Article

Impact of recycling on energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from electric vehicle production: The China 2025 case

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Abstract

Electric vehicle, as the most promising clean vehicle technology, has gained high priority in global transport technology roadmap. Although electric vehicles offer multiple benefits within the vehicle use phase, their energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions within the vehicle production phase are much higher than conventional vehicles. Recycling is considered as an effective way to tackle this issue. By employing a life cycle assessment framework, this study compares the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from electric vehicle production under the circumstances of no recycling and full recycling. Database is established based on the China 2025 case, where a large number of electric vehicles are expected to reach their end of life in the years to come. The results indicate that greenhouse gas emissions from electric vehicle production with and without recycling are 9.8 t CO2eq. and 14.9 t CO2eq., implying a 34% reduction through recycling. Specifically, the recycling of steel, aluminum and the cathode material of traction battery, among others, contribute to 61%, 13% and 20% of total reduction, respectively. Although the recycling of conventional vehicle components currently contributes the most to the overall reduction, the recycling of battery has a huge growth potential in the future. Based on the analysis, it is recommended that China should prioritize the recycling of electric vehicles, especially the batteries, to realize the cleaner production of electric vehicles.

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... The authors then performed a comparison of their results to the published literature that have also conducted LCAs on LMO, NMC, and LFP batteries. It was evident that the new LCP-C battery has lower GWP impacts than the NMC ( [12,14]; EPA [42]; [43]) and LFP ( [14]; EPA [42]; [43]) batteries, and only slightly higher than the LMO ( [13,15]; EPA [42]; [43]) batteries. ...
... The authors then performed a comparison of their results to the published literature that have also conducted LCAs on LMO, NMC, and LFP batteries. It was evident that the new LCP-C battery has lower GWP impacts than the NMC ( [12,14]; EPA [42]; [43]) and LFP ( [14]; EPA [42]; [43]) batteries, and only slightly higher than the LMO ( [13,15]; EPA [42]; [43]) batteries. ...
... The authors then performed a comparison of their results to the published literature that have also conducted LCAs on LMO, NMC, and LFP batteries. It was evident that the new LCP-C battery has lower GWP impacts than the NMC ( [12,14]; EPA [42]; [43]) and LFP ( [14]; EPA [42]; [43]) batteries, and only slightly higher than the LMO ( [13,15]; EPA [42]; [43]) batteries. ...
Article
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... BatPaC model is used to estimate the manufacturing costs of EV LIBs and GREET model has been widely used to analyze the life-cycle environmental impacts. Both BatPaC and GREET models have been used by previous LIB or EV LCA studies within the Chinese context (Hao et al., 2017;Qiao et al., 2019aQiao et al., , 2019b. Default values related to recycling technologies in the EverBatt model are acquired from LIB manufacturing and recycling facilities in China, which have also been employed for studies within the Chinese context (Xiong et al., 2019). ...
... GHG reduction on average. We found that HR could reduce 11.67% of GHG emissions for NCM batteries on average, which is higher than the estimations by Ciez and Whitacre (2019) but much lower than that by Hao et al. (2017). The reasons are because Ciez and Whitacre (2019) calculated the situation of the United States, and the energy structure and production technology level are different from those of China. ...
... Due to the industrial layout, the transportation distance of spent LIBs in the United States is longer than that in China, which leads to higher carbon emissions in the collection stage of spent LIBs, so the emission reduction benefit is weaker. Hao et al. (2017) remanufacturing LIBs with HR, but the material input in the HR process is different from our research. In the recycling stage, Hao et al. (2017) only added sulfuric acid, sodium hydroxide and ammonia. ...
Article
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... If EoL power batteries are not handled appropriately, they may adversely affect the ecological environment, economic development, and government governance, resulting in a departure from the intended purpose of promoting NEVs to protect the environment. Conversely, if EoL power batteries are properly disposed of, this could not only reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 34% but also have various economic, social, and environmental benefits [11][12][13][14][15]. Therefore, governments should pay more attention to recycling and reusing EoL power batteries. ...
... They found that reusing EoL lithium-ion phosphate batteries in energy storage systems can reduce the consumption of fossil fuels, thereby reducing the negative environmental impact of lithium batteries throughout their life cycle. Hao et al. [11] found that the effective recycling of EoL power batteries could reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 6.62% and energy consumption by 8.55% to achieve additional environmental benefits. From the perspective of resource benefits, Wanger [22] shows that adequately recycling lithium-ion batteries from vehicles can provide effective environmental and resource conservation. ...
Article
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... If the former carries out benefits with the removal of GHG sources, i.e., old conventional ICE vehicles, the latter still pertains to a non-negligible amount of GHG emissions related to the recycling processes of EVs, primarily due to the powertrain subsystem. In particular, the issues are mainly caused by the removal of exhaust batteries, which have considerable impacts on environmental pollutants, due to prime materials involved in their construction and manufacturing processes [7][8][9]. ...
... If the aim is to reduce, at most, the environmental impacts of human activities, this model is suitable for considering all energy consumed and wasted from the vehicle subsystems (not only during the physical motion across the street) [71]. The power of this approach involves considering every single vehicular subsystem (powertrain, battery pack, gearbox, driveline, wheel, etc.) and estimating the energy consumption starting from the beginning of its life (and, therefore, the supply of raw materials) [7]. Moreover, in this way, it is possible to identify the most energy-demanding process related to a specific subsystem and to proceed to local optimisation and correcting or proposing new processes that are more environmentally sustainable. ...
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The continuous technical improvements involving electric motors, battery packs, and general powertrain equipment make it strictly necessary to predict or evaluate the energy consumption of electric vehicles (EVs) with reasonable accuracy. The significant improvements in computing power in the last decades have allowed the implementation of various simulation scenarios and the development of strategies for vehicle modelling, thus estimating energy consumption with higher accuracy. This paper gives a general overview of the strategies adopted to model EVs for evaluating or predicting energy consumption. The need to develop such solutions is due to the basis of each analysis, as well as the type of results that must be produced and delivered. This last point strongly influences the whole set-up process of the analysis, from the available and collected dataset to the choice of the algorithm itself.
... However, because retired EV batteries still contain 70-80% of their residual capacity (Kamath et al., 2020), the secondary use of retired batteries, such as smart buildings, photovoltaic energy storage, and utility-level peak shaving, is environmentally friendly (Cusenza et al., 2019b;Genikomsakis et al., 2013). Moreover, recycling and remanufacturing valuable metal elements such as nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), and lithium (Li) in LIBs will also produce environmental benefits (Bai et al., 2020;Dunn et al., 2012;Hao et al., 2017b;Lander et al., 2021;Xiong et al., 2020). In the whole life cycle, the contribution of batteries to the environmental impact of EVs remains to be further analysed. ...
... Therefore, recycling retired batteries is environmentally feasible, and its economic feasibility depends largely on transport distances, wages, packaging design, and recycling methods (Lander et al., 2021). However, the recycling of batteries still has significant growth potential in the future (Hao et al., 2017b). The advantages and disadvantages of different recycling methods are compared (see Table 1). ...
Article
The automotive industry is currently on the verge of electrical transition, and the environmental performance of electric vehicles (EVs) is of great concern. To assess the environmental performance of EVs scientifically and accurately, we reviewed the life cycle environmental impacts of EVs and compared them with those of internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). Considering that the battery is the core component of EVs, we further summarise the environmental impacts of battery production, use, secondary utilisation, recycling, and remanufacturing. The results showed that the environmental impact of EVs in the production phase is higher than that of ICEVs due to battery manufacturing. EVs in the use phase obtained a better overall image than ICEVs, although this largely depended on the share of clean energy generation. In the recycling phase, repurposing and remanufacturing retired batteries are helpful in improving the environmental benefits of EVs. Over the entire life cycle, EVs have the potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and fossil energy consumption; however, they have higher impacts than ICEVs in terms of metal and mineral consumption and human toxicity potential. In summary, optimising the power structure, upgrading battery technology, and improving the recycling efficiency are of great significance for the large-scale promotion of EVs, closed-loop production of batteries, and sustainable development of the resources, environment, and economy.
... In recent years, with the rapid development of the new energy vehicle industry, it is also applied for environmental impact and energy consumption assessment of LIBs. [202][203][204] However, most of the studies focused on the stages of materials acquisition, manufacturing and use, with only a few studies involving the recycling process. [205][206][207][208][209][210][211] The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the United States verified the benefits of recycling quantitatively 207 and conducted a comprehensive assessment of LIBs for electric vehicles. ...
... Some researchers have set up models and analyzed the carbon footprint of power battery recycling processes, 204,209,211,212 and the reduction of GHG emissions of different recycling technologies are presented in Table 4. These results showed that battery recycling would effectively reduce carbon emissions, compared with the production of primary materials. ...
Article
This research could provide a guideline for implementing green chemistry principles into spent LIBs recycling.
