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انتهاك حرمة المعابد والتعدي عليها في ضوء النقوش العربية الجنوبية القديمة The temples' desecration and Infringement upon in the light of the South Arabian inscriptions

Authors:

Abstract

South-Arabian inscriptions contain multiple types of sins. In addition to those public sins that arise between members of the community , including; for example the attack on the facilities of irrigation-agriculture systems and murders…. etc. There were other types; represented in the assault directly on the gods and their temples property or by Downplay indirectly those gods through the commission of some of the things that can be considered as detracting from the right of the idol; such as: perjury, and sometimes default in the performance of various acts of worship and ritual purity and other things which require public recognition and provide penitential offering. This research will deal only with those sins which represent a kind of desecration of temples and infringed upon, through three elements; gods' disrespect, the attack on the temples and the theft of property, and assault on the temples clerks service (priests) in the light of South Arabian inscriptions.
 (-
1


 

  
)////








The temples' desecration and Infringement upon in the light of the South Arabian inscriptions
Mahmoud Abd El-Basset Attia(1) DinaZeinEl-AbdeinMouafa(2)
Keywords: assault, desecration, gods, temples, atues, sin, expiation, theft.
Abract: South- Arabian inscriptions contain multiple types of sins. In addition to those publicsins that arise between members of the commu-
nity, including; for example the attack on the facilities of irrigation- agriculture syems and murders…. etc. There were other types; represented
in the assault directly on the gods and their temples property or by Downplay indirectly those gods through the commission of some of the
things that can be considered as detracting from the right of the idol; such as: perjury, and sometimes default in the performance of various acts
of worship and ritual purity and other things which require public recognition and provide penitential oering.
This research will deal only with those sins which represent a kind of desecration of temples and infringed upon, through three elements;
gods' disrespect, the attack on the temples and the theft of property, and assault on the temples clerks service (pries) in the light of South
Arabian inscriptions.
،
.

(1) King Saud University - Faculty of Tourism & Archaeology - Assis-
tant Lecturer- Cairo University- Faculty of Archaeology
Email: mabdelpaset86@yahoo.com
(2) Assiant Lecturer- Cairo University - Faculty of Archaeology
Email: dinazain96@yahoo.com

:
     
       
r/39.11 .CIAS ,6 no 39.11/03 CIAS(  
GL = 533 CIH = 34 Haram ,548 CIH ,504 CIH ,1
= 523 CIH = 40 Haram ,3956 RES = 35 Haram ,1054
    )720 Ja ,1052 GL
  .    
       
        
  
      
  )Y.92.B.A 29  
       
     
CIH 547, CIH 548, RES 4176, YM(  
      10886
      
      
    
     
.  
      
     
Rb I/84(       
   n.197a- e = SOYCE 705
     . 
 
      
.      
      
        
       . 
       
       .
     
    
     .  
      
. 
     
      
     
   ( 
(  (  (  
(      
.       )
:    
      
     
 .       
      
        
      
     
   
   -

      
       
.       
     
        
   .    
  .     
  )CIH 546 = Hal 147= Haram8( 
       
  (   )( 
    

/ / / -
/  /  / / -

/  / ][ / / -
/  / / / ][ -
].[
  / ][ /  / -
/
/ /  / ] [ -
(

 -





/ /  / -

/  )( ]  -
(
    -
  )(  )( -
    -
 )(    -
)(     -
)(       -
Robin, 1992: 72; Stein, (
)2007: 33-35
       
       
     . 
      
       
        
      
 .)-  (  
       
   
   
.)Ryckmans, 1945:8( 
      
nietS ,niboR(
      




     
   ) (     
   

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 / / /  / 
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/ /   / / /
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/   / / /
]...[ /

          -
    )(   
    )(   )( 
        
       
          
.
  )(    )( -
) (    )(
      
       
.      
   )(      -
)(       
 ]...[    

      
]...[   ]...[   ...
]...[ ]...[   
          -
  
  ]...[   
      
        
(      
.)  
        
       
 .      
         
       
   ) (     
.)(     
      
      
 )(












       
.) -
      
         
       
       
        
        
       
        
.)-(
:     -
      
      
 -  -  
       
         
        
     

 .    
    
     
      
 .     
         
