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Over a period of time, technological advancement has given us a new Addiction Disorder. Selfie is a photo of yourself that you take, typically with a Smartphone/ webcam. Smartphone has intruded in our life so much that without which we cannot survive. The appeal of Selfie comes from how easy they are to create and share and the control it give to the photographer. The term Selfie was officially named by an oxford English Dictionary in 2003. American Psychiatric Association suggests that taking so many Selfies could indicate Mental Disorder. In this research, we are trying to find out the kind of people more inclined towards taking Selfie. We conducted a survey on the population age ranging from 12-40 years. This study included variables namely Obsession, Narcissism, Self image, Perfection, Need for Affiliation, Hyperactivity and Impulsivity, and Social Support. The variables mentioned above are helpful in explaining the Selfie tendency among the youth in Indian context. The study suggests that the Selfie tendency is quite prevent in Indian youth and some variables like narcissism, hyperactivity are positively related with Selfie tendency, whereas self image has negative correlation with Selfie.
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SELFIE: A New Obsession
Sanchita Singh
Manav Rachna International University
Faridabad, India
sanchitasingh9@gmail.com
K M Tripathi
Manav Rachna International University
Faridabad, India
kmtripathi.fms@mriu.edu.in
Over a period of time, technological advancement has given us a new Addiction
Disorder. Selfie is a photo of yourself that you take, typically with a Smartphone/
webcam. Smartphone has intruded in our life so much that without which we cannot
survive. The appeal of Selfie comes from how easy they are to create and share and the
control it give to the photographer. The term Selfie was officially named by an oxford
English Dictionary in 2003. American Psychiatric Association suggests that taking so
many Selfies could indicate Mental Disorder. In this research, we are trying to find out
the kind of people more inclined towards taking Selfie. We conducted a survey on the
population age ranging from 12-40 years. This study included variables namely
Obsession, Narcissism, Self image, Perfection, Need for Affiliation, Hyperactivity and
Impulsivity, and Social Support. The variables mentioned above are helpful in
explaining the Selfie tendency among the youth in Indian context.
The study suggests that the Selfie tendency is quite prevent in Indian youth and some
variables like narcissism, hyperactivity are positively related with Selfie tendency,
whereas self image has negative correlation with Selfie.
Keywords: - Selfie tendency, narcissism, hyperactivity, self image
I. INTRODUCTION
It is quite interesting to understand how
something as trivial as taking selfies can
tell so much about a person. Today, we all
might have seen people taking selfies in
places like a public park, parties, metro
stations, and famous places like the Taj
Mahal etc. It won’t be shocking if many of
us are among those people. So what drives
these people to take pictures of their own,
as if they haven’t seen enough of
themselves already? Does it imply
anything important? Or is it one of those
things which people do because they see
others doing the same. These were the
questions which came across our mind as
we used to see people taking selfies. In
fact, it is quite surprising to be aware of
the fact that the people who have low self
esteem, are self-centered or are a bit of
narcissist are most likely to be addicted to
selfies. This is a very strong statement,
however based on facts and opinions of
various psychologist and several of our
own surveys that we conducted online.
While we were going through our
research, we came to know some very
scary as well as sad facts, as one being
about how many deaths there have been
because of selfies. India has topped in the
total number of people died while taking
selfies. There have been 47 deaths all
around the world and 14 just in India since
the inception of this new picture taking
style/technique. Deaths being the worst
effect, others that follow are anxiety,
inferiority complex and displeasure.
Advancing technology (for example
Smartphones) has intruded in our daily life
so much that without which we cannot
survive. Over 1 million selfies are taken in
a day (Style Caster). Many of today’s
generation smartphones are equipped with
high resolution camera, we call it the selfie
camera. Though people were fond of
taking photographs of their own and others
since many decades, with selfie camera it
has lead to an extreme effect. It is coupled
with posting the selfie photographs
(selfise) on social networking sites. Further
they keenly wait for comments of friends
and others. This has lead to chain of
reactions leading to a complex addiction
disorder which we may easily call as Selfie
addiction disorder. This is something we
should be worried about. Not only our
generation is wasting their precious time
on this, also, and we say this from own
experiences, we determine our own looks
and personality on the basis of how good
or bad the picture has come out to be.
Despite the rapid growth of Research on
social media little work has been done on
self-photography (i.e. selfie) aspect of
social media .The word selfie has been so
popular in past that the Oxford dictionary
named selfie a 2013 Word of the Year.
