO implement and manage project information systems?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO provides a project management information system for use throughout the
department, focusing on monitoring and control, which is used by managers of projects/programs and
stakeholders in most projects/programs of the department, but this system does not use an integrated
database.
Level 2 - The PMO provides a project management information system for use throughout the
department, focusing on monitoring and control, which is used by managers of projects/programs and
stakeholders in most projects/programs of the department with an integrated database.
Level 3 - The PMO provides a project management information system for use throughout the
department, focusing on monitoring and control, which is effectively used by managers of
projects/programs and stakeholders in all projects/programs of the department with an integrated
database.
B.2.4) How does the PMO manage interfaces with customers?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO monitors the progress of projects and programs of the department but is not
involved with customer relationship management.
Level 2 - The PMO evaluates customer satisfaction, but does not directly interface with the customers
of the department's projects and programs.
Level 3 - The PMO is responsible for customer relationship management of all the department's
projects and programs.
B.2.5) How does the PMO provide a set of tools for project management?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO provides tools for use in the department but they are not standardized and
integrated.
PMI Research and Education Congress 2010, Washington D.C., USA
Level 2 - The PMO provides tools, available for department, that are standardized and integrated to
existing processes and methodologies, but the tools are not used in most cases to their fullest extent.
Level 3 - The PMO provides tools, available for department, that are standardized and integrated to
existing processes and methodologies, and the tools are fully used on most projects and programs.
B.2.6) How does the PMO allocate and share resources between departmental projects?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - PMO operates in a reactive form in allocating and sharing resources between projects
throughout the department.
Level 2 - The PMO recognizes the importance of a resource pool, but lacks authority to allocate or
share resources between projects in the department.
Level 3 - The PMO has established a resource pool and has the authority to allocate and share
resources between projects in the department.
B.2.7) How does the PMO implement and manage the lessons learned database?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO stores the lessons learned from projects but does so in an unstructured way.
Level 2 - The PMO consolidates the lessons learned from projects of the department and has set up a
database for them.
Level 3 - In addition, the PMO implements and disseminates a system with a single point of entry to
retrieve lessons learned from projects throughout the department.
B.2.8) How does the PMO implement and manage the risk database?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO has set up a risk database.
PMI Research and Education Congress 2010, Washington D.C., USA
Level 2 - The PMO uses a risk breakdown structure and consolidates the risks managed in each
project in the department using a risk database.
Level 3 - In addition, the PMO is able to use the lessons learned database to access risks from other
projects in the department.
B.2.9) How does the PMO select, manage, and evaluate project managers?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO recruits, selects, evaluates, and determines salaries of project managers as
requested.
Level 2 - The PMO establishes criteria for use in the entire organization for recruiting, selecting, and
evaluating Project Managers.
Level 3 - In addition, the PMO establishes a career path for project managers and determines the
salary structure at each level.
B.3) OPERATIONAL ASSESSMENT
B.3.1) How does the PMO provide specialized services for the project manager?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO provides the project managers with basic project management support such as:
preparing documentation, preparing of schedules, and facilitating meetings.
Level 2 - The PMO provides project managers advanced services and support such as: risk analysis,
development and management of contracts, and project recovery.
B.3.2) How does the PMO provide information to senior management of the status of projects that are under
way?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
PMI Research and Education Congress 2010, Washington D.C., USA
Level 1 - The PMO collects status information, prepares reports and distributes them to senior
management / sponsors but is not responsible for analysis nor does it take corrective action based on
data in the reports.
Level 2 - The PMO receives status information, analyzes it and provides reports to senior
management / sponsors and informs them if there are specific problems in which their assistance is
needed.
Level 3 - The PMO receives status information, analyzes it, and provides reports to senior
management / sponsors of the organization, informs them if there are problems and assists them in
resolving problems as requested.
B.3.3) How does the PMO monitor and control project / program performance?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO monitors and controls the project / program performance considering time, cost,
quality and customer satisfaction, and provides follow-up reports without analysis upon request.