... Between 2010 and August 2021, 15 studies were identified that report quantitative LCA data on at least one recycling route. [120][121][122][244][245][246][247][248][249][250][251][252][253][254][255] The eligibility criteria for these studies are (i) report impacts and benefits, (ii) have 1 kg of input batteries or easily harmonizable functional units, and (iii) report CED and GWP impact categories ( Table 11). ...
Article
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Today, new lithium-ion battery-recycling technologies are under development while a change in the legal requirements for recycling targets is under way. Thus, an evaluation of the performance of these technologies is critical for stakeholders in politics, industry, and research. We evaluate 209 publications and compare three major recycling routes. An important aspect of this review is that we tackle the need for a critical evaluation of these recycling routes by introducing clear terms and creating a structuring scheme. Our evaluation criteria cover three areas: status of development, process performance, and life-cycle environmental impacts. With respect to development status, we provide an analysis of today’s market. A criterion of process performance is recycling efficiency, which today focuses on the mass of the recovered materials. To include the contributions of critical materials, we add a criterion for the efficiency of recovery of materials. Life-cycle assessments provide information on gross impacts, benefit of substituting virgin material and net impact. Present life-cycle assessments focus on waste management rather than on recovery of critical materials. This review contributes to an understanding of these trade-offs and supports discussion as to what is the “best” recycling route when targets conflict. Graphical Abstract There are three possible process sequences for each lithium-ion battery-recycling route. A distinction is made between pre-treatment steps (gray), direct physical treatment steps (green), pyro-metallurgical treatment (orange), and hydro-metallurgical treatment (blue). The figure is based on a figure from Doose et al. (Joule 3:2622–2646, 2019).
... The existing literature mainly studies the recycling technology for power batteries and the impact of recycled power batteries on the environment and economy [33,34]. Power battery recycling is the basis for achieving battery gradient use and material regeneration and is a prerequisite for ensuring the sustainable development of the NEVS ecosystem. ...
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Full-text available
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... In the WTW phase, an average battery electric vehicle (BEV) has 35 % lower GHG emissions than those of an average gasoline vehicle [43]. Further comparing GHG emissions of EVs in the two cases of no recycling and full recycling, it was found that recycling can reduce carbon emissions by 34 %, of which the recycling of steel, aluminum, and power battery cathode materials accounts for 61 %, 13 % and 20 % of the total reduction, respectively [44]. Furthermore, direct physical recycling has the greatest potential to reduce GHG emissions compared to recycling batteries with pyrometallurgy and hydrometallurgy [45]. ...
Article
Facing with upward pressure on carbon emissions from the transportation sector, governments actively promote the automation and electrification of the transportation industry, and intelligent electric vehicles (EVs) are ushering in their golden age. However, the debate over whether EVs are lower carbon than traditional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs) has never stopped. To objectively evaluate the role of EVs in mitigating climate change and carbon emissions, this study provides an extensive review of the literature on the life cycle carbon footprint of various EVs, and compares the carbon emissions of EVs and ICEVs. Considering that the carbon emissions of EVs vary significantly geographically due to differences in the power mix, ambient temperature, and driving conditions, this review further compares the carbon emission reduction effects of deploying EVs in different countries. The results show that the life cycle carbon footprint of EVs is lower than that of ICEVs, despite the higher carbon emissions from battery production. According to the power generation situation of each country, countries dominated by renewable energy power generation are more suitable for adopting EVs, while in countries with a predominantly coal-fired power generation, the popularization of EVs should be accompanied by a focus on decarbonization of the electricity sector and infrastructure improvements. Overall, improving the production technology of EVs and increasing the proportion of clean energy generation will be helpful to achieve the decarbonization goal in the transportation sector.
... Electricity is also expected to break new ground in road vehicles; however, Milovanoff et al. (2020) emphasized that electrification of light duty vehicles will not, on its own, prove adequate to attaining desired CO 2 mitigation targets. Furthermore, the manufacture of electric cars requires relatively higher energy use and thereby creates more greenhouse gas emissions than does the manufacture of equivalent conventional vehicles (Hao et al., 2017). Despite the requirements for additional investments in high-cost technologies and infrastructure, shifting Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. ...
Article
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Ranking as one of the largest mobility modes for passengers and freight, highway transportation globally accounts for huge amounts of fossil-based energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Correspondingly, on-road transportation causes detrimental effects on air quality, climate change, and global warming, particularly over the short term. In order to prevent a further escalation of this detrimental environmental issue, long-term efficacious policies aimed at reducing the transportation-driven CO2 emission should be urgently enacted and implemented on a global scale. Thus, this paper presents an exploratory study with the main objective of investigating the impact of four adopted mitigation scenarios that suggest switching to Euro 6 vehicle emission standards, increasing the average urban traffic speed limits, encouraging public transport, and increasing the proportion of hybrid electric vehicles. This study then compared and contrasted each strategy and its subgroups with a reference scenario projected for the year 2025. The evidence from this research showed that transition to Euro 6 compliant vehicles significantly decarbonizes the transportation sector, yet more vehicle electrification is required to achieve the Paris Climate Agreement targets. The results also indicate that by 2025, a 10% shift from passenger cars to public transport will decrease CO2 emissions by 3%, whilst increasing the urban traffic speed by 10 km/h will yield a 1.38% CO2 gas emission saving. Graphical abstract
... The environmental impact of recycling however, was not well settled, perhaps due to a variation in the context, energy mix, cathode chemistry, recycling configuration and system boundary. Some claim that the environmental benefit of hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical recycling is insignificant or negligible [27][28][29] while others highlight a wide range of benefits, including resource conservation [30,31], energy saving [32], toxic air pollutant emission reduction [33], and GHG emission reduction [34,35]. In terms of economic impact, researchers have considered different aspects of recycling viability such as material prices [36], scale and chemical composition [37], logistics [33,38], project cashflow and utility rates [39], government subsidy [40], technological choices [15], and the relationship between LiB recycling and EV recycling [41]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Rapid electrification of the transport system will generate substantial volumes of Lithium-ion-battery (LiB) waste as batteries reach their end-of-life. Much attention focuses on the recycling processes, neglecting a broader systemic view that considers the concentration of the costs and impacts associated with logistics and transportation. This paper provides an economic, environmental and geospatial analysis of a future LiB recycling industry in the UK. Hitherto, state-of-the-art assessment methods have evaluated life cycle impacts and costs but have not considered the geographical layer of the problem. This paper develops a GSC derived supply chain model for the UK electric vehicle and end-of-life vehicle battery industry. Considering both pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical recycling technologies, the optimisation process takes into account anticipated EV volumes, and, based on anticipated near-term technological evolution of LiBs, the evolution of the mix of battery cathodes in production, and presents a number of scenarios to show where LiB recycling facilities should ideally be geographically located. An economic and environmental assessment based on a customised EverBatt model is provided.
... Tagliaferri, et al. (2016) suggested the manufacturing stage of BEV as a hotspot for improvement. As a result, Hao and colleagues showed that recycling has the potential to effectively tackle this issue, as it balances off some of the impacts caused by production (Hao, et al., 2017). However, the recycling process for electronic materials used in road transportation poses a challenge, especially regarding the increase in toxicity (Johnson, et al., 2007). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
The road transport sector is heavily dependent on fossil-fuel based technologies, and as a result, contribute a significant share towards climate change and other environmental problems. If the transport sector is to reduce its adverse impacts on climate change, then it requires a global shift towards low-carbon technologies. However, deploying these new technologies brings uncertainties regarding their environmental profile, hence, the need for applying a life cycle approach in evaluating their potential environmental impacts. This thesis aim to evaluate the potential life-cycle environmental impacts associated with travelling 1 km in a battery electric cars (BEV) and plug-in hybrid electric cars (PHEV) operated in the EU at present-day, and in the future up till 2050. The study applied the life cycle assessment (LCA) and ReCiPe Midpoint (H) methodologies to assess and calculate the potential life cycle environmental impacts of all vehicle scenarios. The datasets of the vehicles have been modelled with a modular approach by linking together various vehicle components. The future time perspective based on two future scenarios: the Mod-RES, representing the reference future scenario and the High-RES representing a future ambitious policy scenario. The EU28 electricity production based on Fichtner, et al. was used to model the use phase all vehicle scenarios. The result showed BEV performed best in indicators for global warming (GWP), ozone depletion and fossil resource scarcity. The thesis best estimate for GWP is 5.61E-2 kgCO2 eq resulting from the BEV High-RES scenario; representing a decrease in GWP of around 80% and 69% when compared to the ICEV and the baseline BEV respectively. On the other hand, the baseline BEV performed worst in impact categories related to human toxicity and damage to ecosystems; the conventional gasoline car showed the lowest estimate for indicators on human toxicity, acidification and eutrophication as defined in the baseline scenario. Nonetheless, the future scenarios showed promising results for all technologies; as projections for stringent environmental regulations, ‘cleaner’ energy systems and continuous advancement in vehicle technologies offered a significant reduction in all impact categories. Notably, the BEV reduced its impact on toxicity categories to around 38% of the initial values for the baseline scenario. Results are strongly dependent on assumptions regarding the vehicle and battery lifetime, the use phase electricity source and the vehicle consumption. The findings establish the significance of carrying out a full LCA, including future time perspective and assessing impact categories beyond climate change. Also, it underlined the suggestion that production of electric cars raised more concern for EVs than conventional cars; thus, the tendency for environmental problem-shifting and the need for policy-makers to recognise existing trade-offs.