The American Psychiatric Association
(APA) has confirmed taking selfies is a
mental disorder, they have called it
selfitis as this mental disorder is an
inflammation of one’s ego. The APA has
defined it as: obsessive compulsive desire
to take photos of one’s self and post them
on social media as a way to make up for
the lack of self-esteem and to fill a gap in
intimacy”. Doctors say that Selfitis is a
form of obsessive compulsive disorder to
take one's own pictures and post them on
social media, and is broadly divided it into
three types: Borderline (taking at least
three pictures of self in a day but not
posting them on social media), Acute
(taking at least three photos of oneself
every day and posting them on social
media) and Chronic severe (taking at least
six photos of self every day and posting
them on social media). Selfies is a kind of
addiction if a person unable to post photos
causes withdrawal symptoms. Addiction to
selfies has been seen in ages ranging from
12-40 years, but is most prevalent in
youth, especially in teenagers as in their
age they seek identity and are concerned
about their self-image. There are different
kinds of selfies, which may or may not
include other people. The researchers
examined three kindssolo selfies; selfies
with a romantic partner; and selfies in a
group.
II. Literature Review
There is still a scope of studies to explore
more about the Selfitis. There are some
personality factors that people have who
are more inclined towards taking selfies.
After analyzing the available literature, it
have been stipulated that seven personality
factors which are Obsession, Narcissism,
Social Support, Self-Image, Need for
affiliation, Hyperactivity and Impulsivity,
and Perfection.
Those who post selfies are narcissistic
(e.g., Martino, 2014). Repeated attempts to
achieve the perfect selfie can perpetuate
obsession and perfection; meanwhile, the
absence of feedback, specifically positive
feedback, on a selfie has been proposed as
potentially dangerous for one’s self image
and self-esteem. A 2013 study of
Facebook users found that posting photos
Selfie
Taking
Tendency
Obsession
Narcissism
Social
Support
Self-Image
Affiliation
Need
Hyperactivity
and
Impulsivity
Perfection
of oneself correlates with lower levels of
social support and high level of need for
affiliation. Too much selfie posting can be
related to hyperactivity and Impulsivity.
However, there are some positive aspect of
taking selfie as it is a kind of self-
exploration, allow to be more genuine and
can lift up once self-esteem (Rutledge,
2013). It is also a means of communication
(Wortham, 2013).
Within the popular press, narcissism and
self-esteem and hyperactivity have
frequently been proposed as important
considerations in the rise of a selfie culture
(e.g., Martino, 2014; Walker, 2013).
III. PERSONALITY FACTORS:
THE TRINITY
i. NARCISSISM
Individuals with narcissistic tendencies
may be more apt than others to post selfies
on social media. Narcissism is
characterized, in part, by a grandiose self-
presentation that is motivated by the need
to regulate self-esteem (Morf &
Rhodewalt, 2001).Narcissism is fairly
harmless, described as, “extreme
selfishness, with a grandiose view of one’s
own talents and a craving for admiration,
as characterizing a personality type.” From
a psychoanalysis point of view, it’s much
more critical: “self-centeredness arising
from failure to distinguish the self from
external objects, either in very young
babies or as a feature of mental disorder.”
Recent study indicated that self-reported
frequency of selfie posts on social
networking sites was significantly
correlated with self-reported narcissism
among adult males (Fox & Rooney, 2015).
In a study researchers examined these
different facets of narcissism to see which
ones were most correlated with selfie-
posting. Participants' total narcissism
scores, and measures of all of the
narcissism subscales vanity(concern about
appearance and a tendency to admire your
own physical appearance), leadership
(believing that you should have authority
over other people, and being willing to
exploit others if necessary), admiration
demand (exhibitionism, feeling entitled to
special status or privileges, and feeling
superior to others) except for Self-
Sufficiency (thinking you can do things on
your own and don’t need other people)
were positively correlated with selfie-
posting for men. For women, a different
picture emerged: Only the Admiration
Demand subscale predicted selfie-posting.
(Gwendolyn Seidman,2015).
Ohio State University study, men who
posted more photos of themselves online
scored higher in measures of narcissism
and psychopathy. The researchers found
that posting more photos was correlated
with both narcissism and psychopathy.
Editing photos, however, was only
associated with narcissism, and not
psychopathy. Narcissism measures inflated
self-image (often motivated by underlying
insecurity).
Though Social media narcissistic person
gets outlet to present themselves and to get
feedback from others .Narcissism is related
spending good amount of time on editing
Personality Factors- The
Trinity
Hyperactivity
and Impulsivity
Narcissism
Self Image
photos of themselves and selection of
photograph which are physically attractive
((Kapidzic, 2013). Scoring high on
narcissism tend to post a higher quantity
(Bergman et al., 2011) and more revealing
(DeWall, Buffardi, Bonser, & Campbell,
2011) photos of themselves.
Interestingly, Buffardi and Campbell
(2008) reported that narcissism was not
related to posting self-promoting or
provocative pictures in general
Narcissism related to posting profile
picture which is self-promoting consistent
with this line of research, similar
association has been seen posts of selfies
which are inherently self-focused.
ii. SELF IMAGE / SELF
ESTEEM
SELF ESTEEM self-esteem is
conceptualized as one’s positive and
negative evaluations of himself or herself
and, relatedly, one’s approval or
disapproval of the self (Coopersmith,
1967; Rosenberg, 1965). It is believed that
social media could enhance self-esteem, as
individuals self-select how they present
themselves and because they may receive
social support or positive social feedback
which they want. On the other hand, social
media may foster low self-esteem through
the inherent opportunity to compare
oneself to others and the possibility that
one may receive negative, or no, social
feedback. Specific to posting pictures on
social media, Tazghini and Siedlecki
(2013) report that individual with lower
self-esteem are more likely to remove
unflattering pictures of them and are less
likely to report sharing photos on
Facebook as a positive feature than those
with higher self-esteem.
