Article

International students’ post-graduation migration plans and the search for home

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International students’ post-graduation migration plans and the search for home

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Research on international student’s post migration plans treats migration as a binary stay-return category and focuses on push-pull factors as the cause of this migration. In this paper we expand the definition of migration and consider the role of life experiences and aspirations, particularly the concept of home. We ask, what are the different conceptualizations of home and how are these tied to differential migratory plans? We analyze data from 232 interviews with international students from more than 50 countries who attended a flagship public university in Canada from 2006–2013.We find that students have four ways of thinking about home: as host, as ancestral, as cosmopolitan, and as nebulous. These understandings of home correspond to particular post-migration plans. While students who view home as a host plan to stay, and those who view home as ancestral plan to return, those with cosmopolitan and nebulous conceptions of home have more open migration plans.
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... (Yu, 2016, p. 17) Though critiques of this stay-return bias have been evident for more than 20 years, research into international student mobility and migration is still "anchored in the stay-return paradigm" (Tan & Hugo, 2017, p. 3). Wu and Wilkes (2017) illustrate in Table 2 the extent of this anchoring by providing a list of articles whose stay/return focus is explicit in the title. ...
... Note. Adapted from Wu and Wilkes (2017). ...
... In summary, despite the strengths of the functionalist paradigm, as early as the 1950s it came under heavy criticism for "the striking absence of agency and power" (Bakewell, de Haas, & Kubal, 2012, p. 420). While such models remain popular in migration research, emerging understandings of the importance of individual agency have led to direct criticisms of these models for research into student migration (Baláž, Williams, & Fifeková, 2016;Wu & Wilkes, 2017). As Sidhu (2006) describes, this persistent emphasis on push-pull modelling and rational choice theory contributes to the perception of students as consumers, to the detriment of an extended consideration of socio-cultural and political influences on student mobility and migration. ...
Thesis
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This thesis employs narrative research methods to provide empirical and theoretical insights into the role of individual agency in international students’ pre-, during- and post-study trajectories through the education-migration nexus in the UK and Japan. To engage with these issues, I assume a life-course perspective which posits “individuals’ ways of constructing their life-course through choices and actions” (Eteläpelto, Vähäsantanen, Hökkä, & Paloniemi, 2013, p. 59) as the locus of their agency. Drawing heavily on the “chordal triad” model of agency, the project places an empirical emphasis on capturing individuals’ “temporal-relational contexts” (Emirbayer and Mische, 1998), thereby accounting for the reciprocal influences of temporality and structure on international students’ agency throughout their trajectories. From such a perspective, the thesis seeks to answer the following central research question: How is the agency of student-migrants developed and practised throughout their trajectories through the education-migration nexus? The study uses a two-phase research design, combining policy trajectory analysis with a longitudinal qualitative phase with individual student-migrants. Both phases of the study were undertaken in national contexts where student migration is quantitatively and qualitatively significant: the UK and Japan. Phase 1 of the study consisted of a comprehensive analysis of the legal regulatory frameworks governing student migration in each country. This stems from the knowledge that migration regulatory frameworks dictate the legalities and illegalities of mobility across national borders and are critical factors to consider in the study of migration processes. I use an established migration policy trajectory analysis methodology to analyse migration policy change in each national case between 2004-2018. The regulatory frameworks for international students were analysed on an ordinal scale according to 7 indicators of receptivity, using the methodology developed by researchers in the European Commission-funded Temper project. In phase 2, I gathered intensive qualitative evidence of individual student-migrants’ trajectories through the education-migration nexus, and their agentive orientations throughout. These data were gathered via the biographical-narrative interpretive method. Participants were interviewed twice: once in their final year of study (~8 months prior to graduation in the UK, and ~3 months prior in Japan), and once ~8 months after their graduation in both countries. 26 degree-mobile international students completed the study, 10 in the UK and 16 in Japan, with data being collected over a period of 18 months between October 2017 and April 2019. The findings indicate that the role of agency is dynamic within the education-migration nexus, reflecting the evolving relationship between individual student-migrants and their temporal-relational contexts, and the simultaneous evolution of the individual’s life-course project. The results of phase 1 of the study indicated that, over time, within, and between the case study nations, the migration regulatory frameworks affecting the study participants varied in their receptivity, stability, and transparency. The importance of these factors was evident in phase 2. Participants’ narratives revealed that unreceptive regulatory frameworks limited the available trajectories of action, while unstable or opaque regulatory frameworks made the identification of up-to-date and comprehensible information a critical factor in navigating post-study transitions. Interview data also revealed participants’ changing agentive orientations in response to changes in their context, with habit, imagination, and judgment each providing tools that individuals could use to navigate the challenging terrain of their student migration trajectories. While all participants were influenced by context and circumstance, they exhibited the capacity to draw on these tools when making choices and taking action in the pursuit of their goals.
... These are home as host, as ancestral, as cosmopolitan, and as nebulous. Wu and Wilkes (2017) go beyond the stay-return dialectics of thinking as the outcome of international student's mobilities. Instead, they present a multi-dimensional nature of home, and how students' view of the home works in conjunction with push-pull factors to shape where international students go after their studies. ...
... George and Selimos (2019) draw on narratives of immigrants in Canada to explain the process of inclusion, exclusion, and belonging. Their paper is similar to Netierman et al. (2021), andWu andWilkes (2017), which look at the decision-making of international students following their completion of school. As seen in the summaries above, a large part of the decisionmaking process of either leaving or staying in Canada is influenced by their experiences. ...
... George and Selimos (2019) draw on narratives of immigrants in Canada to explain the process of inclusion, exclusion, and belonging. Their paper is similar to Netierman et al. (2021), andWu andWilkes (2017), which look at the decision-making of international students following their completion of school. As seen in the summaries above, a large part of the decisionmaking process of either leaving or staying in Canada is influenced by their experiences. ...
... While the factors influencing migration-related decisions of international students have been explored to some extent in the literature (Alberts & Hazen, 2005;Esses et al., 2018;Farivar et al., 2019;Geddie, 2013), most of them have been derived from quantitative studies. Consequently, they show associations between variables shaping students' decisions, but do not shed light on the decision-making process (Szelényi, 2006;Wu & Wilkes, 2017). Moreover, most of the literature conceptualizes students' migratory transitions as unidirectional (e.g., going home vs. staying in the host countries), which simplifies the potential complexity of migration pathways available to international students who may decide to move to another country upon graduation (Wu & Wilkes, 2017). ...
... Consequently, they show associations between variables shaping students' decisions, but do not shed light on the decision-making process (Szelényi, 2006;Wu & Wilkes, 2017). Moreover, most of the literature conceptualizes students' migratory transitions as unidirectional (e.g., going home vs. staying in the host countries), which simplifies the potential complexity of migration pathways available to international students who may decide to move to another country upon graduation (Wu & Wilkes, 2017). We also know little about the meaning that students attach to the decisions related to migration and how this meaning-making process impacts their migration choices. ...
... Furthermore, the final migration decisions of students may differ from their previous intentions altogether ( Baruch et al., 2007). While students may or may not change their mind, migration is a dynamic process which most likely cannot be reduced to a single definitive decision (Wu & Wilkes, 2017). It seems that the decision to immigrate is a complex transition that may change over time. ...
Article
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Recent decades have seen an increase in the popularity of international education. Approximately 500,000 international students were in Canada in 2018 and this number is projected to grow. While we know that many international students decide to stay in Canada, we do not fully understand the decision-making process employed by international students regarding staying in Canada or going back home after completing their education. The purpose of this study was to explore how international students make decisions about their post-graduation destination and what factors they see as pivotal in shaping their decision-making process. We utilized a symbolic interactionist approach to analyze qualitative semi-structured interviews with 60 international students enrolled in post-secondary programs in Canada. Our findings suggest that the meaning students attach to staying in Canada varies from obtaining permanent residency to working for a few months upon graduation. We also demonstrate that for most students, the decision to stay in Canada is formed gradually and is shaped by familial obligations, cultural climate they experience in Canada, employment opportunities available to them upon graduation, and the possibility of obtaining permanent residency.
... The literature on international students' postgraduate migration paths encompasses a few recent papers on students' migration intentions (Alberts & Hazen, 2005;Baruch et al., 2007;Cheung & Xu, 2015;Soon, 2012;Wu & Wilkes, 2017) and a different set of studies on actual migration behaviour after graduation (Abimbola et al., 2016;Godwin, 2017;Marsh et al., 2016;Tessema, Ng'oma, Ready, Sauers, & Bjorke, 2009). We have, nevertheless, found no research examining whether and how foreign students' intentions to return correspond to their subsequent migration behaviour, though the relationship between intentions and actual decisions may not be straightforward (Carling & Pettersen, 2014). ...
... Available research indicates that the intention of international students to return to their home countries after graduation tends to be relatively low. In surveys among foreign students in the United Kingdom and United States (Baruch et al., 2007) and in Canada (Wu & Wilkes, 2017), less than one third of respondents expressed the intention to return. Similarly, less than a half of Chinese students enrolled at prestigious US universities surveyed by Cheung and Xu (2015) reported that they are likely or very likely to return, and in a study of foreign students in New Zealand, the 54% reported willingness to return (Soon, 2012). ...
... Similarly, less than a half of Chinese students enrolled at prestigious US universities surveyed by Cheung and Xu (2015) reported that they are likely or very likely to return, and in a study of foreign students in New Zealand, the 54% reported willingness to return (Soon, 2012). In addition, qualitative research into these issues documented a diversity of students' migration plans and aspirations beyond the binary stay-return typology (Alberts & Hazen, 2005;Wu & Wilkes, 2017). ...
