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Italian translation and validation of the GQ-6

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Abstract

: This paper aims at translating the Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ-6) into Italian and at investigating its validity and reliability in this context. In a web-based survey, 204 adult participants ( M age = 28.96; SD = 10.27) completed the Italian version of the GQ-6, as well as subjective happiness, life satisfaction, loneliness, and social desirability questionnaires. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a one-factor solution explaining 46.16% of the variance of the original items and an acceptable Cronbach’s alpha equal to .745. The Italian version of the GQ-6 was, as expected, positively correlated with subjective happiness, life satisfaction and social desirability and was negatively associated with loneliness, which supported its construct validity. The Italian version of the GQ-6 also showed a discriminant validity relative to other positive affects and a good criterion validity in differentiating both believers and non-believers and high and low envious people.

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... To support the validation process, confirmatory factorial analysis (CFA) was first performed. We did not perform an exploratory factorial analysis given the existing validation studies in the literature that inform the factorial structure of the GQ-6 [25][26][27]. The factorial structure and the relationships item-factor of the French version of the GQ-6 appeared through the CFA. ...
... Then, Cronbach's alpha was measured. Second, the construct validity was assessed through correlations with mental health indicators (depression, anxiety, satisfaction with life) and determinants (optimism and coping) which have already been shown to correlate with gratitude in past studies [18,25,27]. ...
... The measures included in this study were also used in previous validation studies of the GQ-6 [25][26][27] and their relations with GQ-6 were well informed across the literature, as for depression and anxiety for example [18]. These elements make these instruments useful and relevant to assess the construct validity. ...
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Satisfaction with life as a judgmental cognitive process can be negatively influenced by appraisals of daily events such as hassles. Trait-gratitude—a tendency to appraise, recognize and respond to life events through being grateful—is a determinant of mental health and well-being, and has been shown to be related to the positive appraisal of life. The aim of the current study was to investigate the moderating role of trait-gratitude in the relationship between daily hassles and satisfaction with life. In the process of carrying out this study, the French version of the Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ-6) was validated. A total of 328 French undergraduates completed questionnaires measuring gratitude, satisfaction with life, and daily hassles to test the main hypothesis. They also completed optimism, coping strategies, depression, and anxiety questionnaires in order to assess the convergent validity of the French version of the GQ-6. First, the results showed satisfactory psychometric properties of the Gratitude Questionnaire. Second, the results indicated the moderating role of trait-gratitude in the relationship between daily hassles disturbance and satisfaction with life. This study further documents the role of gratitude as a determinant of well-being and provides French-speaking clinicians and researchers with a useful tool to measure grateful disposition.
... Compared with the other two scales, the GQ has become the most widely used instrument for assessing dispositional gratitude in healthy populations, and is extensively used around the world. To our knowledge, the scale has been validated in many countries such as America, Italy, Chile, and Turkey (Froh et al., 2011;Yüksel and Oguz Duran, 2012;Jans-Beken et al., 2015;Caputo, 2016;Langer et al., 2016). Therefore, the aim of the present research was validate the scale in a Chinese population. ...
... The GQ includes six items such as, "I feel thankful for what I have received in life, " and "I sometimes feel grateful for the smallest things." In the study by McCullough et al. (2002), confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) showed that a robust one-factor structure of the GQ existed, which was replicated in many other studies Yüksel and Oguz Duran, 2012;Caputo, 2016;Langer et al., 2016). Furthermore, McCullough et al. (2002) found that the GQ was positively related to life satisfaction, affective well-being and prosocial traits, and negatively related to psychological symptoms and materialism. ...
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The Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ; McCullough et al., 2002) is one of the most widely used instruments to assess dispositional gratitude. The purpose of this study was to validate a Chinese version of the GQ by examining internal consistency, factor structure, convergent validity, and measurement invariance across sex. A total of 1151 Chinese adults were recruited to complete the GQ, Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scales, and Satisfaction with Life Scale. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the original unidimensional model fitted well, which is in accordance with the findings in Western populations. Furthermore, the GQ had satisfactory composite reliability and criterion-related validity with measures of life satisfaction and affective well-being. Evidence of configural, metric and scalar invariance across sex was obtained. Tests of the latent mean differences found females had higher latent mean scores than males. These findings suggest that the Chinese version of GQ is a reliable and valid tool for measuring dispositional gratitude and can generally be utilized across sex in the Chinese context.
... Dispositional gratitude was evaluated with the Gratitude Questionnaire GQ-6 [21], using the Italian translation and validation by Caputo [43]. Cronbach α = 0.765. ...
... The Cronbach α was 0.513. -Dispositional gratitude was evaluated with the Gratitude Questionnaire GQ-6 [21], using the Italian translation and validation by Caputo [43]. Cronbach α = 0.765. ...
