Article

Effects of Interface Design Factors on Affective Responses and Quality Evaluations in Mobile Applications

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Abstract

Through this study we examined the effects of design factors, namely balance and originality on users’ affective responses and subsequent quality evaluations. We effectively manipulated balance and originality to see how it independently and together affects two sub dimensions of emotions i.e. arousal and valance. After this we evaluated the impact of this affective response on pragmatic and hedonic quality perceptions. Experimental results confirmed a significant impact of design factors on emotions and quality perceptions. Usability studies can have a better understanding of how design influences user decision-making. It breaks the efficiency perspective further which has heavily shadowed human computer studies and suggests that affect is equally if not more important when it comes to having desired user reactions from app design.

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... Further, it is difficult to motivate users to stay on the app page (Lee & Kim, 2019). Despite the importance, most of the past studies have focused on the adoption of interface design (Bhandari et al., 2017), customer impulsiveness (Chopdar, Paul, Korfiatis, & Lytras, 2022), app adoption (Kumar, Purani, & Viswanathan, 2018) and app atmospherics (Lee & Kim, 2019). Research efforts are not enough for what motivates purchasers to use the app for information or enjoyment. ...
... Mobile app design plays a vital role in generating quality perception. It enhances customer experience and leads to customer engagement (Bhandari, Neben, Chang, & Chua, 2017). Studies are limited to features of the mobile app (Kumar, Purani, & Viswanathan, 2018). ...
... Studies are limited to features of the mobile app (Kumar, Purani, & Viswanathan, 2018). Past studies focused on design elements from the social and information perspective (Bleier et al., 2019), atmospherics (Lee & Kim, 2019), and interface design (Bhandari, Neben, Chang, & Chua, 2017). Further, Akdim et al. (2022) have studied hedonic and utilitarian types of social apps to check usage intention. ...
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This study aims to investigate the online customer experience and postpurchase behavior in the mobile application context. This study is experimental with a quantitative approach. Two hypothetical mobile apps were developed; hedonic motive and instrumental motive. Data was collected by surveying 420 online shoppers and, analyzed by employing SEM using Amos. Results suggest that a mobile app that is hedonic motive (Richer media experience) enhances the customer experience and customer engagement behavior respectively. Next, the need for touch provides a boundary condition between the influence of customer experience and customer engagement behavior. Lastly, brand image provided the moderated moderation between customer experience and repurchase intention. These findings have implications for the retailer that they can enhance the customer experience through creating an effective customer experience using hedonic elements of the app. Further, retailers using a strong brand image can mitigate the need for touch in the online shopping context.
... Furthermore, visual esthetics has been reported as one of the strongest determinants of credibility (Fogg et al., 2003;Oyibo et al., 2018;Robins & Holmes, 2008). The importance of visual esthetics makes its assessment crucial to improve user perception of software systems quality and increase their chances for commercial success (Bhandari et al., 2017). And because mobile devices offer different experiences from desktops, this assessment must consider the specific aspects of their GUIs (Flora et al., 2014). ...
... That may include rating the visual esthetics degree of GUIs, ranking them according to their degree of esthetics, or comparing GUI pairs to indicate an esthetic preference. When related to behavioral response, a physiological reaction may also express the degree of esthetics perceived, i.e., through electrodes on the skin (Bhandari et al., 2017) or eye movements (Gu et al., 2020;Pappas et al., 2020). When investigating the object properties, design principles and elements have been found to influence GUI visual esthetics (Seckler et al., 2015). ...
... Subjective approaches are typically operationalized by using questionnaire-based instruments as a way to measure users' perception of visual esthetics (Altaboli & Lin, 2011;Seckler et al., 2015). An alternative is the use of sensors to measure their response upon seeing GUIs, like eyetracking devices collecting GUI points of interest (Gu et al., 2020) or neurophysiological sensors collecting emotions and relating them with the perception of visual esthetics (Bhandari et al., 2017). ...
Article
Visual esthetics is recognized as an essential factor of perceived usability, credibility, and overall quality of software systems user interfaces. Thus, it is crucial to assess this factor as part of the development process to improve graphical user interface (GUI) quality. And, although there exist diverse approaches to assess visual esthetics today, they significantly differ in their definition and techniques for measuring it. Therefore, we performed a systematic mapping to provide an overview comparing the existing approaches from the last ten years (2010–2020). We encountered 27 articles reporting different approach types, including assessments measuring user perception of visual esthetics via human responses, metrics based on GUI elements, extracting handcrafted features from GUI screenshots, and deep-learning-based approaches. Most of them implement objective approaches, either using metrics or feature extraction. The majority of the approaches are aimed at web GUIs, with only three focusing on mobile GUIs, considering their smaller screen size, less use of color, and a more vertical element alignment. Few approaches have been comprehensively evaluated regarding reliability and validity. These results indicate the need for further research considering the importance of visual esthetics as part of software quality. The results of this study present an overview and comparison of these approaches from the last decade providing a systematic basis for researchers to better understand the challenges for GUI visual esthetics assessments and the enhancement of these approaches.
... Graphics and animation should be relevant and for relevant assistance [21]. The goal is to make an easy to learn interface [22], so app users should not be exposed to too many new and fancy design elements [23]. For users with visual impairment it is important to use physical landmarks such as edges of the screen [24]. ...
... It is needed to provide only highly relevant information. In data intensive apps this can be achieved by giving effective visualizations to display past information [23].Please leave 3.81 cm (1.5") of blank text box at the bottom of the left column of the first page for the copyright notice. ...
... According to [20] the design concept that suits users with disabilities is challenging as we have to adhere to their affective needs. Studies on affective design have proven that the value of outcome can be increased especially on the interface design [21], [22] and interaction behavior [23]. The concept of affective design is based on [20], [21], [23], [24] that address the inclusion of feelings, thought (perception), emotion and actions. ...
... Studies on affective design have proven that the value of outcome can be increased especially on the interface design [21], [22] and interaction behavior [23]. The concept of affective design is based on [20], [21], [23], [24] that address the inclusion of feelings, thought (perception), emotion and actions. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this digital era, low vision children should learn Mathematics by using similar learning content provided for mainstream students. Teachers need to express their feeling, thought, emotions, and actions to ensure the low vision learners can grasp the mathematics content. However, it is too tough for low vision children to adapt to the common learning content which is in contrast with their needs. Consequently, this study aims to develop Affective 4- Dimensional Mobile Mathematics for Low Vision Alpha Generation. This study adapted the 3-Phases Development Model. Accordingly, the findings of this study are the design and development of the abovementioned application.
... Kansei engineering (KE) has been a prominent study in product design [1], [2] and is considered as one of the most reliable and useful methodologies for dealing with consumers' aesthetic and emotional needs. In recent years, KE has been successfully adopted in various fields of design, such as mobile phone [3], [4], home appliances [5], machine tools [6], digital camera [7], interface design [8], [9], social robot design [10], housing design [11], [12] and urban planning [13], clothes design [15], [16], service design [16], [17], traditional crafts [18], and baby carrier [19]. ...
... Therefore, based on equation (9) where the overall sum of the weighting values equal to 1, the weighting values of each Kansei responses were set as 0.25. Using equation (8), the GRG was calculated for each Kansei response, and the results are presented in column 6 of Table 7. Table 8 shows the individual GRG response table for each level of each design parameter, as well as the effects of the associated factor. Each parameter's factor effect represents the difference in GRG between the maximum and minimum levels of a single design parameter. ...
Article
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This paper presents a multi-response optimization method that uses the grey-based Taguchi method as the integrative product form design optimization method, and it serves as a tool for product form design to determine the optimal combination of design parameters in Kansei engineering (KE). This method is unique in that it combines the Taguchi method (TM) and grey relational analysis (GRA), allowing it to take advantage of the benefits of both methods. The TM is used to design experiments and generate combinative product form design samples which can be used to improve product quality. The GRA is applied to multi-response optimization problems. Factor effect analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA) are used to determine which combinations of design parameters will result in the optimal product design. To demonstrate the applicability of the grey-based TM, a case study of a car form design is presented, and a confirmation test is performed to verify the performance of the optimal product design. The results show that the grey-based TM can deal with optimization problems with multiple Kansei responses and determine an optimal car form design that is representative of the consumers' perception in a systematic manner. The confirmation test results also show that the optimal product design generated by the grey-based TM can be used to improve the overall quality of a product form.
... social, utilitarian and hedonic benefits), which then influenced users' behavioural engagement with mobile travel apps (Fang et al., 2017). According to this S-O-R process, the design factors of mobile apps (balance and originality) together affect emotions and subsequent pragmatic and hedonic quality perceptions (Bhandari et al., 2017). In summary, S-O-R theory provides an overarching paradigm that links the concepts of game design factors (as stimuli), engagement (as organism) and marketing effectiveness (as responses) in the gamified branded app context. ...