Current research illustrates that the link
between self-esteem and social media
behavior is unclear. However, posting
selfies may be reflective of low self-esteem
or may enhance self-esteem; as such
photos typically emphasize one’s ideal,
controlled image.
The habit of constantly taking pictures of
yourself and posting them online could be
a sign of low self-esteem and lack of
confidence, a psychologist said.
Growing up in the ‘i-generation’, many
adolescents and young adults have fallen
into the pattern of taking dozens of selfies
every day and posting them on social
media sites such as Facebook and
Instagram with the expectation of
receiving praising comments and a high
number of likes.
“More control equals more confidence and
higher [self-] esteem. This sense of control
can be seen in pictures where the person
smiles more, and then posts the best
version of themselves to the social
platform.
According to new research from personal
care brand Dove, one in four girls in the
UK have deleted a photo if it did not get
enough likes and eight out of 10 women
encounter negativity on social media that
impacts their self-esteem.
he approval, recognition and appreciation
that people get from posting pictures and
getting ‘likes’ on their selfies can feed into
a person being more self-absorbed. Some
tend to derive their self-esteem from the
recognition and validation they get from
their online network.
iii. Hyperactivity and
Impulsivity
Hyperactivity refers to excessive motor
activity, may manifest as inner feelings of
extreme restlessness and wearing others
out with their activity.
Impulsivity: Individuals with impulsive
tendencies can be reckless and appear
impatient, and are often disinherited in
social situations. They may find it difficult
to wait their turn, intruding on or
interrupting others’ activities or blurting
out answers to a question before it has
been completed.
Individual who often interrupt and intrude
face trouble waiting to upload one’s selfie.
Who takes selfie excessively with high
level of anxiety and restlessness .Research
suggest that person with high level of
hyperactivity and impulsivity are more
incline towards taking selfie.
IV. Current study and
hypothesis
The purpose of the present study is to offer
initial empirical examination of personality
factors which are more inclined towards
taking selfie. In this study, an effort is
made to explore how the tendency of
taking selfies is related to other
personality factors. . It was hypothesized
that the number of selfies posted, the
proportion of total posts that were
selfies, and the frequency of selfie taken
would be positively correlated with
dimensions of narcissism, hyperactivity
and impulsivity . It will be negatively
correlated with self-image.
V. METHOD
Participants
Participants were 50 students from a
government school of Haryana (22male,
28 females) who ranged in age 12 to 18(
M= 14.66 , SD= 6.49), Regarding
educational qualification, 50 participants
were matric pass , all of them belong to
urban area . To participate, individuals
were required to have interest in taking
selfies. Participants were randomly
selected. Students from any academic
stream were allowed to participate.
Measures
Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale
(RSES;Rosenberg, 1965).
The RSES is a widely used 10-item scale
assessing global self-esteem(e.g.,
“Overall, I am satisfied with myself”).
Responses are made on a 4-point scale
from strongly disagree to strongly agree.
A 10-item scale that measures global self-
worth by measuring both positive and
negative feelings about the self. The scale
is believed to be uni-dimensional. All
items are answered using a 5-point Likert
scale format ranging from strongly agree
to strongly disagree. The items of the scale
were blended in terms of selfie .
Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI;
Raskin& Terry, 1988).
The NPI is a 40-item forced choice
inventory that assesses non pathological
narcissism (Miller & Campbell, 2012
Assessing achievement, affiliation, and
power motives all at once: The Multi-
Motive Grid (MMG)( H.-D. Schmalt, K.
Sokolowski& T. Langens)
Reliability data show that the internal
consistency and retest reliability of the
MMG scales satisfy traditional standards.
External validity of the MMG has been
established in all 3 motive domains
The Affiliative Tendency (or Affiliation,
Sociability) Test & Software
The Affiliative Tendency Scale is a
measure of individual differences in
affiliation, friendliness, or sociability. The
version being used (Mehrabian, 1994b)
was developed by Mehrabian (1976). It
contains 26 items and subjects report the
degree of their agreement or disagreement
with each item using a 9-point agreement-
disagreement scale.
YALE-BROWN OBSESSIVE
COMPULSIVE SCALE (Y-BOCS)
(by Wayne K. Goodman )
This self-rating scale is designed to assess
the severity and type of symptoms in
patients with OCD
Perfectionistic Self-Presentation
Scale(Hewitt, P. L., Flett, G. L., Sherry,
S. B., Habke, M., Parkin, M., et al.
(2003))
A measure of the interpersonal expression
of perfectionist behavior including
perfectionist self-promotion, no display of
imperfection, and nondisclosure of
imperfection.