Level 2 - The PMO monitors and controls the performance of projects / programs considering time,
cost, quality and customer satisfaction and analyzes the available data.
Level 3 - The PMO monitors and controls the performance of projects / programs considering time,
cost, quality and customer satisfaction, analyzes data, and takes preventive and corrective actions
working proactively with project / program managers and senior management.
B.3.4) How does the PMO provide mentoring for project managers?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO provides mentoring throughout the department when requested. The mentoring
involves supporting project planning and control and transferring technical knowledge to the project
manager or to his or her team.
Level 2 - The PMO identifies needs and proactively provides mentoring throughout the department.
The mentoring involves supporting project planning and control, to transfer technical knowledge to the
project manager or to his or her team.
PMI Research and Education Congress 2010, Washington D.C., USA
Level 3 - The PMO identifies needs and proactively provides mentoring throughout the department.
The mentoring involves supporting project planning and control, transferring technical knowledge to
the project manager or his or her team, and assisting them with the development or enhancement of
interpersonal skills.
B.3.5) How does the PMO manage and collect project files and documentation?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO captures and stores documents for projects across the department, without
specific analysis and information retrieval; few people use available data.
Level 2 - The PMO captures and stores documents for projects across the department, without
specific analysis and information retrieval but provides guidance to individuals who wish to use these
documents.
Level 3 - The PMO has a structured process with the goal of capturing and storing documents for
projects across the department, analyzing the quality of documentation and providing mechanisms for
users to locate needed information.
B.3.6) How does the PMO manage one or more programs or projects?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO assists managers on occasion but does not have a methodology in place or tools
to use.
Level 2 - The PMO provides assistance to project/program managers whenever requested but does
not have a methodology in place or tools to use.
Level 3 - The PMO provides assistance to project/program managers with a standard methodology
and tools for their use.
B.3.7) How does the PMO conduct project audits?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
PMI Research and Education Congress 2010, Washington D.C., USA
Level 1 - The PMO performs audits upon request or if there is a major problem identified by senior
managers who requests feedback.
Level 2 - The PMO acts proactively throughout the department, following established audit procedures
for projects. In addition, the audit results are used to provide feedback. The PMO realizes there is
significant resistance from project managers when an audit is under way.
Level 3 - The PMO acts proactively throughout the department, following established audit procedures
for projects. In addition, the audit results are used to provide feedback. The PMO realizes that there is
some resistance, but most people recognize the value of the audit work.
B.3.8) How does the PMO conduct post-reviews of project management (lessons learned)?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO facilitates the process of capturing lessons learned, as it is directly involved in
project meetings and events.
Level 2 - The PMO facilitates the process, analyzes, consolidates and submits proposals for
continuous improvement on projects.
Level 3 - In addition, the PMO provides a process to reuse the lessons learned in future projects
across the department.
C) PROGRAM-PROJECT QUESTIONNAIRE
C.1) STRATEGIC ASSESSMENT
C.1.1) How does the PMO provide advice to the senior management about the project/program?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO is asked by top management to give its position on issues relating to making
strategic decision once in a while.
PMI Research and Education Congress 2010, Washington D.C., USA
Level 2 - The PMO is frequently asked by top management to give its position on issues relating to
making strategic decision, however, its involvement is not formally established.
Level 3 - The PMO is frequently asked by top management to give its position on issues relating to
making strategic decision and its involvement is formally established.
C.1.2) How does the PMO develop and maintain a strategic framework of the project/program (scoreboard)?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO provides information on the project/program, but these are limited to a view on the
project/program status, with no analysis of the results expected of business.
Level 2 - The PMO provides information on the project/program with analysis of the results expected
of business in a scoreboard, but this is not often used by senior management to support decision
making.
Level 3 - The PMO provides information on the project/program with analysis of the results expected
of business in a scoreboard, but this is regularly used by senior management to support decision
making.