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Gratitude may be defined as a personal positive tendency to recognize and respond with gratitude to positive experiences. It has been extensively described within personal relationship literature, showing its correlations with life satisfaction and decreased psychopathology. We propose here to consider gratitude as both a personal and an organizational value able to improve job performance and job satisfaction. The specific aim is twofold: to explore how public administration workers are used to express and perceive gratitude in the workplace, and to validate a serial mediation model, in which dispositional, collective, and relational gratitude are predictors of job satisfaction and job performance. We have designed a mix-method study, with a survey and a diary study, choosing to collect data also on a daily basis because we were interested in gratitude exchanges in work contexts using the event-sampling data method. Nine employees from several Italian public administrations completed a gratitude diary for ten working days in the initial qualitative part of the study. Afterwards, a sample of 96 Italian public administration employees filled in a questionnaire with measures related to job satisfaction, job performance, and three dimensions of gratitude: dispositional, collective, and relational. Results confirm that the three types of gratitude are predictors of job performance and job satisfaction and this relation has been tested in a serial mediation model. This investigation on gratitude has practical implications for the planning of training interventions framed in the positive psychology context.
... Sample item: If I had to list everything that I felt grateful for, it would be a very long list. The scale passed the validity test in many Eastern and Western cultural environments (Caputo, 2016;Chen et al., 2008;Tian et al., 2015). Many studies documented good alpha Cronbach coefficients on various populations, as the following studies show: .82 ...
... (Chen et al., 2008;Loo et al. 2014), .74 (Caputo, 2016). In the present research, the α Cronbach is .70 and the confirmatory factorial analysis (CFA) highlighted: χ²/df = 1,70; GFI = .99; ...
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The purpose of the article consisted in the validation of the Romanian version of a Scale of Positive and Negative Experience (SPANE), in the case of a batch of students (N = 520; Mean of age = 19,70). SPANE is a twelve-item scale which measures feelings of well-being and ill-being and it is made of two subscales: SPANE-P (six items) for positive feelings and experiences, and SPANE-N (six items) for negative feelings and experiences. The results obtained by means of exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis show a two-factor structure and adequate fit of the respective two-factor model (χ²/df = 2,80; GFI = .95; CFI = .95; RMSEA = .060). The structure was confirmed and gender invariant. The scale shows acceptable internal consistency, with coefficients between .80 (SPANE-P), .77 (SPANE-N) and .82 (SPANE-B). Convergent validity was investigated using scales which measure gratitude and life satisfaction. Thus, the subscale of positive feelings (SPANE-P) is associated with gratitude and life satisfaction, while the subscale of negative feelings (SPANE-N) is reversely correlated with gratitude and life satisfaction. Consequently, SPANE has important psychometric characteristics for the Romanian version as well. Cuvinte-cheie: SPANE, afect pozitiv, afect negativ, structură factorială, validare.
... Sample item: I have so much in life to be thankful for. The scale passed the validity test in many Eastern and Western cultural environments (Caputo, 2016;Chen, Chen, Kee, & Tsai, 2008;Tian, Du, & Huebner, 2015). Many studies documented good alpha Cronbach coefficients on various populations, as the following studies show: 0.82 (McCullough et al., 2002), 0.80 (Chen et al., 2008;Loo, Tsai, Raylu, & Oei, 2014), 0.74 (Caputo, 2016). ...
... The scale passed the validity test in many Eastern and Western cultural environments (Caputo, 2016;Chen, Chen, Kee, & Tsai, 2008;Tian, Du, & Huebner, 2015). Many studies documented good alpha Cronbach coefficients on various populations, as the following studies show: 0.82 (McCullough et al., 2002), 0.80 (Chen et al., 2008;Loo, Tsai, Raylu, & Oei, 2014), 0.74 (Caputo, 2016). In the present research, the α Cronbach is 0,70 and the confirmatory factorial analysis (CFA) highlighted a good fit of the model obtained: χ²/df=1,70; GFI=.99; ...
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The aim of the study is to examine the mechanism through which the trait gratitude leads to life satisfaction. To this purpose, we studied the mediating role of positive and negative affect in the relationship between gratitude and life satisfaction. The participants in the study were 325 Romanian students (Mage=20,84; 234 males and 91 females) from public universities who completed three measures, namely for gratitude-Gratitude questionnaire-6 (GQ-6), for life satisfaction-Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), and for positive and negative affect-Scale of Positive and Negative Experience (SPANE). The results show that the students who evince high gratitude tend to express higher positive affect and less negative affect. Structural equation modeling states that gratitude influences life satisfaction via positive and negative affect (χ²/df=2,35; GFI=.89; CFI=.90; RMSEA=.066). The data analysis shows that female subjects with higher gratitude and higher positive affect evince higher life satisfaction than male subjects. The results contribute to the understanding of the way in which gratitude influences life satisfaction.
... Além disso, a gratidão se correlacionou positivamente com vitalidade, esperança, emoções positivas e satisfação de vida, e negativamente com ansiedade e depressão, conforme esperado (McCullough et al., 2002). Esse instrumento foi elaborado para adultos no contexto norte-americano e adaptado para outras culturas, como Chile (Langer, Ulloa, Aguilar-Parra, Araya-Véliz, & Brito, 2016), China (Kong, You, & Zhao, 2017), Itália (Caputo, 2016), Taiwan (Chen, Chen, Kee, & Tsai, 2009). ...