... At this stage, environmental efficiency is measured by efficiency, whether it is material recovery or reproduction and utilization. Among them, material recovery, reproduction, and the reuse of NEV batteries are relatively cutting-edge research topics [137,138]. ...
Article
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New energy vehicles (NEVs), especially electric vehicles (EVs), address the important task of reducing the greenhouse effect. It is particularly important to measure the environmental efficiency of new energy vehicles, and the life cycle analysis (LCA) model provides a comprehensive evaluation method of environmental efficiency. To provide researchers with knowledge regarding the research trends of LCA in NEVs, a total of 282 related studies were counted from the Web of Science database and analyzed regarding their research contents, research preferences, and research trends. The conclusion drawn from this research is that the stages of energy resource extraction and collection, carrier production and energy transportation, maintenance, and replacement are not considered to be research links. The stages of material, equipment, and car transportation and operation equipment settling, and forms of use need to be considered in future research. Hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (HFCEVs), vehicle type classification, the water footprint, battery recovery and reuse, and battery aging are the focus of further research, and comprehensive evaluation combined with more evaluation methods is the direction needed for the optimization of LCA. According to the results of this study regarding EV and hybrid power vehicles (including plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), fuel-cell electric vehicles (FCEV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), and extended range electric vehicles (EREV)), well-to-wheel (WTW) average carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions have been less than those in the same period of gasoline internal combustion engine vehicles (GICEV). However, EV and hybrid electric vehicle production CO2 emissions have been greater than those during the same period of GICEV and the total CO2 emissions of EV have been less than during the same period of GICEV.
... The EverBatt model has supplied environmental effect intensity data taken from the BatPaC and GREET models within the Chinese context. Default values related to recycling technologies are included in the respective model (Hao et al., 2017b). Owing to the recent development, only few authors have used this model for the life cycle assessment of LIBs including the manufacturing and recycling of EVs using hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy (Sakunai et al., 2021;Xiong et al., 2020), and for the economic and environmental assessment of remanufacturing LIBs from electric vehicles (Rajaeifar et al., 2021;Yu et al., 2021). ...
Article
Evolving technological advances are predictable to promote environmentally sustainable development. Regardless the development of novel technologies including Li-ion batteries production, it is unrevealed whether emerging advances can cause lower environmental impacts compared to a future displaced developed technology. Therefore, a strong interest is triggered in the environmental consequences associated with the increasing existence of Lithium-ion battery (LIB) production and applications in mobile and stationary energy storage system. Various research on the possible environmental implications of LIB production and LIB-based electric mobility are available, with mixed results that are difficult to compare. Therefore, this paper provides a perspective of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in order to determine and overcome the environmental impacts with a focus on LIB production process, also the details regarding differences in previous LCA results and their consensus conclusion about environmental sustainability of LIBs. An overview of the analysis, the results and comparison of 80 selected studies is presented. This study also aims to adopt a scientific framework to LCA in order to identify the qualities and shortcomings of this method of analysis. Based on the results from reviewed studies, meta-analysis, different calculations and estimations of the environmental impacts of LIB production along with the outcomes of the different studies are also pointed out. Moreover, significance of key parameters for the environmental interpretation of not only Li-ion batteries but also next generation batteries is taken into account.
... e control of carbon emissions in the automobile manufacturing and recycling stages mainly depends on the automobile industry. Still, it can only be effectively implemented under the premise of cost control [55]. ...
Article
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China has already committed to peaking carbon dioxide emissions by 2030 and achieving carbon neutrality by 2060 (referred to as the 30·60 Target), which has brought both daunting challenges and great opportunities to the automobile industry in China. However, there is still a lack of comprehensive and in-depth studies on the challenges, paths, and strategies for reducing carbon emissions to fulfill the 30·60 Target in automobile industries. Therefore, this paper proposes low-carbon development strategies for China’s automobile industry. This study’s method is to integrate the results from different literature to summarize the status, challenges, opportunities, and refine the coping strategies for carbon emission of the automobile industry. The results indicated that the paths for achieving the 30·60 Target include joint carbon emission reduction by upstream and downstream enterprises inside the industry. It also needs cross-industry and cross-sector coordinated decarbonization outside the industry. Meanwhile, the low-carbon policy and regulation system should be established to provide a direct driving force and fundamental guarantee for the low-carbon development of China’s automobile industry.
... The improvement in air quality through EVs can be ascribed to three factors: decreased tailpipe emissions of particulate matter and GHGs; decreased life cycle emissions, that is, emissions from fuel and vehicle production, processing, distribution, use, and recycling/disposal (Okada et al., 2019;Rupp et al., 2019;Shi et al., 2017;Spangher et al., 2019;Zheng et al., 2020), and emissions from fuel combustion in internal combustion engines, such as volatile organic compounds or nonmethane hydrocarbons, NO x (i.e., NO and NO 2 ), CO, and particulate matter of sizes <2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ) and <10 μm (PM 10 ) (Winkler et al., 2018). However, a few studies reveal that such widespread electrification in the transportation sector may even worsen air quality directly by increasing PM 2.5 and PM 10 emissions and gases such as NO x and SO 2 , and indirectly by burning coal to generate the electricity needed for running and charging EVs (Ahn et al., 2018;Hao et al., 2017;Mahmoud et al., 2016). The heaviness of EVs, compared with conventional vehicles (Timmers and Achten, 2016), has also raised concern that wear and tear of their tires and brakes may produce more pollution (Simons, 2016). ...
Article
Electric vehicles (EVs) can substantially decrease atmospheric pollutant emissions, thereby improving air quality, decreasing global warming, and improving human health. In this study, we performed a comprehensive bibliometric analysis using Web of Science to understand the research developments and future perspectives in EVs between 1974 and 2021. The analysis of indicators such as research trends, publication growth, and keywords revealed that most research in the selected timeframe was focused on applying and optimizing the existing technologies of different types of EVs to decrease air pollution and mortality. The changes in air quality owing to such electrification received special attention, with approximately 441 publications preferably in the English language. Among all the retrieved documents, research articles were most common (n = 295; 66.89% of the global output), dominated by the research domains of environmental sciences, followed by energy fuels and transportation science technology. Journal analysis revealed that Sustainability (n = 19, 4.30%) was the leading journal, followed by Journal of Cleaner Production and Science of the Total Environment. The most frequently used keywords were “electric vehicles,” “air quality,” and “air pollution.” The most highly impactful article was published by Jacobson et al. (2005) in Science, with 620 total citations and 38.82 average annual citations. Furthermore, the United States (n = 118; 26.75% of the global output) had the highest publication rate, followed by China and the United Kingdom. The leading institutions were Tsinghua University (n = 16; 3.62% of the global research output) in China, followed by the University of Michigan and Cornell University in the United States. The current analysis warrants more focus on comprehensive analysis employing transport and chemistry modeling and using the latest technology for long life and sustainable batteries. This study provides a basis for future studies on improving air quality through innovative work in the electrification of vehicles.
... Instead, recycling allows for valuable metals such as cobalt and nickel to be recovered, lowering the raw material demand and securing an alternative raw materials supply chain, gaining independence from exporting economies ( Figure 1) (Helbig et al., 2018;Mineral Commodity Summaries 2020, 2020Olivetti et al., 2017;Skeete et al., 2020;Sommerville et al., 2021;Steward et al., 2019). Moreover, efficient recycling processes can help to avoid energy-and emission-intensive material processing (Ciez and Whitacre, 2019;Dunn et al., 2012;Gaines et al., 2011;Hao et al., 2017;Mohr et al., 2020;Xiong et al., 2020). Current recycling processes can be mainly classified under three types, namely pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical, and direct recycling (Chen et al., 2019;Dunn et al., 2012;Elwert et al., 2018;Fan et al., 2020;Gaines, 2018;Harper et al., 2019;Huang et al., 2018). ...
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... Regarding the evaluation of environmental impacts, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) represents the main method that has also been widely applied in the automotive context (e.g. Bauer et al., 2015;Castro et al., 2003;Gradin et al., 2013;Hao et al., 2017;Notter et al., 2010). Other assessment perspectives include social (e.g. ...
... The materials recovered and reused, either in their original form or treated later, can reduce the problem of the amount of waste originated from consumption. It has been shown that energy intake is also lower in the recycling of certain elements concerning the energy required for their primary extraction [41]. ...