Article
The development impacts of international scholarships for students from the Global South are most commonly understood through the expansion of human capital in the students' home countries for which the scholars' return analysed in this paper represents a key prerequisite. Utilising the theory of planned behaviour, this paper examines factors influencing the plans to return and actual postgraduation migration behaviour of 430 grantees of the Czech scholarship programme financed from the official development aid. One half of the current grantees reported plan to return, and only the 31% of alumni respondents actually returned suggesting a risk of brain drain. We found that economic integration rather than perceived sociocultural integration influences migration decision making of international students. We show how the propensity to return to scholars' home countries can be estimated from cross‐sectional data. A graphical path model was developed, which helps to understand drivers of postgraduate migration behaviour of international students.
... As of 2017, more than 5.3 million individuals were studying for a tertiary qualification outside of their home country (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 2019). In an increasingly unequal world (Piketty, 2017), these students' post-graduation migration patterns are important because their mobility is often framed as part of a 'global competition' for skilled workers who are able to contribute to innovation and economic growth (Wu and Wilkes, 2017). ...
... Brooks and Waters, 2011), understandings around students' decision making with regard to post-graduation onward migration are comparatively less developed. Within the body of work on poststudy decision making, a significant proportion reproduces a 'stay-return binary' (Wu and Wilkes, 2017), in which staying in the host country or returning home are presented as the only two possible options resulting from study (e.g. Bijwaard and Wang, 2016;Van Mol and Timmerman, 2014). ...
... There is increasing recognition that post-study trajectories are often more complex than this dichotomy would suggest. Wu and Wilkes (2017) examine international students' conceptions of 'home', linking them to a typology of post-study plans consisting of 'staying', 'returning' and 'open', challenging the stay/return binary. Similarly, Tan and Hugo (2017) suggest that students may opt to migrate onwards, further challenging the stay/return paradigm. ...
Article
Employing a theoretical framework that draws on the concept of global regimes of mobility and Bourdieu’s theory of practice, this article seeks to analyse how African student migrants in China navigate global structural inequalities in planning for post-graduation mobility, while strategising to overcome barriers to mobility and capital accumulation. It argues that China’s position within the contemporary global political economy is reflected in the ways these student migrants navigate intersecting global mobility regimes. Moving beyond the ‘stay/return’ binary common in student mobility research, the article delineates three post-study trajectories: returnees, deterred by structural barriers from staying in the host country; those who stay in China, overcoming these barriers by opening businesses, with plans to return home later; and those who plan to accumulate capital in China to meet the requirements of more stringent mobility regimes in the Global North.
... After completing their training, some students remain in the country of training (TC) to live and work (Baruch et al., 2007), while others return to their home country (HC; Han et al., 2015). New graduates choose to return to their HC because they perceive having stronger professional networks (Wu & Wilkes, 2017), better opportunities to work in positive workplaces (Soon, 2010), and that their skills will be more valued (Bratsberg, 1995). For other graduates, strong family ties (Alberts & Hazen, 2005) and the perceived increased quality of life in their HC (Soon, 2010) are motivators for repatriation. ...
... Students have reported difficulties with cultural adjustment (Msengi, 2007), and challenges integrating into new social and academic contexts (Alberts & Hazen, 2005). They may also experience discrimination (Wu & Wilkes, 2017), loneliness, isolation, and homesickness (Milian et al., 2015). Students have also reported challenges of repatriating after receiving training abroad (Smith & Kearney, 2016). ...
... The decision to repatriate involved both professional (e.g., positive perception of the workplace) and personal reasons (e.g., strong family ties), similar to those presented by scholars in higher education (Soon, 2010;Wu & Wilkes, 2017). Motivated to return to their HC by a variety of reasons, the participating SPPs reported experiencing many challenges when adjusting back to the culture in their HC, as well as while starting their own professional career in the HC. ...
Article
Objective Despite a growing body of literature examining the migratory experiences of athletes, limited attention has been paid to the migratory experience of sport psychology practitioners (SPPs). This study explores SPPs' experiences of transnational migration; specifically, for those who expatriated to receive their training and repatriated to begin their professional careers. Design Adhering to consensual qualitative research methodology, we conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. Methods Following criterion-based sampling, we interviewed six female and four male SPPs who worked in academic (n = 3), applied (n = 3), and governmental (n = 4) environments. We used an analytical procedure encompassing concurrent deductive and inductive processes Results Participants described their motivations for expatriation and repatriation. They shared the challenges and benefits they faced throughout their transnational experience, recognizing the value that this experience brought to their lives. In most cases, SPPs shared how their training abroad became a professional advantage, once repatriated. They also described how the process of repatriation was more challenging than expected due to personal and professional difficulties. Conclusions Participants highlighted the positive influence that their transnational experience had in their personal and professional lives. Their transnational experience helped them grow personally and professionally, and provided them with professional advantages. However, our participants' stories also highlighted systematic barriers that professional organizations could address to facilitate the transnational experience of practitioners, which would subsequently enhance the cultural growth of the field. Recommendations for professionals engaging in similar transnational experiences are discussed.
... The primary rationale for internationalization in higher education is for intercultural knowledge exchange (Knight, 2016). According to Schreiber (2011) and Wu and Wilkes (2017), there is a lack of systematic studies to examine the impact of the steady increase in the number of international students on local students and institutions. Such impacts can influence the teaching and learning process significantly and needs to be explored and examined. ...
... PU2 even commented that the local Malaysian universities must have specific strategies that will allow intercultural learning and exchanges that would benefit both international and local students. This finding concurs with Wu and Wilkes (2017) where a positive intercultural learning and exchanges may result in many international students perceiving the host country as their host home and want to stay. In addition, this will also prepare local students to explore postgraduate programs abroad. ...
Article
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Embracing internationalization is the reality in Malaysian tertiary education in this century. Various endeavors and research collaborations have been and are still carried out to achieve the government’s vision to position Malaysia as a tertiary education hub in the region. Using phenomenological approach, this study attempts to highlight challenges and strategies towards achieving internationalization of Malaysian higher education. Twelve lecturers from public and private universities were purposively sampled to discuss issues on internationalization of Malaysian tertiary education. Focus Group Discussions using semi structured interview protocol were undertaken. Data analysis and interpretation were carried out through thematic development. The findings revealed all participants are aware of the pedagogical approaches to be in practice to embrace the dynamics of global cultures convening in Malaysian lecture rooms. They highlighted the advantages of having international students from academic and social perspectives. Also included are ways how local students benefit with the presence of international students. These benefits emerged as participants discussed the consequences of Malaysian campus bereft of international students. In-class challenges and strategies to overcome them were deliberated. The findings also informed lecturers, administrators, and policy makers of relevant aspects to consider when dealing with international students at the tertiary level in Malaysia. Keywords: global education, internationalization, international students, tertiary education, phenomenology
... Scholars have connected three outcomes of cosmopolitan education, the interculturality, mobility, and global awareness, with international students' potential of "a cosmopolitan identity" (Oikonomidoy & Williams, 2013, p. 383), their tendency to settle in countries other than their home country. In this research, intercultural communication skills, mobile identity, lifelong learning, global awareness, and critical thinking are considered the outcomes of cosmopolitan education (Oikonomidoy & Williams, 2013;Wu & Wilkes, 2017). The result of this study shows some alignments with these existing theories, as 7 out 17 participants showed more than 3 qualities of cosmopolitan education. ...
... As a result, Participant 13 chose to stay in Canada and started to see herself as a "stateless person," which relates to the mobility of graduates from a cosmopolitan education system. Moreover, mobility describes the status of no longer belonging to a specific location due to an individual's relocation to foreign countries and negotiated identities (Wu & Wilkes, 2017;Dervin, 2015). Hence, to the mobile international students, "home and where home (is) may still be an unknown" (Wu & Wilkes, 2017, p. 126). ...
Article
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This study focuses on analyzing the acculturation of Chinese international students in Canada, emphasizing students' post-graduation settlement in China, Canada, or in other countries. Chinese international students commonly experience a multilayered acculturative adjustment when they are challenged by a new culture. In this process, they develop an identity negotiation that impacts their settlement into a new country. This study mobilizes four notions of acculturation (e.g., assimilation, integration, marginalization, and separation), to evaluate Chinese international students’ identity negotiation after university. This research uses 17 semi-structured interviews to understand how participants' identities were negotiated through their acculturative adjustment. First, the findings highlight the importance of career factors and family values in participants' settlement decisions. Second, the balance between Chinese identity and Canadian identity has some impact on student’s migration plans.
... Studies have questioned the appropriateness of the 'deficit model' approach. There are debates regarding the pros and cons of this model (Page and Chahboun 2019;Egege and Kutieleh 2004;Bond 2018;Green 2006;Smit 2012) particularly from the perception of the international students generally as sojourners rather than migrants (Page and Chahboun 2019;Wu and Wilkes 2017;Robertson et al. 2018). The 'deficit model' approach has been associated with a number of disadvantages including the perpetuation of stereotypes and the alienation or marginalisation of students (Page and Chahboun 2019;Egege and Kutieleh 2004;Bond 2018;Green 2006;Smit 2012;Wu and Wilkes 2017;Robertson et al. 2018;Klingner and Harry 2007). ...
... There are debates regarding the pros and cons of this model (Page and Chahboun 2019;Egege and Kutieleh 2004;Bond 2018;Green 2006;Smit 2012) particularly from the perception of the international students generally as sojourners rather than migrants (Page and Chahboun 2019;Wu and Wilkes 2017;Robertson et al. 2018). The 'deficit model' approach has been associated with a number of disadvantages including the perpetuation of stereotypes and the alienation or marginalisation of students (Page and Chahboun 2019;Egege and Kutieleh 2004;Bond 2018;Green 2006;Smit 2012;Wu and Wilkes 2017;Robertson et al. 2018;Klingner and Harry 2007). However, the current study and others have found that the 'deficit model' approach can yield some positive results (Green 2006). ...
... Frempong (2015) found that both African and non-African foreign students were motivated to choose Ghana as a destination country to study because of the peace and stability in the country, the rich culture and the English language among others. Findings of this study were consistent with the reasons given for choosing Ghana as a destination to study (see Table 4 Six (6) (Wu & Wilkes, 2017). My research was consistent with this pattern of host, ancestral and cosmopolitan as participants revealed their perspective of home through their plans after graduation. ...