... Procedimentos controlados de tradução do inglês para o português do Brasil e de revisão da redação foram adotados a fim de garantir que o conteúdo dos itens mantivesse correspondência com o instrumento original e com a teoria do construto. Análises fatoriais confirmatórias mostraram adequados índices de ajuste para a estrutura de um fator, tal como encontrado no estudo original do instrumento (McCullough et al., 2002) e em outros estudos de adaptação (e.g., Caputo, 2016;Chen et al., 2009;Gouveia et al., 2019;Kong et al., 2017;Langer et al., 2016). O instrumento ainda apresentou coeficientes alfa e ômega de 0,79, que podem ser considerados satisfatórios índices de fidedignidade (Nunnally, 1978). ...
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Studies on gratitude are becoming increasingly frequent, mainly because of its relationship with well-being. The aim of this study was to adapt an instrument of gratitude, the Gratitude Questionnaire, and to seek evidence of its validity for Brazil. Controlled translation procedures were performed, and the instrument was applied to 916 adults, mean age 37 years, predominantly with higher education level. The results revealed adequacy of the data for a single factor structure of the instrument, with satisfactory reliability, and highly discriminative items. The correlations between gratitude and other variables were as theoretically expected: Positive with self-esteem, optimism, life satisfaction, and positive affect. Gratitude also explained subjective well-being beyond personality factors. The instrument showed satisfactory evidence of validity in the Brazilian context; however, it was observed that it lacks items that cover the higher spectrum of the latent trait.
... The six-item version of this scale (GQ-6) was found appropriate among Brazilian undergraduate students (Gouveia et al. 2019), Chinese adults (Kong et al. 2017), Chilean adults (Langer et al. 2016), Dutch-speaking adults (Jans-Beken et al. 2015), and Japanese college students (Hatori and Kodama 2014). However, a one-factor solution with five items was found suitable among Ecuadorian adults (Vélez et al. 2019), Taiwanese undergraduate students (Chen et al. 2009), Chinese adolescents (Wei et al. 2011), Japanese college students (Kobayashi 2013), Italian adults (Caputo 2016), Spanish adolescents (Rey et al. 2018), and Turkish college students (Yüksel and Oguz Duran 2012). There may be features of gratitude experience that are unique to the Indian cultural context. ...
... Five-item version of the Gratitude Questionnaire fitted the data better than the six-item version, cross-validating the one-factor structure of gratitude found via EFA. Our finding of GQ-5 as a better measurement of dispositional gratitude than GO-6 is consistent with other studies (Caputo 2016;L. H. Chen et al. 2009;Froh et al. 2011;Kobayashi 2013;Vélez et al. 2019;Wei et al. 2011). ...
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The purpose of this study was to provide a reliable and valid instrument in Hindi for measuring gratitude in the Indian context. Psychometric properties of the translated Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ-6) were analyzed in two studies. In the first study, 448 adults (Mage = 36.47) completed the Hindi version of GQ-6 with demographic questions. Participants were split into two groups for conducting exploratory (EEA) and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA), respectively. The EFA indicated a one-factor solution (α = .74) with five items. The CFA showed the five-item version (GQ-5) fit the data better than the original instrument (GQ-6). Measurement invariance was investigated across gender using the whole dataset. Configural and scalar invariance were supported. In the second study, participants were 211 adults who completed the Scale of Positive and Negative Experience (SPANE), Gratitude Adjective Checklist (GAC), Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS), Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ) along with previous instruments. The CFA replicated a one-factor structure with five-items. The instrument showed adequate evidence of convergent validity with GAC, discriminant validity with life satisfaction and joy, and nomological validity. In conclusion, the Hindi GQ-5 is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing gratitude in Hindi speaking population in India.
... We assessed participants' trait gratitude to be able to control, later in our analyses, for the most relevant dispositional differences that participants were likely to show. At the onset of the study, participants filled out the Italian version of the Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ-6) for the assessment of dispositional gratitude (six items; Cronbach's α = 0.61; see McCullough et al., 2002;Caputo, 2016 for the original version). ...
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Facebook and other social networking sites allow observation of others’ interactions that in normal, offline life would simply be undetectable (e.g., a two-voice conversation viewable on the Facebook wall, from the perspective of a real, silent witness). Drawing on this specific property, the theory of social learning, and the most direct implications of emotional contagion, our pilot experiment (N = 49) aimed to test whether the exposure to others’ grateful interactions on Facebook enhances (a) users’ felt gratitude, (b) expressed gratitude, and (c) their subjective well-being. For the threefold purpose, we created ad hoc Facebook groups in which the exposure to some accomplices’ exchange of grateful messages for 2 weeks was experimentally manipulated and users’ felt/expressed gratitude and well-being were consequently assessed. Results partially supported both hypotheses. Observing others’ exchange of grateful posts/comments on Facebook appeared to enhance participants’ in-person expression of gratitude (i.e., self-reported gratitude expression within face-to-face interactions), but not their direct and subjective experiences of gratitude. Similarly, exposure to others’ grateful messages improved some components of subjective well-being, such as satisfaction with life, but not negative and positive affect. Taken together, however, our preliminary findings suggest for the first time that social networking sites may actually amplify the spreading of gratitude and its benefits. Implications of our results for professionals and future research in the field of health, education, and social media communication are discussed.