Selfie coding.( M=14.66,SD=6.49) Ratings
on self-report measures participants were
asked about:
S.NO.
1-
2-
3-
4-
5-
7-
8-
9-
The questionnaire was conducted on 50
students of a government school.
Students were selected randomly they
were initially asked about their liking for
selfie. Participants completed
questionnaire offline and online via the
secure survey website .In the questionnaire
participants were asked about their
demographic details.
There were 10 questions related to selfie .6
statements of obsession , 5 statements of
Narcissism , 6 statements of self-image, 6
statements of perfection , 2 statements of
hoading , 5 statements of hyperactivity and
impulsivity , 4 statements for need for
affiliation. Responses are made on a 5-
point scale ranging from strongly agree
to strongly disagree to asses if they have
selfie tendency .6 statements of social
support were also asked to measure the
perception and actuality that one is cared
for, has assistance available from other
people.
VI. RESULT
Table 1 Descriptive statistics for main
variable of interest.
Sr
No.
Variable
Mean
SD
1
Selfie
14.6
6.49
2
Need for
Affiliation
11.6
3.28
3
Hyperactive
13.3
4.51
4
Self Image
16.3
2.2
5
Perfection
21.1
4.7
6
Obsession
17.2
4.4
7
Hoarding
6.1
2.24
8
Narcissism
14.1
4.24
9
Networking
2.6
1.5
10
Social Support
25.3
8.03
We have represented our numerical data
graphically with the help of
histogram. Probability distribution of
continuous (quantitative variable). As we
can see the graph of selfie, narcissism and
hyperactivity is positively skewed
indicating over- evaluation, social support
is negatively skewed (India being a
collectivistic country even then people
have less social support) whereas
affiliation, self-image, perfection,
obsession and hoading are normally
distributed.
In table 3 statistics, the Pearson product-
moment correlation coefficient
(sometimes referred to as the PPMCC or
PCC or Pearson's r) is a measure of the
linear correlation between two variables X
and Y.** correlation is significant at the
0.01 level (2 tailed ) and * correlation is
significant at the 0.05 level ( 2 tailed ). If
we look at table 3 hyperactivity and
narcissism are positively correlated with
selfie at 0.01 level.
Selfie
Affi
Hyperactive
Self
Image
Perfection
Obs
Selfie
1
Affi
0.13
1
Hyperactive
0.41**
0.32*
1
Self Image
-0.006
0.37*
0.40**
1
Perfection
0.17
-0.04
0.10
0.22
1
Obs
0.12
0.21
0.25
0.24
0.43**
1
Hoading
0.24
0.44**
0.16
0.37*
0.17
0.14
Nar
0.48**
0.44**
0.31*
0.35*
0.26
0.20
Networking
0.21
0.62**
0.19
0.28*
0.02
0.10
Social
Support
0.09
0.25
0.06
0.003
-0.07
0.13
** Indicates significance at 0.01 Level
* indicates significance at 0.5 Level
Descriptive statistics for the main study
variables are shown in Table 4.From this
table we can see that model 1 is a predictor
of narcissism, model 2 is a predictor of 2
variables that is narcissism and
hyperactivity, model 3 is a predictor of
narcissism, hyperactivity and self-image.
Independent variable is narcissism,
hyperactivity, self image whereas
dependent variable is selfie. For ANOVA
the estimate of numerator is larger than the
denominator that is why the F ratio is
much larger than 1.00.The null hypothesis
of equality of population mean is rejected
in these 3 model because the calculated
value of F is larger than the expected
though random sampling if the hypothesis
is true. As F exceeds the critical value of
F, we can conclude that these 3 variables
have significant effect on selfie tendency.
Hoarding
In the table 5, label the standardized
regression coefficients as "Beta" while the
unstandardized coefficients are labeled
"B".The beta coefficients can be negative
or positive, and have a t-value and
significance of that t-value associated with
it. The “beta”(Standardized coefficients)
and “B” ( Unstandardized coefficient )
have negative value for self-image which
means the independent variable (self-
image ) and dependent variable (selfie
tendency) are negatively correlated and
other variables like hyperactivity and
narcissism are positively associated . The
value of t has been calculated where value
of t obtained falls in the region of
rejection. It is so different from the value
stated in null hypothesis that we conclude
that it have low probability of occurring by
chance if null hypothesis is true. Thus,
they rejected null hypothesis. The research
conclusion is that narcissism, hyperactivity
and self-image personality factors have
significant effect on Selfie tendency.