... In this sense, my fourth hypothesis is somewhat supported. The sub-theme of foreign students' plans after graduation suggests a solution to the oft-mentioned challenge of brain drain (Baruch et al., 2007;Wu &Wilkes, 2017). ...
Article
With an increasingly global demand for higher education, countries are competing for international students. Popular destinations like the United States are facing a decreasing number of international student enrollments due to restrictive policies that are perceived as unwelcoming to foreign guests. Regional hubs are emerging as alternative destinations for international students. Ghana, today considered one of West Africa’s most stable democracies and an important destination country in the region, receives many foreign guests including economic migrants, students, tourists, and refugees. Ghana is also emerging as a regional hub for educational migrants. How are these foreign guests received, integrated, and ultimately trained as global citizens? More specifically, this research asks, how are ECOWAS students in higher educational institutions welcomed within Accra, Ghana? This study relies on data from 47 semi-structured interviews with foreign students and Ghanaians and direct observations sessions at public and private universities. The study examines the receptivity of foreign guests by stakeholders in Ghana, focusing on tertiary-level student migrants from throughout the West African region. Findings indicate that the educational setting generally has a positive receptivity climate as supported by the data. The positive receptivity climate is intentional with associated government and institutional policies and practices. Francophone students experience less positive reception than Anglophone students do as a result of language barriers. Receptivity of foreign guests may be one significant way for developing countries to achieve sustainable growth and positive development outcomes. As such, this research develops a new migration model that enhances receptivity through education. Policy implications include the strengthening of regional ties and migration channels related to education circulation and the ongoing promotion and development of human capital and a human economy. An example of the development of human capital is the West Africa Centre for Crop Improvement (WACCI) based at the University of Ghana, Legon, which since its inception in 2007, has trained fifty-two multinational postgraduates who are working toward lessening food insecurity in the sub-region.
... In addition, it points out that there are gaps in research, thus more questions need to be asked and answered. According to Schreiber (2011) and Wu and Wilkes (2017), there is a lack of systematic studies to examine the impact of the steady increase in the number of international students on local students and host institutions. Given that there is now an increasing number of international students in Malaysia, there is a need for a study to explore local students' perspectives of sharing education with international students in the Malaysian education context. ...
... Although there have been a number of researches that examine the educational experiences based on international students' point of view, there has been little research to examine the possible impact of internationalisation on local students. According to Schreiber (2011) and Wu and Wilkes (2017), there is a lack of researches to examine the impact of international students on local students. Given that there is now an increasing number of international students in Malaysia, there is a need for a study to explore the areas. ...
Article
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This research explored the local students’ interaction with their international peers and investigated whether they consider the inclusion of international students has positively or negatively affected their education experiences. This study found that the local students were somewhat comfortable as they did not mind having international students on campus. They value the interactions that they had with the international students as they got to learn about different cultures and broaden their worldview. The local students revealed that they do face challenges in working in group activities or assignments with international students due to differences in English language abilities and attitudes towards the quality of work and time management. They also expressed interest and willingness to participate in university events or programmes that would enable them to socialise with the international students. They believe that universities should organize more events that would encourage interaction between local and international so they could form a stronger bond. It is recommended that strategies be put into place by both private and public universities to organize meaningful events or programmes that would foster greater understanding and appreciation of diversity on campus and promote a harmonious environment for a conducive multinational campus.
... Scholars have responded to the numerous calls (Easthope 2004;Mallett 2004;Manzo 2003, Moore 2000Tester and Wingfield 2013) for nuanced and contextualized understandings of home, but the relationships between experiences of home, structural forces, local contexts, and life course factors deserve closer attention. This is suggested by several studies emphasizing the central importance of home in the process of aging (Mackenzie et al. 2015;Sixsmith et al. 2014;Wiles et al. 2011); plans for migration (Lauster and Zhao 2017;Wu and Wilkes 2017), attempts for social inclusion (Holston 2009;Kellet and Moore 2003), and globalization (Duyvendak 2011;Savage et al. 2005). ...
Article
Building on recent studies emphasizing how structural and contextual forces shape notions of home, I explore how the experience of home is related to the concepts of time and place. Using 46 interviews with 23 individuals, I investigate how home is defined and experienced by younger and older adults in relationship to Vancouver's particular cultural, geographic, and historical contexts. I find three main ways in which respondents established a sense of home in a city concomitantly known for its livability and unaffordability: the stepping‐stone home (a future‐oriented sense of home), the despatialized home (a present‐oriented sense of home), and the extended home in time (a past‐oriented perspective) and in place (a sense of home extended onto the natural environment). My study contributes toward comprehensive understandings of home with new empirical material showing how a taken‐for‐granted experience results from an interplay between structural, contextual, and individual factors.
... "International Migration Outlook 2016" [13] illustrates that OECD countries continue to rework their framework for attracting and retaining international students, trying to balance the important role of students in contributing to the higher education system and labour migration channels with the need to ensure compliance with conditions of admission. Cary, Wu & Rima, Wilkes (2017) [14] in their work titled: "International students' post-graduation migration plans and the search for home" expanded the definition of migration and considered the role of life experiences and aspirations. ...
... Research on international students' postgraduate plans tends to view migration as a binary choice to stay or return with a focus on the push-pull factors that cause migration to and from nation states. Not only is the postgraduate migration literature limited by the dominance of this perspective (Van Mol & Timmerman, 2014), but the understanding of postgraduate academic trajectories and knowledge networks is limited by the conceptualization of mobility in terms of push-pull factors that lead people to "stay in the host country' or 'return to their country of origin' (Wu & Wilkes, 2017). Clearly, many postgraduates opt to migrate to a third country and others may simply not view their postgraduate mobility in terms of nation-based migration frameworks (Larsen, 2016). ...
Article
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This article explores the academic trajectories of transnational postgraduates. We draw upon interrelated theories of globalization and transnational social fields to frame the globalizing social and educational contexts in which international students navigate their lives and careers after earning doctoral degrees. We draw on in-depth interviews where transnational postgraduates’ voices are placed at the center of the findings, and we explore how their background, journey, and environment simultaneously shaped them as well as transformed the spaces they inhabited. We highlight how the movement of transnational postgraduates is not simply a transfer from one physical location to another, but rather that the movement itself constitutes and structures a new space of identification and of belonging and global imagination.
... Despite all these aspects and the significant number of migrant students, there is not much literature on this type of migration [27], mainly because they were overlooked in the migration discussion as temporary migrants [27], and sometimes they are considered as a security issue within countries of destinations rather than as bearing human capital [36]. Student migration studies focus mostly on transition from High School to Higher Education and on post-student paths [30,39,45]. In addition, the attention is more on international migration [14,17,44] than intra-national one (in UK: [8,15,39]; in USA: [18,25,26]). ...
Article
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Students' migration mobility is the new form of migration: students migrate to improve their skills and become more valued for the job market. The data regard the migration of Italian Bachelors who enrolled at Master Degree level, moving typically from poor to rich areas. This paper investigates the migration and other possible determinants on the Master Degree students' performance. The Clustering of Effects approach for Quantile Regression Coefficients Modelling has been used to cluster the effects of some variables on the students' performance for three Italian macro-areas. Results show evidence of similarity between Southern and Centre students, with respect to the Northern ones.
... Migrants need to use technology to travel, keep in contact, send money home, or get information on host and sending societies (Salahuddin 2013;Waite and Smith 2017). Enticott (2018) and Wu and Wilkes (2017) examine how ICTs supplement the traditional channels of information such as word of mouth, locally advertised work opportunities, and shared experiences of family and Analyzing the Effect of ICT on Migration and Economic Growth in... friends who have themselves migrated. ICTs connect migrants, former migrants, and non-migrants through social media within origin and destination areas through ties of friendship, kinship, and shared community origin (Lara 2015). ...
Article
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Information communication and technology (ICT) is a powerful phenomenon, impacting all aspects of society. Knowing the importance of ICT motivates us to analyze the role of ICT adoption on migration and economic growth in Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) countries. However, for this purpose, we use the panel data of fifty-nine BRI countries for the period 2000–2017. For empirical estimations, we employ the panel unit root tests, fully modified OLS (FMOLS), and Granger causality econometric technique. The empirical results summarize that there is a positive and significant relationship between ICT and migration in BRI countries. Furthermore, the results also conclude that there is positive association between ICT and economic growth in BRI countries. The innovative contribution of this study is the finding that the interaction between ICT and trade and the moderating effect of FDI expedite the process of economic growth. Based on policy perspective, the BRI countries need to focus on investing more in the ICT sector to promote sustainable economic growth.
... For the last two decades, the higher education job market in the United States has been on a steep decline. Estimates conclude that more than 70% of all job openings within this sector are for "contingent faculty" or "adjunct professor" positions, all of which offer comparatively low wages, few to no benefits, and almost no job security [39]. Among the international students who come to the United States, many of whom are already independently wealthy or actively benefiting from intergenerational wealth within their nations of origin, the low wages offered by these positions may not be of great concern. ...
Article
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Background: In 2018, President Donald J. Trump announced that his administration would place restrictions on international students seeking to pursue higher education degrees in the United States. American institutions of higher education protested these policy changes, because international students represent a significant social and cultural contribution to their system and provide a source of revenue. The restrictions on international students were not overwhelming, primarily consisting of increased visa fees and threats stating that misbehavior in the country would result in immediate deportation. Although these demands do not typically deter international students, some individuals view these restrictions as part of an overall trend of anti-immigrant sentiment in the United States. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of these new restrictions on the education of international students in the United States. Methods: The population, intervention, comparison, and outcome (PICO) question format was used to formulate the research question, centered on international students seeking to complete their higher education in the United States. The databases used for this study were ProQuest, JSTOR, LexisNexis, and Google Scholar. Results: The movement to place restrictions on international students in the United States is a recent development, and no statistically significant effects can presently be determined. Government funding for public universities, who market their programs to international students, has been reduced. Conclusions: This research demonstrates that international student attendance at American universities was declining before the immigration restrictions were implemented. Based on current data, it is too early to determine how immigration restrictions will impact American universities, and more time will be needed to evaluate the impact of President Trump's policies.