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... Under the pressure of environmental factors, the Chinese government publishes the support policy to develop the new electric vehicles and encourage automobile manufacturers and infrastructure service providers willing to develop EV business streams on a large scale [22,23]. Research on battery recycling also is rising [17,[24][25][26][27]. ...
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... 97 Adverse environmental effects such as raw material depletion can be mitigated with effective recycling processes. 98 Additionally, a reduction in motorized travel activity leads to an increase in physical activity and a reduction in road traffic injuries, ultimately bringing health benefits. 99 More generally, monetary, social, and (other) environmental costs of mitigation solutions could be included to guide cities toward the most sustainable pathways. ...
... The total carbon footprint of vehicle includes the emissions along the cradle-to-grave processes involving vehicle and fuel cycles as well as incorporating direct and indirect carbon emission along the product life cycle. Assessing the carbon footprints of electric vehicles (EVs) has been a focus of research in recent years [14][15][16]. However, as the charging times and energy consumption costs of hydrogen fuel cell cars, a rival technology, have become competitive with respect to EVs, the development of hydrogen-powered cars and their environmental impact analysis have also attracted increasing attention [17]. ...
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Facing global warming and recent bans on the use of diesel in vehicles, there is a growing need to develop vehicles powered by renewable energy sources to mitigate greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions. Among the various forms of non-fossil energy for vehicles, hydrogen fuel is emerging as a promising way to combat global warming. To date, most studies on vehicle carbon emissions have focused on diesel and electric vehicles (EVs). Emission assessment methodologies are usually developed for fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) which are non-durable household goods such as packaged foods, beverages, and toiletries instead of vehicle products. There is an increase in the number of articles addressing the product carbon footprint (PCF) of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles in the recent years, while relatively little research focuses on both vehicle PCF and fuel cycle. Zero-emission vehicles initiative has also brought the importance of investigating the emission throughout the fuel cycle of hydrogen fuel cell and its environmental impact. To address these gaps, this study uses the life-cycle assessment (LCA) process of GREET (greenhouse gases, regulated emissions, and energy use in transportation) to compare the PCF of an EV (Tesla Model 3) and a hydrogen fuel cell car (Toyota MIRAI). According to the GREET results, the fuel cycle contributes significantly to the PCF of both vehicles. The findings also reveal the need for greater transparency in the disclosure of relevant information on the PCF methodology adopted by vehicle manufacturers to enable comparison of their vehicles’ emissions. Future work will include examining the best practices of PCF reporting for vehicles powered by renewable energy sources as well as examining the carbon footprints of hydrogen production technologies based on different methodologies.
... Hao Han et al. compared the energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the production of electric vehicles with and without recycling according to the predicted data of China's NEV recycling volume in 2025. The results revealed that recycling some materials, such as steel, aluminum, and battery cathode materials, could effectively reduce pollution emissions and have economic benefits [34]. ...
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Recycling and gradient utilization (GU) of new energy vehicle (NEV) power batteries plays a significant role in promoting the sustainable development of the economy, society and environment in the context of China’s NEV power battery retirement tide. In this paper, the battery recycling subjects and GU subjects were regarded as members in an alliance, and an evolutionary game model of competition and cooperation between the two types of subjects was established. Evolution conditions and paths of the stable cooperation modes between these two were explored. Suggestions were proposed to avoid entering a state of deadlock and promote the alliance to achieve the “win-win” cooperation mode of effective resource recovery and environmental sustainability. The results revealed four types of certain situations, two types of uncertain situations, and one type of deadlock situation for the evolution of alliance cooperation. The factors of the market environment are evident in not only changing the evolution paths and steady-states of the alliance but also in breaking the evolution deadlock. However, the sensitivity of the members in the alliance to different types of parameters varies greatly. It is difficult for the government to guide the formation of an ideal steady-state of cooperation or break the deadlock of evolution by a single strategy, such as subsidies or supervision. The combination of subsidy-and-supervision or phased regulation should be adopted. Only increasing subsidies is likely to weaken the function of the market and have a counterproductive effect.
... The President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology in the United States advised the Government to implement an advanced manufacturing strategy, which was accompanied by a national strategy plan one year later (Prause and Weigand, 2016). Chinese version of Industry 4.0 is termed "Made in China 2025" (China Academy, 2016;Hao et al., 2017). Similarly, Russian government has been prioritizing advanced production since 2013 (Dezhina, Ponomarev and Frolov, 2015). ...
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... Regarding the evaluation of environmental impacts, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) represents the main method that has also been widely applied in the automotive context (e.g. Bauer et al., 2015;Castro et al., 2003;Gradin et al., 2013;Hao et al., 2017;Notter et al., 2010). Other assessment perspectives include social (e.g. ...
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The European automotive sector is faced with potentially disruptive challenges. In particular, the projected increase in the share of electric vehicles (EVs) and calls to prepare for the implementation of more circular economy (CE) strategies are increasingly demanding systemic adaptations. Given the goals of the CE, the adaptations should enable a maximal preservation of the function and value of products (e.g. extension of lifetime), components (e.g. reuse of parts) and materials (e.g., material recycling), thus saving on the energy, materials and effort that would be required to restore the lost functionalities. In this context, statistical entropy analysis (SEA) is proposed as a methodology to assess the effort needed for preserving and restoring functionality at different product, component and material life cycle stages. Effort is measured as changes in statistical entropy that are caused by concentration and dilution activities in the production-consumption-End-of-Life (EoL) system. SEA was applied to a generic model of the European automotive system, in combination with a stock-driven model and a material flow analysis (MFA), allowing statistical entropy changes to be projected over time. The paper demonstrates how SEA can facilitate decision making on the transition towards a more circular economy by quantifying the effects of particular CE strategies and their combinations. The results show that without any additional system adaptations, an increasing share of EVs towards the year 2050 will lead to substantially increased effort in production as well as end-of-life vehicle treatment.
... Their suggested that a commercial system according to energy consumption can still be profitable in the case of low-carbon production. Hao et al. (2017) investigate the amount of greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption, using a life cycle assessment framework under recycling options. The authors develop a low-carbon design approach to estimate the carbon footprint at each stage of the product life cycle. ...
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Adoption of carbon regulation mechanisms facilitates an evolution toward green and sustainable supply chains followed by an increased complexity. Through the development and usage of a multi-choice goal programming model solved by an improved algorithm, this article investigates sustainability strategies for carbon regulations mechanisms. We first propose a sustainable logistics model that considers assorted vehicle types and gas emissions involved with product transportation. We then construct a bi-objective model that minimizes total cost as the first objective function and follows environmental considerations in the second one. With our novel robust-heuristic optimization approach, we seek to support the decision-makers in comparison and selection of carbon emission policies in supply chains in complex settings with assorted vehicle types, demand and economic uncertainty. We deploy our model in a case-study to evaluate and analyse two carbon reduction policies, i.e., carbon-tax and cap-and-trade policies. The results demonstrate that our robust-heuristic methodology can efficiently deal with demand and economic uncertainty, especially in large-scale problems. Our findings suggest that governmental incentives for a cap-and-trade policy would be more effective for supply chains in lowering pollution by investing in cleaner technologies and adopting greener practices.
... Performance and improvements studied through LCA on the EOL system or off a vehicle (Erses Yay and Yay, 2013; H. Hao et al., 2017;Jeong et al., 2007;W. Li et al., 2016b;S. ...
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Vehicle electrification is considered a pathway for on-road transportation decarbonization in China. Different from the conventional gasoline vehicles whose emissions are mainly released from vehicle tailpipes, emissions of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are from the upstream processes of electricity generation and vehicle manufacturing, thus a comprehensive lifecycle analysis and comparison of BEVs with gasoline vehicles is required to quantify the emission mitigation benefit of vehicle electrification and determine the path to a carbon-neutral future. In the study, we compare the cradle-to-grave (C2G) lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions of gasoline and electric vehicles in China and analyze the greenhouse gas emission reduction of vehicle electrification in different provinces. Results show that under the current technologies, the national average C2G GHG emissions for battery electric vehicles (BEVs) of 100 miles (i.e., 160 km) and 300 miles (i.e., 480 km) all-electric range (AER) are 231 and 279 g CO2eq/km, respectively, 22% and 5% lower than those for gasoline internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). Improving vehicle fuel efficiency by hybridizing gasoline ICEVs can effectively reduce C2G emissions to 212 g CO2eq/km. At the provincial level, C2G GHG emissions of BEVs vary according to the provincial electricity mix. In eight provinces, C2G GHG emissions of BEVs with 300 miles AER (BEV300s) are higher than those of gasoline ICEVs due to the GHG-intensive coal-based electricity mix. In the future scenario, with low carbon fuels (such as high-level bioethanol blending gasoline) and electricity decarbonization, the national average C2G emissions of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and BEV300s can be reduced to 55 and 73 g CO2eq/km, respectively. Further decrease of C2G GHG emissions relies on reducing vehicle-cycle emissions from material processing and vehicle component manufacturing.