TABLE 5-Coefficientsa
Model
Unstandardized Coefficients
Standardized
Coefficients
B
Std. Error
Beta
1
(Constant)
4.125
2.853
Nar
.744
.193
.486
2
(Constant)
.517
3.166
Nar
.608
.195
.397
Hyperactive
.416
.183
.289
3
(Constant)
12.633
5.498
Nar
.737
.190
.481
Hyperactive
.578
.184
.401
S_I
-.987
.376
-.340
In the table 6 Model Summary is shown
where Model 1 indicating narcissism with
22% significance, Model 2 indicating
narcissism and hyperactivity with 28.2%
significance, Model3 indicating
narcissism, hyperactivity and self-image
with 36.2% significance .In all of these 3
models the results are significant at 0.00
level, model 3 indicating the best results as
it is combining 3 variable together .
TABLE 4 -ANOVAd
Model
Sum of Squares
Df
Mean Square
F
Sig.
1
Regression
488.582
1
488.582
14.837
.000a
Residual
1580.638
48
32.930
Total
2069.220
49
2
Regression
644.577
2
322.288
10.633
.000b
Residual
1424.643
47
30.312
Total
2069.220
49
3
Regression
830.017
3
276.672
10.270
.000c
Residual
1239.203
46
26.939
Total
2069.220
49
a. Predictors: (Constant), Nar
b. Predictors: (Constant), Nar, Hyperactive
c. Predictors: (Constant), Nar, Hyperactive, S_I
d. Dependent Variable: Selfie
TABLE 6-Model Summary
Model
R
R Square
Adjusted R Square
Std. Error of the
Estimate
1
.486a
.236
.220
5.73846
2
.558b
.312
.282
5.50559
3
.633c
.401
.362
5.19030
a. Predictors: (Constant), Nar
b. Predictors: (Constant), Nar, Hyperactive
c. Predictors: (Constant), Nar, Hyperactive, S_I
VII. DISCUSSION
The present study represented empirical
investigation of the association between
the different personality factors and their
association with selfie tendency. First, the
results indicate that, despite individual
variability posting selfies was a fairly
common occurrence. Second, the
personality factors like Obsession,
Perfection, Need for Affiliation, Social
Support lack association with overall selfie
tendency but other construct are predictive
of this specific, and relatively new,
behavior such as narcissism, hyperactivity
and impulsivity, self-image. Vulnerable
narcissism was correlated with posting
selfies. That is, a relatively high
proportion were oriented towards
highlighting their grandiose self that is
motivated by the need to regulate self-
esteem. Posting selfies may be reflective of
low self-esteem or may enhance self-
esteem; as such photos typically
emphasize one’s ideal, controlled image.
Taking selfie excessively with high level
of anxiety and restlessness suggesting that
person with high level of hyperactivity and
impulsivity are more incline towards
taking selfie. Demographic factors, such as
age, are also likely factors in social media
behavior because of generational
differences in experience with, and
exposure to, social media. Given the focus
on school students in this study,
generational differences in posts of selfies
could not be adequately explored.
Moreover, the roles of gender,
race/ethnicity, and culture in social media
behavior, including the display of selfies,
should be considered in more diverse
samples.
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World Mental
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... The rise of selfie-culture has popularly been attributed to two important aspects: narcissism and self-esteem (Walker 2013;Weiser 2015;Kathrynn et al. 2016;Wang et al. 2017). Several previous studies have evaluated the association of selfie posting behavior with various personality traits such as obsession, self-image, social support, need for affiliation, narcissism, hyperactivity, perfection, and impulsivity (Wortham 2013;Martino 2014;Singh and Tripathi 2016). Results indicate that people who post selfies and aim for that perfect selfie are narcissistic and obsessive. ...
... In its extreme form, the debate on declaring it as a mental disorder is ongoing as the impact has been deadly in many instances; and India being the selfie-death-capital of the world (Hernandez 2016). Singh and Tripathi (2016) categorize this mental obsession of taking and posting selfies (per day) into three categories: borderline (minimum of three selfies but not posting it on social media), acute (posting three selfies minimum to social media), and chronic severe (minimum 6 selfies and posting on social media) (Albury 2014;Kathrynn et al. 2016;Wang et al. 2017). ...
... Past researches have evaluated the relationship between selfie-posting behavior and personality traits such as self-esteem, obsession, self-image, social exhibition, need for recognition and affiliation, narcissism, hyperactivity, perfection, and impulsivity (Seidman 2015;Weiser 2015;Walker 2013;Kathrynn et al. 2016;Wang et al. 2017;Wortham 2013;Martino 2014;Singh and Tripathi 2016;Chua and Chang 2016;and Eunice et al. 2016). ...
Article
In the present scenario, no event whether formal or informal is complete without clicking a selfie. Selfies are especially in trend among young people, and they go can go to any extent often risking their lives for a perfect selfie. The hype is so much that even the mobile companies advertise their new handsets on the basis of selfie camera. Previous empirical studies found that typical selfie sufferers were those who intend to seek attention and habitually low in self-confidence, and they believe that posting their images on social media platforms enhances their social standing. The present study is based in India, the country with the highest number of young population. Recently, the country reported numerous incidents, where selfie clicking has turned out to be in serious suffering. People also feel uncomfortable if they do not receive appreciation and likes on social media after posting selfies. Data were collected on the population age ranging from 12 to 30 years. The present study has uncovered the behavioral attributes of people who are more prone to taking selfies. The findings suggest that social exhibition and extraversion traits of an individual have a significant impact on the individual’s selfie posting behavior.
