ArticleLiterature Review

Perspectives of the Apiaceae Hepatoprotective Effects - A Review

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Abstract

The liver has the crucial role in the regulation of various physiological processes and in the excretion of endogenous waste metabolites and xenobiotics. Liver structure impairment can be caused by various factors including microorganisms, autoimmune diseases, chemicals, alcohol and drugs. The plant kingdom is full of liver protective chemicals such as phenols, coumarins, lignans, essential oils, monoterpenes, carotenoids, glycosides, flavonoids, organic acids, lipids, alkaloids and xanthenes. Apiaceae plants are usually used as a vegetable or as a spice, but their other functional properties are also very important. This review highlights the significance of caraway, dill, cumin, aniseed, fennel, coriander, celery, lovage, angelica, parsley and carrot, which are popular vegetables and spices, but possess hepatoprotective potential. These plants can be used for medicinal applications to patients who suffer from liver damage.

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... crispum) (Lazić et al. 2001). Koren peršuna se koristi kao povrće, dok se list koristi kao začin (Aćimović and Milić 2017). Cela biljka sadrži etarsko ulje, i to plod 3-7%, listovi 0,16-0,3% i koren 0,1% (Stanković et al. 2005). ...
... S obzirom na činjenicu da je u novije vreme veoma popularna suplementacija lekovitog, aromatičnog i začinskog bilja u svakodnevnu ishranu kao funkcionalnih komponenata i nutraceutika (Aćimović et al. 2015, Aćimović and Milić 2017, Aćimović 2017, cilj našeg istraživanja bio je da se ispitaju isparljive komponente plodova peršuna i celera primenom savremenih metoda ekstrakcije (headspace), imajući u vidu činjenicu da upravo od ovih komponenti potiče karakterističan miris i ukus ispitivanih biljkaka. Headspace tehnika sve se češće primenjuje za određivanje isparljivih komponenti u heterogenim uzorcima. ...
... S obzirom na činjenicu da je u novije vreme veoma popularna suplementacija lekovitog, aromatičnog i začinskog bilja u svakodnevnu ishranu kao funkcionalnih komponenata i nutraceutika (Aćimović et al. 2015, Aćimović and Milić 2017, Aćimović 2017, cilj našeg istraživanja bio je da se ispitaju isparljive komponente plodova peršuna i celera primenom savremenih metoda ekstrakcije (headspace), imajući u vidu činjenicu da upravo od ovih komponenti potiče karakterističan miris i ukus ispitivanih biljkaka. Headspace tehnika sve se češće primenjuje za određivanje isparljivih komponenti u heterogenim uzorcima. ...
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Parsley (Petroselinum crispum L.) and celery (Apium graveolens L.) are important vegetables from Apiaceae family. They are often used as spices due to their specific aroma originating from volatile components of essential oil. Having in mind the massive popularity of celery and parsley as dietary supplements, functional food and alternative medicine, the aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition of fruit volatiles of these two plants using headspace extraction method, GC-MS and GC-FID analysis. In the fruit samples of leafy parsley 35 volatile compounds were determined, the most abundant ones being α-pinen and β-pinen (49.0% and 35.4%, respectively). In the fruits of leafy celery 26 volatiles were identified, the most abundant ones being limonen and β-selinen (84.1% and 9.1%, respectively).
... Among the various plants of Apiaceae, celery (Apium graveolens L.) has long been consumed as a medicinal food in several forms, either for its characteristic flavor, health promoting effects or medicinal value (Ingallina et al., 2020). Fresh leaf celery, turnip-rooted celery (celeriac), and celery seeds are commonly used in flavoring and garnishing purposes as well as for the preparation of a range of food items, such as salads, salad dressings, soups, stews, sauces, vegetable juices, biscuits, and pickled vegetables (A cimovi c, 2017;A cimovi c and Mili c, 2017). In herbal medicine, A. graveolens is employed as a diuretic, antispasmodic, anti-parasitic, antihypertensive, anti-arthritic, and anti-rheumatic agent. ...