... In most recent works, attempts are made to draw attention to the psychological characteristics of the graduates themselves as factors potentially influencing their attitude to return migration. For example, Wu and Wilkes (2017), in addition to the classical push and pull factors, analyze the attitude of graduates to understanding of "home" and, on this basis, predict the likelihood of return for different groups of migrants. ...
Article
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The shortage of young medical workers in Russia is a long-standing and acute problem; its solution, even in part, is impossible without taking into account a whole set of factors. An empirical analysis of the results of the survey of graduates of medical and non-medical specializations in Russia and CIS countries gives grounds to identify graduates of medical faculties as a homogeneous group, which has similar migration patterns and relatively low variance in the impact of various factors on these patterns. When making decision about migration for employment graduates of medical specialties are less susceptible to the imbalance in the development of regions of Russia, but more sensitive to social factors. The findings of the paper confirm the importance of ongoing efforts in the field of social and economic policy keeping in mind its potential effectiveness to retain medical workers in regions of Russia.
... Most studies highlight the heterogeneity of countries in terms of return prospects. Relying on interviews carried out with 232 international students in a Canadian university, Wu and Wilkes (2017) find that return intentions are linked to how students conceive of the notion of home. From their interviews, they derive four conceptualizations of "home", one which corresponds to stayers, one to returnees, and two with open migration plans. ...
Technical Report
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Connections between migration and education are numerous, both at the macro and micro level. Recognizing this implies that educational policy as well as migration policy may generate spill-over effects, either in countries implementing the policies or in countries whose citizens may be concerned by them (or both). In an era of increased global connectedness, there is thus scope for the successful implementation of coordinated policies in the areas of migration and education. To tailor policies that work, however, a solid basis of evidence needs to be constituted, and theoretical predictions need to survive empirical examination from multiple contexts. This article provides an overview of the most important findings in the economics literature regarding the role of education in the migration-development nexus, emphasizing theoretical and empirical findings of interest for policymakers. The article will draw from multiple sources in the literature, including papers presented in the annual AFD/World Bank 'Migration & Development" conference. It intends to highlight the main findings regarding the role of education in the emigration decision, and in particular the issue of endogenous selection of migrants, but also the impact that migration has on the education of migrants and of non-migrants in both origin and destination countries. It will furthermore provide some stylized facts on the evolution of migrants' skill composition around the world. Finally, the paper will provide a discussion on the challenges source and host countries face in implementing policies to tailor migration flows.
... As such, they interact with not just one but multiple sets of social, economic, and political institutions and norms while living in their receiving society (Levitt and Glick Schiller 2004). Such acculturation deeply impacts the identities, values, and beliefs of international students, alongside their definition of home (Wu and Wilkes 2017). For many, moving to and living in a new society compel them to reconsider their initial understandings of a cultural or social phenomenon, evaluate the perceptions of those around them, re-establish their own understandings of their social milieu, and ultimately decide how they want to act upon their new awareness (Vertovec 2004). ...
Article
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How does moving from a sexually conservative country to a liberal one alter the way international students think about homosexuality and same-sex rights, and how does this impact their communities back home? Drawing on survey data with 90 heterosexual Singaporean students studying at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, as well as interview data with 17 students and 14 of their family members and friends who remained in Singapore, this study finds that despite having a broad spectrum of prior opinions, the majority of the student participants acquired increasingly accepting sexual attitudes after their relocation. Furthermore, many of them send these new conceptions as "sexual remittances" to their originating communities, changing the values of those who remain behind. This study helps lay the groundwork for further investigations of how engagements among international students and their social networks can contribute to evolving understandings of transnational sexuality and the globalization of culture.
... This investment is pursued mainly for symbolic and material outcomes such as a diploma from a prestigious university (Brooks and Waters 2010;King, Findlay, and Ahrens 2010;Kwak 2012); foreign language competence especially English proficiency (Altbach and Knight 2007;Bal 2014;Phan 2017), overall academic capital (Kim 2016) and later career opportunities (Baláž and Williams 2004;Breen 2012; Van Hear, Bakewell, and Long 2018;Waters 2008). On the other hand, non-positional investment is grounded on the transformative potential of study abroad experience (Tran and Vu 2018), cultivating students' independence and confidence (Trower and Lehmann 2017), cultural sensitivity and cosmopolitan orientation (Oikonomidoy 2019; Star-Glass 2019), and personal and professional growth (Bista and Foster 2016;Prazeres 2017;Pyvis and Chapman 2007;Tran 2016;Wu and Wilkes 2017). Expanding the quest for personal and professional growth, Tran (2016) links the accumulation of capital as a strategy for 'becoming', where the result is a 'transformed self'. ...
Article
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The study of international student mobilities (ISM) has increased substantially over the last two decades. Following trends in institutional and policy debates on the broader internationalisation of education, researchers have paid considerable attention to questions about why, where, how and under what circumstances people engage in educational migration. As the field of ISM has matured, however, it has also taken shape around distinct frameworks wherein little cross-fertilisation appears to be occurring and where a series of normative narratives have emerged. In this paper we evaluate the extant scholarship on ISM and argue that there are significant blind spots in current research and that there is a need for a greater focus on interdisciplinary conversations that can address the changing characteristics of educational migration internationally. In particular, we argue that researchers have remained preoccupied on researching international students at particular points in time, have over emphasised the centrality of privilege and youth and been too focused on Westward mobility. In concluding, we set an agenda for future research on ISM that addresses three key challenges: analysing the connection between imagination and action; the relationship between life course, privilege and precarity; and accounting for the recent diversification and stratification of ISM.
... Furthermore, the 'cultural turn' also allowed for the analysis to move towards a more comprehensive understanding of migration histories and experiences (Miles and Crush, 1993;Findlay and Li, 1997;King, 2012).This approach moves us beyond perceiving migrants as purely economic actors, and beyond the traditional stay-return binaries (e.g. Wu and Wilkes, 2017), and thus allows the analysis of other factors explaining why people move, return or settle. ...
Article
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Over the last few decades lifestyle migration has been receiving increased interest amongst scholars. Most of the studies conducted in Europe tend to focus on the individuals from the ‘Old’ European Union (EU) countries moving abroad in search of a better quality of life and improved ‘social atmosphere’. The mobility of the ‘New’ Member State (NMS) nationals, on the other hand, is still perceived as predominantly economic and labour migration oriented. This article however, will argue that this is not necessarily the case for young NMS migrants who left their countries following the 2004 EU Enlargement. By using the example of Polish nationals living in Ireland the author will examine how these migrants, while initially motivated by economic factors, decided to stay in the host country for non-monetary reasons. This issue became significant following the 2008 recession, where people made their decisions to not return home despite the worsening economic situation in Ireland. This article argues – based on interview data - that these decisions were influenced by lifestyle rather than economic factors.
... One reason why isolation from the host national community may be less of an issue than some suppose is that international students tend to be sojourners rather than migrants. That is to say that their residence in the host country is typically temporary (King et al. 2010), where many intend to return (Lu et al. 2009) or to utilise their educational sojourns as a spring-board for further migrations (Wu and Wilkes 2017). Rather than permanent residency in the receiving country, they are more likely to be seeking social capital translatable to improved employability (Robertson et al. 2018) or less tangible commodities, which shall be discussed later. ...
Article
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Social isolation has been a central focus within international student research, especially with regard to international/host national relations. While a worthy area of study, we argue that the sheer volume of such research stems from the fact that universities’ recruitment of foreign students is often justified by the claim that a more international campus will engender cross-cultural skills. The main argument of this paper is that, from this perspective, the “point” of such sojourns is seen as social, and any lack of interaction becomes problematic. This is an intellectually respectable position, but it is problematic that it has come to dominate the field to such a degree that the students’ own experiences and goals are rarely heard. This paper calls for a de-muting of international students in research, so that more research is oriented by their stated priorities. While there has been a shift in this regard around the turn of the millennium, presumptions as to the purpose of educational sojourns remain and continue to colour research.
... Mobility of highly skilled workers has become an essential component of globalization with a particularly strong impact on innovation in business and technology (OECD, 2008(OECD, , 2016. Researchers have looked at how international students make the decision to study outside their home country (Altbach, 1991;Cantwell et al., 2009;Lee, 2008;Lee and Kim, 2010;Li and Bray, 2007;Mazzarol and Soutar, 2002;Wei, 2012); however, research on the migration of international students in high-demand STEM fields post-graduation is more limited (Choudaha, 2015;Szelenyi, 2006;Wu and Wilkes, 2017). With international student mobility likely to reach 8 million students per year by 2025, universities and industry seek to form international knowledge networks by targeting specific knowledge and abilities in candidates from abroad (OECD, 2016). ...
Article
This study examined political, economic, and social factors influencing students’ mobility intentions, comparing factors based on students’ home country gross national income (GNI) per capita. Researchers analyzed data from the Graduate Students in Science Survey administered to STEM students at ten U.S. research universities. Results suggest that economic push-pull factors influence intent to stay in the U.S., while political, social, socioeconomic, and sociopolitical reverse push-pull factors influence intent to return to their home country. Differences in push-pull factors were found based on home country GNI category. The discussion considers implications on global workforce development, higher education, and immigration policy.
... Encouraging words from loved ones can ease stress in unfamiliar environments and motivate them by reminding them of the original purpose of studying in the United States, but imposing a burden of meeting expectations. Relations with people in the home country and roles imposed by them can also determine the frequency and length of home visits and even stay-return decisions after graduation (Hazen & Alberts, 2006;Wu & Wilkes, 2017). Technologies also allow international students to gain collaborative work/research opportunities from their home country without physical attendance. ...