       
 (    
  -
       
  )  (  

.        
RES 2980 = Hal 484 = FA 14(   
  = GL 1092 = M 202 = Shaqab 19
   .     
      
     ) (
 . -    
         
Pirenne, 1956: 149- 150; 257;(    
       )260
       

/ / -
/ / -
/ / -
/ / -
/
/  /  -
/ / / -
/  / -
/ / / -
 / -
/ / /
-
/ / /  -
/ / -
 / / / -
/  / -
/ ][ /  -
/ / -
/ / / -
] / / [ -

    -
    -
) (    )( -
  )(   -
   -
 )(   -
 )(  -
   ) -
 (  -
  /  -
     -
   -

   -
   / -
) (  )(   -
   -
  -
   -
Fakhry, 1952: 12- 13, Gnoli, 1993: 103, http://)
(/csai.humnet.unipi.it
       
        

       
        
.     

       
     )Beeon( 
      
      
 Beeon, 1953: 113- 115(   
       )Ryckmans(
       
.)Ryckmans, 1945: 9- 10( 
     
      
  )Jamme(   . 
       
        
       
Jamme,(     
      1972: 72
       
      
.       
      
        
.)(    
      
      
       
      
     
     
        
      
. 
       
          
       
       
      . 
       
.     
       
.       
         
      
CIH 400 = RES 4178 = Ja(   .
 (      )534
     
      
       
    .

/ / /  / / -
/ /
/ / / / -
/

) (    )  -
 

    )(   )( -
        
      
   .)Beeon & Others, 1982: 144(
         
      . 
     
        
-(     
.)
)CIH 612 + CIH 522= Ry 31(  
       
  .    
    )CIH 522 = RES 850(
 BM 102457(    
   )CIH 612= AO 4092( 
   .)Beeon, 1980: 27(  
.       
     
        
  )Halévy, 1906: 370- 373( »Halévy
)Ryckmans, 1927: 190( »Ryckmans 
Rhodokanakis,1932:( »Rhodokanakis «
   »Beeon   60
   Beeon, 1980: 28(

/ ][ / ][ / ]...[ -
/ ][ / ][ / /
/ ][ /][
/ /][  ] [ ][ / -
/ / / /
 / ] [
/ / ) ( ] / [ -
/ /  / ][
/ /
/ /  ]...[ -
/ / / /
][  / / ] [ /  ][ -
/ / / /][ / /
/  / /
/ /  [ / ]...[ /  -
]... [ ][ ]
.][  / / ]...[-

  )(    ]...[ -
 
     ]...[ -
  )(    ]...[ -
     
     )( ..... -
 
      ]...[ -
       
]...[
...  )( ]...[  ]...[ -
.      ]...[ -
  )(


(Beeon, 1980: 27- 29, Calvet & Robin 1997:
213- 214, http://csai.humnet.unipi.it/)
       
      
       
     
    
 
        
  .      
     
     
 -(   
.)Multho & Stein, 2008: 13+ footnote 35
      
     
    )()RES 3247 = CIH 972(
BM(     
   125162

/ / / -
][

.    )(   -
 ) (    
       
       
(

.)Jamme 1971,59
        
.    
       
         

        
  )(    
       
     
.    
      
     
     
(        
.)
       
 CIH 30 = GL 324( (   
    .    
  )(    
     
   Vorderasiatisches  
    .)VA 7 (

/  / / -
 / / / -
/ /  / /  -
/ / / / -
/


/ / /  / / -

.]... [ -

) (     -
    -
 )(    )(  -
       -
    
-
]...[  -
     
      
.)Müller, 1988: 634- 635( 
  
      
        
      
Fa 102, Ja (     
        )636, 637
        
.)(    
Rb I/89 n. 279 + 297 + 306(  
      )A – B
       
     
      .
    )A – B 306(   
.   
Frantsouzo,(    
     2001: 128
      
      
       
         
 .) ( 
  














/ / -









(  )  (  -
 )
    -
      -


)(  )  (  -
  )(    -
    ) ( -
   -
     -
   -
    -
   -
 ) (   -
   )    -
      
.)Frantsouzo, 2001: 129- 130( . 
       
       
       
      
  .    
Frant-(      
     souzo, 2001: 132
      
        
       
. 
      
