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"Hey, Baby, ¿Qué Pasó?: Performing bilingual identities in Texas music

Authors:

Abstract

Analysis of the types and functions of code-mixing in the lyrics of the Texas Tornados

!"#$%#$%&%
'%()&*+(%(#%*%%%()&
*+()%%,%(-%(
"+'./0
1$#%(
23¿Qué Pasó?41&
3%% !
Introduction
Poetic Language Mixing
"%((%%&*+(5(!($&
$67+89+(&(($%(
&&%&%$4
:+%6;<=0'=00>=0=%
)%==?@///9
:+6)%;)3!//)(////
//A9
:61&&&)($=.'9
Poetic Language Mixing
&4
:!+8%$%%&%
%+%6)(//1&&&)($=.'4?9%
%4
:&B%
:%4$,%(C,$+%
,(,%(+%
:+%%(%%%&!6;
<=0'=00>=0=9
Code Mixing in Music
7%%8!61//9(%
&&%%4
$*+6"%//"%=.D9
"<(rai63%($////.9
>5(++6//A9
E*+(+6/A9
Spanish-English Mixing
*+(5(!#F*F++(%
%+%4
:"bachata6<-(/-(
//09
:)()"+62/
/09
*%4
:(%+%(
: !G
Texas Music
Texas Music
!($%(%%8(%&&%
%%6*+(!""&)%5+9F
*"%+%(%%&!&4
:)
:)H%
:I%**
: H
%4
:%%+&*+(&!"
:$%$6*%(*<<*9
The Texas Tornados
J"genre&++
%(%%(,$%(%
%+%K
6E+//9
J (%%(%%
& !L
K6@(,%===9
The Texas Tornados
!++&&%%,%(,
(%4
:%,! !63E2%L<
<J<KM;9
:%,"E6"*(9
(+(%$%,=.=/?
%4
:7&%%(+L+%
%86@(,%===9
:conjunto%L+L
English and Spanish in the Texas
Tornados
-&%(Texas Tornados8%%$&%!4
J,!!!
Spanglish&%%(%(*"%,(%$+
%$%,FK6<<
,%(==?9
Research Questions
FI(%%(%+&!%( ! 8N
FI(%+%&%%(!&&N
Materials and methods
Data Sources
FTexas Tornados8+%6==//?9.
Record Title Year Tracks
1. Texas Tornados ==/ /
2. Zone of Our Own == /
3. Hangin’ on by a Thread == /
4. 4 Aces ==' 
5. Live from the Limo === A
6. Live from Austin, TX //? =
7. ¡Está Bueno! // D
8. A Little Bit Is Better than Nada /? D=
%&%L 0
Language Mixing
F&Texas TornadosF
Record Title Year Spanish English Mixed
1. Texas Tornados ==/ / D 0
2. Zone of Our Own == D ?
3. Hangin’ on by a Thread == D ?
4. 4 Aces ==' A '
5. Live from the Limo === ? A
6. Live from Austin, TX //? '
7. ¡Está Bueno! // ' ?
8. A Little Bit Is Better than Nada /? D
%& A DD DD
Types of Mixed Songs
English matrix: 5(6*%%==D9,%(*+(!%%
%%,%(F
6D9J3&pesosC8++%(besosK6Dinero==/9
Spanish matrix: *+(%!,%(5(!%%%%,%(F
6A9JChicano, soy chicano /"%(%(%%((%,CEn Texas, California
dondequiera que esté/ Chicano, soy chicano sí señor…K6Chicano//9
Balanced mixing:3%(5(*+(B$%4
6?9JVoy a cantar estos versos / aunque yo no soy de aquí/ yo soy puro mexicano/ soy de San Luis
Potosí…”
<%%TejanitaC&$,%((C*(,bonita /(%
(OK6Soy de San Luis==/9
Intra-sentential4%&(%+(%%%%
6'9 (%%8%+%CMujer perdida 6J+K=='9
Inter-sentential: %%&%&(
%
6A9Chicano, soy Chicano C"%(%((%,CEn Texas, California dondequiera que
esté/ Chicano, soy chicano sí señor… 6J)(K//9
Lexical insertions4%&,
609I,%señorita ,%&6J"!K==/9
6.92PL%%(cantina6JA"K=='9
Types of Code-Switching
Poetic
Poetic
Pragmatic
Pragmatic
Rapper signature
Rapper signature
Vocatives
Vocatives
Emphasis/Translation
Emphasis/Translation
Discourse markers
Discourse markers
Performative
Performative
Latinidad
Latinidad
Hypermasculinity
<%&*+(,%(,&%%&+$
(6/0*LI//09F
Pragmatic Function of Switches
CS used to facilitate rhyme CS used as discourse or cohesion marker CS used to construct identity
Results
Quantitative
Summary
Figure 1: Songs (n = 80) according to language use
English
English Matrix
Spanish
Spanish Matrix Balanced Mixing
Quantitative
Summary
1990 1991 1992 1996 1999 2005 2010 2015