... In the S-O-R paradigm, design aesthetics has been regarded as external stimuli that affect users' internal emotional and cognitive responses (Zhang and Benyoucef, 2016) and encompass elements such as layout, colour, clutter, cleanliness (Peng and Kim, 2014), user interface attractiveness (Fang et al., 2017) and balance and originality (Bhandari et al., 2017). Studies have indicated that design aesthetics facilitates marketing outcomes. ...
Article
Purpose Companies understand the potential to use gamification marketing to facilitate a better connection. However, most endeavours in gamification fail. This study aims to identify the design factors that drive the marketing effectiveness of branded applications (apps) with gamification features. Design/methodology/approach This study investigates branded apps covering various industries such as hospitality, retail and financial services. A total of 296 respondents were recruited from an online questionnaire platform. Findings The results show that playability, design aesthetics, goal clarity, incentive provision and symbolic benefits were drivers of consumer–brand engagement, which in turn generated purchase intention, app continuance intention and brand loyalty. Originality/value Based on the elemental tetrad model, this study specified relevant factors identified in the literature to represent the technology, aesthetic, mechanical and story elements. The authors contribute to the literature by identifying design factors as drivers of consumer–brand engagement in the branded app context.
... After the demonstration of a set of interfaces was completed, an intermittent pause of 22 s was provided before the display of the next interface combination. During this period, the subjects scored the set of interfaces according to Bhandari et al.'s emotional arousal and valence of scales [58,59], who analyzed the influence of interface design factors on emotional arousal and valence in mobile applications [59]. Later, in research on mobile applications, Bhandari et al. went on to describe the relationship between aesthetic dimensions (classical and expressive) and emotional arousal and valence [58]. ...
... After the demonstration of a set of interfaces was completed, an intermittent pause of 22 s was provided before the display of the next interface combination. During this period, the subjects scored the set of interfaces according to Bhandari et al.'s emotional arousal and valence of scales [58,59], who analyzed the influence of interface design factors on emotional arousal and valence in mobile applications [59]. Later, in research on mobile applications, Bhandari et al. went on to describe the relationship between aesthetic dimensions (classical and expressive) and emotional arousal and valence [58]. ...
Article
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Products with interactive interfaces can be seen everywhere, and product interface design aesthetics is a topic that has begun to receive wide attention. Consumers’ perceptions of product interfaces come from their own emotions, and emotion plays a significant role in product interface design aesthetics. In other words, it must meet the users’ emotional and aesthetic requirements. Therefore, we need to better understand the aesthetic design criteria and how they stimulate specific emotional responses. This study takes the dial interface of smartwatches as its experimental sample and explores how the interaction effects of the screen shape (square and round) and the symmetry type and the complexity type of the interface design influence the users’ emotional arousal and valence. In addition, it analyzes the effects of the symmetry type, the complexity type, and the screen shape on the users’ arousal and valence. The results show that the attributes of interface design aesthetics (symmetry-asymmetry, complexity-simplicity, and square-round) affect the users’ emotional responses. Moreover, the interface shape is one of the important factors in the emotional response to an interface design. This paper, based on previous research, provides vital theoretical support for the relevant literature on interface design aesthetics and the users’ emotional state. In addition, it may provide a reference for designers and developers who wish to develop and implement emotional user interfaces that are designed to more effectively appeal to their emotions.
... With the development of information science and mobile apps, numerous mobile interfaces bombard users' eyeballs in our daily lives. The interface design of an app could convey a perception of quality from an individual's daily task perspective or increasing an individual's competency thereby increase the user's pleasure of the interaction (Bhandari et al. 2017). Scholars have analysed the influence of interface design on user behaviours. ...
... In addition, they found that participants in the thumbnail condition took less time than people in the progressive condition. Moreover, Bhandari et al. (2017) suggested that there was a significant impact of interface design factors on users' affective responses and subsequent quality evaluations in mobile apps. Specifically, the interface design factors were represented by balance (classical aesthetics) and novelty (expressive aesthetics). ...
Article
The increasing growth in the use of mobile news apps has raised questions on how their interface design features affect users’ gaze behaviours and behavioural performance. To tackle these issues, two experiments (visual browse and search tasks) were designed to investigate the impact of interface design features (colour and layout) on users’ gaze behaviours (fixation count, fixation time ratio and first fixation duration) and behavioural performance (task completion time and search accuracy) with a portable eye tracker. Twenty-four participants were recruited to browse and search for news in different mobile news interfaces with Chinese language. The results showed that mobile news apps with white interfaces attracted more attention and participants needed more time to comprehend the information of white interfaces in the visual browse task. Furthermore, participants achieved higher search efficiency in the visual search task by using interfaces with red keyword and LT-RP (Left Text-Right Picture). In addition, it is noticeable that participants paid more attention to the text than the pictures of mobile news interfaces, and most participants first looked at text and later observed pictures. The findings provide valuable and interesting insights for better understanding users’ gaze behaviours and behavioural performance of mobile news apps.
... Cai and Xu (2011, p. 162) define "UI attractiveness as a person's perception of the visual attractiveness of the overall UI design features". Design features include concrete elements, such colorfulness and brightness (Wang and Li, 2017); clean, clear and symmetric elements (Bhandari et al., 2019); and abstract elements, such as visual complexity (King et al., 2020), creativity or originality (Bhandari et al., 2017) and expressiveness (Bhandari et al., 2019). Good aesthetic design creates feelings of visual appeal and para-social interaction toward social commerce (Zheng et al., 2020). ...
... Attractive mobile payment apps can reduce user regret and lower switching intention (Kuo, 2020). In addition, high balance and originality of mobile app design can enhance quality perceptions and pragmatic use of mobile apps (Bhandari et al., 2017). UI attractiveness facilitates the cognitive, emotional and behavioral outcomes of mobile payment among users (Shen et al., 2019). ...
Article
Purpose Financial technology (FinTech) is undergoing a transformation as a result of robotics and artificial intelligence. FinTech service providers are embracing contactless technology, including the development and widespread adoption of innovative payment service. Among the many types of contactless payment services, facial recognition payment (FRP) has gained in popularity. To capitalize on this rising popularity, comprehending the mechanisms underlying continuous usage intention toward FRP is essential. Drawing from the stimulus–organism–response (S-O-R) model, this study investigates how FRP attributes facilitate continuous usage intention. Design/methodology/approach In total, 321 Chinese FRP users completed an online survey. Partial least squares structural equation modeling analyzed the results of the survey. Findings The results reveal that relative advantage and compatibility, user-interface attractiveness and perceived security (stimuli) promote performance expectancy, effort expectancy and positive emotion (organism), which in turn foster FRP continuous usage intention (response). Originality/value This research presents an S-O-R model that incorporates several attributes from DOI theory, the UTAUT model and the AIDUA framework to elucidate the antecedents of consumers' continuous usage intention toward FRP. The findings corroborate the significance of the S-O-R mechanism in FRP, setting the groundwork for the acceptance and development of biometric authentication technologies in service contacts and banks. In addition, the study highlights opportunities and essential aspects for FinTech service developers and providers to consider in terms of their practical significance.
... The design of a mobile app stands for the transactions and objects provided by the software and is the most fundamental criterion in the design of the app's interface (Bhandari et al., 2017). Presentation, which constitutes the visual part of the interface, is one of the essential design elements of the mobile app (Raptis et al., 2005;Szekely et al., 1992). ...
... The rising Muslim population and their growing purchasing power in the world require a better understanding of the attitudes of especially high religious sensitivity in Muslim consumers. However, although some previous studies have dealt with the interfaces of mobile applications (Bhandari et al., 2017;Khalid et al., 2014;Wu and Li, 2020), this study is a candidate to make an important contribution to the literature because it deals with the subject from an Islamic point of view. Besides, all Muslim societies should not be considered a monotype; each society should be considered a separate case due to differences in culture, lifestyle, etc. ...
Article
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Purpose This study aims to determine the attitudes of Turkish consumers toward Islamic mobile shopping apps and discuss whether these apps will need to be designed in accordance with Islamic rules in Muslim countries or not in the sample of Turkey. Design/methodology/approach A descriptive study was used. The data was collected online through a questionnaire form. The one-sample t -test and univariate analysis of variance were used to analyze the data obtained from 379 individuals. Findings The results show that Turkish customers have mostly positive attitudes toward Islamic mobile shopping apps and demand that the pictures, videos and advertisements used on mobile shopping apps be in concordance with Islamic rules. As a result of this study, consumers do not mind the colors or lean toward the use of models on Islamic mobile shopping apps. Furthermore, there are differences between gender with regard to using Islamic mobile shopping apps, showing that male consumers have a more positive attitude toward Islamic mobile shopping apps compared with female consumers. Research limitations/implications Like many previous empirical studies, this study has limited its context to capture a particular geographical area. Moreover, in this study, the data are obtained by judgmental sampling as a nonrandom sampling method. The contributions of the current study are restricted to Islamic mobile apps for the hijab clothing sector in Turkey. Practical implications The results obtained can become a yardstick to measure consumer attitudes toward Islamic mobile apps’ attributes. Originality/value The primary benefit is to call the attention of mobile app designers to the design features of mobile shopping apps aimed at Muslim users. The second benefit is to determine the expectations of Muslim users regarding the design of Islamic mobile shopping apps, and eventually establish the fundamental Islamic design features needed to be available on new Islamic mobile shopping apps.