Article
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The growth of the number of persons pursuing education outside of their home country has created a relatively new population of transnationally mobile students who experience a pivotal developmental period crossing and across international borders. There are few suitable theoretical models to examine the developmental experiences of this growing population. In his last publication, Urie Bronfenbrenner acknowledged his ecological model was a developmental yet evolving model to be tested and amended by incorporating new evidence. This conceptual paper draws from existing empirical work to advance the ecological model and revise it to be more applicable to and explanatory of developmental experiences of international students in the United States. The resulting model, which we call the Spanning Systems model, can be used to identify spaces of potential contradictions or learning in a student’s development.
... Encouraging words from loved ones can ease stress in unfamiliar environments and motivate them by reminding them of the original purpose of studying in the United States, but at the same time, impose a burden of meeting expectations. Relations with people in the home country and roles imposed by them can also determine the frequency and length of home visits and even stay-return decisions after graduation (Hazen & Alberts, 2006;Wu & Wilkes, 2017). Technologies also allow international students to gain collaborative work/research opportunities from their home country without physical attendance. ...
... Internationalisation and forced migration have generally been considered separately in higher education (HE) literature (exceptions include King and Raghuram, 2013;Wu and Wilkes, 2017). Internationalisation is associated with movement, choice and brand recognition, and used in international rankings methodologies as a proxy for quality (Knight, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Internationalisation and forced migration are rarely thought about as related phenomena in higher education (HE) literature. Internationalisation is associated with movement, choice and brand recognition, and used in international rankings methodologies as a proxy for quality. Forced migration is associated not only with movement, but also with lack of choice, containment, or ‘stuckness’. Some scholars have called for a rethinking of ‘the international’ through attention to students as mobile agents, and international study as situated within broader mobile lives. Our study responded to these calls through exploring the educational biographies of 37 international and refugee-background women students based in two universities: 21 in New Zealand and 16 in Bangladesh. Ten of the women were from refugee or refugee-like backgrounds, while the remainder were international students. The women’s accounts revealed the complex ways in which circumstances shaped their educational journeys similarly and differently. One woman represented mobility in relation to autonomy and choice; but most emphasised relational webs as shaping their access to and experiences of international study, and post-study aspirations. In this paper, we draw on selected narratives to illustrate the range of ways in which family and/or community members appeared in women’s accounts of their education journeys: as a source of (1) sustenance and support; (2) inspiration and motivation; and (3) obligation, and sometimes regulation. We conclude by suggesting that attention to the affective and embodied entanglements that shape students’ international study journeys might inform new ways of thinking about both ‘the international’ and higher education more broadly.
... This study seeks to investigate whether immigrants are more likely than native-born Canadians to use online dating services, and how likely immigrants are to find romantic partners online. Finding a romantic partner will benefit an immigrant's mental and physical health, sense of belonging and social integration in the host society (Lichter et al., 2015;Sassler and Lichter, 2020;Wu and Wilkes, 2017). Therefore, this study not only advances the understanding of mate-selection processes in the era of globalization and technological change, but also has far-reaching implications for the well-being and integration of immigrants. ...
Article
Purpose: The spread of the Internet has transformed the dating landscape. Given the increasing popularity of online dating and rising immigration to Canada, this study takes an intersectional lens to examine nativity and gender differentials in heterosexual online dating. Design/methodology/approach: In 2018, a random-digit-dial telephone survey was conducted in Canada. Logistic regression models were used to analyze original data from this survey (N = 1,373). Findings: Results show that immigrants are more likely than native-born people to have used online dating in Canada, possibly because international relocation makes it more difficult for immigrants to meet romantic partners in other ways. In online-to-offline transitions, both native-born and immigrant online daters follow gendered scripts where men ask women out for a first date. Finally, immigrant men, who likely have disadvantaged positions in offline dating markets, also experience the least success in finding a long-term partner online. Originality/value: Extending search theory of relationship formation to online dating, this study advances the understanding of change and continuity in gendered rituals and mate-selection processes in the digital and globalization era. Integrating search theory and intersectionality theory, this study highlights the efficiency of using the Internet to search for romantic partners and the socially constructed hierarchy of desirability as interrelated mechanisms that produce divergent online dating outcomes across social groups. Internet dating, instead of acting as an agent of social change, may reproduce normative dating practices and existing hierarchies of desirability.
... This situated approach looks at wisdom in relation to narrativity (Buckle, 2020;Moskal, 2015), subjectivity (Kõu & Bailey, 2014;Liu et al., 2020), reflexivity (Osbaldiston et al., 2020), and positionality (Irgil, 2021;Maller & Strengers, 2013), as opposed to the now-dominant psychological view of wisdom as a quantifiable observation that can be measured on a positivist scale (Glück, 2017). Both the act of migration and living amongst members of other ethnicities are spatial processes of relevance to our attempt to think geographically about how people become wiser (see also Dempsey & McDowell, 2019;Huijsmans, 2014;Schapendonk, van Liempt, Schwarz, & Steel, 2020;Wu & Wilkes, 2017). ...
Article
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Our research seeks to answer whether immigrants see the act of relocating to a different country and the place-based intercultural encounters associated with this migration as being conducive to wisdom. The study is interested in qualitatively analysing the spatial constitution of wisdom and the perceptions of wisdom that immigrants possess. This situated approach looks at wisdom in relation to narrativity, subjectivity, and positionality, as opposed to the now-dominant psychological view of wisdom as a quantifiable phenomenon that can be measured on a positivist scale. Both inter-country migration and living amongst other ethnicities in migrant cities are spatial processes of relevance to our attempt to think geographically about how people become wiser. We investigate empirically and develop the foregoing themes by drawing on in-depth semi-structured interviews conducted with Romanian immigrants in Ontario, Canada, between 2014 and 2018. How to cite: Kutor, S.K., Raileanu, A. and Simandan, D., 2022. Thinking geographically about how people become wiser: an analysis of the spatial dislocations and intercultural encounters of international migrants, Social Sciences & Humanities Open. 6(1): 100288, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssaho.2022.100288
... International students are people who leave their homelands for higher education (Morris-Lange & Brands, 2015). Research has shown that a large proportion of those students stay in their host country post-training and find meaningful employment there (Bryła, 2019;Wu & Wilkes, 2017). While international students may study in a country for multiple reasons including gaining international exposure (Beech, 2018) and personal learning (Mucsi et al., 2019), post-study employment is a major motivation (Le & LaCost, 2017). ...
... Zároveň není možné pracovat s návratem jako s uzavřením migračního cyklu, ale jako s dalším dílkem skládačky možností, jak bude jednotlivec dále postupovat, včetně opětovné migrace, ať už do původní cílové země, nebo někam úplně jinam. Je tedy nutné chápat návrat mimo tradiční dichotomii návratu nebo setrvání [Wu, Wilkes 2017], což je právě cílem tohoto článku. Někteří autoři tuto strategii vnímají jako "záměrnou nevyzpytatelnost" [Eade 2007] a zároveň poukazují na vzrůstající komplexnost motivací, které ovlivňují mezinárodní mobilitu. ...
Book
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This book explores European student mobility from the perspective of Eastern European students moving to Western Europe for study. Mette Ginnerskov-Dahlberg deploys a novel approach to the subject by drawing on insights gleaned from a longitudinal study of Masters students pursuing an education abroad and their multifaceted post-graduate journeys. Thereby, she brings their narratives to life and highlights the changes and continuities they experienced over a period of seven years, fostering an understanding of student mobility as an activity enmeshed with adult commitments and long-term aspirations. Using Denmark as a case study of a host country, Ginnerskov-Dahlberg analyses the trajectories of these students and situates their experiences within the wider socio-historical context of Eastern European post-socialism and the contemporary dynamics between EU and non-EU citizens in the welfare state of Denmark – reflecting issues playing out on the global stage today. This book will be a valuable resource for students and scholars of migration and mobility studies, as well as human geography, sociology, higher education, area studies and anthropology.
Article
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Aivovuodosta sekä inhimillisen pääoman liikkuvuudesta on keskusteltu aktiivisesti nykyään Suomessa. Ilmiössä on kyse korkeasti koulutettujen ja ammattitaitoisten maastamuutosta. Ihmiset lähtevät maasta, jossa he ovat saavuttaneet nämä taidot, elämään ja työskentelemään ulkomailla. Viralliset tilastot ja tiedot osoittavat, että tilanne Suomessa on joka vuosi hälyttävämpi. Aivovuotoa on havaittu kaikilla sektoreilla, mutta syvimmin kärsivät tutkimusalat, luonnontieteet, biotieteet, humanistiset tieteet, antropologia, psykologia, tilastotiede ja ydintekniikka. Onko kuitenkaan todella kyse aivovuotoilmiöstä vai jostain muusta? Tämän artikkelin tarkoitus on selvittää, voidaanko Suomessa puhua aivovuodosta virallisesti käytettävissä olevien tietojen perusteella. Tutkimme myös aivovuodon tärkeimpiä syitä, sen tulevia vaikutuksia Suomen tutkimus- ja kehitystoimintoihin ja Suomen talouteen. Tämä on katsaus, joka perustuu aiempiin tutkimuksiin ja virallisiin tietoihin Tilastokeskuksesta. Artikkeli toimii perustana tutkimusvälineen kehittämiselle ja tulevalle tutkimukselle todellisen jatkuvan tilanteen analysoimiseksi. Link to full text (page 15): http://www.migrationinstitute.fi/files/pdf/siirtolaisuus-migration/sm4_2018.pdf
Conference Paper
https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8615155
Article
Migration and the resulting brain gain, drain and circulation have been crucial in shaping national economies across the globe. Economic development and migration are interlinked phenomena. Both out- and inflows of migration may have positive overall economic effects depending on the situation, transferring labour, capital, innovation, entrepreneurship and investments. However, these benefits remain often one-sided and benefit mainly developed economies. What is the optimal amount of migration, as Collier’s (2013) Exodus discusses, that does not result in economic asymmetries, distortions and inequalities but enhances economic development, national competitiveness and advances knowledge is a relevant concern and deserves more attention. The concept of virtuous cycles transferring and allocating migratory gains between sending and receiving economies in a more positive and sustainable way is a promising stream for migration debates, especially for developing and emerging economies. However, the global mobility and out-migration have become a critical matter for even several European countries generating new forms of skill and profession-related imbalances and highlighting specific vulnerabilities of local economies. Hence, systemic views are suggested for the debate.