C.1.3) How does the PMO monitor and control its own performance?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO informally asks its customers to feedback on its performance.
Level 2 - The PMO formally ask its customers for feedback on its performance.
Level 3 - The PMO formally asks its customers to gain feedback on its performance and to obtain
performance indicators for the processes under its responsibility, continually demonstrating its
performance to its customers.
Level 4 - The PMO formally ask its customers to gain feedback on its performance and to obtain
performance indicators for the processes under its responsibility, continually demonstrating its
performance to its customers. In addition, the PMO shares goals with its customers and structures
PMI Research and Education Congress 2010, Washington D.C., USA
itself to promote continuous improvement and increases in its maturity, assessing the need for
removal, maintenance, or creation of new services.
C.1.4) How does the PMO manage the benefits of the project/program?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO monitors the achievement of expected benefits for the project/program only during
its execution, evaluating the results comparing them with the original strategic goals of the
project/program.
Level 2 - The PMO monitors the achievement of expected benefits for the project/program during its
execution and after closure evaluating the results and comparing them with the original strategic goals
of the project/program.
C.1.5) How does the PMO map the relationships and the environment of projects and programs in and out of
the project/program?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO identifies the stakeholders of the project/program and takes actions to develop a
strategy for stakeholder management.
Level 2 - The PMO identifies the stakeholders of the project/program, analyzes their expectations,
establishes a strategy to manage relationships and proactively works to implement it. Besides, the
PMO looks for benchmarking in project management with other organizations.
C.2) TACTICAL ASSESSMENT
C.2.1) How does the PMO develop and implement the project management methodology?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO has developed a basic methodology for the project/program, but it is not used
consistently.
Level 2 - The PMO has developed a standard methodology for the project/program, and it is used in
most of the time.
PMI Research and Education Congress 2010, Washington D.C., USA
Level 3 - The PMO has developed a standard methodology for the project/program, and it is
mandatory unless a specific waiver is requested and approved.
Level 4 - The PMO has developed and improved the standard methodology for the project focusing on
best practices and continuous improvement.
C.2.2) How does the PMO develop skills in project management for the project/program?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO responds reactively to the project management training needs.
Level 2 - The PMO proposes project management training for the project/program.
Level 3 - The PMO establishes a plan for developing skills in project management throughout the
project/program.
C.2.3) How does the PMO implement and manage the project information system?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO provides a project management information system for use throughout the
project/program, focusing on monitoring and control, which is used by the project/program
management and stakeholders in most of the time, but this system does not use an integrated
database.
Level 2 - The PMO provides a project management information system for use throughout the
project/program, focusing on monitoring and control, which is used by the project/program manager
and stakeholders in most of the time with an integrated database
Level 3 - The PMO provides a project management information system for use throughout the
project/program, focusing on monitoring and control, which is effectively used by project/program
managers and stakeholders all the time with an integrated database.
C.2.4) How does the PMO manage interfaces with project's/program's customers?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
PMI Research and Education Congress 2010, Washington D.C., USA
Level 1 - The PMO eventually monitors the customer satisfaction but is not involved formally with
customer relationship management.
Level 2 - The PMO evaluates customer satisfaction, but does not directly interface with the customers
of the project/program.
Level 3 - The PMO is responsible for customer relationship management of the project/program.
C.2.5) How does the PMO provide a set of tools for project management?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO provides tools for use in the project/program but they are not standardized and
integrated.
Level 2 - The PMO provides tools, available for the project/program, that are standardized and
integrated to existing processes and methodologies, but the tools are not used in their fullest extent
Level 3 - The PMO provides tools, available for the project/program, that are standardized and
integrated to existing processes and methodologies, and the tools are fully used on the
project/program.
C.2.6) How does the PMO allocate and share resources in the project/program?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - PMO operates in a reactive form in allocating resources in the project/program.
Level 2 - The PMO recognizes the importance of a resource pool, but lacks authority to allocate
resources project/program.