... The S-GRAT's subscales assess gratitude disposition based on three aspects of gratitude: Simple Appreciation (six items), Lack of a Sense of Deprivation (six items), and Appreciation for Others (four items). The GQ and S-GRAT have been validated in adult populations in many countries, including Italy (Caputo, 2016), the Netherlands (Jans-Beken, Lataster, Leontjevas, & Jacobs, 2015), Chile (Langer, Ulloa, Aguilar-Parra, Claudio, &Gonzalo, 2016), andTurkey (O guz-Duran, 2017;Yüksel & O guz-Duran, 2012). ...
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There is a lack of validated instruments to measure gratitude in Vietnamese adolescents; this issue is regarded as a significant impediment to progress in implementing empirical research on the gratitude of Vietnamese adolescents. The aim of this study, therefore, was to validate the Vietnamese translation of the Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ) and the Revised Short Gratitude, Resentment, and Appreciation Test (S‐GRAT), using two independent samples of Vietnamese adolescents in two studies. In Study 1, Sample 1 (N = 365, female n = 173) completed the Vietnamese GQ (GQ‐VN) and S‐GRAT (S‐GRAT‐VN). Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the 5‐item version of the GQ‐VN and the 15‐item version of the S‐GRAT‐VN fitted the data adequately. Both instruments showed satisfactory internal consistency. In Study 2, Sample 2 (N = 202, female n = 93) completed the GQ‐VN and S‐GRAT‐VN, along with the Satisfaction With Life Scale. The GQ‐VN and S‐GRAT‐VN were found to be positively correlated with each other and with the construct of life satisfaction, confirming the convergent and predictive validity of the two questionnaires. All the findings support the validity and reliability of the Vietnamese GQ and S‐GRAT in a sample of Vietnamese adolescents. These two instruments, therefore, may facilitate the evaluation of factors associated with adolescent dispositional gratitude in Vietnamese settings.
... In order to assess the model fit, different indexes of fit were examined in CFA: chi-square value, df, GFI (goodness-of-fit index), AGFI (adjusted goodness-of-fit index), CFI (comparative fit index), RMSEA (root mean squared error of approximation), SRMR (standardized root mean square residual), AIC (Akaike's Information Criterion). The first CFA took into account the model with one factor and six items in which the covariance of items e3 was made (When I look at the world, I don't see much to be grateful for) and e6 (Large amounts of time can go by before I feel grateful to something or someone) The indexes-of-fit obtained were considered good, but with a higher value of CMIN/df (3,20): The relatively high value of CMIN/df and a very low factor loading for item 6 (namely, 0.10) led to a new CFA. The second CFA was carried out on a model with one factor and five items, while item 6 was excluded. ...
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The present article focuses on the investigation of the psychometric properties of the Romanian version of the Gratitude Questionnaire-6 (GQ-6), a self-report six-item questionnaire meant to measure the disposition to gratitude. The latter, together with validated measures of life satisfaction (Satisfaction with Life Scale) and affectivity (Scale of Positive and Negative Experience), was applied in the case of a sample of Romanian undergraduates (N = 250; Mage = 20,84). Both exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis demonstrate that the model with one factor and five items is more appropriate for the measurement of gratitude than the original six-item version. This structure was confirmed and it was invariant for gender. The new GQ-5 instrument has an internal acceptable consistency of 0.70. The convergent validity is demonstrated by the fact that the gratitude is associated with life satisfaction, positive and negative affect.
... Until now, the GQ-6 has been available in many languages and validated in many different countries, including Spain (Magallares et al., 2018), Italy (Fuochi et al., 2018), Turkey (Yu¨ksel & Duran, 2012), China (Kong et al., 2017) and the United States (McCullough et al., 2002). Moreover, researchers also found that participants with high scores of the GQ-6 tended to have higher levels of optimism, hope and life satisfaction (Kong et al., 2017;Rey et al., 2018), and lower levels of anxiety, hopelessness and loneliness (Caputo, 2016;Rey et al., 2018), indicating the scale has good criterion validity. Good to excellent psychometric properties of the GQ-6 in adults indicate that it is a promising tool for assessing dispositional gratitude in adulthood across different cultures. ...
Article
The 5-item Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ-5) is one of the most commonly used instruments to measure dispositional gratitude in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to verify the longitudinal measurement invariance (LMI) and gender measurement invariance (GMI) of the GQ-5 that was administered to an adolescent sample twice over the course of 18 months ( N = 669). Single-group confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was adopted to examine the LMI and multiple-group CFA was conducted to assess the GMI. The results showed that the GQ-5 had strong invariance (i.e., equality of factor patterns, loadings, and intercepts) across time and gender. Validation of latent factor mean differences showed that females had higher gratitude scores than males. In addition, the GQ-5 exhibited good internal consistency indices across time and a moderate stability coefficient was also found across an 18-month time interval in adolescents. In summary, our study showed that LMI and GMI of the GQ-5 are satisfactory and the GQ-5 is a reliable instrument for measuring gratitude in adolescents.