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
English matrix
Spanish matrix
Balanced mixed
English
Spanish
%
Figure 2: Distribution of songs (n = 80) per album, according to language use
English Matrix
Figure 3: Distribution of switch types (n = 80) in English matrix songs (n = 26)
lexical insertions
intra-sentential CS
inter-sentential CS
English Matrix
Figure 4: Distribution of functions across switch types in English Matrix songs (n = 26)
emphasis/translation address/reference latinization
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
inter-sentential CS intra-sentential CS lexical insertions
English Matrix
6=9
&((++
(,(%(%
%P(++%(%%%%&
3%&($L(%
&%(%+$%%
P%(&%(!%%+&
Si te quiere de verdad
Y te da felicidad
Te deseo lo más bueno pa'los dos
Pero si te hace llorar
A mi me puedes hablar
Y estaré contigo cuando triste estás
Emphasis/translation: ,%(+(%%+%
+$!+5(F
6J3&%(@!% +<K/?9
English Matrix
Address/reference4,%(&%6!9
,4
6/9<%(%(%(%C (,LCadiós mi
vida 6J)1K=='9
69%%%($C,%(LL)(+CAdiós MéxicoC
I,%señorita,%&C,%("HHC"$
(CAdiós México/Adiós México/Adiós México6J";!K==/9
English Matrix
Latinization
%&%(,%(4
!%5(
,%(%5(+L6A9
+,%(5(+(%65(+L9
1&C&+%&%6(9,6D9
692tejano(+Lmexicano6J2TejanoK==9
6D9%cervezaQOFRI,%%casa6JEK==9
Spanish Matrix
Figure 5: Distribution of switch types (n = 9) in Spanish matrix songs (n = 4)
inter-sentential CS
intra-sentential CS
Spanish Matrix
++&5(,%(4
!+C%%6SA9%%6S9
L*+(%5(+L
6A9Ando borracho de celos y sentimiento
Porque ayer tarde a mi prieta la vi enojada
¿Quién es ese amigo que ayer te tenía abrazada?
Pero ¡ay qué caray que retraidora mujer!
(%PLP%%
%P%%%%&P
P%LtequilaSeñorita cantinera
7),&$&
6J"(K==9
Balanced mixing
,&%(+%%,%5(*+(%%(
+%%(%%!%4
%+%+(
6?9Ya me voy para mi tierra, aunque pobre es mi nación,
Pero sí, les aseguro, que allá manda el pantalón.
Ahí les dejo a mi tejana, no la pude soportar,
Hay que la toreé el diablo, a ver, si él la puede aguantar.
@,PL(L,(,F
-%(L,&,,%(pantalónF
&%(*"%7%&&(F
Ay que la toree el diablo, a ver si él la puede aguantarF
*(%el diablo(($(P%,%(F
6J**K==/9
Language Mixing over Time
(18) (Hey Baby) ¿Qué pasó?(1990)
2¿qué pasó?
((%,vato
2¿qué pasó?
1P%$de ese modo
)%
%+%%
P%L,%(%$
1P%$de ese modo
2¿qué pasó?
((%,vato
2¿qué pasó?
IP%$uno beso?
(19) (Hey Baby) ¿Qué Pasó? (2015)
2¿qué pasó?
No que yo era tu vato
2¿qué pasó?
No me dejes ese modo
)ven acá
Quiero ver tu cara linda
Que no ves que te quiero
No me dejes de ese modo
2¿qué pasó?
¿Por qué me tiras el loco?
2¿qué pasó?
No me dejes de ese modo
(%(+%($&&%$$%
,%(%(&&%%(+&%%!%
Grammatical and Ungrammatical
Switching
@%,%(&,%(%%%%++%(
%%6 =0?1&&&=0=1+L=./9F
6/9
(,%(+
I(,,%((F
L,&,%(
%,&(F
T2(bailando%8bailando%8bailando(%
2(bailando%8 bailando%8bailando(%
6J3K==9
($L+%%(%%($%&
%,%(%%6>=0=40Aet
passim9
Discussion & Conclusions
Summary
"%(&&%(6AU9($!%%8%
6AU5(V0U*+(9
5(%(%0?U&6AU
DAU5(%!9
(%%+&,%(!%6&F
,%%!)(//1&&&)($=.'9
"%((%,%(%%(%&
$%++
!+%%%F
Discussion
*+(&%,(&%%
%%(%!%F
*+(&%+%%(&J%(%(K%
%(%+6FF,L,,9F
*+(&%+%(%%&$&
+%6FF!%78+%9F
(&&%&%(%,(!&
%%%6FF(+(+9F
Discussion
( ! ,L%(&%(
%%&,(*+(+L%
4
&%(
L&%+%%%
6 //0//.9
Future research
I+%!+%(%%
%,%(,%(%+F
(%(,%(%$%&#*
(((%%(&%(%+%(
%(4
FF1(3E%(
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