Level 3 - The PMO has established a resource pool and has the authority to allocate resources in the
project/program.
C.2.7) How does the PMO implement and manage the lessons learned database?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
PMI Research and Education Congress 2010, Washington D.C., USA
Level 1 - The PMO stores the lessons learned from the project/program but does so in an
unstructured way.
Level 2 - The PMO consolidates the lessons learned from the project/program and has set up a
database for them.
Level 3 - In addition, the PMO implements and disseminates a system with a single point of entry to
retrieve lessons learned from the project/program.
C.2.8) How does the PMO implement and manage the risk database?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO has set up a risk database.
Level 2 - The PMO uses a risk breakdown structure and consolidates the risks managed in the
project/program using a risk database.
Level 3 - In addition, the PMO is able to use the lessons learned database to access risks from the
project/program.
C.3) OPERATIONAL ASSESSMENT
C.3.1) How does the PMO provide specialized services for the project/program manager?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO provides the project/program manager with basic project management support
such as: preparing documentation, preparing of schedules, and facilitating meetings.
Level 2 - The PMO provides project/program manager advanced services and support such as: risk
analysis, development and management of contracts, and project recovery.
C.3.2) How does the PMO provide information to senior management of the status of project/program that are
under way?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
PMI Research and Education Congress 2010, Washington D.C., USA
Level 1 - The PMO collects status information, prepares reports and distributes them to senior
management / sponsors but is not responsible for analysis nor does it take corrective action based on
data in the reports.
Level 2 - The PMO receives status information, analyzes it and provides reports to senior
management/sponsors and informs them if there are specific problems in which their assistance is
needed.
Level 3 - The PMO receives status information, analyzes it, and provides reports to senior
management / sponsors, informs them if there are problems and assists them in resolving problems
as requested.
C.3.3) How does the PMO monitor and control project / program performance?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO monitors and controls the project/program performance considering time, cost,
quality, and customer satisfaction, and provides follow-up reports without analysis upon request.
Level 2 - The PMO monitors and controls the project/program performance considering time, cost,
quality, and customer satisfaction and analyzes the available data.
Level 3 - The PMO monitors and controls the project/program performance considering time, cost,
quality and customer satisfaction, analyzes data, and takes preventive and corrective actions working
proactively with the project / program manager and senior management.
C.3.4) How does the PMO provide mentoring for the project/program manager?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO provides mentoring when requested. The mentoring involves supporting project
planning and control and transferring technical knowledge to the project manager or to his or her
team.
Level 2 - The PMO identifies needs and proactively provides mentoring. The mentoring involves
supporting project planning and control, to transfer technical knowledge to the project manager or to
his or her team.
PMI Research and Education Congress 2010, Washington D.C., USA
Level 3 - The PMO identifies needs and proactively provides mentoring. The mentoring involves
supporting project planning and control, transferring technical knowledge to the project manager or his
or her team, and assisting them with the development or enhancement of interpersonal skills.
C.3.5) How does the PMO manage and collect project/program files and documentation?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO captures and stores documents for the project/program, without specific analysis
and information retrieval; few people use available data.
Level 2 - The PMO captures and stores documents for the project/program, without specific analysis
and information retrieval but provides guidance to individuals who wish to use these documents.
Level 3 - The PMO has a structured process with the goal of capturing and storing documents for the
project/program, analyzing the quality of documentation and providing mechanisms for users to locate
needed information.
C.3.6) How does the PMO manage the program/project?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO assists the project/program manager on occasion but does not have a
methodology in place or tools to use.
Level 2 - The PMO provides assistance to project/program manager whenever requested but does
not have a methodology in place or tools to use.
Level 3 - The PMO provides assistance to project/program manager with a standard methodology and
tools for their use.
C.3.7) How does the PMO conduct project/program audits?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO performs audits upon request or if there is a major problem identified by senior
managers who requests feedback.