... Se ha encontrado que la Escala TIL es un instrumento útil para utilizar en estudios a gran escala y encuestas telemáticas debido a su brevedad (por ejemplo, Abdellaoui et al., 2019;Caputo, 2017;Mahajan, 2013). Varios estudios han respaldado el uso de la Escala TIL en diferentes culturas (por ejemplo, japonesa (Igarashi, 2019), danesa (Christiansen et al., 2016) o italiana (Caputo, 2016)). Pese a las ventajas de su uso en estos contextos, hasta donde conocemos, la Escala TIL todavía no ha sido validada en español. ...
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The Three-Item Loneliness Scale (TIL Scale) is a widely used brief instrument for the assessment of loneliness. The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the TIL Scale with data from two different studies. In Study One, 1536 adults between 18 and 88 years old completed a survey during the lock-down period due to the COVID-19 pandemic. In Study Two, 314 older adults between 60 and 92 years old were assessed prior to the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. Significant factor loadings were obtained through confirmatory factor analyses for both samples. Acceptable internal consistency was found for the scale in both samples. Positive associations between the TIL Scale and a single item measuring loneliness and depressive and anxious symptomatology were found. The findings provide support for the use of the TIL Scale with Spanish-speaking populations.
... Gratitude. We measured trait gratitude using the Italian adaptation of Gratitude Questionnaire-6 proposed by Caputo (2016). The scale measures the degree to which a person is grateful about life and other people. ...
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The adjustment of prison inmates is recently becoming a social concern. In the current study we focused on the role of gratitude, interpersonal forgiveness, and anger, which have been widely addressed as likely to influence people's health and adaptive behaviors, in shaping prison inmates' psychological wellbeing and criminal attitudes. Participants were 104 male prison inmates aged between 24 and 75 (Mage = 46.63, SD = 11.38) imprisoned in Northern Italy who were asked to fill in an anonymous self-report questionnaire. Results highlighted that all dimensions considered play an important, albeit different and highly specific, role; Gratitude is a promotional factor that enhances psychological wellbeing, whereas interpersonal forgiveness appears to be a protective factor against the adoption of a criminal attitude as violence or antisocial intent. Finally, anger is a risk factor toward both psychological wellbeing and violent behaviors. Implications of these results and further developments of the study are discussed.
... To test face validity and comprehensibility of the instrument, the questionnaire was tested on a small group of 10 volunteer participants. These volunteers assessed IMQ-A items in terms of readability, comprehensibility, sentence length, and clarity of meaning (Caputo, 2016;Caputo & Langher, 2015), to ready the instrument for implementation. Besides, all of participants agreed that the test appeared to measure different motivations to NTD use, correctly identifying the underlying constructs. ...
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Given the negative role of problematic use of new technological devices (NTD) in behavioral and psychological domains, the aim of the study is the Italian adaptation and validation of the Internet Motive Questionnaire for Adolescents (IMQ-A) in order to understand the motivation for the use of NTD. A total of 769 students 10–19 aged (M = 13.22, SD = 1.56) completed the IMQ-A, the Collins Figures Rating Scale, and two measures regarding the problematic NTD use, focused on overuse during the night and during meals. The IMQ-A showed adequate internal consistency with regard to its four subscales: Coping (α = .84), Social (α = .80), Enhancement (α = .80), and Conformity (α = .68) motives. However, with regard to factorial structure, a threefactor model (excluding Conformity subscale) showed slightly better fit indices than the original model. Coping motive was correlated with problematic NTD use and succeeded in predicting higher scores in body dissatisfaction as evidence of criterion-related and external validity. The Italian adaptation of the IMQ-A can be useful in both research and clinical fields, in order to propose alternative strategies for coping to users and to improve emotion regulation facets.
... The affective component entails predominance of positive over negative affect (or affect balance), while the cognitive component refers to evaluation of the satisfaction with one's life as a whole (Diener, 2000). It has been found that gratitude is positively correlated to life satisfaction (Caputo, 2016). In addition, gratitude predicts a better affect balance, which means that people who feel gratitude report more positive affect and experience less negative affect (Jans-Beken et al., 2015). ...
Article
The Gratitude Questionnaire is a short, self-report measure of the disposition to experience gratitude. The Gratitude Questionnaire has been validated in several countries but its factor structure remains controversial. Therefore, the main goal of the study was to examine the factor structure of the Gratitude Questionnaire in a Spanish sample. Two samples were recruited (957 and 920 participants). The confirmatory factor analyses showed that the best fit was the five-item model with errors of item four and five correlated (CFI = .99, NFI = .99, RMSEA = .02). This model demonstrated partial cross-validity based on an analysis of factorial invariance. The Composite Reliability of the five-item Gratitude Questionnaire was .81. In addition, it was found that gratitude was positively related to subjective and psychological well-being. Specifically, the Gratitude Questionnaire was positively correlated to life satisfaction (r = .56, p < .01), affect balance (r = .46, p < .01), self-acceptance (r = .54, p < .01), positive relations (r = .44, p < .01), autonomy (r = .17, p < .01), environmental mastery (r = .49, p < .01), personal growth (r = .36, p < .01), and purpose in life (r = .50, p < .01). According to the results, it can be concluded that the Spanish version of the five-item Gratitude Questionnaire possessed better psychometric properties than the original six-item model.