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This paper proposes an auction-based market trade mechanism for the electric vehicle battery recycling (EVBR) problem, which aims to realise the optimal resource allocation and pricing of EVBR. The main motivation of this paper is to attempt to explore an approach to achieving efficient battery recycling. We first consider an EVBR market with m buyers and n sellers, and develop the multi-unit trade reduction (MTR) mechanism in the EVBR market. According to the supply and demand relationship in the EVBR market, we consider three market scenarios of supply and demand balance, oversupply, and overdemand, and formulated corresponding auction allocation rules. Numerical study results show that the proposed MTR mechanism can achieve efficient resource allocation. We also observed that not all results increased with the number of sellers/buyers. Second, considering the distance between sellers and buyers, we developed a stochastic multiple MTR (SM-MTR) mechanism to enable sellers and buyers within the region to conduct transactions. Finally, we propose an integrated MTR, SM-MTR and one-sided Vickrey–Clarke–Groves auction mechanism that is feasible in both one-sided and bilateral environments. Furthermore, our work can provide novel managerial implications for EVBR market stakeholders in terms of practical application.
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The market dynamics, and their impact on a future circular economy for lithium-ion batteries (LIB), are presented in this roadmap, with safety as an integral consideration throughout the life cycle. At the point of end-of-life, there is a range of potential options – remanufacturing, reuse and recycling. Diagnostics play a significant role in evaluating the state of health and condition of batteries, and improvements to diagnostic techniques are evaluated. At present, manual disassembly dominates end-of-life disposal, however, given the volumes of future batteries that are to be anticipated, automated approaches to the dismantling of end-of-life battery packs will be key. The first stage in recycling after the removal of the cells is the initial cell-breaking or opening step. Approaches to this are reviewed, contrasting shredding and cell disassembly as two alternative approaches. Design for recycling is one approach that could assist in easier disassembly of cells, and new approaches to cell design that could enable the circular economy of LIBs are reviewed. After disassembly, subsequent separation of the black mass is performed before further concentration of components. There are a plethora of alternative approaches for recovering materials; this roadmap sets out the future directions for a range of approaches including pyrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy, short-loop, direct, and the biological recovery of LIB materials. Furthermore, anode, lithium, electrolyte, binder and plastics recovery are considered in the range of approaches in order to maximise the proportion of materials recovered, minimise waste and point the way towards zero-waste recycling. The life-cycle implications of a circular economy are discussed considering the overall system of LIB recycling, and also directly investigating the different recycling methods. The legal and regulatory perspectives are also considered. Finally, with a view to the future, approaches for next-generation battery chemistries and recycling are evaluated, identifying gaps for research.
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The replacement of internal combustion engines by electric vehicles (EVs) is being promoted towards the decarbonisation of the transportation sector. EVs require important amounts of materials, some of which are...
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Lithium iron phosphate (LFP) batteries and lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide (NCM) batteries are the most widely used power lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in electric vehicles (EVs) currently. The future trend is to reuse LIBs retired from EVs for other applications, such as energy storage systems (ESS). However, the environmental performance of LIBs during the entire life cycle, from the cradle to the grave, has not been extensively discussed. In this study, life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to quantify and compare the environmental impacts of LFP and NCM batteries. Apart from the phases of production, the first use in EVs, and recycling, the repurposing of retired LIBs and their secondary use in the ESS were also included in the system boundary. Also, the environmental impacts of various recycling processes were evaluated. The LCA results suggested that the NCM battery had better comprehensive environmental performance than the LFP one but shorter service life over the whole life cycle. In China, the first and secondary use phases contributed most to the environmental impacts with electricity mostly generated from fossil fuels. The LIB production phase was relevant to all assessed impact categories and contributed more than 50% to Abiotic Depletion Potential (ADP elements) particularly. The environmental loads could be mitigated through the recovery of metals and other materials. And, hydrometallurgy was recommended for recycling waste LIBs by better environmental advantages than pyrometallurgy and direct physical recycling. Sensitivity analysis revealed that by optimizing the charge-discharge efficiency of LIBs, particularly LFP batteries, all environmental burdens could be considerably decreased. Therefore, improving the electrochemical performance of LIBs and increasing the use proportion of clean energy were crucial to reduce the environmental impacts over their entire life cycle.
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Rapid-solidification (RS) plus hot press sintering (HPS) technique is adopted to achieve the efficient recovery of discard Mg-Gd-Y-Zn-Zr alloy parts. Ribbons are prepared by melt-spinning method from the discard fragments of GW93 components possess high uniform distribution of Gd and Y elements with a high solubility in α-Mg matrix, fine Mg3(Gd, Y) intermetallic particles and α-Mg grains (1.28 μm). Then the ribbons are consolidated through HPS. Results showed that the precipitates in the sample sintered at 500 °C contains fine Mg5(Gd, Y) particles and 14H-LPSO, and the volume fraction of 14H-LPSO is as high as 34.8%. Elevating the sintering temperature to 550 °C only results in the formation of Mg5(Gd, Y) particles. The sample sintered at 500 °C demonstrates excellent mechanical strength with a high ultimate compressive strength (429.76 MPa), yield strength (194.13 MPa) and compressive strain (23.94%), which are 14.85%, 44.89% and 36.51% higher as compared to those of the sample sintered at 550 °C. It is the 14H-LPSO which has high elastic moduli, Vickers hardness and coherent interface with α-Mg matrix, fine grains, the less oxidation defects at the bonding interface that contribute to enhancement of mechanical strength. The RS plus HPS technique is a viable approach for recycling the discard Mg-RE alloy parts and fabricate Mg alloy with superior mechanical properties.
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With the rapid increase of population, urbanisation, and particularly the boom of E-commerce, demand for logistics in urban areas has also increased dramatically. Among types of urban delivery, road freight transport has played the main role with the door-to-door service as well as the convenience of time and infrastructure. However, the trend came with a variety of harmful phenomena in crowded areas (e.g. traffic congestion, CO2 emissions, noise pollution, etc.). This required logistics companies to adopt logistics solutions to minimise these negative impacts and increase the efficiency of logistics activities, and using urban consolidation centres (UCCs) together with electric vehicles (EVs) is a popular and widely adopted initiative. The purpose of the research is to analyse and evaluate the benefits from using UCCs and EVs in urban areas with a case study of DPD London. The findings indicated that the new logistics system could bring substantial benefits compared to the previous model (e.g. the reduction of total distance, time travelled and the CO2 emissions per parcel, etc.). Another important conclusion pointed out that the transferability of the DPD current logistics system was potential, although certain limitations still need to be further considered.
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Electric vehicles (EVs) are currently being promoted to reduce transport emissions. We present a life cycle assessment of EV charging behaviours based on marginal emissions factors. For Great Britain, we find that electricity consumption accounts for the highest proportion of life cycle carbon emissions from EVs. We highlight the potential life cycle carbon emissions reduction brought by charging during periods when the grid mix produces relatively low emissions. While our study focuses on Great Britain, we have applied our methodology to several European countries with contrasting electricity generation mixes. Our analysis demonstrates that countries with a high proportion of fossil energy will have reduced benefits from deploying EVs, but are likely to achieve increased benefits from smart charging approaches. We conclude that using marginal emissions factors is essential to understanding the greenhouse gas impacts of EV deployment, and that smart charging tied to instantaneous grid emissions factors can bring benefits.
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China is now boasting a huge number of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) with a low recovery rate, resulting in a waste of resources and severe environmental pollution. Predicting the generation of ELVs in future helps to enhance recycling efficiency by providing a basis for the planning of recycling industry. However, previous research did not provide a detailed, mid-term forecast. Based on a stocks-driven model and the bottom-up extrapolation of in-use stocks, this study characterizes the generation of end-of-life household vehicles (HVs) in China by addressing the detailed spatial-temporal patterns and resource potentials during 2019–2050. The results show that the annual end-of-life HVs in China will continuously increase during 2019–2050, resulting an accumulated 1.48 billion units, among which urban areas will account for 86%, and internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs) will take up 80%. Regarding the spatial patterns, eastern region will possess the largest proportion, and wide variations are found among all provinces due to the difference in population size and economic development level, which have important implications for further planning of end-of-life HVs recycling industry. Before 2050, accumulated quantity of all types of metals in end-of-life HVs will approach domestic mine production (in 2019), or even approach the current global mine production, indicating they have a great potential as an indispensable source for domestic resource supply.