        
       
      
       
   )Rb I/89 n. 298, 300( 
       
  .)Frantsouzo, 1998: 63- 64( 
Frantsouzo      
    .  

)Rb I/89 n. 298  -
/ / -
/ / -
/  / / -
] / [  ][ -

    -
   -
  )(     -
) (
  ]...[ -
.)Rb I/89 n. 300  -

/ /
-
/ -
 /
-
/ /

-
/ / / -
/
/ -
][ -

 / / -


   -
 (  ) (   -
)  
 -
  )(   -
   )   -
. -
      
       
)RES 4689/4(   ) ( 
  (Biella    
(  Biella, 1982:151(  
Beeon(      )
     .)& Others, 1982: 164
) (     
    )Biella   
 Biella, 1982: 182(    
.        
        
        
        
  )() (    
      .  
     
SOYCE 1736 = Rb(    
(



.) -
      )I/88 n. 130
       
        
  
    
      
    .

]...[ / / -
/.....[ / / 
-
]
/ [ /
/ ]...[ -
]....... / / / ......

....   -
  (   ]...[  ]...[ -
       
.)   (  )
)(    /  ]...[ -
Frantsouzo, 1998:( ]...[    
.)64- 65
Rb V no. 61+ 52+ 54+ 62+(   
       )67+ 60+ 53+ 57
       
    .   

 ].[ /

].[ / -
/ ] [
/ ] [ ] [ /
-
/ ].[ / ] [ ْ].[  / -


/ ْ ].[ ْ ].[ / ] [
-
-

)(       -
  )(   -
    -
) ( )  (  -
 
.)Frantsouzo 2007: 191(   -
       
       
.       
       
       .  
         
        
    
         
        
(      
.)
  )Frantsouzo(  
  ) (     ) (
)RES 4329/3(     ) (
 / / / (  
       /
.
      
  )Frantsouzo, 1998: 63( 
      
   
 

    
    
    (    
   
  
        
   . (
        
.  
  )Frantsouzo(  
      
Frantsou-(    
      )zo, 1998: 65
       
        
.
        
       
        
     
       
    
-(  

.)
        
       


       
   .   
       
Ryckmans, 1988: 108( )Ryckmans(  
       
        
         
.    
  (pirenne(    
       
        
        
        
       
    Pirenne, 1972: 204 (
.       
     
      
        
       
.)(
     
       
        
.     
       
       
       
        
 (    
    .)- 
       
      
.     
       )
      
      
     
       
      
.   
      
   )Rb I/84 n. 198 a- f( 
         
        .
      
Frantsouzo, 1997: 118(  
      
       
    .    
      
    . 

[ ]...[ / 
/ / ] [ -
] / /
[ ]...[ / / / -


] /
/
]...[ / / / -
 / / / ]...[ / -
/
/ / / ]...[ / -
][ / /
/ / ]...[ / -
]...[ 










 -
(Frantsouzo, 1999: 153- 155)
      
(    » « 
      
     
 .)(   
       
       
.)Frantsouzo,1997: 122( 
      

       
         
.     
)Rb I/ 89 n. 291(    
        
         
    

/  / / -
/ / / / / -
 / /] [ / / -
/ / / / -
/ / / /
-
 / /  / ][ -
/ / / -
/ / / /
-
]...[
-






 -




 -
     
.)Frantsouzo, (
     
       
        
      
        
        
Frantsouzo,(   
   
       )1995: 18- 19
.       
     
 
       
     
    
.   
) (   
      
   .  
 .    )( 
     )(
Frantsouzo,(    ) 

     1995: 19
.    
Rb I/84 n. 178+ 174 a- b(   
     )+ 175 + 177 +176 + 181
       )(

      
.          
   

/ / / / / )( -
/
/ /  / / / -
 /
/ / / )( -
/
]...[ / / / / -

 -



       

       
      
   .     
)(          
   .)Frantsouzo, 1995: 20(  
.      
       
     
        
Ja 702(      
    .   


        
        
    
.)Jamme, 1962: 192-193(    
   

/ -
/ / -
][ / ][ -
/ / ]/[ -
/  / / -
/ / -
 / / -
/  / / -
/ / / -
/ / / -
/  / -
/ / / -
 /  /  -
]...[  / -

   -
      -
  )(   -
   -
   -
) (      -
  )(  -
   -
 -
    -
    )(  -
 ) (  -
  ][ -
]...[ -
        
    ) ( 
        
    .   
      