... The second school of thought contradicts the stance of the former as they believe that excessive selfie taking could result into some psychological problems on the part of the selfie-taker who has crossed from the borderline and acute stages to the chronic stage. Proponents of this school of thought include Bhattacharyya (2017), Gupta and Pooja (2016), Kaur and Vig (2016), and Singh and Tripathi (2017). Sakthivel and Thangamuthu (2019) argue that there is a strong connection between narcissistic traits and excessive selfie taking among college students in their study. ...
... Shah's (2015) operationalisation of "selfie addiction" scale was adopted (the taking of three or more selfies a day) and the result reveals that most of the participants would have been genuinely addicted to taking selfies. Singh and Tripathi (2017) carried out a small study comprising 50 Indian adolescents aged 12-18 years (28 females; average age 14.6 years) and found that narcissism and hyperactivity were positively correlated with "selfie addiction", whereas self-image was negatively correlated with "selfie addiction". But, in addition to the very small sample size, the instrument used to assess selfie tendencies had little to do with addiction and simply asked questions about typical selfie behaviour (e.g., how many selfies a day/week are taken, how much time a day is spent taking selfies, are the selfies posted onto social media, etc.). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Female sex workers constitute a diverse group working in a wide array of contexts. They face disproportionate burdens of HIV, HIV risk and limited access to healthcare services. Sub-Saharan Africa bears the brunt of HIV among sex workers, with the highest proportion of global sexual transmission of HIV in sex work (17.8%) occurring in the region.
... [1] More than a million selfies are taken in a day. [2] Taking selfies is common in college-going adolescents and young adults. [3,4] From 2014 to mid-2016, 75 people died while attempting to take a selfie in 52 incidents worldwide. ...
... [5] Taking selfies has been proposed to be an addiction or obsession. [2,7] "Selfitis" was defined as a psychiatric illness where a person has obsessive-compulsive desire to take photos of one's self and post them on social media as a way to make up for the lack of self-esteem and to fill a gap in intimacy. [8] Balakrishnan and Griffiths ...
... In recent times, rather than to treasure memories, sel ies have led to a type of behavioural addiction called 'SELFITIS'. The APA has stated that Sel itis is an 'obsessive-compulsive desire to take photos of one's self and post them on social media as a way to make up the lack of self-esteem and to ill a gap in intimacy (Singh, 2016). ...
... The irst (Domlur et al., 2018). Since then, there have been 259 deaths reported all over the world (Singh, 2016). Since there is a gap in the literature in this fast-growing problem, this study was intended to explore more about it to identify, assess the level of addiction and to curb the ill effects and provide them with support to come out of it. ...
Article
Full-text available
A selfie is a self-portrait photograph typically taken with a camera phone held in hand or supported by a selfie stick. Studies suggest that the level of selfie addiction among youngsters has been increasing over the years. Selfitis is the term that is being widely used to denote selfie addiction. This study aims at assessing the level of sel ie addiction and various factors associated with it, and to evaluate the relationship between sel ie addiction and addictive sel ie habits. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the Allied Health Science students of a tertiary care hospital in Chennai. Two hundred seventy-three students were studied by convenient sampling method. A pre-tested, validated, structured and self-administered questionnaire was given, and the desired information was elicited. Chi-square test was used to test the significance (p <0.05)A total of 287 students were studied, of which 65 (22.6%) were males, and 222 (77.4%) were females. It is observed that age, year of study, the place from which they come, place of stay and father's occupation have a statistically significant relationship with selfie addiction. Most of the selfie addictive behaviors have a female preponderance. A significant portion of the youth is in the early stage of selfie addiction. Hence it is highly essential to spread awareness about the ill effects of selfie addiction among the youngsters to curb this addiction earlier.
... A woman has a lot of sharing selfies than men (Szabo & Buta, 2019). Through a temperature posting of selfies can increase individuals self-esteem (Wang¹, Wang², Liu, Xic, & Lei, 2018)-If-posting may represent low self-esteem or boost self-esteem; as such pictures usually emphasize the managed image of one's contract (Singh & Tripathi, 2016). ISSN 2327-5510 2020 The self-esteem of every individual indirectly linked to adult depression through RS and weather the positive effect of this indirect relationship was moderated (Wang 1 , Wang 2, Xic, Wang 3 , Wang⁴, Nic, & Lei, 2018). ...