Article
Apiaceae plants are multipurpose folk remedies and bioactive foods that show a remarkable ability to biosynthesize a large number of secondary metabolites with antitumor and chemopreventive potential. Among the various members of the Apiaceae, celery (Apium graveolens L.) has long been used as a popular edible and medicinal plant owing to its plentiful health benefits and nutraceutical properties; however, the anticancer potential of this important species has been seldom studied, mostly focusing on its seeds. Therefore, this work was designed to delve into the chemical composition and anti-proliferative potential of the total ethanolic extracts of the aerial parts (TEEAGA) and roots (TEEAGR) of A. graveolens var. dulce (Mill.) Pers. as well as their green synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). In general, both TEEAGA and TEEAGR exhibited moderate to potent inhibitory activities against human liver (HepG-2), colon (Caco-2), and breast (MCF-7) cancer cell lines, with interesting IC50 profiles [(41.37 ± 0.12, 27.65 ± 0.27, and 9.48 ± 0.04 μg/mL) and (11.58 ± 0.02, 7.13 ± 0.03, and 6.58 ± 0.02 μg/mL), respectively] as compared with doxorubicin, while more pronounced anti-proliferative effects were observed for their biogenic AgNPs, which showed IC50 values ranging between 25.41 ± 0.16 and 1.37 ± 0.03 μg/mL. Moreover, HPLC‒HESI‒HRMS-based metabolomics analysis of both extracts showed the presence of a varied group of secondary metabolites, including flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, phthalides, coumarins, and sesquiterpenes that further displayed moderate to promising binding affinities to the active site of cyclin G-associated kinase (GAK), particularly graveobioside A, graveobioside B, and celeroside C, suggesting their possible contribution as GAK modulators to the anti-proliferative potential of celery. These findings can help broaden future research on the utilization of different parts of celery and their NPs as functional foods and medicines in cancer chemoprevention and therapy.
... It has diuretic, antiseptic, anti-allergy, and anti-inflammatory effects [3]. It also has medicinal properties for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, high blood pressure, and liver diseases in humans [4]. ...
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Seed treatments with zinc, boron, biostimulant Coveron and MIX (zinc + boron + Coveron) were applied to three lettuce and three celeriac cultivars. Seeds of three wheat cultivars were treated under laboratory conditions with Trichoderma harzianum and eight Bacillus spp. Seed germination, seedling growth, and the presence of the following pathogens were determined: Fusarium sp., Alternaria sp., Penicillium sp., and Mucor sp. The Coveron treatment was the most effective on lettuce seeds tested in the germination cabinet. Seed germination was higher by 4% than in the control. Alternatively, germination of seeds treated with boron in the greenhouse was higher by 12% than in the control. The Coveron treatment had the highest effect on the shoot length, which was greater by 0.7 and 2.1 cm in the germination cabinet and the greenhouse, respectively. This treatment was also the most effective on the root length. Zn, B, and MIX treatments increased celeriac seed germination by 14% in the germination cabinet. The Zn treatment was the most efficient on seeds tested in the greenhouse. The germination was higher by 15%. A significant cultivar × treatment interaction was determined in both observed species under both conditions. The maximum effect on wheat seed germination (8%) was achieved with the T. harzianum treatment in the Salazar cultivar. A significant interdependence (p ≤ 0.01 to p ≤ 0.001) was established between seed germination and the seedling growth. The interrelationship between seed germination and pathogens of all cultivars was negative.
... The liver plays a crucial role in the regulation of various physiological processes and in the excretion of endogenous waste metabolites and xenobiotics. The plant kingdom is full of liver protective chemicals such as phenols, carotenoids, flavonoids, and phenolic acids [84]. ...
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Phenolic acids comprise a class of phytochemical compounds that can be extracted from various plant sources and are well known for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. A few of the most common naturally occurring phenolic acids (i.e., caffeic, carnosic, ferulic, gallic, p-coumaric, rosmarinic, vanillic) have been identified as ingredients of edible botanicals (thyme, oregano, rosemary, sage, mint, etc.). Over the last decade, clinical research has focused on a number of in vitro (in human cells) and in vivo (animal) studies aimed at exploring the health protective effects of phenolic acids against the most severe human diseases. In this review paper, the authors first report on the main structural features of phenolic acids, their most important natural sources and their extraction techniques. Subsequently, the main target of this analysis is to provide an overview of the most recent clinical studies on phenolic acids that investigate their health effects against a range of severe pathologic conditions (e.g., cancer, cardiovascular diseases, hepatotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and viral infections—including coronaviruses-based ones).
... The preventive or therapeutic effects of various plant extracts or components in IRI have been studied. The blockage of endothelial adhesion molecules, reduction of cytokines is released from cells, free oxygen radicals and hepatocyte apoptosis have been discussed [18]. The Coriandrum sativum plant has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects and the protective effect of Coriandrum sativum on liver damage caused by various hepatotoxic substances has been reported [14,19,20,21]. ...
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Synthetic chemicals are used to protect crops and agricultural products, thereby producing high yields. However, intensive use of these synthetic chemicals significantly affects the environment and sustainable agriculture production. Moreover, direct or indirect exposure to these synthetic chemicals may cause acute or chronic toxicity in humans and animals. Due to their biodegradability, low toxicity, and being environmentally friendly, secondary metabolites derived from plant sources are being studied as a sustainable approach. Apiaceae family crops are a good source of bioactive phytochemicals. Many studies have found that Apiaceae extracts and essential oils possess various biocidal activities: antibacterial, antifungal, herbicidal, insecticidal or repellent, and larvicidal activities, among others. These various potent bioactivities make the Apiaceae an excellent alternative source for synthetic chemicals. In this context, the present review highlights the biocidal activities of some Apiaceae species and their potential applications in agriculture to protect the plant and agricultural products against pests, weeds, phytopathogens, and foodborne and food spoilage microorganisms.