... For the Italian translation of the MCT we used a four step methodology (Sousa & Rojjanasrirat, 2011;Caputo, 2016): ...
... Gratitude Questionnaire (McCullough et al., 2002), Italian validation by Caputo (2016). It presents six items (example 'I have so much in life to be thankful for') to be rated on a 7-point Likert-type scale (1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree). ...
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Increasing well-being is a prominent worldwide goal that can be achieved primarily through social support and environmental factors. However, in times of social distancing or isolation, it is important to also rely on self-managed activities. This study aimed to (a) test the effectiveness of a seven-week well-being intervention, in increasing need satisfaction, self-compassion, emotion regulation, and grateful disposition by curbing need frustration, self-derogation, and emotional suppression, and (b) examine the maintenance and long-term effects of the practices based on recall, elaboration, and writing. One hundred and twenty university students weekly recalled and elaborated for seven consecutive weeks on three recent episodes of gratitude, self-affirmation, goal setting, or meaningful things, according to the group to which they were assigned. Before the intervention, immediately after and one month later, they filled in questionnaires to assess need satisfaction/frustration, self-compassion/derogation, emotion regulation and grateful disposition. The results confirmed an increase in well-being and a decrease in ill-being for all groups (Cohen d for the significant differences ranging from 0.18 to 0.53). The effects were maintained one month later and even increased for self-compassion, self-derogation, need frustration, and emotional reappraisal. A follow-up assessment revealed that a third of the participants continued with the well-being practices. Implications and suggestions for future well-being interventions are discussed.
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Purpose The benefits of teacher leadership have attracted the attention of policymakers, practitioners and researchers. It is increasingly advocated as one of the most crucial and indispensable components of the school, college and university administration. The present study tends to investigate the role of gratitude in developing teacher leadership through examining sufficiency and necessity of thankfulness for educational leadership. Design/methodology/approach The study explores sufficiency and necessity of gratitude for seven dimensions of educational leadership with the help of correlation, regression and necessary condition analysis. Findings The paper concludes that gratitude is both sufficient and necessary condition for overall teacher leadership and its seven dimensions. Originality/value The paper is based on original data.
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This paper evaluates the factor structure, reliability and validity of the gratitude scale (GQ-6) of McCullough, Emmons and Tsang (2002) and the five-item version proposed by Chen et al. (2009). Results of a sample of 1112 adults show that the five-item version has excellent internal consistency (α=.926; ω=.891; GLB=.913); high and significant factor loadings (greater than .8; p<.01), and excellent goodness of fit indexes (χ²(5)=23.837, p<.001; CFI=.997; TLI=.995; RMSEA=.082, p=.045; SRMSR=.035; WRMSR=.837). The criterion validity was evaluated applying subscales of the PERMA-Profiler: positive emotions (ρ=.5702, p=.021) and negative emotions (ρ=-.1786, p=.0316). Finally, we find psychometric equivalence between the sex of the participants. In conclusion, the five-item questionnaire is valid and reliable in the Ecuadorian context.
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Problem Statement: Although the study of gratitude in psychology has a very short history, the findings of several studies underline the role of gratitude in enhancing individual well-being. Therefore, it is important to be able to assess levels of individual gratitude in counseling and research settings. Since, in the Turkish literature, no measure of gratitude has been validated for college students, it is important to adapt The Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ), one of the most commonly used self-report measures of dispositional gratitude in recent literature, into Turkish, for use in research and practice. Purpose of Study: The purpose of this study was to translate the Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ; McCullough, Emmons, & Tsang, 2002) into Turkish and investigate its validity and reliability among Turkish undergraduate students. Methods: Forward and back translation methods were used to translate the GQ from English to Turkish. The Turkish form of the GQ, along with optimism, positive and negative affect, and satisfaction with life measures, was administered to a total of 859 Turkish college students (For age M=20.23, SD= 1.77) who were recruited from all departments at the Faculty of Education, Uludağ University. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to examine the factor structure of the scale. The relationship between GQ scores and scores on other measures was
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The present study was designed to test the assumption that gender differences in emotion expression are based on differences in the motives held by men and women in social interactions. Three hundred and fourteen students participated in this study by completing a questionnaire. Each questionnaire contained two vignettes that varied with respect to type of emotion (anger, disappointment, fear or sadness), sex of target, and object-target relationship. Dependent variables included measures of emotion expression and of motives for regulating one's emotions. The results support the general hypothesis that women are more concerned with relationships and less reluctant to express powerless emotions, whereas men are more motivated to stay in control and tend to express emotions that reflect their power.
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The purpose of these studies was to develop a valid measure of trait gratitude, and to evaluate the relationship of gratitude to subjective well-being (SWB). Four studies were conducted evaluating the reliability and validity of the Gratitude Resentment and Appreciation Test (GRAT), a measure of dispositional gratitude. This measure was shown to have good internal consistency and temporal stability. The GRAT was shown to relate positively to various measures of SWB. In two experiments, it was shown that grateful thinking improved mood, and results also supported the predictive validity of the GRAT. These studies support the theory that gratitude is an affective trait important to SWB.