PMI Research and Education Congress 2010, Washington D.C., USA
Level 2 - The PMO acts proactively, following established audit procedures for projects. In addition,
the audit results are used to provide feedback. The PMO realizes there is significant resistance when
an audit is under way.
Level 3 - The PMO acts proactively, following established audit procedures for projects. In addition,
the audit results are used to provide feedback. The PMO realizes that there is some resistance, but
most people recognize the value of the audit work.
C.3.8) How does the PMO conduct post-reviews of project management (lessons learned)?
Level 0 - The PMO does not perform this function.
Level 1 - The PMO facilitates the process of capturing lessons learned, as it is directly involved in
project/program meetings and events.
Level 2 - The PMO facilitates the process, analyzes, consolidates, and submits proposals for
continuous improvement on the project/program.
Level 3 - In addition, the PMO provides a process to reuse the lessons learned in future
projects/programs.
... Normalmente menciona-se o estudo de Pinto et al. (2010) por sua abordagem estratégica e pelo desenvolvimento do conceito de funções desenvolvidas por um EGP (Monteiro et al., 2016, apud Silva, 2018, mas poucos trabalhos realizaram a mensuração da maturidade através do modelo por eles proposto (Khalema et. al., 2015, apud Silva, 2018. ...
... Neste contexto este ar� go u� lizará o modelo de avaliação de maturidade desenvolvido por Pinto et al., (2010) denominado PMO Maturity Cube, o qual avalia a maturidade através da aplicação de um ques� onário composto por 27 perguntas de múl� pla escolha divididas em 10 perguntas referentes à abordagem estratégica, 9 referentes à abordagem tá� ca e 8 referentes à abordagem operacional. A decisão pela aplicação do ques� onário departamental se deu pela análise da função do EPP e pelo depoimento da sua gestora: ...
... Segundo Pinto et al. (2010), não é incomum encontrarmos um PMO corpora� vo prestando serviços nas abordagens estratégica (quando este apoia diretamente a alta administração), tá� ca (quando padroniza uma metodologia para a organização) e operacional (quando assume para si a gestão direta do projeto). O fato é que na vida real fre-quentemente temos que combinar as três abordagens tanto para escritórios corpora� vos como para os departamentais e para os programas-projeto. ...
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Muitas empresas desenvolvem suas atividades orientadas por projetos que as ajudam a alcançar os seus objetivos. Escritórios de projetos estão sendo utilizados pelas organizações para ajudá-los a planejar, desenvolver, monitorar e corrigir eventuais desvios nos projetos que fazem parte do seu portfólio. O gerenciamento prestado pelos escritórios pode contemplar estas etapas, suprimir alguma ou até fornecer um serviço específico conforme a necessidade da organização. A mensuração da maturidade de um escritório de projetos pode ser feita por algumas metodologias, fornecendo subsídios para avaliar a escolha do melhor caminho.
... Despite this, all definitions have a common feature, i.e., the objective of a PMO is to support PM and increase its effectiveness. The effectiveness of a PMO depends on functions being implemented and their adjustment to organisational needs [65][66][67][68]. Therefore, due to each organisation's different structural and contextual dimensions, it is even possible to have different PMOs in structural and functional terms within the same organisation [69]. ...
... 1. PMO functions' alignment with the URC's culture [62][63][64][65][66][67][68][69][70][71][72][73][74][75][76][77][78][79] and strategic direction [46]. For example, in the context of a URC, the title of Project Manager is not commonly used since Professors/Researchers associated with URCs with a scientific background typically do not see themselves as managers. ...
... PMO functions' alignment with the URC's culture [62][63][64][65][66][67][68][69][70][71][72][73][74][75][76][77][78][79] and strategic direction [46]. For example, in the context of a URC, the title of Project Manager is not commonly used since Professors/Researchers associated with URCs with a scientific background typically do not see themselves as managers. ...