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Comprehensive evaluation of greenhouse gas emission reductions from alternative vehicle powertrains requires the use of a life cycle assessment methodology which considers manufacturing, utilization and end-of-life phases of the vehicle and fuel production. However, vehicle powertrain technologies and regional electricity and fuel production characteristics are evolving rapidly, making such studies performed using current data obsolete in few years. For example, regional electricity generation mixes across the Canadian provinces are largely different, and they are likely to evolve with the introduction of renewable electricity. Hence, there is a general need for adaptable and flexible life cycle assessment frameworks for the transportation sector for rapid evaluation of GHG reductions using up-to-date data. The objective of this study is to develop an adaptive life cycle assessment framework for light duty vehicles that can incorporate critical new developments in vehicle powertrain technologies and changes in electricity and fuel supply. Conventional, hybrid, plug-in hybrid, battery electric and fuel cell powertrain types are included in the framework as parametrized models. Critical parameters related to vehicle size and battery capacity, fuel consumption, mileage, battery chemistry, vehicle hybridization, and electricity and fuel emission intensity are incorporated. The framework was demonstrated by applying it in the Canadian context with analysis of scenarios associated with electricity grid emission intensity, mileage, battery capacity and battery chemistry.
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Due to the rapid expansion of electric vehicles and portable electronics, the demand for lithium-ion batteries is increasing, resulting in supply risks in obtaining lithium, cobalt, and other materials, as well as issues associated with spent battery disposal. The current battery recycling processes vary by specific battery chemistries and impact both economics and greenhouse gas emissions. At the same time, there is a potential for spent lithium-ion batteries reuse for low-end energy storage applications. This paper discusses various methods of assessing the reuse versus recycling of lithium-ion batteries. Commercial recycling practices and capabilities and those recommended by different research centers around the world are reviewed. Further, the potential of various novel next-generation recycling processes to optimize recycling's economic and environmental benefits is evaluated for the broader utilization of lithium-ion battery recycling.
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Electric Vehicles (EVs), as expected to help save energy and reduce CO2 emissions, are facing a rapid growth in China, the country with approximately one quarter of global vehicle production. However, the ability of EVs is estimated mainly on the basis of use phase, which is not complete enough. Aiming to identify the real ability of EVs in China, this study estimates the CO2 emissions from production phase and compares the results with the level of Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles (ICEVs), the current dominating vehicles in China. The results reveal that the CO2 emissions from the production of an EV range from 14.6 to 14.7 t, 59% to 60% higher than the level of an ICEV, 9.2 t. The Li-ion batteries and additional components such as the traction motor and electronic controller in an EV are the major reasons, while different curb weights and different composition between these two vehicles contribute as well. As the manufacture techniques of Li-ion batteries are growing and the material recycle industry is developing, huge reduction potential of CO2 emissions from EVs exists in China.
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Recent trends in the proper management of End of Life Vehicles have led some auto recyclers to adopt machine-based dismantling to improve their yield. The machines are modified excavators that allow a greater degree of control and force for vehicle disassembly. We present and discuss the results of a 3-month real world trial conducted at an Australian auto dismantler assessing the environmental impact of using a multi-dismantling machine for material segregation. The results suggest that this process is a better alternative to the current norm used by metal recyclers, shredding followed by shredder output separation, in terms of environmental impact but not energy consumption.
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This paper looks ahead, beyond the projected large-scale market penetration of vehicles containing advanced batteries, to the time when the spent batteries will be ready for final disposition. It describes a working system for recycling, using lead-acid battery recycling as a model. Recycling of automotive lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries is more complicated and not yet established because few end-of-life batteries will need recycling for another decade. There is thus the opportunity now to obviate some of the technical, economic, and institutional roadblocks that might arise. The paper considers what actions can be started now to avoid the impediments to recycling and ensure that economical and sustainable options are available at the end of the batteries' useful life.
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End-of-life vehicles (ELV) have become a global concern as automobiles have become popular worldwide. An international workshop was held to gather data and to discuss 3R policies and ELV recycling systems, their background and present situation, outcomes of related policies and programs, the framework of recycling and waste management, and case studies on related topics in several countries and regions, as well as the essential points of the comparison. Legislative ELV recycling systems are established in the EU, Japan, Korea, and China, while in the US, ELV recycling is managed under existing laws on environmental protection. Since automobile shredding residue (ASR) has a high calorific value and ash content, and includes heavy metals as well as a mass of unclassified fine particles, recycling ASR is considered highly difficult. Countries with a legislative ELV system commonly set a target for recovery rates, with many aiming for more than 95 % recovery. In order to reach this target, higher efficiency in ASR recovery is needed, in addition to material recycling of collectable components and metals. Environmentally friendly design was considered necessary at the planning and manufacturing stages, and the development of recycling systems and techniques in line with these changes are required for sound ELV management.
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The end-of-life vehicle (ELV) Directive in Europe aims to generate environmental gains through increased levels of vehicle recovery and a reduction in the use of hazardous substances. This paper presents an evaluation framework based on five anticipated changes that could result from the ELV Directive. These changes relate to three areas: (a) vehicle design, (b) level of ELV recovery, and (c) information provision. We evaluate the extent to which expected outcomes have materialized since the establishment of the ELV Directive. Current information provides an emerging picture of the impact of ELV legislation. We show that legislative factors and market forces have led to innovation in recycling, increased hazardous substance removal and improved information dissemination. Such actions may be sufficient to reach ELV Directive targets and could have spill-over benefits to other industries. Carmakers are also taking steps to design for recycling and for disassembly. However, movement toward design for re-use and remanufacturing seems limited. Increasing the level of re-use and remanufacturing will be a key part of moving toward sustainable vehicle production.
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Advances in Battery Technologies for Electric Vehicles provides an in-depth look into the research being conducted on the development of more efficient batteries capable of long distance travel. The text contains an introductory section on the market for battery and hybrid electric vehicles, then thoroughly presents the latest on lithium-ion battery technology. Readers will find sections on battery pack design and management, a discussion of the infrastructure required for the creation of a battery powered transport network, and coverage of the issues involved with end-of-life management for these types of batteries.
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Electric mobility is playing an important and growing role in the context of sustainable transport sector development. This study presents the life cycle assessment of an electric car based on the technology of Lithium-ion battery (BEV) for Europe and compares it to an internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV). According to a cradle-to-grave approach, manufacturing, use and disposal phases of both vehicles have been included in the assessment in order to identify the hot spots of the entire life cycles. For electric vehicles two manufacturing inventories have been analysed and different vehicle disposal pathways have also been considered. Furthermore, the environmental performances of hybrid vehicles have been analysed based on the life cycle models of the BEV and ICEV. The results of the hot spot analysis showed that the BEV manufacturing phase determined the highest environmental burdens mainly in the toxicity categories as a result of the use of metals in the battery pack. However, the greenhouse gas emissions associated with the BEV use phase were shown to be half than those recorded for the ICEV use phase. The trend of the results has also been investigated for future energy mixes: the electricity and diesel mixes for the year 2050 have been considered for the modelling of the use phase of BEV and ICEV.
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This paper undertakes an environmental evaluation of hybrid vehicles recycling, using industrial data from Comet Traitement SA in Belgium. Three business lines have been modelled and analysed. The first one is relative to the business as usual with a dismantling to recover batteries and engines followed by shredding and post shredding treatments. The second one considers, in addition, the removal of electronic control units (ECU) before shredding followed by same steps than in the first line and the last one is relative to the additional removal of big plastic parts before shredding and business as usual post shredding treatments. Results show non-significant environmental benefits when ECU or large parts of plastics are recovered before shredding. Improvements in terms of environmental benefits are lower than the uncertainty of the results. Indeed, the performing usual process for end-of-life vehicles (ELV) treatment reaches 97% of the ELV which is valorised in terms of metal and energy recoveries. Post shredding treatment units include metals, plastics and energy recovery of residues. Comet business as usual route for ELV valorisation is in accordance with the requirements of the European directive and recommendations for further improvement with dismantling of other parts (ECU or plastics) before shredding are non-relevant in this case.
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Over the past few decades, concerns about resource scarcity along with interest in resource efficiency have become part of the societal discourse. Many companies and research entities have documented efforts to increase resource efficiency with improved management of product end-of-life (EoL) and more specifically, with remanufacturing (reuse) and improved recycling. This paper does something complementary; it presents a case study of a multi-national component manufacturer (the company) and one its main product types, low-alloyed steel components that are utilized in a myriad of applications and industries. Although the company knows that its products are generally recycled and sometimes remanufactured (by its own operations), it wanted to know more about the downstream material flows and related loss of material and function. Using material flow analysis (MFA), simplified LCA and analysis of company sales data, downstream material flows of the components were mapped out and potential environmental benefits related to remanufacturing and recycling were quantified. Results show that there are large differences in the amount of material needed and global warming potential (GWP) incurred depending on what end-users chose to do with the components at EoL. Unsurprisingly, remanufacturing and functional recycling (recycling to alloyed steel) are shown to result in great reductions with regard to both material efficiency and global warming. Notably, many of the EoL components end up in mixed scrap and later, carbon steel, where the function of the alloying elements (Ni, Mo, Cr, Mn) is lost. Combined MFA–LCA results indicate that replacing these lost alloying elements make up a tangible part of the component's total contribution to global warming. Finally, the analysis of company sales data and remanufacturing preferences indicate that there is a large potential to remanufacture more. In total, findings indicate that the limits of “feasible” remanufacturing have not been reached. They also show that dedicated recycling of even low-alloyed steel components into alloyed steel rather than carbon steel could yield tangible environmental gains.