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Internet research is appealing because it is a cost- and time-efficient way to access a large number of participants; however, the validity of Internet research for important subjective well-being (SWB) surveys has not been adequately assessed. The goal of the present study was to validate the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985), the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS-X; Watson & Clark, 1994), and the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS; Lyubomirsky & Lepper, 1999) for use on the Internet. This study compared the quality of data collected using paper-based (paper-and-pencil version in a lab setting), computer-based (Web-based version in a lab setting), and Internet (Web-based version on a computer of the participant's choosing) surveys for these three measures of SWB. The paper-based and computer-based experiment recruited two college student samples; the Internet experiments recruited a college student sample and an adult sample responding to ads on different social-networking Web sites. This study provides support for the reliability, validity, and generalizability of the Internet format of the SWLS, PANAS-X, and SHS. Across the three experiments, the results indicate that the computer-based and Internet surveys had means, standard deviations, reliabilities, and factor structures that were similar to those of the paper-based versions. The discussion examines the difficulty of higher attrition for the Internet version, the need to examine reverse-coded items in the future, and the possibility that unhappy individuals are more likely to participate in Internet surveys of SWB.
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This paper presents a new model of gratitude incorporating not only the gratitude that arises following help from others but also a habitual focusing on and appreciating the positive aspects of life", incorporating not only the gratitude that arises following help from others, but also a habitual focusing on and appreciating the positive aspects of life. Research into individual differences in gratitude and well-being is reviewed, including gratitude and psychopathology, personality, relationships, health, subjective and eudemonic well-being, and humanistically orientated functioning. Gratitude is strongly related to well-being, however defined, and this link may be unique and causal. Interventions to clinically increase gratitude are critically reviewed, and concluded to be promising, although the positive psychology literature may have neglected current limitations, and a distinct research strategy is suggested. Finally, mechanisms whereby gratitude may relate to well-being are discussed, including schematic biases, coping, positive affect, and broaden-and-build principles. Gratitude is relevant to clinical psychology due to (a) strong explanatory power in understanding well-being, and (b) the potential of improving well-being through fostering gratitude with simple exercises.
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This research focused on the nature and frequency of positive emotion in a sample of Scottish and Italian young adults and is part of larger scale on-going cross-cultural studies on positive emotion, well-being and happiness. A total of 1043 positive incidents were collected from 157 students who completed diaries in the two countries. Positive incidents were frequent in the course of daily life and were triggered by a wide variety of personal, social and environmental antecedents. Although each culture had a very similar life-satisfaction rating some cultural differences in the phenomenology of positive incidents and their emotions still emerged. As hypothesised Italian and Scottish cultures differed in the domain of independence and interdependence. Italians reported more social interactions involving talking with another and intimacy with a significant other. The Scots, in contrast, reported positive feelings associated with relaxation and being alone as frequently as other social categories, thus exemplifying independence. Recording positive incidents, as they occur moment to moment deconstructs the global and retrospective study of subjective well-being and happiness and fulfills the necessity for ecologically valid research.
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In four studies, the authors examined the correlates of the disposition toward gratitude. Study I revealed that self-ratings and observer ratings of the grateful disposition are associated with positive affect and well-being, prosocial behaviors and traits, and religiousness/spirituality. Study 2 replicated these findings in a large nonstudent sample. Study 3 yielded similar results to Studies I and 2 and provided evidence that gratitude is negatively associated with envy and materialistic attitudes. Study 4 yielded evidence that these associations persist after controlling for Extraversion/positive affectivity. Neuroticism/negative affectivity, and Agreeableness. The development of the Gratitude Questionnaire, a unidimensional measure with good psychometric properties, is also described.
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The authors conducted this study to further validate the revised short form of the Gratitude, Resentment, and Appreciation Test by investigating the relationship between GRAT-measured gratitude and two other constructs: (a) spiritual transcendence and (b) materialism. As predicted, both the GRAT and its subscales correlated positively with a measure of spiritual transcendence and negatively with a measure of materialism.
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consider the following issues: (a) the usefulness of the χ[superscript]2 statistic based on various estimation methods for model evaluation and selection; (b) the conceptual elaboration of and selection criteria for fit indexes; and (c) identifying some crucial factors that will affect the magnitude of χ[superscript]2 statistics and fit indexes / review previous research findings as well as report results of some new, unpublished research (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This article examines the adequacy of the “rules of thumb” conventional cutoff criteria and several new alternatives for various fit indexes used to evaluate model fit in practice. Using a 2‐index presentation strategy, which includes using the maximum likelihood (ML)‐based standardized root mean squared residual (SRMR) and supplementing it with either Tucker‐Lewis Index (TLI), Bollen's (1989) Fit Index (BL89), Relative Noncentrality Index (RNI), Comparative Fit Index (CFI), Gamma Hat, McDonald's Centrality Index (Mc), or root mean squared error of approximation (RMSEA), various combinations of cutoff values from selected ranges of cutoff criteria for the ML‐based SRMR and a given supplemental fit index were used to calculate rejection rates for various types of true‐population and misspecified models; that is, models with misspecified factor covariance(s) and models with misspecified factor loading(s). The results suggest that, for the ML method, a cutoff value close to .95 for TLI, BL89, CFI, RNI, and Gamma Hat; a cutoff value close to .90 for Mc; a cutoff value close to .08 for SRMR; and a cutoff value close to .06 for RMSEA are needed before we can conclude that there is a relatively good fit between the hypothesized model and the observed data. Furthermore, the 2‐index presentation strategy is required to reject reasonable proportions of various types of true‐population and misspecified models. Finally, using the proposed cutoff criteria, the ML‐based TLI, Mc, and RMSEA tend to overreject true‐population models at small sample size and thus are less preferable when sample size is small.