Article
The primary purpose of this study is to probe not only the key factors that might influence international students’ attitude towards the host country and their desire to stay there, but also key elements that might enhance their intention to stay in the host country after completing their studies. A total of 211 international students in Taiwan participated in this study. Study results indicated international students’ attitude and their desire to stay in the host country were positively connected with their intention to stay in the host country after completing their study. Additionally, perceived behavioural control, perception of the labour market and subjective norms strongly affect international students’ attitude towards staying in the host country. Third, positive anticipated emotion and negative anticipated emotion play a key role in determining the desire to stay in the host country. The findings of this study suggest policy implications for establishing a more positive immigration policy.
Article
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The phenomenon of 'Brain Drain' or 'Human Capital Flight' is actively discussed in Finland recently. It is the phenomenon in which highly educated and skilled people leave the country where they attained their education and skills. The official statistics and data show that it is an alarming situation with every passing year in Finland. The phenomenon is widely observed in all sectors, but the most affected sectors are research-based fields, natural sciences, biosciences, humanities, anthropology, psychology, statistics, and core-engineering fields. However, is this really a brain drain phenomenon or something else? The focus of this paper is to explore the brain drain phenomenon's existence in Finland based on officially available data. The paper also investigates the main causes of brain drain, its future effects on Finland's R&D capabilities and the Finnish economy. This is a review article about the brain drain phenomenon based on previous studies and official quantitative data from Statistics Finland. This paper serves as the basis for the development of a research instrument to further analyze the situation in future research.
Article
Pre-pandemic, the international education marketplace was expanding rapidly along with cross-border educational mobilities. Researchers have explored the adaptions of international students to study destinations, notably within an acculturation framework. However, researchers have given less attention to adapting to life in the country of origin that international students encounter as returnees. It is commonplace for returning graduates to transition from higher education to employment. Despite such challenges, few studies have investigated how international students reintegrate into the job markets of their home countries. In this paper, we discuss the current state of relevant research on acculturation and reacculturation and provide a foundation for future research. Finally, theoretical and practical contributions in the field of counselling and guidance are provided.
Article
The main purpose of the article is to study the state and development prospects of academic mobility in Kazakhstani universities. Since the launch of mobility, the status of universities has changed significantly for the better, namely the quality of education has begun to increase, allowing to build up the capacity of graduates by studying foreign models, professional environment approaches competencies that will undoubtedly be in demand on the labor market. The current employers’ requirements for university graduates are very high, and only the presence of a systemic policy in universities for the development of various models of mobility will make it possible to comply with modern global trends. In the paper, the authors present the data of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2019–2020, reflecting the activities of universities in the field of mobility, the data of the Auezov South Kazakhstan University. In 2020–2022 the conditions for mobility have been changed under the influence of economic and political factors and COVID-19. Overall, universities in most countries have switched to hybrid forms of study. The results of field research are presented to identify the role of mobility and efficiency of competencies, as well as the development skills of students on the example of the Auezov University. According to the study, it was concluded that mobility is an important factor in the preparation of competitive specialists for the economy of Kazakhstan. Undoubtedly, it impacts and plays an important role in the formation of the University 4.
Chapter
People mobility is the micro-level of internationalization. This chapter offers comparisons of the Chinese and Australian policies, and notes similarities and differences in their policies. It presents the policy convergence and divergence under the globalization in Australia and China regarding IHE at the micro level, with China as an emerging international higher education market and sending country while Australia as a mature international higher education market and receiving country. Specifically, the main content of people focused policies then is about “foreigners” or international students studying in China or Australia, Chinese or Australians studying abroad, alumni engagement and global recruitment of talents. To examine the people focused policies of the two governments, this chapter aims to explore the differences and similarities in policy between traditional brain grain nation (Australia) and traditional brain drain nation (China) on international student mobility and post-study international labour mobility.
Article
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Introduction: One of the most important types of immigration is "brain drain" or, in other words, "elite migration". This results in the loss of human resources and transfer from underdeveloped countries to developed countries. Immigration causes irreparable damage to the countries of origin and usually causes the country of origin to be deprived of advancements in science and technology. Methods: A descriptive survey was done via questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS and Excel software , descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. Result: The findings show that the percentage of immigration of pharmacists in comparison with the total growth rate of pharmacists is relatively significant,( from 7.1% in 2006 to 13.8% in 2015). The rate of immigration of pharmacists (about 14%) is much higher than the average Iranian immigration (about 2%) and immigration of educated people in Iran (about 8%) and the average migration in the world (about 2.8%). Conclusion: The rate of immigration of pharmacists is growing. The results showed that the main factors affecting immigration from the point of view of pharmacists in the country is the economic situation of Iran, while according to the Iranian pharmacists living abroad, the causes of immigration are higher education, and after that, obtaining a higher occupational status and higher income. Also countries where pharmacists are needed include Canada, followed by countries such as Germany, the United States, Australia, the United Kingdom, France and Sweden. It seems that job security or, in other words, the availability of jobs appropriating higher incomes, the possibility of continuing higher education as well as welfare facilities are factors affecting the immigration of pharmacists. Keywords: Immigration, Pharmacists, Brain drain
Book
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This volume uses case studies and students' lived experiences to document the impacts of coronavirus (COVID-19) on international students and explore future challenges and opportunities for student mobility within higher education. Responding to the growing need for new insights and perspectives to improve higher education policy and practice in the era of COVID-19, this text analyses the changing roles and responsibilities of institutions and international education leaders post-2020. Initial chapters highlight key issues for students that have arisen as a result of the global health crisis such as learning, well-being, and the changed emotional, legal, and financial implications of study abroad. Subsequent chapters confront potential longer-term implications of students’ experiences during COVID-19, and provide critical reflection on internationalization and the opportunities that COVID-19 has presented for tertiary education systems around the world to learn from one another. This timely volume will benefit researchers, academics, and educators with an interest in online teaching and e-learning, curriculum design, and more specifically those involved with international and comparative education. Those involved with educational policy and practice, specifically related to pandemic education, will also benefit from this volume.
Article
This article models the migration flows of international students who have graduated from master's and doctoral programmes in UK universities. Previously, access to sufficient data from the Destination of Leavers from Higher Education (DLHE) data set on the destinations of higher education (HE) international students has been difficult, despite the fact that international student numbers have grown substantially. Two 1‐year extracts from the DLHE data set were analysed (2013/2014 and 2014/2015) using cross‐classified multilevel modelling in order to estimate influences on ‘stay rate’: the likelihood of highly skilled graduates remaining in the United Kingdom for work after graduation. The home domicile and the UK higher education institution (HEI) attended for study were modelled as random effects that allowed the variance in stay rate to be partitioned between the student, higher levels of domicile and HEI attended. Variance at the domicile level was estimated to be 1.67 times greater than variance at HEI level, indicating that home country is a better predictor of stay rates than the HEI attended. The cross‐classified model was a better fit to data than simpler, two‐level hierarchical models (students nested in domicile or students nested in HEI attended). A number of student, domicile‐ and HEI‐level factors were added to the models. At HEI level, attending a Russell Group university and university location outside London were factors that led to significantly lower likelihood of graduates staying in the United Kingdom for work. At the domicile level, none of four factors (GDP, unemployment rates, English language and commonwealth affiliation) were significant in predicting stay rates.
Book
This edited book comprises chapters integrated around a central theme on college-educated Japanese, Korean, and Chinese women’s orientation to English study. The collection is composed of two parts: (1) East Asian women’s motivation to study in the West and (2) East Asian women’s dream to use English as a career. The first part discusses their international migration as facilitated by factors characteristic of East Asian nations (e.g. middle-class women’s access to advanced education and yet unequal access to professional career) and other factors inherent in each nation (e.g. different social evaluations of women equipped with competitive overseas degrees and English proficiency). The second part sheds light on the dreams and realities of East Asian female adults who, having been avid English learners, aim for "dream jobs" (e.g. interpreters) or have few other career choices but to be re-trained as English specialists or even as Japanese language teachers working abroad. This collection is suitable for any scholar interested in the lives and voices of young educated women who strive to empower themselves with language skills in the seemingly promising neoliberal world that is, however, riddled with ideological contradictions.
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It is sad to note that according to stream of empirical evidence(s) and the backward economic state, a country as rich as Nigeria, inspite of all its natural endowments (resources) cannot find its footing in development because of Greed, Sectionalism, Nepotism, Corruption and Selfishness of those who were supposed to enforce the functions. The study on prudence and Accountability in Public Sector therefore becomes highly imperative as it shades more light on the discrepancies' and misconceptions emanating from the naivety and share Greed of the Nigerian Economic Managers (NEM).
Article
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Building on the literature on transnational social fields (Levitt & Glick Schiller, 2004) and the research agenda on pluri-local transnational studies (Pries, 2001), in this article we examine the processes of Polish migrants’ social positioning. Nowadays many migrant trajectories are more complex than moving just from one place to another, involving repeated migration spells, returns, and onward mobility. In particular, multiple migration routes involving more than one destination expand the horizons lived by migrants and hence the frames in which they can position themselves. We adopt an actor-centred approach to better understand how highly mobile individuals negotiate social comparisons concerning the contexts they have engaged in during their multiple migration spells. This article draws on qualitative data from the MULTIMIG project that examines Polish migration worldwide. The analysis is based on a qualitative panel study with 70 Poles living abroad, who have the experience of multiple migration (who have lived in two countries outside of Poland for at least three months in each). The interviews shed light on how Polish migrants make social comparisons, and in particular, which frames of reference they adopt.