... On the contrary, some people took selfie and posting their selfie can felt good about their self (Wickel, 2015). Selfie represent low self-esteem or boost self-esteem (Singh & Tripathi, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Selfie is an image taken by them and later uploaded to social media such as Twitter, Instagram, Facebook and so on. Self-esteem is an important aspect of personality of the person. This study focused on why people are fond on taking selfie and posting selfie to the internet or social media networking is a factor leading to an increase individual’s self-esteem. The study supported by the Looking Glass Self theory proposed by Charles Horton Cooley. The study was conducted to gather information from students towards on how their behavior on taking selfie in order for the researcher to asses if there is an association between the “selfie and students’ self-esteem”. This study has 145 respondents from the different strands in Senior High School. The tool used on this study is checklist rating scale questionnaire to collect data and information. All the data were analyzed using chi-square. The result revealed the p value is less than to the significant level. Therefore, the result of this study revealed that the selfie habits of the students can boost self-esteem.
... "Perfectionism" is found to be a positive predictor of selfitis behavior among college-going girls, suggesting that individuals who put forth persistent efforts to attain "perfect selfie" are more likely to have an obsession, compulsion, and perfection. [17] Perfectionism is a characteristic feature of narcissism. [18] Various studies showed that there is a relationship between selfie-posting behavior and narcissism. ...
Research
Full-text available
Aim: The study aims to identify significant personality predictors of selfie-taking behavior among college and school-going students. Methods: The sample size consists of 50 boys and 50 girls (n = 100) between the age range of 16–23 years from various schools and colleges of Delhi NCR. The tools used in the study were Cattell's 16 Personality Factors and Selfitis Behavior Scale. Results: The results of the study depicted a positive correlation of selfitis behavior with perfectionism and sensitivity. However, self-reliance, reasoning, and emotional stability showed a negative correlation with selfitis behavior. Furthermore, the results of the study showed that girls have more selfitis behavior as compared to boys and the college group have more selfitis behavior than that of the school group. ANOVA and linear regression were used to analyze data. Conclusion: Social media is the strongest tool of communication nowadays. “Selfies” are a growing social networking technique for self-disclosure. Use of social media is focusing on the physical aspect and allowing posting and amending pictures that are creating concerns about body image, poor self-esteem, loneliness, and depression among students. The overall results suggest that while selfies provide individuals with the potential of enhancing self-disclosure, they also demonstrate some risky and unhealthy behaviors. Therefore, predicting personality traits could be considered an effective variable to sensitize them before the deterioration of their mental health.
... Setelah itu, mereka sangat menunggu komentar teman dan orang lain mengenai unggahannya tersebut. Hal ini dianggap rantai reaksi yang mengarah ke gangguan adiksi kompleks (Singh & Tripathi, 2016 ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Kecanggihan smartphone di era digital ini membuat penggunanya menjadi smartphone addiction. Salah satu perilaku smartphone addiction yaitu selfie. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara smartphone addiction dan selfitis behavior pada remaja di Indonesia. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekan kuantitatif dengan analisis korelasi. Subjek penelitian ini sebanyak 379 remaja usia 15-22 tahun. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa terdapat hubungan yang positif, sedang dan signifikan antara smartphone addiction dan selfitis behavior (r=0,493; p=0,001). Artinya subjek yang memiliki skor smartphone addiction tinggi akan memiliki skor selfitis behavior yang tinggi pula. Hasil lain menemkan bahwa 17% selfitis behavior dapat dijelaskan oleh smartphone addiction. Oleh karena itu, peneliti menyarankan agar remaja lebih memikirkan konsekuensi yang akan diterima sebelum mengunggah selfie di media sosial.
Chapter
In 2014 the American Psychiatric Association (APA) published a report officially declaring selfie taking as a mental disorder named as selfitis. However, some scholars have argued that to attribute selfie taking to a mental disorder is inappropriate as it has not crossed the borderline. This chapter reviews the literature on mental disorder occasioned by Social Networking Sites (SNS) addiction and data from students, medical professionals and psychologists to examine the various factors responsible for this addiction and its socio-cultural implications.
Article
A concept involving the interpersonal expression of perfection, perfectionistic self-presentation, is introduced. It is argued that perfectionistic self-presentation is a maladaptive self-presentational style composed of three facets: perfectionistic self-promotion (i.e., proclaiming and displaying one's perfection), nondisplay of imperfection (i.e., concealing and avoiding behavioural demonstrations of one's imperfection), and nondisclosure of imperfection (i.e., evading and avoiding verbal admissions of one's imperfection). Several studies involving diverse samples demonstrate that perfectionistic self-presentation is a valid and reliable construct and a consistent factor in personal and interpersonal psychological distress. It is argued that the need to promote one's perfection or the desire to conceal one's imperfection involves self-esteem regulation in the interpersonal context.
Article
This paper reviewed evidence bearing on questionnaire measures of affiliative tendency and sensitivity to rejection (Mehrabian, 1970a). Subjects ( n = 916 undergraduates) who scored higher on the measure of affiliative tendency behaved in a more affiliative way, were more ingratiating and elicited greater relaxation from the strangers they met. They were less anxious, elicited more positive attitudes, judged themselves and were judged to be more self-confident, and perceived themselves as more similar to others. Subjects who scored higher on the measure of sensitivity to rejection were strikingly different. They were less reaxed, more anxious, and were judged less positively, more negatively, and as less confident, even though they had positive impressions of the strangers they met. It has been shown that Dependency is simply an equally weighted sum of affiliative tendency and sensitivity to rejection.