... Hassenzahl's framework has been applied in the study of a wide range of interactive systems, including consumer products [12] and mobile applications [3]. The framework has also been used as a basis for investigating other aspects of user experience such as goodness and beauty [45] and as a basis for the AttrakDiff measurement instrument for user experience [26]. ...
... These findings echo previous work on user motivations and preferences regarding chatbot use. Brandtzaeg and Følstad [3], in their study of chatbot user motivations, found that productivity was the key motivator for most users, followed by entertainment. Thies et al. [43] found that potential chatbot users prefer a chatbot personality that reflects both productivity and engagement. ...
Article
Full-text available
For chatbots to be broadly adopted by users, it is critical that they are experienced as useful and pleasurable. While there is an emerging body of research concerning user uptake and use of chatbots, there is a lack of theoretically grounded studies detailing what constitutes good or poor chatbot user experiences. In this paper, we present findings from a questionnaire study involving more than 200 chatbot users who reported on episodes of chatbot use that they found particularly satisfactory or frustrating. The user reports were analysed with basis in theory on user experience, with particular concern for pragmatic and hedonic attributes. We found that pragmatic attributes such as efficient assistance (positive) and problems with interpretation (negative) were important elements in user reports of satisfactory and frustrating episodes. Hedonic attributes such as entertainment value (positive) and strange and rude responses (negative) were also frequently mentioned. Older participants tended to report on pragmatic attributes more often, whereas younger participants tended to report on hedonic attributes more often. Drawing on the findings, we propose four high-level lessons learnt that may benefit chatbot service providers, and we suggest relevant future research.
... Embora atualmente existam muitas pesquisas investigando certos aspectos da estética visual em GUIs para desktops ou sistemas web, ela tem recebido pouca atenção em GUIs para dispositivos móveis [6,29,35]. Essas GUIs são essencialmente diferentes daquelas desenvolvidas para outros dispositivos [45]. As GUIs móveis mudaram os tradicionais modelos de interação baseados no familiar estilo WIMP (Windows, Icons, Menus, Pointer), apresentando um paradigma próprio que inclui widgets, toque, movimento físico, teclados na tela e informações coletadas por sensores [13]. ...
... Por outro lado, diversos métodos são aplicados para tentar automatizar as avaliações de estética visual de GUIs de sistemas de software [52,63], analisando como as características da interface e os elementos de layout influenciam a percepção dos usuários sobre a estética visual [24]. As abordagens variam desde a simples contagem numérica dos elementos da interface até algoritmos mais complexos que analisam características de layout, como o uso de cores e a simetria [36,52,63], ou mesmo medidas fisiológicas dos usuários, como eletromiografia facial e respostas eletrodérmicas [6], para inferir a estética visual das GUIs. Mas, ao examinar os fatores de design de forma independente, esses métodos podem não capturar toda a complexidade da percepção estética visual [5,12]. ...
... In contrast, Fontaine and Plutchick examined emotions using more than two dimensions (Fontaine et al., 2007;Plutchick, 1980). Bhandari et al. used arousal and valence dimensions to analyse user emotions in their study examining the effects of design factors (Bhandari et al., 2017). Johanssen et al., on the other hand, developed a framework to define usage issues in mobile applications based on user sentiment, and tended to divide sentiment into 7 different dimensions (Johanssen et al., 2019). ...
... Gasah et al. used an EEG device to detect emotions in their study, which was aimed to determine whether a user interface would create positive emotions in students (Gasah et al., 2019). Bhandari et al. used more than one method: Facial-EMG for valence and EDA for arousal in their study (Bhandari et al., 2017). Lasa et al. developed a UX evaluation tool using FER and an eye tracker (Lasa et al., 2015). ...
Conference Paper
The evaluation of an e-commerce website usability and effectiveness is traditionally measured through surveys. These tools provide subjective information about the user perception of the website, and their use is expensive and involve some drawbacks, since it requires the user to collaborate in the study and to control the sample. In this work, we explore the relation between what the users perceives and shares when they are asked about their experience, and the emotion they show while using the system under study. We use Affective Computing algorithms to analyse user expressions, and we compare the results with the information provided by means of a TAM based survey.
... It is unquestionable that user experience and usability are critical, but interests in aesthetics affect and its meaning should be similarly taken into consideration. Aesthetics contributes to a critical role in HCI, with a substantial impact on usability obstacles, which will have a notable influence on the user judgment about the quality of the app (Bhandari, Neben, Chang, Chua, 2017). We can perceive aesthetics as having many definitions because of its versatile nature, and some researchers have different concepts. ...
... Therefore, aesthetics or visual design are represented with essential elements such as colours, shapes, font type, music or animation (Cyr, Head, Ivanov, 2006), based on principles of harmony, contrast, balance and proportion, creating a positive visual experience with users. Additionally, aesthetics is closely aligned to capture user attention and understanding of an interface, with strong relevance to their own emotions (Bhandari, Neben, Chang, Chua, 2017). With this understanding, we can identify that the affordance of a user interface can also be crucial for user decision-making. ...
Conference Paper
Purpose: The purpose of this project is to explore how User Experience (UX) and User Interface (UI) enhance a mobile design application. Methodology: The guidelines considered in this project were the Apple Human Interface Guidelines and the Material Design by Google. The first step was to execute a benchmarking, identify references throughout the moodboard process, build user personas, make user stories, think of the information architecture, the development of the sitemap structure to improve the user flows, as well as drawing sketches and wireframes. Finally, we test possible flows through interaction prototypes, enhanced by visual design. Results: Four apps were identified in the benchmarking process and essential visual references are recognized by moodboard. Two user personas were created. The following elements constitute our actual proposal for the sitemap. After login, the user finds the dashboard with the primary information about the student and can easily access to other key features like the diary, with the chat that the parents can start a conversation with the teacher, multiple notifications to keep up with the pupil activity, and a specific profile containing information about the student. Feedback from both educators and parents was positive and favourable, indicating that the information architecture initially developed was appropriated. In order to achieve the final result, the rest of the methodological process was fulfilled until arriving at user testing. The data collected lead us to note the majority of tested scenarios offer a good user experience together with an excellent user interface. Originality/value: This research intends to comprise a simultaneous mixed approach (design and marketing) in the development of a mobile application.
... We discussed with 100 users of mobile medical applications to construct an applicable evaluation system. According to common indicators of published studies on APP evaluation [7,20,21,41], and users' special needs for mobile medical services, we finally determined the assessment indicator system. The system consists of 8 evaluation indicators, where response time and price are cost attributes. ...
Article
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The mobile medical application (M-medical APP) can optimize medical service process and reduce health management costs for users, which has become an important complementary form of traditional medical services. To assist users including patients choose the ideal M-medical APP, we proposed a novel multiple attribute group decision making algorithm based on group compromise framework, which does not need to determine the weight of decision-maker. The algorithm utilizes an uncertain multiplicative linguistic variable to measure the individual original preference to express the real evaluation information as much as possible. The attribute weight was calculated by maximizing the differences among alternatives. It determined the individual alternatives ranking according to the net flow of each alternative. By solving the 0–1 model with the objective of minimizing the differences between individual ranking, the ultimate group compromise ranking is obtained. Then we took 10 well-known M-medical APPs in Chinese as an example, we summarized service categories provided for users and constructed the assessment system consisting of 8 indexes considering the service quality users are concerned with. Finally, the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method and the consistency of ranking results were verified, through comparing the group ranking results of 3 similar algorithms. The experiments show that group compromise ranking is sensitive to attribute weight.
... First, an introduction was presented on the computer display. Participants were told that an app icon (see Figure 1) would appear on the centre of the screen followed by a fixation '+', which aimed to bring the physiological recordings back to baseline (Bhandari et al., 2017). The fixation '+' was shown for 5 s, and the app icon appeared for 3.42 s in accordance with existing literature (Lindgaard, 2007). ...
Preprint
This study investigates how an anthropomorphic app icon affects users' responses from an emotional standpoint. The design is a case-study/laboratory experiment in which 50 participants evaluated a commercially available weather app icon that had facial features (with an anthropomorphic appearance) and the same app icon but without the facial 2 Y. Cao et al. features (non-anthropomorphic appearance). The participants also selected one of the two apps presented on a mock app download interface. Multimodal measurement was used to measure users' responses, including: 1) subjective emotional experiences; 2) attitudes; 3) pupil dilation and facial electromyographic responses; 4) app-selection responses. The relationship between the anthropomorphic and non-anthropomorphic weather app icon designs and users' responses were analysed. Results showed that the anthropomorphic app icon induced positive emotions, enhanced favourable attitudes, and was selected for downloading more often than the non-anthropomorphic one. An implication is that weather app icons, and probably other icons, should be designed using anthropomorphic elements to attract users.