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Gratitude and forgiveness are theoretically linked character strengths that tend to be studied in isolation from other strengths. We examined gratitude and forgiveness in the same sample using self and confidant reports to better understand how strengths converge and diverge with personality factors, emotional vulnerabilities, and positive psychological processes. Data suggest that gratitude and forgiveness uniquely relate to personality factors, emotional vulnerabilities, and positive psychological processes with forgiveness evidencing stronger relations than gratitude. Forgiveness also appears to be more robust than gratitude due to the unique effects of forgiveness diminishing correlations between gratitude and other variables. Confidant data demonstrated that strengths were observable by others and related to observer perceptions of well-being. Results are discussed with an emphasis on the benefits of studying character strength profiles.
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Previous work suggests women might possess an advantage over men in experiencing and benefiting from gratitude. We examined whether women perceive and react to gratitude differently than men. In Study 1, women, compared with men, evaluated gratitude expression to be less complex, uncertain, conflicting, and more interesting and exciting. In Study 2, college students and older adults described and evaluated a recent episode when they received a gift. Women, compared with men, reported less burden and obligation and greater gratitude. Upon gift receipt, older men reported the least positive affect when their benefactors were men. In Studies 2 and 3, women endorsed higher trait gratitude compared with men. In Study 3, over 3 months, women with greater gratitude were more likely to satisfy needs to belong and feel autonomous; gratitude had the opposite effect in men. The willingness to openly express emotions partially mediated gender differences, and effects could not be attributed to global trait affect. Results demonstrated that men were less likely to feel and express gratitude, made more critical evaluations of gratitude, and derived fewer benefits. Implications for the study and therapeutic enhancement of gratitude are discussed.
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The problem of selecting one of a number of models of different dimensions is treated by finding its Bayes solution, and evaluating the leading terms of its asymptotic expansion. These terms are a valid large-sample criterion beyond the Bayesian context, since they do not depend on the a priori distribution.
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The information criterion AIC was introduced to extend the method of maximum likelihood to the multimodel situation. It was obtained by relating the successful experience of the order determination of an autoregressive model to the determination of the number of factors in the maximum likelihood factor analysis. The use of the AIC criterion in the factor analysis is particularly interesting when it is viewed as the choice of a Bayesian model. This observation shows that the area of application of AIC can be much wider than the conventional i.i.d. type models on which the original derivation of the criterion was based. The observation of the Bayesian structure of the factor analysis model leads us to the handling of the problem of improper solution by introducing a natural prior distribution of factor loadings.
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Normed and nonnormed fit indexes are frequently used as adjuncts to chi-square statistics for evaluating the fit of a structural model. A drawback of existing indexes is that they estimate no known population parameters. A new coefficient is proposed to summarize the relative reduction in the noncentrality parameters of two nested models. Two estimators of the coefficient yield new normed (CFI) and nonnormed (FI) fit indexes. CFI avoids the underestimation of fit often noted in small samples for Bentler and Bonett's (1980) normed fit index (NFI). FI is a linear function of Bentler and Bonett's non-normed fit index (NNFI) that avoids the extreme underestimation and overestimation often found in NNFI. Asymptotically, CFI, FI, NFI, and a new index developed by Bollen are equivalent measures of comparative fit, whereas NNFI measures relative fit by comparing noncentrality per degree of freedom. All of the indexes are generalized to permit use of Wald and Lagrange multiplier statistics. An example illustrates the behavior of these indexes under conditions of correct specification and misspecification. The new fit indexes perform very well at all sample sizes.
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The Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) study is a cross-national survey examining health and lifestyle behaviors of adolescents, traditionally administered by paper and pencil in a school setting. The purpose of the present study was to investigate if a computer format of the questionnaire would affect the responses of the adolescents in comparison with the paper and pencil format. In 2000, the Belgian (Flemish) HBSC survey was administered in 81 secondary schools by paper and pencil (n = 4083) and in 19 schools by computer (n = 1008). Eight hundred four computer participants (aged 12-20 years) were matched with paper and pencil participants on the basis of gender, age, educational level, socioeconomic status, and type of school authority. The questionnaire included items on lifestyle behaviors (e.g., nutrition, substance use, physical inactivity, sexual behavior), psychosomatic health, and social relations. For the majority of lifestyle behaviors, we found that mode of administration had no significant effect on adolescents' responses, whereas for several questions about feelings/affective states, more socially desirable responses were found in the paper and pencil format than in the computer format. The present findings suggest a need for further exploration of potential mode effects on questions about feelings and affective states before transition from the paper and pencil HBSC-survey to the computer format.