Article
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University Research Centres (URCs) have become a primary organisational structure in universities for bringing together a critical mass of multidisciplinary research interests that can compete for large, funded research projects and create breakthrough research results. Some of the more successful URCs are now developing specialised project management offices (PMOs) that can coordinate key activities, from proposal development to project execution, and ensure that research results are disseminated. A key challenge for URCs is to define what roles, functions, and competencies such a PMO should have. This research identifies a number of key attributes of PMOs that meet the unique challenges of URCs. This paper presents an initial conceptualisation of roles and functions developed from a literature review and that are later tested via a detailed survey among 370 URC participants involved in collaborative R&D projects worldwide. The study suggests that there are three PMO maturity stages: 'basic', 'intermediate', and 'advanced'. The resulting conceptualisation highlights six functions for a 'basic' PMO stage, an additional ten functions for an 'intermediate' PMO stage, and a further ten functions for 'advanced' PMO. The research presented provides guidance and decision support to URCs when selecting the role that a PMO should play for achieving tangible and intangible project benefits. Although the study suggests a lengthy list of functions, none of these should be considered in isolation. Most of the functions interact with each other and affect the PMOs' impact within the URC in various ways. The paper contributes to the transformative and evolutionary nature of PMOs, and illustrates that universities are receptive and even demanding of the need to create an effective PMO to improve the operation of major R&D projects and programs and create greater societal impact by URCs.
... Estratégico, Tático e Operacional, e suas devidas funções (HILL, 2008;PINTO;COTA;LEVIN, 2010). ...
... Estratégico, Tático e Operacional, e suas devidas funções (HILL, 2008;PINTO;COTA;LEVIN, 2010). ...
... Estratégico, Tático e Operacional, e suas devidas funções (HILL, 2008;PINTO;COTA;LEVIN, 2010). ...
Conference Paper
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sofrerem transformações profundas e rápidas, organizações optam pela estruturação por meio de projetos, que possuem um caráter menos burocrático e promovem a otimização contínua. Para tanto, recorrem aos escritórios de gestão de projetos, que entretanto, possuem lacuna quanto sua implantação e serviços. Este trabalho objetivou utilizar um modelo recente extraído da revisão bibliográfica, para mapear a maturidade de um PMO, e averiguar seu uso para preencher essas lacunas. A pesquisa obteve como resultado um PMO avançado, cujos projetos atualmente possuem boa taxa de sucesso.
... A PMO, considered as a centralized unit to oversee project management, is often utilized to facilitate KM. Although PMOs are often perceived as operational overhead expenses (Hobbs and Aubry, 2007;Pinto et al., 2010), one of the most popular ways to initiate and accentuate structure and planning in a PBO is still to establish a PMO (Jerbrant, 2014). This research further argues that PMOs could help facilitate the transfer of knowledge between projects for PBOs to improve knowledge usability and achieve a competitive advantage Argote and Tepper, 2016). ...
... It may be very challenging for a PBO without a PMO to achieve similar results to those with PMOs within a short period of time and with limited dedicated resources. The PMO is usually seen as an overhead cost (Aubry et al., 2010;Curlee, 2008;Aubry, 2007, 2008;Kwak and Dai, 2000;Pinto et al., 2010;Project Management Institute, 2017) which most upcoming PBOs cannot afford. Therefore, a study on how PBOs without PMOs could manage the transfer of knowledge with different levels of articulability to improve its usability and achieve competitive advantage could contribute significantly to the functioning of such PBOs. ...