... And it is very easy to be biased and structure questions to get the intended results. Also, most of the research including the research by Bhandari, Neben, Chang and Chua (2017) were done in a university setting. ...
Research
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This paper studies the relationship between the design of a webpage and the emotions it evokes in the users. Some websites can be very easy to look at whereas some of them may bring frustration. The different visual components that make up a webpage have functions in influencing the user’s emotions. This paper examines some specific visual components and tries to tie them to positive psychology. It will also look at some of the design components and draw a conclusion on how looking at those elements will elicit different emotion. Also, the paper suggests how this research can be used by developers for professional applications. Further research on conditioning could be done to have a better understanding of the relationship. Keywords: web page design, positive psychology, emotions.
... Since website design will influence user experience, designers and the companies they work for strive to offer aesthetically pleasing websites of high quality. The majority of the studies in the area employ subjective methods (e.g., data collection using questionnaires), while some utilize more objective approaches by collecting physiological data such as fMRI and eye-tracking [6,7]. ...
Conference Paper
This study examines how quickly we can predict users’ ratings on visual aesthetics in terms of simplicity, diversity, colorfulness, craftsmanship. To predict users’ ratings, first we capture gaze behavior while looking at high, neutral, and low visually appealing websites, followed by a survey regarding user perceptions on visual aesthetics towards the same websites. We conduct an experiment with 23 experienced users in online shopping, capture gaze behavior and through employing machine learning we examine how fast we can accurately predict their ratings. The findings show that after 25 s we can predict ratings with an error rate ranging from 9% to 11% depending on which facet of visual aesthetic is examined. Furthermore, within the first 15 s we can have a good and sufficient prediction for simplicity and colorfulness, with error rates 11% and 12% respectively. For diversity and craftsmanship, 20 s are needed to get a good and sufficient prediction similar to the one from 25 s. The findings indicate that we need more than 10 s of viewing time to be able to accurately capture perceptions on visual aesthetics. The study contributes by offering new ways for designing systems that will take into account users’ gaze behavior in an unobtrusive manner and will be able inform researchers and designers about their perceptions of visual aesthetics.
... perception of the usability of the Graasp online lesson [13,59], and how this overall quality assessment could be related to student motivation and engagement [74], to consequently affect learning outcomes [56]. Our work also contributed to substantiating this applied body of knowledge by gathering more empirical evidence to evaluate the impact of implementing gamified designs in educational software together with a learning by questioning approach [58]. ...
Conference Paper
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Gamification aims to enhance the educational experience by enabling students to have fun with technology. Although research in the field has previously looked into the effectiveness of gamification, reviews of existing studies show that in the context of education, gamification has been largely applied at the university level, with diverse pedagogical approaches and outcomes. Furthermore, reports often refer to interactions with gamification elements in contexts outside STEM education. To bridge these research gaps, this paper reports on an empirical study involving 199 students from two secondary schools. Students had the opportunity to receive a digital reward (in the form of points, badges, or rankings) for their participation in an online physics lesson. Although no significant differences were found regarding student motivation, results confirm an impact—depending on the gamification element being introduced in the software—on three other important aspects: (i) perceived usability, (ii) student engagement, and (iii) learning performance.
... Negative emotions tend to be influenced by instrument benefits whereas positive emotions are influenced by experiential, identity, and social benefits. Bhandari et al. (2017) confirm the effect of the design factors of mobile applications on emotions (valence and arousal) and subsequent quality evaluation. Future research is encouraged to adopt multiperspectives, based on both functional and hedonic aspects. ...
Article
Purpose This study is a systematic review of mobile banking services. Its main objective is to provide a state-of-the-art review of this particular growing type of services. It inventories and assesses the most significant determinants of and barriers to consumers' adoption of mobile banking. Moreover, it identifies the most common consequences of this adoption. Design/methodology/approach By using three major academic databases (ABI/INFORM global, Web of Science and Business Source Premier), this paper selected 76 manuscripts and produced a systematic review that exposes the main theories, conceptual frameworks and models used to explain consumers' adoption of mobile banking. Findings The results show that the TAM (technology of acceptance model), followed by the UTAUT (unified theory of acceptance and usage of technology), are still the main conceptual frameworks and models adopted and adapted by scholars to explain consumers' use or intention of using mobile banking. Using the vote counting method, a myriad of antecedents and consequences that are frequently used in the literature of mobile banking are reported. These were categorized into five main perspectives: (1) m-banking attributes-based perspective, (2) customer-based perspective, (3) social influence-based perspective, (4) trust-based perspective and (5) barriers-based perspective. Originality/value An integrated model regrouping and relating the five perspectives is proposed, leading to intriguing implications for both academics and practitioners.
... Li, Dong, and Chen (2012) elucidated the role of emotions in the consumption experience of mcommerce. In a recent experimental study on mobile applications, Bhandari, Neben, Chang, and Chua (2017) noted the significant influence of design factors (stimuli), on emotions, i.e. arousal and valance (organism), and subsequently on quality perception (response). Vazquez, Dennis, and Zhang (2017) applied the S-O-R paradigm to analyse the effect of mobile instant messaging on consumers' electronic word of mouth (e-WOM) towards an online retailer in China. ...
Article
The paramount importance for mobile retailers, expecting higher sales and cost savings is customer retention. Though previous studies have explored various nuances of customer behaviour towards mobile commerce applications, this study majorly aims to understand the drivers of repurchase intention and satisfying experience in an m-commerce shopping environment. The study follows the stimulus-organism-response (S-O-R) theoretical approach. A cross-sectional design was adopted for this study involving data from 420 regular mobile shoppers in India through a non-probabilistic sampling procedure. The collected data were later analysed using structural equation modeling. The results indicate perceived ubiquity and m-commerce app incentives as two strongest predictors of impulsiveness and perceived value respectively. It was further observed that impulsiveness negatively affects consumers repurchase intention but positively enhances the satisfying experience, whereas perceived value favourably affects both the variable. The study contributes in various ways; first, a holistic model using the S-O-R framework is a new addition in literature ground; second, the extra focus on the construct satisfying experience will give a larger understanding to optimise the m-commerce applications efficiently. Moreover, the study also presents managerial implications for practitioners working in areas related to m-commerce.
... • Relationship with perceived quality only look into visual representation (Bhandari et al., 2017) without allowing user exploring the app therefore limiting the understanding on the relationship between expectation and performance of the app. Theoretical Underpinning ...
... Kansei engineering has been applied to many kinds of product designs, such as mobile phones (F. Guo et al., 2016a,b;Park et al., 2013;Shi et al., 2012;Yang, 2011), automotive interiors (Bahn et al., 2009;Nagamachi, 1995;Tanoue et al., 1997), interface design (Bhandari et al., 2017;Gaspar et al., 2014;Q. X. Qu, 2015), home design (Aktar Demirtas et al., 2009;Hsu et al., 2017;Kim et al., 2019;Y. ...
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The effective acquisition of kansei words for assessing product design features plays a decisive role in knasei engineering research, whereas previous studies rarely give a full understanding of how to effectively grasp the related kansei words. The existing findings revealed that traditional methods based on questionnaire surveys might have trouble and limitations in kansei words acquisition. The process requires the active involvement of users, which could be time-consuming, expensive, knowledge and labor intensive. Hence, there still remains a need for an efficient method that can effectively identify kansei words for assessing product design features in kansei engineering study. The N400, an event-related potential (ERP), can be triggered by semantic violations in visual stimulus materials. The present study investigates whether N400 can be used as an electrophysiological measurement to effectively identify kansei words for assessing product design features in kansei engineering research. This study takes the SUVs’ pictures as the prime stimulus and two relatedness-match levels of kansei words from a high level to a low level as the target stimulus, including the unrelated kansei words and related kansei words. It is shown that the related kansei words elicit a shorter N400 amplitude than the unrelated kansei words. Moreover, the N400 exhibits the different scalp distributions between related and unrelated kansei words. These findings indicate that the N400 could be used to compensate limitations of conventional questionnaire surveys in kansei words acquisition for assessing product design features. Relevance to industry With the assistance of N400 neural measurement in kansei words acquisition, kansei engineering will advance further as a modernized technology in kansei product design. The method proposed in this study uses N400 to effectively identify kansei words, which can be applied to kansei engineering research and improve the product development process.
... The results also indicate the positive influence of interaction quality (visual design) on consumer satisfaction and loyalty, although the effect of this factor is the minimum. While designing any application the esthetics are always an important consideration (Bhandari et al., 2017). The font type, font size, color combination used in the apps are all predictors of satisfaction. ...