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In recent years there is an immense pressure on farmers to harvest more grains for growing population. For higher production they are extensively using the pesticides which are hazardous to human health. As such, it becomes necessary to evaluate the effect of these pesticides on human health and search for a subsequent protective agent against there hazardous effects. In the present investigation an organophosphate (profenofos) was administered @ 25mg/Kg b.w for 30 days to swiss albino mice to observe its effect on liver. Further, Cuminum cyminum and Coriandrum sativum extracts were administered to the profenofos intoxicated group @ 100mg/Kg b.w and 1000 mg/Kg b.w respectively for 30 days to evaluate their protective efficacy. An elevated level of liver function test (LFT) was observed in profenofos intoxicated group in comparison to the control. However, the two antidotes administered group showed decreasing trend of LFT. The finding suggests the vital role of the plant extracts in reducing the hepatotoxicity at the cellular and biochemical levels. Of the two medicinal plants, cumin was found to be more effective for its hepato-protective role than that of Coriander.
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Medicinal plants have been used traditionally worldwide for the prevention and treatment of liver disease. Pimpinella anisum (Anise) or Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel) are used frequently as spices. The present work aimed to investigate the possible potential protective effect of Anise and Fennel essential oils, against carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) induced fibrosis in rats. Administration of ccl4 (1.5ml/kg /kg.b.wt ) intra-pretoneally (IP) in olive oil (1:7 dilution) for 7 successive weeks resulted in liver damage manifested by significant increase in serum AST.ALT. ALP, decreased total protein and increased triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL while decreased the HDL level. Rats treated orally with essential oil of Pimpinella anisum (Anise, 125 &250mg/kg) or Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel, 200 &400kg/b.wt.) for 7 successive weeks and intoxicated with CCL4 showed a significant protection againstinduced increase in serum liver enzyme (AST,ALT, ALP), restored total protein level and ameliorate the increased triglycerides, total, cholesterol, LDL and decreased the HDL. A significant corrective effect of either Anise or fennel oils on biochemical parameters were supported by histopathological examination of the rats. In conclusion, these data indicated that essential oils of Pimpinella anisum (Anise) or Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel) possessed a hepatoprotective activity against hepatotoxicity induced by CCL4 induced fibrosis model in rats.
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Flavonoid content in the roots of caraway plants cv. Ko�czewicki and the antioxidant activity of extracts from those roots were determined in the first year of cultivation. The experiment revealed a significant relationship between the concentration of flavonoid compounds and the age of caraway roots. During the vegetative season the concentration of flavonoids in caraway roots gradually increased and ranged from an average level of 0.153 mg�g-1 of air-dry matter (a.d.w.) in June to 0.512 mg�g-1 a.d.w. in October. The largest amounts of these compounds were contained in the roots of the plants grown in 2006 (an average of 0.312 mg�g-1 a.d.w.). The ability to scavenge the DPPH radical by the extracts from caraway roots increased in direct proportion to the length of the vegetative period, flavonoid content and extract concentration.
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The field experiment was carried out during the years of 2011 and 2012, in three localities in Serbia, with application of six different fertilizer regimes in order to determine the content and composition of the aniseed essential oil. It was found that the average content of essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation in aniseed was 3.72%. The weather conditions during the year and the locality had a statistically significant effect on the essential oil content, while different source of fertilizer wasn’t statistically significant on the essential oil content and its composition. Essential oil compositions were determined using GC–MS technique, and total of 15 compounds were identified. It was found that the major component was trans-anethole, in average 94.78%, and coefficient of variation was 2%. The second most abundant component was γ-himachalene with 2.53% (CV 28%). All other components were present in less than 1%.
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The aim of this review was to point to a great importance of plants from Apiaceae family as a functional food. Caraway (Carum carvi L.), anise (Pimpinella anisum L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), dill (Anethum graveolens L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) are plants from the above-mentioned family whose seeds are widely used in folk medicine, pharmaceutical industry, as spices, flavoring agents and as dietary supplements. These plants are rich in essential oil, which is a mixture of volatile compounds that give it a characteristic aroma. Their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities have been proven and because of these activities they have great potential to be used as natural food conservatives. These plants also have hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities as well as anticancer properties. They are used as food supplements in everyday nutrition and as natural health products for the prevention and treatment of many disorders such as inflammations, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and others. Apart from this, these plants have real application in foods such as pastries, meat and dairy products, pickles and salads as well as spice blends like curry powder, garam masala and others.