 
. 

      
       
      
      
.     
      
      
     
   
       
        

 -    
        
.
      
         
.     
      


        
       
. 
      
     
     
      
      
.    
      
     
       
.   
      
      
     
      
      
      
      
        
        
.

       
      
.     
:  


Antiquities Oriental, Louver Museum
AO
British Museum
BM
Corpus des inscriptions et antiquités Sud- Arabes, I- 1977, II-1986, Louvain.
CIAS
Corpus Inscriptionum Semiticarum, Pars Quarta: Inscriptiones himyariticas et sabaeas continens, Tome
I- III, Paris, 1889-1932.
CIH
Corpus of South Arabian Inscriptions I-III.Qatabanic, Marginal Qatabanic,Awsanite Inscriptions.
Alessandra Avanzinied. ArabiaAntica 2. Pisa. 2004.
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iscrizionisudarabiche: Www. http://csai.humnet.unipi.it/
CSAI
Inscriptions discovered by A. Fakhry, published by G. Ryckmans

Fa
Inscriptions from E. Glaser Collection
Gl
Inscriptions studied by J. Halevy
Hal
Inscriptions published by A., Jamme
Ja
Revue d, Etudes Orientales, Louvain, Publepar par L, Association Sansbut Lucratif
Muséon
Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, Archaeopress, Oxford
PSAS
Répertoire d’épigraphie Sémitique: Publié par la commission du corpus Inscriptionum semiticarum
(Academie des Inscriptions et Belles- Lettres) Tome V- VII, Paris, 1929, 1935, 1950.
RES
Revue Sémitique, Ernest Leroux, Paris
RS
Inscriptions published by G., Ryckmans

Ry
The Soviet Yemeni Complex Interdisciplinar Expedition
SOYCE
Wiener Zeitschrift fur die Kunde des Morgenlandes, Institut für Orientalistik, Wien
WZKM
Yemeni Museum, Sana'a
YM
   


: 
  .)  
   
.  
        
   .).
.    
   .)
.  
  .)  
. 
     « .)
    
. -
.) 


    .)
   
. 
   .) 
      
      
    ( 
. 
   .)
    
.
 « .) 
   
.   (
 « .)  
     
  
. -
« .)    
      
 -  
   
-    
.
 « .)   
     
     .
    (
. 
  « .)
     
. -  
.)   
    
    
  -  
. 
  .)  
      


     
.    (
   .)
.     
 
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Notes in old South Arabian lexicography V
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Beeston, A., (1953). "Notes in old South Arabian lexicography V", Le Muséon 66, pp. 109-22.
Textual and interpretational problems of CIH 522 (BM 102457)
  • A Beeston
Beeston, A., (1980). "Textual and interpretational problems of CIH 522 (BM 102457)", Raydān 3, pp. 27-30.
Les antiquités arabiques du Musée du Louvre Avec la collaboration de Françoise Briquel-Chatonnet and Marielle Pic
  • Arabie Déserte
Arabie déserte. Les antiquités arabiques du Musée du Louvre. Avec la collaboration de Françoise Briquel-Chatonnet and Marielle Pic. Paris: Editions de la Réunion des musées nationaux.
An archaeological journey to Yemen
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Fakhry, A (1952). An archaeological journey to Yemen (March-May 1947), Part 2, Epigraphical texts by G. Ryckmans, Government press, Cairo.
«The inscriptions from the temple of Ḏhat Himyam at Raybun
  • S Frantsouzoff
Frantsouzoff, S., (1995). «The inscriptions from the temple of Ḏhat Himyam at Raybun", PSAS 25, pp. 15-30.
Regulation of conjungal relations in ancient Raybun
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Frantsouzoff, S., (1997). "Regulation of conjungal relations in ancient Raybun", PSAS 27, pp. 114-27.
A parallel to the second commandment in the inscriptions of Raybun
  • S Frantsouzoff
Frantsouzoff, S., (1998). "A parallel to the second commandment in the inscriptions of Raybun", PSAS 28, pp. 62-67.