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Online food delivery applications (OFDA) are an emerging area of an online-to-offline (O2O) service delivery platform. In times of the COVID-19 pandemic the OFDA apps can help the restaurant and catering industry to thrive by allowing the consumers to order food from the safety of their homes. In this aspect evaluating the end-to-end service quality is an important issue starting right from the interaction with the OFDA apps for searching and ordering food to the last mile consumer experience with the delivery quality and food quality. The initial experience with the OFDA apps is captured through three mobile app attributes: visual design, navigational design, and information design. Consumer satisfaction and loyalty are considered to be the dependent variables in this study. Data is collected using an online questionnaire from 315 university students in India who are actual users of different OFDA apps during the pandemic period. Data analysis is done using a Partial Least Squares – Structural Equation Modeling approach. The findings show that satisfaction is the greatest predictor of loyalty, followed by food quality. Among the mobile app attributes information design has the highest impact on both satisfaction and loyalty, followed by navigational and visual design respectively. Based on the results appropriate theoretical and practical implications are discussed and suggested.
... The interface design of the live-streaming room is composed of a functional button layout, product display methods, interactive panels, interface colours and other elements. When watching a live e-commerce broadcast, consumers are easily attracted to diverse content and personalised options, which creates visual appeal [53,89,90]. In addition, the colour of the live-streaming interface has different degrees of influence on consumers' arousal state. ...
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Since its introduction, live e-commerce has shown rapid growth, especially in regions such as China, where the total market size has exceeded trillions of RMB. However, e-commerce live streaming has also caused widespread consumer impulse-buying behaviour during the development process. Therefore, based on stimulus–organism–response theory, from the perspective of human–computer interaction, this paper develops an impulse-purchase model for live e-commerce consumers, uses partial least squares structural equation modelling to process and analyse 339 valid questionnaires and, finally, validates the proposed hypotheses. The findings show that consumers’ visual appeal, perceived arousal and engagement play a mediating role in the relations among interface design, live atmosphere and impulse purchase. To promote the sustainability of a live-streaming economy, live-streaming platforms need to design attractive live-streaming interfaces, build a pleasant live-streaming atmosphere and enhance consumers’ positive emotions, while preventing their irrational purchasing behaviour. An in-depth analysis of the formation mechanism of this behaviour can help in alleviating the limitations of the lack of rich research results and a single perspective in this field. In addition, it can help stakeholders promote the sustainability of e-commerce live streaming in practice.
... Prior studies imply that arousal refers to the degree of the intensity of alertness, activation, excitement, negative, and simulation in the situation (Donovan and Rossiter 1982;Mehrabian and Russell 1974). In the context of neuro-psychology, arousal is identified as a key element in the emotional enhancement effect of memory (Kensinger and Corkin 2004); it leads to the perception of emotional experiences (Bhandari et al. 2017). In this study, arousal refers to the degree to which a consumer feels excited, stimulated, and activated while shopping through AR apps on mobiles (Donovan and Rossiter 1982;Mehrabian and Russell 1974). ...
Article
Augmented Reality (AR) technology has been increasingly utilised in mobile shopping apps to enhance consumers’ mobile shopping experiences, thereby affecting consumers’ impulse buying behaviour. Drawing upon the Spatial Presence Theory and the Elaboration Likelihood Model, the current study aims to empirically investigate AR-related factors (vividness, spatial accuracy, local presence) and their impacts on impulse buying behaviour related factors (arousal, perceived diagnosticity, and urge to buy impulsively) in the context of AR mobile shopping apps. In this study, an experiment employing a full 2X2 factorial between-subject experimental design was carried out. There were a total of 137 participants actively involved in this experiment. The data analysis results and findings, along with the implications of this study, are provided in the paper.
... Corresponding to the fact that CX with a mobile app is based on the holistic assessment and the interactive experience, this study focuses on, integrated app attributes that combine together to provide superior interactive and engaging CX. We build our arguments on the psychological assumption that the presence of such aesthetic attributes, especially while providing personalized content (for example related to banking services), can significantly influence customer's initial impressions regarding whether or not to continue using the particular app (Bhandari et al., 2017;Kumar et al., 2018;Wu et al., 2014). As these features are available at the point of service delivery, they affect CX. ...
The purpose of this study is to examine the antecedents and outcomes of consumer experience (CX) with mobile banking (m-banking) apps. To understand the linkage of CX with other constructs, data collection was done using a structured questionnaire through an online survey. A sample of 473 respondents were analysed using structural equation modeling by testing the proposed hypotheses in AMOS (Analysis of Moment Structures) version 22.0. The findings revealed that convenience, trust, and social influence play a significant role in enhancing CX with the m-banking app use. Apps attributes was found to be relatively less important and no relationship was found between customer support and CX. Customer loyalty and customer intention to continue using the m-banking apps were observed as significant outcome variables. This study will contribute to the growing literature on CX and will guide managers in recognizing the importance of CX in designing appropriate strategies for the promotion of m-banking and engaging their customers in a developing country context.
... É também um indicador significativo de credibilidade [73] e usabilidade [11]. Isso torna a avaliação da estética visual fundamental para aumentar a qualidade do software e as chances de sucesso comercial [13]. ...
... Researchers have applied this model in m-commerce to understand individuals' behaviour (Bhandari et al., 2017;Rodríguez-Torrico et al., 2019;Yuan et al., 2020). Studies that have used the S-O-R model in the field of electronic and mobile commerce have shown its power in explaining customers' behaviour in this context (Islam & Rahman, 2017;Lian, 2021). ...
Article
This study aims to examine the influence of quality and confirmation dimensions on users' continuance intentions to use e-wallet apps. Besides the partial least squares-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) technique, an asymmetrical analytical approach through fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) was used to examine the combination effects of quality dimensions and confirmations on continuance intention. Symmetrical findings revealed that service quality is the most important factor in gaining users’ continuance intention. However, according to the fsQCA findings, service quality is not an essential factor, and a combination of information quality, system quality, usefulness confirmation, ease of use confirmation, and security confirmation is needed to achieve the highest level of continuance intention. The study extends the literature by investigating drivers of continuance intention, decomposing confirmation, testing the relationship between quality dimensions and confirmations, and using the fsQCA technique. The findings provide more accurate insights into the relationships between quality, confirmation, and continuance intention, and enable managers to make better managerial decisions.
Abstract Purpose – Neuromarketing is a science that can examine human subconscious decisions and activities. The study aimed to investigate the neuropsychological responses of consumers to promotion strategies and the decision to buy sports products, in order to determine the more effective strategy. Design/methodology/approach – An experimental design clarifies whether there is a significant difference between the neuropsychological responses resulting from selective promotional strategies (charity, endorsement, advertising and discount). The authors conducted the research with 40 young adults (20 males and 20 females; age range 25–35 years). The Enobio 20-channel electroencephalograph (EEG) is used to record waves, a two-item questionnaire is used to measure purchasing decisions and self-assessment forms are used to measure arousal and pleasure. Data analysis performed by Friedman’s statistical methods and logistic regression using SPSS 22 software. Findings – Based on the alpha wave, the results showed the two charity and endorsement strategies had the highest effect on consumer attentions. The pleasure had the highest value in the discount, and the arousal had the highest value in the charity strategy. Neuropsychological responses also explain a significant percentage of the consumer decision to buy. Research limitations/implications – Access to research samples is difficult due to the ignorance of the samples as well as the fear of possible harm from imaging and brain scanning methods. Practical implications – Neuromarketing is a science that can examine human subconscious decisions and activities. Social implications – The information obtained neural methods are more accurate than traditional research methods. Originality/value – This study showed the alpha brainwave (attention), arousal and pleasure explain a significant part of the consumer decision to buy. More scientific data can be obtained through new scientific approaches such as neuromarketing, which has a great impact on understanding consumer behavior. Therefore, marketers and researchers can make their promotional activities more effective in terms of them. Keywords Promotional strategies, Neuromarketing, EEG Paper type Research paper
Article
The users of mobile phone are exponentially increasing. The applications are developed every day in a variety of domains to enhance the Quality of User Experience (QoUE) along with utility determinants. The design of the mobile application impacts the QoUE. QoUE in mobile applications is a measure that describes the appropriateness of the purpose of the application and the need for user retention. However, the challenge is to identify, understand, focus and interconnect the variety of determinants influencing the QoUE based on mobile application design. These determinants are based on the diversity of users and the related functional needs, user-specific needs, and background functioning of the application. The modelling and analysis help mobile application developers to improve, increase and retain user engagement on the app based on improved QoUE. To do so, a qualitative analytical method is employed in the following steps. The first ever Fuzzy Cognitive Map (FCM) is proposed to show the causal-effect links of the interdependent determinants in mobile applications based on QoUE. In our model, the existence of relationships between determinants relies on a thorough literature review. The weight of these links is estimated by users of different ages and lines of work. This is performed by an empirical study based on a questionnaire filled by experts. The questionnaire is based on the formal utility and perceived QoUE-based topics. Finally, scenario-based analysis on formed FCM based on these inputs is performed. We show that small changes in cases using different direct determinants can be used to enhance QoUE. These changes can be studied before launching an application for the user, thereby limiting the need to rework the improvements based on QoUE and providing useful guidance for the possible increase in user base and behaviour change.