Article
Purpose This article describes advances in the study of knowledge transfer (KT) in project-based organizations (PBOs). Project management offices (PMOs) have both a moderation role and a mediation role to play in KT between projects. In order to improve KT between projects, this paper explores the mediation role of the PMO in the transfer of knowledge with different levels of articulability. The aim is to improve the usability of transferred knowledge. Design/methodology/approach The case study method was used to investigate KT in five-divisional PMOs within a multinational engineering and project management PBO. Fifteen semi-structured interviews were conducted and the results were analysed using ATLAS.Ti (a computer-aided qualitative data analysis software). Findings The findings show that it is the way in which the PMO structures knowledge management (KM) infrastructure and processes, which determines the success of its mediation role in the transfer of tacit and explicit knowledge between projects. The articulability of knowledge influences the PMO's mediation role and the PMO's mediation role in turn improves the usability of knowledge, thereby creating a conducive environment for a competitive advantage. Originality/value This study offers a framework to assist scholars and practitioners to understand the mediation role of the PMO in the transfer of knowledge with different levels of articulability within the projects environment. Such understanding can improve the usability of transferred knowledge, thereby creating a competitive edge for a PBO. The study shows that the PMO can be used as an instrument for KT between projects, a theme that was not found in literature. The paper thus offers new empirical information.
... Besides these approaches, from scholar sources, a practitioners' framework has been chosen and added to the review. Created based on reference literature [17], [18], the PMO Value Ring [19] describes the step-by-step to create a PMO structure, with the help of a web based software. It takes into account that the PMOs are not standardized, and it must be aligned with the company strategy. ...
Article
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Project Management Offices (PMOs) are organizational structures in charge of managing and coordinating several simultaneous projects within companies. Due to the complexity of different projects’ objectives, it’s usual to simplify project indicators and control them by means of the well-known triple constraint or “iron triangle”: scope, cost and time. This approach does not account for the organizational strategy, internal and external stakeholders’ interests, nor other specific indicators. The problems due to the lack of integration caused by this oversimplification are yet amplified in complex project portfolios related to technology development and deployment, since in this kind of scenario the marketing competition demands new features, at lower costs, in no time. These points could be addressed by operations management approaches, such as the Performance Management Systems Design Framework (PMSDF). To identify the viability and relevance in using this method in PMOs, this work adopts a mixed methods research. Is begins with a Systematic Literature Review to better understand performance management routine and tools in PMO. It was followed by meetings with two project management consultants, to identify the best practices, habits and advises, to check the differences between practitioner and academic views. Finally, it was conducted interviews with the PMO Director of a trucks’ manufacturer and a PMO Manager in an agrarian-cattle-breeding cooperative, to verify how such companies measure their PMO’s successes. The last step was to adapt the PMSDF to the project management context, evaluating the PMO operation in a medium-sized software development company and propose the restructuration of its Performance Management System.
... • In [5] • In [7] wird in der ersten Dimension ebenfalls zwischen den drei Ausrichtungen operativ, taktisch und strategisch unterschieden, in der zweiten Dimension zwischen den Zuständigkeiten des PMOs: Projekt/Programm, Geschäftsbereich und Unternehmen. Der Artikel liefert auch einen ausführlichen Fragenkatalog, mit dem die aktuelle Entwicklungsstufe ermittelt werden kann. ...
Article
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In order to contribute to the development of knowledge about PMO, a systematic review has been conducted using several search engines. Based on specific criterion, several articles were selected for analysis. The thematic analysis method has been used to analyze and synthesize all the data collected. The results of this study have allowed to draw a time line evolution of PMO along with the main periods that characterize it. Moreover, it showed the existence of multiple forms of PMO that could be implemented by organizations and that can be associated to specific functions. It is a clear indication of the existence of diversified opinions about PMO in terms of typologies and functions. Each organization must focus much more on determining the role that the PMO will play and try to adapt its functions and responsibilities to fulfill its needs and be able to ensure positive impact. Simply put, in order to participate in performance improvement, the PMO implementation must be done with a perfect consideration of the organization characteristics. Introduction During recent years, many research projects and studies have been conducted on PMO since it represents an emerging structure that has caught the interest of many organizations around the world seeking to improve their performances. Earlier research projects were focused on studying PMO roles and functions, the effective way of its implementation within organizations, and its effect on performances. Many conclusions have been drawn, giving space to many interpretations by researchers and experts. As valuable as these conclusions were, it is deemed more beneficial, if they were synthesized and analyzed in such a way as to bring out the complementarities that may exist.
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