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While researchers are increasingly re-conceptualizing international migration, far less attention has been devoted to re-thinking short-distance residential mobility and immobility. In this paper we harness the life course approach to propose a new conceptual framework for residential mobility research. We contend that residential mobility and immobility should be re-conceptualized as relational practices that link lives through time and space while connecting people to structural conditions. Re-thinking and re-assessing residential mobility by exploiting new developments in longitudinal analysis will allow geographers to understand, critique and address pressing societal challenges.
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Drawing upon transnational research in the UK and India, primarily over 150 semi-structured interviews in Newcastle, UK and Doaba, Punjab, as well as the ‘mobilities turn’ within contemporary social science, this paper examines the pursuit of ‘home’ within a diasporic British Indian Punjabi community. It is argued that this transnational pursuit of home is significantly shaped by the dynamic social context of South Asia, in particular processes of social inclusion and exclusion therein. Thus, returning Punjabi migrant attempts to distinguish themselves from the resident population through conspicuous consumption, and simultaneous attempts from Punjabi residents to exclude Non-Resident Indians from ‘real’ Indian status, lead to a continual reprocessing of home across different sites of mobility, as well as demonstrating the ‘never fully achieved’ nature of home.
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The notion of a Chinese popularity function may seem surprising, given its authoritarian nature. However, exploring the possibility of indirect popularity functions in nondemocratic systems, we articulate a model of national government support in China. The model argues that sociodemographics, political attitudes, and performance issues mold central government satisfaction. Drawing on a countrywide 2008 public opinion survey, we conclude that regional differences, national trust, and local policy success are of special importance in shaping national government support. The findings, which exhibit theoretical and statistical appeal, lay the groundwork for further investigation of popularity functions in China.
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This research developed and tested a comprehensive model of the antecedents of international graduate students' interest in an international career. Based largely on Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT), the model included elements that pertain to perceptions of external constraints (perceptions of the labor market, family pressure to return), international student experience (adjustment in the foreign country during graduate studies, exposure and immersion to the international context) and individual factors (self-efficacy with respect to working abroad and outcome expectancy). Participants were 139 international graduate students in the UK. Individual factors and perceived constraints were directly related to interest in an international career. The factors that comprised current international student experience were indirectly related to interest via their relationship with self-efficacy, while adjustment moderated the relationship between self-efficacy and interest. Although the hypothesized moderating role of family pressure to return did not materialize, the findings suggest that perceptions of constraints play a more substantial role in the formation of interest than has been assumed by SCCT theory thus far. The findings are discussed with respect to their implications for the literature and for the policies of host country stakeholders.
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This paper offers theoretically informed empirical insights into migrant children’s experiences of mobility and home. Drawing on research into the first-generation children of Polish labour migrants in Scotland, the paper explores the meanings that children attach to home and other specific places. In particular, it focuses on questions of the translocal and social nature of migrant children’s sense of place and construction of home. The spoken narratives, subjective maps and drawings analysed here reflect children’s multiple and intersecting relationships and identifications, with both their country of origin and the host country, in addition to how their notion of home is grounded in social attachments. Emphasising the continuing importance of ‘place’ in migrant children and young people’s everyday experiences, the research concludes that subjective homemaking practices are just as important as objective educational attainment and other traditional social indicators in providing an understanding of the outcomes of migrant settlement. It also suggests that there is an emerging translocal identity among some young Polish migrants, whose changing understanding of home incorporates images and emotions from both their locality of origin and their current place of residence.
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This article looks at the uneven mobility experiences of Eastern European (EE) undergraduate students within the European Union (EU) as a fundamental aspect of human intra-European mobility. It addresses the issue of student mobility by focusing on two samples of Romanian and Bulgarian undergraduates studying in the UK and Spain, after the EU enlargement towards the East. Based on 70 in-depth qualitative interviews, the study evaluates the motivations, experiences and expectations of students and their families in the context of life-course trajectories. I argue that the socio-economic situation of the country of origin, the different strategies used by EE students and their families, and the country they choose for study overseas – the UK or Spain – create uneven mobility and influence their future life-strategy mobility after graduation. The main thematic findings, that is, mobility as a platform for permanent migration and family reunification, uncertain mobility as a tool for competition, and mobility for return, show the relation between the reasons why students study overseas and subsequent mobility aspirations. The conclusions highlight the need to integrate mobile students into the study of mobility as pivotal actors in the global circuit of mobility who favour both host and origin societies.
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While reasons for out-migration are relatively well understood, little is known about why people return to their rural origins. We contribute to filling this gap in the literature by using 19-year tracking data from rural Tanzania to estimate the patterns and determinants of return migration, and we find that return is largely associated with unsuccessful migration. For men, return is linked to poor job-market outcomes at the migration destination, and for women, to the ending of marriages. Female migrants who exchange transfers with relatives at home, and men who are financially supported by their families, are more likely to return.
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While China's ruling Communist Party has benefited from a reservoir of political trust engendered by more than three decades of rapid economic growth, it is confronted with rising social tensions and the prospect of instability. The number of mass incidents, which is a key measure of instability, has risen enormously, and a major source of such incidents stems from local governments taking land from farmers, often at below-market prices. This article draws upon data from two surveys to assess the political trust implications of land takings. It is found that, as expected, land takings are associated with a decline in political trust. However, the decline affects trust in local authorities only and leaves the central government largely unscathed. Nonetheless, the gap between villagers' trust in central and local authorities is not unalloyed good news for the regime and has major implications for policy implementation and governance.
Book
Making Home in Diasporic Communities demonstrates the global scope of the Filipino diaspora, engaging wider scholarship on globalisation and the ways in which the dynamics of nation-state institutions, labour migration and social relationships intersect for transnational communities. Based on original ethnographic work conducted in Ireland and the Philippines, the book examines how Filipina diasporans socially and symbolically create a sense of ‘home’. On one hand, Filipinas can be seen as mobile, as they have crossed geographical borders and are physically located in the destination country. Yet, on the other hand, they are constrained by immigration policies, linguistic and cultural barriers and other social and cultural institutions. Through modalities of language, rituals and religion and food, the author examines the ways in which Filipinas orient their perceptions, expectations, practices and social spaces to ‘the homeland’, thus providing insight into larger questions of inclusion and exclusion for diasporic communities. By focusing on a range of Filipina experiences, including that of nurses, international students, religious workers and personal assistants, Making Home in Diasporic Communities explores the intersectionality of gender, race, class and belonging. As such, it will appeal to scholars of sociology and anthropology as well as those with interests in gender, identity, migration, ethnic studies, and the construction of home.
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Much of migration theory has come to revolve around the category of the “labor migrant,” without taking into account labor, like homemaking, that remains unrecognized by the market. Drawing from qualitative interviews with thirty-one Chinese migrants in different stages of making a move from Beijing to Vancouver, we attempt to bring better visibility to how the labor involved in homemaking intersects with migration. Defining homemaking as work in the pragmatic-existentialist context of the stabilization of everyday routines, we uncover three themes to homemaking work: settling in, settling down, and settling for. Discussion of these themes reveals two important issues for migration theory: settlement relies upon the work of homemaking and the work of homemaking in many cases motivates migration. For these reasons, the work of homemaking should be more carefully studied within the migration literature.
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Drawing on qualitative data obtained from mainland Chinese students in Hong Kong, this research uses polymedia theory to analyse the social implications of media use and interpersonal communication by migrant students. It looks at how migrant students use media to communicate with family members and friends in mainland China compared with Hong Kong locals. When communicating with family and friends, their media usage is intense, close and emotion-oriented, forming a warm and supportive virtual network that provides familiarity, a sense of belonging and emotional attachment. In contrast, their media usage to communicate with Hong Kong locals is limited, functional and study-oriented, and although it becomes a platform for practical help, it also demonstrates deep contradictions and conflicts with members of the host society.
Chapter
This chapter has two primary objectives: (1) to highlight the important influences that impact the career decision-making of international students and (2) to discuss and provide suggestions for the career guidance of international students. The chapter begins with a discussion of the changing global views about international students. The focus is placed on the career planning and decision-making needs of international students in higher-education-to-work transitions. Topics such as migration trends, economic contributions, immigration policies, and the idea of international students as preferred migrants are addressed. It is concluded that the changing immigration policies in some countries encourage international students to pursue employment and permanent immigration to these countries. As such, international students are no longer viewed as temporary sojourners. Host countries have a stake in keeping international students after graduation to address critical labor shortages and to take advantage of their knowledge of both home and host cultures.
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There are currently 435,000 international students studying in UK Universities. This paper investigates the forces driving student mobility and the relationship between student migration and future mobility plans. The research, based on a survey of over 3000 international students and interviews with senior staff in International Offices at ten UK Universities confirms the importance of understanding international student mobility as part of wider mobility trajectories.
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This paper examines how the changing and complex notions of home in the context of China’s internal migration can influence migrants’ belonging and identity formations in the urban context. Tracing the evolution of migrants’ conceptualization of home through three interrelated perspectives – the ancestral home (laojia), the city home, and the material home – it is becoming possible to challenge the dominant perceptions of migrants’ home as an emblematic representation of their precarious urban position and its traditional association with formal and fixed alignment between place and identity. Employing a translocal approach to study the complexities and functions of migrants’ home, this paper expose migrants’ alternative home-making practices, highlighting their strong connection to flexibility and mobility, and the making of migrants’ home a meaningful space for subjective transformations, within the limiting environment of powerful socio-spatial urban regimes. Reexamining the reliance on the traditional established connection between place, home, and identity, these new conceptualizations are important not only to better understand the development of migrants’ urban identity and belonging, but can also as be used as a practical element in devising future urban development policies that will better address migrants’ needs and integration into urban space and society.