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Una cantidad sustancial de literatura describe cómo la psicología ha estudiado la irracionalidad de la mente humana y sus procesos, pero pocos autores han escrito acerca de cómo el diseño de la diagramación influye en sus procesos de toma de decisiones. Este artículo propone un experimento para analizar cómo los usuarios eligen un producto específico en función de la posición y forma en que se les muestran las opciones (secuencial o simultánea).
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A substantial amount of literature describes how psychology has studied the irrationally of the human mind and its processes, but few authors have written about how layout design influences its decision-making processes. This article proposes an experiment to analyze how users choose a specific product based on its position and the way that options are displayed to them (sequentially or simultaneously).
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Visual aesthetics is a success criterion for mobile apps. Despite considerable research on graphical user interface (GUI) assessments, there is a lack of studies investigating the reliability and validity of scale types on visual aesthetics as a unidimensional construct. In this study, 208 subjects were divided into four groups, each using a different rating scale and the VisAWI-S questionnaire as the golden standard, to assess the visual aesthetics of nine mobile GUIs. As a result, all scales showed excellent inter-rater reliability and good agreement. Seven-point scales resulted in slightly higher intra-rater reliability than those with five points, but agreement was lower using five-point Likert scales. All scales have shown to be valid compared with VisAWI-S and presented strong correlations pairwise. Results indicate that any of these scales are suitable to assess mobile GUI visual aesthetics reliably and validly as long as response quality is analyzed. This work supports the adoption of single-item questionnaires reducing effort and time, especially in large-scale assessment designs.
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Background: Designs that evoke fun and surprise have been successful in driving uncommon positive behavior. Affective design (AD) is based on the premise that products and services can elicit strong affective responses that can be harnessed for specific purposes such as increasing consumption. Objective: This paper aims to discuss the theoretical foundations and applications of AD to address contemporary consumption, recycling, and healthcare issues. Methods: Current applications of AD to address environmental and health issues were analyzed in terms of effectiveness in changing user behavior. Relevant concepts were used to provide future research directions in this field. Results: Early applications of AD focused on designing products to increase customer satisfaction and stimulate consumption. The method, however, is auspicious in solving relevant societal and global problems. To pave the way for successful integration of AD, one research direction is the need to identify the right emotion to elicit in a certain context. There is a dearth of literature to promote sustainable consumption, such as using less energy, minimizing carbon footprint, or just taking care of the environment using AD. Conclusion: The integration of AD is a strategy that can be used to prompt behavior beneficial to society and the environment. Literature on AD suggests that a deliberate effort to manipulate design factors can work to elicit strong affective responses.
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Purpose Numerous educational applications (APP) have been developed to assist traditional classroom teaching and student learning. APP quality plays a critical role in influencing students' learning behaviors. However, the role negative mindsets, especially computer anxiety, play in how APP quality affects student engagement remains unknown. To address the relationships among APP quality, computer anxiety and student engagement in an APP-based learning environment, we developed an extended information system (IS) success model that includes interface and instructor quality. Design/methodology/approach To empirically test the proposed model, we conducted a survey with a sample of 225 university students and examined the hypotheses using the partial least squares (PLS) method. Findings Computer anxiety was demonstrated to fully mediate the relationships between student engagement and interface quality and service quality and system quality. In addition, the instructor quality acts as a partial mediator of the relationship between computer anxiety and student engagement. Originality/value This study reveals the important mediating role of computer anxiety in APP-assisted learning and the special status of instructor quality and user experience in influencing student engagement. The findings of this study shed meaningful light on the practical implications for instructors and APP software developers.
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Little evidence is available about how food delivery applications (FDAs)’s quality and value dimensions affect the customer brand loyalty process. This paper identifies the antecedents of the brand loyalty generation procedure by taking into consideration the mediating impact of the quality of FDAs and value dimensions. The online survey data was collected from Korean FDAs users and structural equation modeling was used for analysis. The results showed that brand knowledge has a positive and significant impact on all three quality dimensions that lead to increased perceived value and brand satisfaction. Quality of FDAs, value, and brand satisfaction were significant mediators. Additionally, functional value proved to have higher importance than emotional value and information usefulness had a relatively higher value compared to other quality dimensions that are used to determine customer brand loyalty for FDAs. This research provides a strong conceptual framework related to brand knowledge, quality of FDAs, value, satisfaction, and brand loyalty.
This study examined the role of color in a luxury service setting. To understand the effect of color, this study investigated how each dimension of color (hue, saturation, or value) contributed to customers' aesthetic perceptions of a luxury hotel room. We interpreted customers' emotional and behavioral responses to a luxury hotel room painted various colors by applying the S–O–R model. The results showed that muted and bright colors encouraged both classical and expressive aesthetic perceptions within the same hue. Moreover, the results indicated that customers' aesthetic perceptions influenced their approach response through feelings of pleasure and dominance in the luxury hotel context that was moderated by their luxury consumption motivation. This study extends the previous literature by elucidating the process by which color affects customers' aesthetic perceptions, emotional states, and behavioral responses and can inform the composition of a luxury hotel's servicescape, which reflects customers' consumption motivation.
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Purpose This study examines the effect of design quality (i.e. appearance, navigation, information and interactivity) on cognitive and affective involvement leading to continued intention to use the online learning application. Design/methodology/approach We assume that design quality potentially contributes to enhance the individual's involvement and excitement. An experimental prototype is developed for collecting data used to verify and validate the proposed research model and hypotheses. A partial-least-squares approach is used to analyze the data collected from the participants (n = 662). Findings Communication, aesthetic and information quality revealed to be strong determinants of both cognitive and affective involvement. However, font quality and user control positively influence cognitive involvement, while navigation quality and responsiveness were observed as significant indicators of affective involvement. Lastly, cognitive and affective involvement equally contribute to determining the continued intention to use. Research limitations/implications This study will draw the attention of designers and practitioners towards the perception of users for providing appropriate and engaging learning resources. Originality/value Prevalent research in the online context is focused primarily on cognitive and utilization behavior. However, these works overlook the implication of design quality on cognitive and affective involvement.
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Understanding the existence and basic principles of visual language has important research value for current and future visual communication design. This paper studies the visual communication design in the VR system, understands the relevant theories of visual communication design based on the literature, and then designs the visual elements in the VR system and evaluates their use. The evaluation results are as follows: The overall effect of visual communication design in the VR system of this article is better, but the evaluation of color design is good or bad, with 28% of evaluation 1 and 20% of evaluation 4.KeywordsVR systemVisual communicationVisual elementsVisual language
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Based on the S-O-R model as the overall theoretical framework, this study combined objective factors in interface design with subjective perceptions, and investigated whether the emotions evoked by interface design factors would affect user’s intention to continue using the smartwatch through two stages. The first stage, we used two-way ANOVA to analyze whether symmetry and complexity in interface design have different effects on user’s emotions. The findings found that asymmetrical interface designs tend to be more likely to evoke emotional arousal, whereas symmetrical interface designs are more likely to evoke emotional valence. Moreover, complex interface designs are more likely to evoke emotional arousal and valence than simple interface designs. The second stage, the bootstrapping method was adopted to examine the mediating effect of quality perceptions, and to explore the influence of emotions evoked by interface design factors on the user’s intention to continue using smartwatch. The results found that users’ hedonic and pragmatic qualities fully mediate the effect of emotional arousal and valence on continuous usage intention of the smartwatch. Moreover, it is important to address the relationship between users and products through emotions and quality perceptions evoked by interface design factors to increase user experience and enjoyment. Furthermore, it is suggested to design and manufacture products with strong emotional attachment, which is also one of the effective methods to solve some environmental issues caused by consumer electronics.
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Chapter
In this paper, the effectiveness of human-computer interaction interface design was analysed. Under the background of intelligent manufacturing 2025, the spinning industry urgently needs to realize intelligence. A good user interface can better adapt to users’ requirement. For the application scenarios of quality monitoring of the spinning production line, the monitoring interface of the spinning machine was studied, and two schemes were proposed. To compare the two proposed interfaces, usability evaluations based on eye tracking were conducted. A series of experimental verifications such as questionnaire and task model comparison experiments were conducted. The conclusion was obtained through SPSS analysis data. Through a series of experimental verifications, the experimental results verify the effectiveness of the improved design. This research paradigm can provide a reference for the improved design of the interface.
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This research conceptualizes mobile application usability and develops and validates an instrument to measure the same. Mobile application usability has attracted widespread attention in the field of human-computer interaction because well-designed applications can enhance user experiences. To conceptualize mobile application usability, we analyzed Microsoft’s mobile usability guidelines and defined 10 constructs representing mobile application usability. Next, we conducted a pilot study followed by a quantitative assessment of the content validity of the scales. We then sequentially applied exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis to two samples (n=404; n=501) consisting of German consumers using mobile social media applications on their smartphones. To evaluate the confirmatory factor model, we followed a step-by-step process assessing unidimensionality, discriminant validity and reliability. To assess the nomological validity of our instrument, we examined the impact of mobile application usability on two outcomes: continued intention to use and brand loyalty. The results confirmed that mobile application usability was a good predictor of both outcomes. The constructs and scales associated with mobile application usability validated in this paper can be used to guide future research in human-computer interaction and aid in the effective design of mobile applications.