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The affordability of today's and future advanced technology vehicles (i.e., diesel, hybrid, and fuel cell) developed for improved fuel economy remains a concern with respect to final consumer acceptance. The automotive system cost model (ASCM) developed for the production cost estimates at a level of five major subsystems and 35+ components, has been used here to address the affordability issue of advanced technology vehicles. Scenarios encompassing five alternative powertrain and three body options for a mid-size vehicle under two different timeframes (i.e., 2002 and 2010) were considered to determine the cost-effectiveness of among the competing technology options within the same timeframe and between the two timeframes. The relative cost-effectiveness of the various options were considered in terms of production cost and fuel economy (derived using the ADVISOR model) and the viability of various options under two timeframes are presented and also compared against the estimates available from the literature today.
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Abstract of Accepted Manuscript: Shifting of motorized mobility toward electric propulsion has become an inevitable development direction in vehicle technology in the last few years. It raises some important questions from environmentally consciousness point of view. One of these aspects is the demand and availability of raw materials. Recent papers and studies on raw material availability are relating to a narrow topic, for example, focusing only on lithium in global consideration, or take into consideration an average metal content of batteries. Present paper makes a step toward expanding information on net metal demand of battery cell active materials and metal reserves focusing on Europe, as one of the world largest economy doing large effort to become world leader in electric mobility. Five potential cell chemistries were identified based on research trends and future expectations of researcher, car and battery manufacturers. Furthermore, a potential share of battery- and electric vehicle types in hypothetical car fleet was proposed, as well. Lithium, cobalt, manganese and nickel requirement and European reserves were examined. Present study pointed out that the potential share of electric mobility in road traffic of the European Union had a detectable, but insignificant impact on global metal production and reserves. In the case of a hypothetical European production of future traction battery cells, shortage in European lithium and nickel reserves might be expectable at around 2025. Demand on cobalt and manganese are found to be far below the available European reserves. Keywords: lithium-ion battery cell, electric vehicle, lithium, transition metals, reserves
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On the basis of statistical data, approximately 6.5milliontons of ELVs were produced in Europe in 2011. ELVs are processed according to a treatment scheme comprising three main phases: depollution, dismantling and shredding. The ferrous fraction represents about 70-75% of the total shredded output, while nonferrous metals represent about 5%. The remaining 20-25% is referred to as automotive shredder residue (ASR). ASR is largely landfilled due to its heterogeneous and complex matrix. With a start date of January 1st 2015, the European Directive 2000/53/EC establishes the reuse and recovery of a minimum of 95% ELV total weight. To reach these targets various post-shredder technologies have been developed with the aim of improving recovery of materials and energy from ASR. In order to evaluate the environmental impacts of different management options of ELVs, the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology has been applied taking into account the potential implication of sustainable design of vehicles and treatment of residues after shredding of ELVs. Findings obtained reveal that a combination of recycling and energy recovery is required to achieve European targets, with landfilling being viewed as the least preferred option. The aim of this work is to provide a general overview of the recent development of management of ELVs and treatment of ASR with a view to minimizing the amount of residues disposed of in landfill. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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China is the world-leading primary aluminum production country, which contributed to over half of global production in 2014. Primary aluminum production is power-intensive, for which power generation has substantial impact on overall Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. In this study, we explore the impact of regional disparity of China’s power generation system on GHG emissions for the sector of primary aluminum production. Our analysis reveals that the national GHG emissions factor (GEF) of China’s primary aluminum production was 16.5 t CO2e/t Al ingot in 2013, with province-level GEFs ranging from 8.2 to 21.7 t CO2e/t Al ingot. There is a high coincidence of provinces with high aluminum productions and high GEFs. Total GHG emissions from China’s primary aluminum production were 421 mt CO2e in 2013, approximately accounting for 4% of China’s total GHG emissions. Under the 2020 scenario, GEF shows a 13.2% reduction compared to the 2013 level, but total GHG emissions will increase to 551 mt CO2e. Based on our analysis, we recommend that the government should further promote energy efficiency improvement, facilitate aluminum industry redistribution with low-carbon consideration, promote secondary aluminum production, and improve aluminum industry data reporting and disclosure.
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There has been a sharp increase in the production of automobiles over the past decade. In 2010, one billion automobiles were in circulation worldwide. The automobile industry is one of the largest metals consumers and plays an important role in their sustainable use. Steel materials, including alloy steels that contain alloying elements (AEs) such as manganese, chromium, nickel, and molybdenum, are the main component of automobiles. The recycling of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) significantly affects the cycling of iron, steel, and AEs. Currently, ELV recycling is performed using the electric arc furnace (EAF). In this method, losses of AEs are likely to occur because their presence is rarely considered. This study evaluated the environmental and economic benefits of alternative ELV recycling schemes, which allow more efficient utilization of AEs found in ELV-derived steel scrap (ELV-dSS). The AE contents in ELV-dSS (as car-parts) were estimated by means of a waste input–output material flow analysis (WIO-MFA) model extended for the detailed analysis of automobile composition. Using Japanese data, it was found that sorting ELV-dSS by parts can result in a significant recovery of AEs; more specifically, a 10-fold saving in AEs was achieved by sorting exhaust parts. The recoverable mass of AEs from sorted ELV-dSS was found to correspond to 8.2% of the annual consumption of AEs in Japan, as virgin resources in EAF steelmaking. ELV-dSS sorting was found to be significantly effective in the conservation of AE resources.
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Efficient and clean vehicles are highly demanded in China due to the increasing severe energy and environmental issues. In this study, based on the current (2009) and predicted (2020) situations of China, ICEVs (internal combustion engine vehicles), EVs (electric vehicles) and FCVs (fuel cell vehicles) are assessed through a life cycle analysis in terms of energy consumption, carbon emission, PM2.5 and well-to-wheel efficiency. The results show that FCVs using hydrogen from NG (natural gas) reforming (no electrolysis of water) are suitable for the short-term energy conservation and emission reduction in China, because they are less dependent on the Chinese electricity mix dominated by coal-fired energy. EVs and FCVs using water-electrolyzed hydrogen powered by the Chinese electricity grids may cause serious energy and environmental issues, and the requirements of the electricity mix before the commercialization of these vehicles are estimated. For the vehicle price, ICEVs and EVs (with subsidies) are less expensive than FCVs in 2009, but it remains debated for 2020 with the development of technology and change of policy. This analysis is of significant importance in directing the energy, environment and transportation policy for sustainable development in China.
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Illegal end-of-life vehicle (ELV) treatment is a significant barrier to sound ELV management. The main issues concerning illegal ELV treatment in heavily motorized countries are random dumping of automobile shredder residue (ASR), and random abandoning of ELVs. Different from heavily motorized countries, a notable problem in China is that a large number of ELVs are flowing into the informal sector every year. This number seems to grow with the constant and tremendous rise of vehicle usage in China. The goal of this paper is to better understand this problem, and provide a document for references in the establishment of a high quality ELV management system in the motorization process. This paper combined desk research and field work in China to explore the underlying factors behind the problem, and the lessons which developing countries in the motorization process could learn from China. We found that the persistent existence of an extensive informal ELV treatment sector in China is due to a combination of economic, social, historical and administrative factors. It is unlikely that any of these factors on their own would prolong the existence of the informal ELV sector. However, it is difficult or nearly impossible to make a qualitative change to the economic, social and historical factors that prolong the existence of the informal ELV sector. On the other hand, administrative factors are comparatively easy to change. We thus provide recommendations about ELV management for developing countries in the motorization process, based on the analysis of administrative factors.
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In order to realize a circulative society, enhancement on resource productivity has been sought in many ways to upgrade the recycling industry, such as implementing governmental regulations, building up control and management schemes, and improving treatment technologies. While some positive progresses have been achieved, the information on operational conditions of recycling business is seldom addressed. This study tries to examine the operational characteristics of recycling and treatment industry for end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in Taiwan and its relationship to recycling performance. Geographical relationship between dismantlers and shredding plants are discussed to demonstrate the influence of market size on a self-sustained recycling system. Information on 22 out of the 245 registered dismantlers and five shredding plants were retrieved from official database and on-site visits were conducted to confirm the data regarding basic setup, facility capacity, and operational conditions of the selected business. Indicators representing production capacity and power efficiency were postulated for performance analysis. Monthly production capacities of the dismantlers surveyed in this study ranged 0.17–73.14 units/worker and that of the shredding plants was 67.87 units/worker in average. Power efficiencies of the shredding plants were found in the range of 42.82–56.61 kg of ELV processed/kWh, or 17.66–23.36 kWh/ton. For shredding plants, power efficiency decreased with increase of power consumption and lower recycling rate likely happened at lower production rates. This study introduces a preliminary approach to examine the operational characteristics of ELV recycling business which can be useful in planning of ELV recycling strategy. It is suggested that existing shredding plants and dismantlers need to enhance their competitiveness by improving the operational performance. Energy management in the ELV shredding plants deserves more attentions for future improvement.