Article
An online survey of a nationally representative sample of U.S. men aged 18-40 assessed trait predictors of social networking site use as well as two forms of visual self-presentation: editing one’s image in photographs posted on social networking sites (SNSs) and posting “selfies,” or pictures users take of themselves. We examined the Dark Triad (i.e., narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy) and trait self-objectification as predictors. Self-objectification and narcissism predicted time spent on SNSs. Narcissism and psychopathy predicted the number of selfies posted, whereas narcissism and self-objectification predicted editing photographs of oneself posted on SNSs. We discuss selective self-presentation processes on social media and how these traits may influence interpersonal relationship development in computer-mediated communication.
Article
The current study examined the relationship between self-esteem and Facebook use in sample of college-age participants (N = 201). Online methods were used to collect data. Consistent with the social compensation hypothesis, results indicate that self-esteem level was related to engaging in different on-line behaviors. For example, lower self-esteem was associated with feelings of connectedness to Facebook, more frequently untagging oneself in photos, and accepting friend requests from individuals that one does not know well. Qualitative analyses indicated that individuals with higher self-esteem were more likely to report that a positive aspect of Facebook was the ability to share pictures, thoughts, and ideas, and to report that other posts could become annoying or bothersome.
Article
Abstract The rising popularity of social networking sites raises the question of whether and how personality differences are manifested on them. The present study explores this topic through an analysis of the relationship between narcissism and motivations behind Facebook profile picture selection. A survey that assesses motivations emphasizing physical attractiveness, personality, and social ties was conducted with 288 undergraduate students. The study found narcissism to be a significant predictor of the motivation for selecting profile pictures that emphasize attractiveness and personality for both men and women. The findings are discussed in terms of the dynamic self-regulatory processing model of narcissism.
Article
The rise in levels of narcissism among Millennials together with the increased usage of social networking sites (SNSs) raises the question of whether there is a connection between the two. The current study examined the link between narcissism and both SNS activities and motivation for SNSs activities. Results indicated that narcissism did not relate to the amount of time spent on SNS, frequency of status updates, posting picture of others, or checking up on SNS friends. However, narcissism predicted reasons why Millennials use SNSs, such as having as many SNS friends as possible, wanting their SNS friends to know what they were doing, believing their SNS friends were interested in what they are doing, and having their SNS profiles project a positive image. Findings suggest that Millennials’ general usage of SNSs is a sign of the times. While narcissists in the Millennial generation do not appear to use SNSs more often than non-narcissists, their reasons for doing so are different.
Article
Two studies examined how narcissism, a personality trait marked by self-promotion, vanity, and grandiosity, related to how people communicate information about themselves online. We predicted that narcissists communicate in ways that draw attention to themselves. Specifically, we predicted that narcissistic people who used relatively few first-person singular pronouns (e.g., “I,” and “me”) would display more self-promoting and sexy images of themselves on their Facebook.com profile pages (Study 1) and would use more profane and aggressive words in an online self-descriptive task (Study 2). Both studies supported this hypothesis. Implications for narcissism and online communication research are discussed.
Article
We propose a dynamic self-regulatory processing model of narcissism and review supporting evidence. The model casts narcissism in terms of motivated self-construction, in that the narcissist's self is shaped by the dynamic interaction of cognitive and affective intrapersonal processes and interpersonal self-regulatory strategies that are played out in the social arena. A grandiose yet vulnerable self-concept appears to underlie the chronic goal of obtaining continuous external self-affirmation. Because narcissists are insensitive to others' concerns and social constraints and view others as inferior, their self-regulatory efforts often are counterproductive and ultimately prevent the positive feedback that they seek-thus undermining the self they are trying to create and maintain. We draw connections between this model and other processing models in personality and employ these models to further elucidate the construct of narcissism. Reconceptualizing narcissism as a self-regulatory processing system promises to resolve many of its apparent paradoxes, because by understanding how narcissistic cognition, affect, and motivation interrelate, their internal subjective logic and coherence come into focus.
Article
Affiliative Tendency (MAFF) is defined by generalized positive social expectations and behaviors. Relationships of the MAFF with various measures are given in parentheses following each item listed: liking of others (+), social anhedonia (−), social avoidance and distress (−), judged similarity and compatibility with others (+), favorable impressions of strangers (+), adjustments to high social density (+), concern about attractive appearance (+), self-disclosure and confidence (+), conversation and positiveness with others (+). Sensitivity to Rejection (MSR) essentially measures submissiveness and has the following relationships: assertiveness (−), leadership (−), competition performance (−), confidence (−), ability to deal with threat and hostility (−), submissive social behaviors (+). Dependency, loneliness, and popularity are derivative (mathematical) functions of the MAFF and MSR.