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This paper presents a mobile application usability conceptualization and survey instrument following the 10- step procedure recommended by MacKenzie et al. (2011). Specifically, we adapted Apple's user experience guidelines to develop our conceptualization of mobile application usability that we then developed into 19 firstorder constructs that formed 6 second-order constructs. To achieve our objective, we collected four datasets: content validity (n = 318), pretest (n = 440), validation (n = 408), and cross-validation (n = 412). The nomological validity of this instrument was established by examining its impact on two outcomes: continued intention to use and mobile application loyalty. We found that the constructs that represented our mobile application usability conceptualization were good predictors of both outcomes and compared favorably to an existing instrument based on Microsoft's usability guidelines. In addition to being an exemplar of the recent procedure of MacKenzie et al. to validate an instrument, this work provides a rich conceptualization of an instrument for mobile application usability that can serve as a springboard for future work to understand the impacts of mobile application usability and can be used as a guide to design effective mobile applications.
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Despite its centrality to human thoughts and practices, aesthetics has largely been ignored in research on Web site design. Recently, studies have begun to show that aesthetic qualities such as color, graphics, and the layout of a Web site can play an important role in improving consumer shopping experiences. By integrating theories and research findings from diverse fields, we investigate the impacts of two dimensions of aesthetics, namely, classical aesthetics and expressive aesthetics, on online consumers' shopping value. More important, we propose that the effect of these two dimensions of aesthetics on consumer shopping value is contingent on the hedonic and utilitarian nature of products that consumers purchase online. A laboratory experiment was conducted to test the research model, and the results generally support our hypotheses. From a theoretical perspective, our findings not only establish consumer shopping value as a key business value of Web site aesthetics but also enrich the current knowledge on the contingent effect of Web site aesthetics for utilitarian and hedonic products. From a practical perspective, the findings provide guidance for online vendors to provide their customers with better service in the form of properly designed aesthetic Web sites.
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Usability can be broadly defined as quality of use. However, even this broad definition neglects the contribution of perceived fun and enjoyment to user satisfaction and preferences. Therefore, we recently suggested a model taking "hedonic quality" (HQ; i.e., non-task-oriented quality aspects such as innovativeness, originality, etc.) and the sub-jective nature of "appealingness" into account (Hassenzahl, Platz, Burmester, & Leh-ner, 2000). In this study, I aimed to further elaborate and test this model. I assessed the user perceptions and evaluations of 3 different visual display units (screen types). The results replicate and qualify the key findings of Hassenzahl, Platz, et al. (2000) and lend further support to the model's notion of hedonic quality and its importance for subjective judgments of product appealingness.
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Two studies considered the interplay between user-perceived usability (i.e., pragmatic attributes), hedonic attributes (e.g., stimulation, identifica-tion), goodness (i.e., satisfaction), and beauty of 4 different MP3-player skins. As long as beauty and goodness stress the subjective valuation of a product, both were related to each other. However, the nature of goodness and beauty was found to differ. Goodness depended on both perceived usability and hedonic attributes. Especially after using the skins, perceived usability be-came a strong determinant of goodness. In contrast, beauty largely depended on identification; a hedonic attribute group, which captures the product's ability to communicate important personal values to relevant others. Per-ceived usability as well as goodness was affected by experience (i.e., actual us-ability, usability problems), whereas hedonic attributes and beauty remained stable over time. All in all, the nature of beauty is rather self-oriented than goal-oriented, whereas goodness relates to both.
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In this paper, a design approach is introduced for designing products with added emotional value. First, the approach was established, based on a theoretical framework and a non-verbal instrument to measure emotional responses. Second, the value of the design approach was assessed by applying it to the design of mobile telephones. Mobile telephones were found to be useful vehicles as people appear to have strong feelings about this product. A user study was conducted which resulted in the identification of two user groups ('trend followers' and 'security seekers') and for each group an emotional profile. Four telephones were designed which, for each group, either were intended to or were not intended to match the group's profile. Finally, these designs were evaluated with the non-verbal instrument. The results indicate that the approach is appropriate for designing products with added emotional value. The advantages and disadvantages of the approach are discussed and further research directions indicated.
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Traces of social interaction in information spaces have the potential to improve information exploration. We evaluated interactive interfaces that utilize social interaction history. More specifically, we compared the value of a social filter and social interaction visualization in supporting casual browsing. We hypothesized that information filtering in general plays a more important role than visualization, as it provides additional control for users to browse information collections. Our experimental results showed that, compared to the baseline interface, the social filter increased subjective user satisfaction and was perceived by the study participants to enhance their effectiveness in finding interesting information. However, there were no significant differences between the social filter and social visualization systems. Our analysis suggested that the synergy of information filtering and visualization is more effective than each feature working separately.
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Rudolf Arnheim applied the fundamental principles of Gestalt psychology to the creation and appreciation of film and art. These principles emphasize the primacy of structured perception and the spontaneous experience of emotional expression. The interplay of compositional "forces" creates a sense of tension in the overall structure of an artwork. Viewers spontaneously experience these effects but must learn that aesthetic "seeing" proceeds from the broadest overall pattern to individual features. The metaphorical meaning in a painting emerges when its subject matter is experienced in the context of its expressive structure. By way of critical commentary, it is proposed that metaphorical concepts like "forces" and "fields" should not be taken too literally lest they become reified. The focus should be placed on the dynamic effects of compositional contrasts and resulting tensions rather than on abstract "forces." With these ideas in mind, expressive structure in painting is explored in terms of complementary relations between two-dimensional surface and three-dimensional illusionist spaces. Following in Arnheim's didactic tradition, these ideas are examined in relation to a specific artwork through a discussion with the artist. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Three studies were conducted to ascertain how quickly people form an opinion about web page visual appeal. In the first study, participants twice rated the visual appeal of web homepages presented for 500 ms each. The second study replicated the first, but participants also rated each web page on seven specific design dimensions. Visual appeal was found to be closely related to most of these. Study 3 again replicated the 500 ms condition as well as adding a 50 ms condition using the same stimuli to determine whether the first impression may be interpreted as a 'mere exposure effect' (Zajonc 1980). Throughout, visual appeal ratings were highly correlated from one phase to the next as were the correlations between the 50 ms and 500 ms conditions. Thus, visual appeal can be assessed within 50 ms, suggesting that web designers have about 50 ms to make a good first impression.
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Arts experts are commonly skeptical of applying scientific methods to aesthetic experiencing, which remains a field of study predominantly for the humanities. Laboratory research has however indicated that artworks may elicit emotional and physiological responses. Yet, this line of aesthetics research has previously suffered from insufficient external validity. We therefore conducted a study in which aesthetic perception was monitored in a fine-art museum, unrestricting to the viewers' freedom of aesthetic choice. Visitors were invited to wear electronic gloves through which their locomotion, heart rate and skin conductance were continuously recorded. Emotional and aesthetic responses to selected works of an exhibition were assessed using a customized questionnaire. In a sample of 373 adult participants, we found that physiological responses during perception of an artwork were significantly related to aesthetic-emotional experiencing. The dimensions 'Aesthetic Quality', 'Surprise/Humor', 'Dominance' and 'Curatorial Quality' were associated with cardiac measures (heart rate variability, heart rate level) and skin conductance variability. This is first evidence that aesthetics can be statistically grounded in viewers' physiology in an ecologically valid environment, the art gallery, enhancing our understanding of the effects of artworks and their curatorial staging.
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Eckhard Hess’s claim that pupils dilate to pleasant images and constrict to unpleasant images was confounded because of inconsistent contrasts and luminances across his images. Building upon the work of Powell and Schirillo (2011) that explored multiple portraits by Rembrandt, we offer a new and promising methodology that overcomes this limitation. We presented leftward- or rightward-facing female and male portraits by 12 artists from various epochs to observers in either their original or mirror-reversed positions. Simultaneously, we asked observers to report how (dis)pleasing they found each image while measuring their pupil size. We found that pupil diameter was a function of arousal only while viewing male portraits. That is, for male images rated both low and high in pleasantness, larger pupil diameters were obtained. We postulate that our findings may be the result of the perceived dominance of males and how hemispheric laterality may drive emotional expression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
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In recent years the aesthetic appearance of user-interfaces has become a topic of increasing interest in the field of human–computer interaction (HCI). At the same time, it is well known that there are gender-specific effects in HCI. The present study investigates the effect of web page symmetry by taking gender differences into account. A total of 60 people (30 male, 30 female) participated in a laboratory experiment, where 20 website startpages had to be rated regarding symmetry, intuitive beauty, classical and expressive aesthetics. Results show that vertical symmetry is an important factor in aesthetic website design. It has an impact on intuitive straightforward beauty appraisals and on classical and expressive aesthetics judgments. Asymmetrically designed web pages were considered to be less beautiful and achieved lower scores on the classical and expressive dimensions. Moreover, the study indicates that the symmetry effect only occurs among male participants: only men react unfavorably to asymmetrically designed websites, whereas women’s judgments are not influenced by symmetry. These findings should be taken into consideration by website designers, especially when they aim to design for target audience consisting of a majority of a certain gender.