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As a proactive step towards understanding future waste management challenges, this paper presents a future oriented material flow analysis (MFA) used to estimate the volume of lithium-ion battery (LIB) wastes to be potentially generated in the United States due to electric vehicle (EV) deployment in the near and long term future. Because future adoption of LIB and EV technology is uncertain, a set of scenarios was developed to bound the parameters most influential to the MFA model and to forecast “low,” “baseline,” and “high” projections of future end-of-life battery outflows from years 2015 to 2040. These models were implemented using technology forecasts, technical literature, and bench-scale data characterizing battery material composition. Considering the range from the most conservative to most extreme estimates, a cumulative outflow between 0.33 million metric tons and 4 million metric tons of lithium-ion cells could be generated between 2015 and 2040. Of this waste stream, only 42% of the expected materials (by weight) is currently recycled in the U.S., including metals such as aluminum, cobalt, copper, nickel, and steel. Another 10% of the projected EV battery waste stream (by weight) includes two high value materials that are currently not recycled at a significant rate: lithium and manganese. The remaining fraction of this waste stream will include materials with low recycling potential, for which safe disposal routes must be identified. Results also indicate that because of the potential “lifespan mismatch” between battery packs and the vehicles in which they are used, batteries with high reuse potential may also be entering the waste stream. As such, a robust end-of-life battery management system must include an increase in reuse avenues, expanded recycling capacity, and ultimate disposal routes that minimize risk to human and environmental health.
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This paper is the second of a two part study which quantifies the economic and greenhouse performance of conventional, hybrid and fully electric passenger vehicles operating in Australian driving conditions. This second study focuses on the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions. Two vehicle sizes are considered, Class-B and Class-E, which bracket the large majority of passenger vehicles on Australian roads.Using vehicle simulation models developed in the first study, the trade-offs between the ability of increasingly electric powertrains in curtailing the tailpipe emissions and the corresponding rise in the embedded vehicle emissions have been evaluated. The sensitivity of the life cycle emissions to fuel, electricity and the change in the energy mix are all considered. In conjunction with the total cost of ownership calculated in the companion paper, this allows the cost of mitigating life cycle greenhouse gas emissions through electrification of passenger transport to be estimated under different scenarios. For Class-B vehicles, fully electric vehicles were found to have a higher total cost of ownership and higher life cycle emissions than an equivalent vehicle with an internal combustion engine. For Class-E vehicles, hybrids are found to be the most cost effective whilst also having lowest life cycle emissions under current conditions. Further, hybrid vehicles also exhibit little sensitivity in terms of greenhouse emissions and cost with large changes in system inputs.
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In cooperation with the industrial project partners ACCUREC Recycling and UVR-FIA a recycling process specially dedicated to portable Li-ion batteries was developed combining a mechanical pretreatment with hydro- and pyrometallurgical process steps. Therefore not only the recovery of cobalt but also the recovery of all other battery components, especially of lithium was of interest. Besides the characterization and evaluation of all generated metallic material fractions, the focus of the research work was the development of a pyrometallurgical process step in an electric arc furnace for the carbo-reductive melting of the fine fraction extracted from spent Li-ion batteries. This fine fraction mainly consists of the cobalt and lithium containing electrode material. Since a selective pyrometallurgical treatment of the fine fraction for producing a cobalt alloy has not been done before, the proof of feasibility was the main aim. "full paper existing"
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How to cope with the problem of scrap automobiles and the environmental pollution caused by them is an issue that every automotive industrial country has to face in varying degrees; China is no exception. With the rapid economic growth, Chinese car production reached 13.79 million, in 2009, which made China rank first in the world for the first time for car production. But the scrap vehicle recycling industry is at its infancy. There are many serious problems in the scrap vehicle recycling industry, not least of which is the fact that improper disposal of hazardous substances and a lack of environmental protection measures are common in vehicle dismantling operations. This paper gives a brief introduction of Japanese and Chinese laws about End-of-Life Vehicles, the process of handling with them. This paper also makes a comparison of the present situation of scrap automobiles between Japan and China, trying to find an appropriate way for China to deal with the problem of scrap automobiles.
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Currently, 95% of all the vehicles discarded in the U.S. enter the recovery infrastructure. The material recovery efficiency of the infrastructure is approximately 80% by weight. Significant changes are being pursued by automotive manufacturers to reduce the environmental impact of vehicles during the use phase. However, the effect of these changes on the automotive recovery infrastructure is uncertain. In addition to vehicle changes, calls for higher material recovery efficiencies from the government and society also add to the uncertainty. In order to characterize the effects of these uncertainties, a Material Flow and Economic Exchange (MFEE) model has been established. The model-predicted results showed that higher material recovery rates can only be achieved if the business entities within the recovery infrastructure employ new technological strategies such as increased plastic recovery rates. However, the economic sustainability or profitability of the business entities was found to be jeopardized. This paper will focus on certain profit-enhancement strategies that may be employed to ensure the economic sustainability. The MFEE model is used to assess the adequacy of these strategies to improve the profitability of the business entities within the recovery infrastructure. Based on the analysis of these strategies it is shown that the economic burden of achieving higher material recovery rates will have to be shared by all the stakeholders within the recovery infrastructure. A discussion on the potential government policies that may be enacted to implement the technological and profit-enhancement strategies is presented.
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Over the last 30 years the use of light weight, inexpensive, and durable plastics in automobiles has nearly tripled on a per vehicle basis. Although this has created benefits such as increased fuel efficiency and associated lower CO2 emissions, the growing disposition of plastics from end-of-life vehicles has put increasing pressure on North American landfill capacity.Financial and life cycle assessment models were developed and applied to the current and proposed recycling business operations of AADCO Automotive Incorporated (AADCO), a leading Canadian automotive dismantling company. By applying both kinds of models, two key questions are addressed. First, how much is it expected to cost AADCO to participate in a start-up automotive plastics recycling network? and second, by estimating greenhouse gas emissions and energy requirements, is recycling automotive plastics actually better for the environment compared to manufacturing virgin plastic resin within the boundaries set forth in this case study?The present study concluded that the proposed recycling network would reduce greenhouse gas emissions and energy requirements by nearly 50% when compared to the current operations at AADCO (equating to a reduction of 1063tonnes of CO2(eq) and 18TJ, respectively). However, in spite of the environmental benefits, the magnitude of the added costs for AADCO to participate in the post-consumer automotive plastics recycling network resulted in an unprofitable value proposition for the company.
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This report details the Battery Performance and Cost model (BatPaC) developed at Argonne National Laboratory for lithium-ion battery packs used in automotive transportation. The model designs the battery for a specified power, energy, and type of vehicle battery. The cost of the designed battery is then calculated by accounting for every step in the lithium-ion battery manufacturing process. The assumed annual production level directly affects each process step. The total cost to the original equipment manufacturer calculated by the model includes the materials, manufacturing, and warranty costs for a battery produced in the year 2020 (in 2010 US$). At the time this report is written, this calculation is the only publically available model that performs a bottom-up lithium-ion battery design and cost calculation. Both the model and the report have been publically peer-reviewed by battery experts assembled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This report and accompanying model include changes made in response to the comments received during the peer-review. The purpose of the report is to document the equations and assumptions from which the model has been created. A user of the model will be able to recreate the calculations and perhaps more importantly, understand the driving forces for the results. Instructions for use and an illustration of model results are also presented. Almost every variable in the calculation may be changed by the user to represent a system different from the default values pre-entered into the program. The distinct advantage of using a bottom-up cost and design model is that the entire power-to-energy space may be traversed to examine the correlation between performance and cost. The BatPaC model accounts for the physical limitations of the electrochemical processes within the battery. Thus, unrealistic designs are penalized in energy density and cost, unlike cost models based on linear extrapolations. Additionally, the consequences on cost and energy density from changes in cell capacity, parallel cell groups, and manufacturing capabilities are easily assessed with the model. New proposed materials may also be examined to translate bench-scale values to the design of full-scale battery packs providing realistic energy densities and prices to the original equipment manufacturer. The model will be openly distributed to the public in the year 2011. Currently, the calculations are based in a Microsoft{reg_sign} Office Excel spreadsheet. Instructions are provided for use; however, the format is admittedly not user-friendly. A parallel development effort has created an alternate version based on a graphical user-interface that will be more intuitive to some users. The version that is more user-friendly should allow for wider adoption of the model.