Book
Tianjian Shi shows how cultural norms affect political attitudes and behavior through two causal pathways, one at the individual level and one at the community level. Focusing on two key norms - definition of self-interest and orientation to authority - he tests the theory with multiple surveys conducted in mainland China and Taiwan. Shi employs multi-level statistical analysis to show how, in these two very different political systems, similar norms exert similar kinds of influence on political trust, understanding of democracy, forms of political participation, and tolerance for protest. The approach helps to explain the resilience of authoritarian politics in China and the dissatisfaction of many Taiwan residents with democratic institutions. Aiming to place the study of political culture on a new theoretical and methodological foundation, Shi argues that a truly comparative social science must understand how culturally embedded norms influence decision making.
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This book critically evaluates the transnational communities approach to contemporary international migration. It does so through a specific focus on the relationship between 'transnational communities' and 'home'. The meaning of 'home' for international migrants is changing and evolving, as new globally-oriented identities are developed. These issues are explored through a number of central themes: the meaning of 'home' to transnational peoples, the implications of transforming these social spaces and how these have been transformed. © 2002 Editorial selection and matter, Nadje Al-Ali and Khalid Koser; individual chapters, the contributors. All rights reserved.
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How can the poor and weak ‘work’ a political system to their advantage? Drawing mainly on interviews and surveys in rural China, Kevin O'Brien and Lianjiang Li show that popular action often hinges on locating and exploiting divisions within the state. Otherwise powerless people use the rhetoric and commitments of the central government to try to fight misconduct by local officials, open up clogged channels of participation, and push back the frontiers of the permissible. This ‘rightful resistance’ has far-reaching implications for our understanding of contentious politics. As O'Brien and Li explore the origins, dynamics, and consequences of rightful resistance, they highlight similarities between collective action in places as varied as China, the former East Germany, and the United States, while suggesting how Chinese experiences speak to issues such as opportunities to protest, claims radicalization, tactical innovation, and the outcomes of contention.
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There is a non-trivial probability of students remaining abroad after completion of studies outside their home countries. Departing from typical literature, this paper incorporates simulations of parameters obtained from a multinomial logit model in re-vealing why international students studying abroad intend to stay abroad or to return home. Micro-level data are obtained from a sample of 623 full-time international stu-dents studying at tertiary level programmes in two New Zealand universities. Parameter simulations enable the plotting of the distributions of outcome probabilities, where the distributions would show how distinguishable the effect of an explanatory variable has on the probability of remaining abroad or returning home. Favourable perceptions on the type of lifestyle in ones home country are found to have a positive impact on the probability of returning home. Surprisingly, good perceptions on wage competitiveness do not appear to be a predominant reason behind the probability of remaining abroad or returning home.
Article
This paper responds to calls for studies of student migrant experiences and the institutional actors that are involved in international student migration. In particular, we examine the ways in which institutional actors can influence student motivations and experiences through a case study of the Norwegian Quota Scheme. We discuss three main findings. First, institutions play a significant role in determining who migrates and the reasons for migration while shaping the academic experience and future migration plans of international students. Second, state-funded international student migration programmes constrain the future plans of recipients, reflecting potential differences in decision-making among state-funded and self-financed students. Third, international students - as both students and migrants - undergo significant personal growth during the course of their studies. This complicates state goals to return or retain student migrants, as the ambitions of students are likely to change concomitant with their personal development.
Article
China has adopted preferential measures in hopes of luring back overseas talent, but what determines individual attitudes towards returning migrants and policies promoting return migration? This paper addresses this question using an original survey experiment of Chinese netizens. We argue that attitudes towards return migration are driven by two competing perceptions: on one hand, skilled migrants are widely thought to have beneficial effects on the local economy; on the other, domestic citizens may be wary of policies that offer elite returnees excessive benefits. The findings imply that the CCP may face a delicate trade-off between the economic benefits of return migration and the social costs of increasing inequality.
Article
This paper offers a geographical analysis of the concept of ‘distinction’ in relation to student mobility within the UK. The analysis in this paper is based primarily on interviews with Scottish students who have chosen to study in England, and English students who have done likewise in Scotland. The paper problematises the concept of ‘distinction’ in the stratified higher education system of the UK. The paper’s originality lies in showing how global forces affect these intra-state student flows and how ‘distinction’ as a driver of mobility is signified. The research offers a starting point in understanding the glocalisation of student mobility.
Article
International graduate students are regarded as highly educated global human resources who are necessary for many organizations to survive the global competition. Even though it is regarded that being married is a key factor influencing international mobility, there is little research on differences in intentions to remain abroad between the single and the married. The purpose of this study was to examine how international graduate students' intentions to remain in the USA after graduation differ by marital status. Using a multi-group path model analysis, the hypothesized model was individually tested by marital status, and relationships between the variables were compared. Data from a self-report survey (n = 451) provided that single students' relationships and married students' relationships differed. There was a negative significant relationship between home country family ties and intention to remain for single students. The relationship between satisfaction with the university and intention to remain was positively significant only for single students. There was a positive significant indirect relationship between social support and intentions to remain for single students. The significance of this study can be found in the contributions to research and practices in recruiting and retaining international graduates.
Article
Taking the life course as the central concern, the authors set out a conceptual framework and define some key research questions for a programme of research that explores how the linked lives of mobile people are situated in time–space within the economic, social, and cultural structures of contemporary society. Drawing on methodologically innovative techniques, these perspectives can offer new insights into the changing nature and meanings of migration across the life course. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Using the case of young German professionals living in England, this paper argues that visiting friends and relatives (VFR) is dominated by complexity and ambivalence, even in a seemingly straightforward migration. The geographical proximity between the migration destination and origin in the case study both creates and reveals this complexity and ambivalence through the potential of frequent visits in both directions. The research is based on one year of participant observation amongst young Germans in London, as well as 39 formal, in-depth interviews with participants aged 23–42. All participants, both interviewees and others encountered during fieldwork, engaged in regular visits to Germany as well as receiving visitors from Germany, but displayed different, complex time-space patterns of VFR. Bi-local migrants were mostly recently arrived straight from their home region in Germany; the bi-locality of their VFR mobilities was defined by their pattern of visiting, and being visited by, friends and relatives in their region of origin only. Multi-local migrants had more geographically dispersed patterns of VFR behaviour, reflecting their more complex mobility histories, both internally within Germany and internationally, before moving to England. Finally, settled migrants had been in England a long time, often since school or university, and planned to stay; hence their VFR behaviour, either bi-locally or multi-locally defined, was less intense. Within this threefold categorisation, the paper explores the complex emotionality of VFR, including feelings of guilt and ambivalence, mainly towards parents and friends. By highlighting the complexity within one migration, it also adds more nuance to recent work of attempted typologies of VFR in migration. Theoretically, the analysis is located within the field of transnational urbanism and its more specific working concept of translocal subjectivities, which provides the operational setting for analysing migrants' feelings, tensions, and conflicts over their VFR activities and responsibilities. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
The institutional mechanisms by which young adults come to experience temporary periods of global mobility are varied, but what most have in common is a presupposition that those gaining entry into another country will return ‘home’ within a specific period. This article is concerned to better understand how young adults who are engaged in such forms of global travel manage the significant personal emotional intimate attachments that many of them make in the places that they visit when a decision has to be made about returning. Here we offer an empirical examination of what happens when an envisaged return ‘home’ is stymied by the formation of a significant intimate relationship with someone from another country. In particular we focus on the role that ‘family matters’ play in decision-making processes.
Article
Perceptions of local government performance strongly affect Chinese urban residents' political trust in both central and local governments.
Article
Highly educated rural-to-urban migrants living within China's first-tier cities – known as ‘ants’ (yizu) – employ a number of different everyday strategies for creating a home in the face of structural obstacles. This article discusses such strategies in the city of Guangzhou by extending Martina Löw's (2001) concept of the constitution of urban space. Different types of migrants' strategies and the transient nature of these migrants' homes are presented against the background of current Chinese debates on social stratification, social mobility, and access to urban space. The analysis is based on 30 qualitative interviews with college graduates living in urban villages (chengzhongcun), in addition to the results of field research. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
In this article, we examine the role of brokerage, the knowledge that brokers transfer and the social conditions of that transfer. Previous research suggests that highly skilled migrants spanning multiple locales have the advantage of being able to transfer knowledge as they move from one place to another. In this study, using a network perspective, we look at the activities of international doctoral students in their transfer of knowledge and illustrate the underlying social conditions of knowledge transfer through transnational friendship networks. Using a qualitative methodology, we examine the research questions and 35 in-depth interviews, as well as egocentric network analysis conducted in Germany. In the findings, we explore the social conditions of knowledge brokerage, including trust, reciprocity and solidarity. Finally, we discuss the implications for further research on knowledge sharing among brokers and international students.
Article
International students are seen as prospective skilled workers in the globalising competition for talent. However, little is known about the connections between international students' decisions to study abroad and their perspectives on continuing their career in the host country after graduation or subsequently settling there for a longer term. This paper addresses this research gap by examining international students' and graduates' perspectives on the study‐to‐work transition in Denmark. The analysis is based on interviews with international students enrolled in postgraduate science and technology programmes at universities in the Copenhagen metropolitan region and with recent international graduates who stayed on in Denmark as foreign workers after their studies. The paper considers how variegated combinations of personal factors and contextual circumstances have an impact on the ways in which individuals from diverse national backgrounds navigate through the study‐to‐work transition process. Denmark is a relatively new entrant into the global competition for talent. This makes it an interesting case of an evolving host‐country context where international students' status transition represents a challenging process, both for policy‐making and from the perspective of the individuals concerned. The results draw attention to the diversity of constraints and opportunities that shape individual student migrants' perspectives and trajectories. In conclusion, the paper contributes to a better understanding of the link between talent and student mobility by interweaving insights from compartmentalised bodies of literature, and by enriching empirical knowledge on the connection between factors that attract and retain international students in the host country. Copyr