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Despite its centrality to human thought and practice, aesthetics has for the most part played a petty role in human–computer interaction research. Increasingly, however, researchers attempt to strike a balance between the traditional concerns of human–computer interaction and considerations of aesthetics. Thus, recent research suggests that the visual aesthetics of computer interfaces is a strong determinant of users’ satisfaction and pleasure. However, the lack of appropriate concepts and measures of aesthetics may severely constraint future research in this area. To address this issue, we conducted four studies in order to develop a measurement instrument of perceived web site aesthetics. Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses we found that users’ perceptions consist of two main dimensions, which we termed “classical aesthetics” and “expressive aesthetics”. The classical aesthetics dimension pertains to aesthetic notions that presided from antiquity until the 18th century. These notions emphasize orderly and clear design and are closely related to many of the design rules advocated by usability experts. The expressive aesthetics dimension is manifested by the designers’ creativity and originality and by the ability to break design conventions. While both dimensions of perceived aesthetic are drawn from a pool of aesthetic judgments, they are clearly distinguishable from each other. Each of the aesthetic dimensions is measured by a five-item scale. The reliabilities, factor structure and validity tests indicate that these items reflect the two perceived aesthetics dimensions adequately.
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In this paper, we empirically investigate an extension of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to explain the individual acceptance and usage of websites. Conceptually, we examine perceived ease-of-use, usefulness, enjoyment, and their impact on attitude towards using, intention to use and actual use. The paper also introduces a new construct, “perceived visual attractiveness” of the website and demonstrates that it influences usefulness, enjoyment, and ease-of-use. For our empirical research we partnered with a Dutch generic portal site with over 300,000 subscribers at the time the research was conducted. The websurvey resulted in a sample size of 828 respondents. The results confirmed all of the 12 hypotheses formulated.
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A screen often has to present information clearly and also act as the locus for interacting with the system. This is a complex area, involving some psychological understanding, as well as aspects of graphical design. Although knowledge of the users' tasks and abilities is the key to designing effective screen displays, an objective, automatable metric of screen design is an essential aid. In this paper, we describe a new model for quantitatively assessing screen formats. The results of applying the model to data entry screens support the use of the model. We also describe a critiquing mechanism embedded in a user interface design environment as a demonstration of our approach.
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The brand personality of an online product and service, usually represented by a Web site, is known as its e-brand personality. In the competitive conditions of online markets, e-brand personality is agreed to be an important factor in securing distinctive identity; however, few studies have suggested how to establish e-brand personality through the visual design of Web sites. This study explores the feasibility of constructing target e-brand personalities for online services by using visual attributes. It consists of 3 consecutive studies. The 1st study identified four major dimensions of e-brand personality on diverse Web sites. The 2nd study used 52 experimental home pages to identify key visual attributes associated with those 4 personality dimensions. The 3rd study explored whether those findings from the 2nd study can be applied in constructing Web sites for online services. The results showed that 2 visual attributes-simplicity and cohesion-are closely related to a bold personality. Three attributes-contrast, density, and regularity-can be used to create a Web site that has an analytical personality. Contrast, cohesion, density, and regularity are closely related to a Web site that is perceived to have a friendly personality. Regularity and balance were expected to be related to the sophisticated personality dimension, but no such relation was identified in the 3rd study. The article concludes with a discussion of implications, limitations, and future research directions.
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Usability testing of software applications developed for mobile devices is an emerging research area that faces a variety of challenges due to unique features of mobile devices, limited bandwidth, unreliability of wireless networks, as well as the changing context (environmental factors). Traditional guidelines and methods used in usability testing of desktop applications may not be directly applicable to a mobile environment. Therefore, it is essential to develop and adopt appropriate research methodologies that can evaluate the usability of mobile applications. The aim of this paper is to analyze and highlight research questions, methodologies, and usability attributes while conducting a usability test for mobile applications. First, the paper provides an overview of existing usability studies and discusses major research questions that have been investigated. Then, it proposes a generic framework for usability testing of mobile applications and provides some suggestions on how to conduct such usability studies.
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Extremely high correlations between repeated judgments of visual appeal of homepages shown for 50 milliseconds have been interpreted as evidence for a mere exposure effect [Lindgaard et al. 2006]. Continuing that work, the present research had two objectives. First, it investigated the relationship between judgments differing in cognitive demands. Second, it began to identify specific visual attributes that appear to contribute to different judgments. Three experiments are reported. All used the stimuli and viewing time as before. Using a paradigm known to disrupt processing beyond the stimulus offset, Experiment 1 was designed to ensure that the previous findings could not be attributed to such continued processing. Adopting a within-subject design, Experiment 2 investigated the extent to which judgments differing in cognitive demands (visual appeal, perceived usability, trustworthiness) may be driven by the visual characteristics of a Web page. It also enabled analyses of visual attributes that contributed most to the different judgments. Experiment 3 replicated Experiment 2 but using a between-subject design to ensure that no practice effect could occur. The results suggest that all three types of judgments are largely driven by visual appeal, but that cognitively demanding judgments are processed in a qualitatively different manner than visual appeal, and that they rely on somewhat different visual attributes. A model accounting for the results is provided.
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Interface agents are computer programs that provide personalized assistance to users with their computer-based tasks. Most interface agents achieve personalization by learning a user's preferences in a given application domain and assisting him according to them. In this work we adopt a different approach to personalization: how to personalize the interaction between interface agents and users in a mixed-initiative interaction context. We have empirically studied a set of interaction issues that agents have to take into account to achieve this goal and we present our results in this article. Some of these personalization issues are: discovering the type of assistant a user wants, learning when (and if) to interrupt the user, discovering how the user wants to be assisted in different contexts. As a result of our experiments, we have defined the components of a user interaction profile that models a user's interaction and assistance preferences. This profile will enable interface agents to enhance and personalize their interaction with users by discovering how to provide each user assistance of the right sort at the right time. r 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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The notion of ‘user satisfaction’ plays a prominent role in HCI, yet it remains evasive. This exploratory study reports three experiments from an ongoing research program. In this program we aim to uncover (1) what user satisfaction is, (2) whether it is primarily determined by user expectations or by the interactive experience, (3) how user satisfaction may be related to perceived usability, and (4) the extent to which satisfaction rating scales capture the same interface qualities as uncovered in self-reports of interactive experiences. In all three experiments reported here user satisfaction was found to be a complex construct comprising several concepts, the distribution of which varied with the nature of the experience. Expectations were found to play an important role in the way users approached a browsing task. Satisfaction and perceived usability was assessed using two methods: scores derived from unstructured interviews and from the Web site Analysis MeasureMent Inventory (WAMMI) rating scales. Scores on these two instruments were somewhat similar, but conclusions drawn across all three experiments differed in terms of satisfaction ratings, suggesting that rating scales and interview statements may tap different interface qualities. Recent research suggests that ‘beauty’, or ‘appeal’ is linked to perceived usability so that what is ‘beautiful’ is also perceived to be usable [Interacting with Computers 13 (2000) 127]. This was true in one experiment here using a web site high in perceived usability and appeal. However, using a site with high appeal but very low in perceived usability yielded very high satisfaction, but low perceived usability scores, suggesting that what is ‘beautiful’ need not also be perceived to be usable. The results suggest that web designers may need to pay attention to both visual appeal and usability.
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The question addressed in this paper is whether the human amygdala processes threat-related stimuli independent of selective attention. This is considered from a functional neuroimaging perspective, describing studies in normal volunteers and patients with brain lesions. The conclusion is that the evidence for such automaticity is strong, indicating that important distinctions exist between emotion and other forms of cognition.
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Although aesthetic experiences are frequent in modern life, there is as of yet no scientifically comprehensive theory that explains what psychologically constitutes such experiences. These experiences are particularly interesting because of their hedonic properties and the possibility to provide self-rewarding cognitive operations. We shall explain why modern art's large number of individualized styles, innovativeness and conceptuality offer positive aesthetic experiences. Moreover, the challenge of art is mainly driven by a need for understanding. Cognitive challenges of both abstract art and other conceptual, complex and multidimensional stimuli require an extension of previous approaches to empirical aesthetics. We present an information-processing stage model of aesthetic processing. According to the model, aesthetic experiences involve five stages: perception, explicit classification, implicit classification, cognitive mastering and evaluation. The model differentiates between aesthetic emotion and aesthetic judgments as two types of output.