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Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease and ongoing research efforts are focused on understanding the underlying pathophysiology of hepatic steatosis with the anticipation that these efforts will identify novel therapeutic targets. This study investigated the Petroselinum crispum extract in hepatic steatosis in rats fed with fructose enriched diet. Rats were divided into the 4 groups: Group 1 rats received standard pellet diet with corn starch for the entire experimental period of 8 weeks. Group 2 rats received standard pellet diet and 2 gm/kg body weight crude Parsley leaf ethanol extract for the entire experimental period of 8 weeks. Group 3 rats received modifi ed fructose diet. Group 4 rats received modifi ed fructose diet and 2gm/kg crude Parsley leaf ethanol extract. Hepatic function and structure was evaluated in these rats. Modi-fi ed fructose diet produced dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis and infi ltration of infl ammatory cells in the liver and higher plasma hepatic markers. Petroselinum crispum extract reversed metabolic changes such as abnormal hepatic function tests and liver pathology. These results suggested that a non-nutritive role for Petroselinum crispum extract attenuated chronic changes in modifi ed fructose diet induced NAFLD (Tab. 2, Fig. 3, Ref. 43). Text in PDF www.elis.sk. KEY WORDS: Petroselinum crispum, non alcoholic fatty liver disease, non alcoholic steatohepatitis, lipid-hepatic function indicator.
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Spices are used worldwide, particularly in the Asian and Middle Eastern countries, and considered protective against degenerative diseases, including cancer. Here, we report the efficacy of aqueous and non-aqueous extracts of 11 Apiaceae spices for free radical-scavenging activity and to inhibit cytochrome P450s in two separate reactions involving: 1) 4-hydroxy-17ß-estradiol (4E2), DNA, and CuCl2 and 2) 17ß-estradiol, rat liver microsomes, cofactors, DNA and CuCl2. Oxidative DNA adducts resulting from redox cycling of 4E2 were analyzed by (32)P-postlabeling. Aqueous (5 mg/ml) and non-aqueous extracts (6 mg/ml) substantially inhibited (83-98%) formation of DNA adducts in the microsomal reaction. However, in nonmicrosomal reaction, only aqueous extracts showed the inhibitory activity (83-96%). Adduct inhibition was also observed at five-fold lower concentrations of aqueous extracts of cumin (60%) and caraway (90%), and 10-fold lower concentrations of carrot seeds (76%) and ajowan (90%). These results suggests the presence of 2 groups of phytochemicals: polar compounds that have free radical-scavenging activity and lipophilic compounds that selectively inhibit P450 activity associated with estrogen metabolism. Because most of these Apiaceae spices are used widely with no known toxicity, the phytochemicals from the Apiaceae spices used in foods may be potentially protective against estrogen-mediated breast cancer.
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Background and aims: Medicinal plants are used in traditional medicine to treat many diseases. Celery (Apium graveolens) is a native medicinal plant to Europe. This plant has a very wide range of usage and cultivation. The wild type was found in countries such as Algeria, the Caucasus, Iran, India and America. However, due to increasing value and the special place of the plant in the new pharmaceutical industry, it is necessary to recognize the potential in the field of manufacturing and processing. This article presents morphological characteristics, vegetation compounds and evaluation of the therapeutic properties of this valuable medicinal plant. Methods: The information of this review article have been gathered from accessible journals in databases such as Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Embase, SID and Iran Medex. The search terms were "Celery" and "Apium graveolens" that searched in Persian and English books on medicinal plants and traditional medicine, as well as reputable sites mentioned. Results: Various studies have shown that Celery plays a role in prevention of cardiovascular disease, lowering blood glucose and serum lipid, decrease blood pressure and strengthener the heart. This herb has anti- bacterial, anti-fungal and anti- inflammatory effects. Also, a powerful antioxidant property has been attributed to compounds such as apigenin, apiein, vitamins A and C. Conclusion: Celery widely used in pharmaceutical, food and ornamental industries, that causes its significant commercial value. Various combinations and numerous medicinal properties of seeds, leaves and stems, cause the need further and more research about the other useful and unknown properties of celery.
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Coriandrum sativum L. (C. sativum) is one of the most useful essential oil bearing spices as well as medicinal plants, belonging to the family Umbelliferae/Apiaceae. The leaves and seeds of the plant are widely used in folk medicine in addition to its use as a seasoning in food preparation. The C. sativum essential oil and extracts possess promising antibacterial, antifungal and anti-oxidative activities as various chemical components in different parts of the plant, which thus play a great role in maintaining the shelf-life of foods by preventing their spoilage. This edible plant is non-toxic to humans, and the C. sativum essential oil is thus used in different ways, viz., in foods (like flavouring and preservatives) and in pharmaceutical products (therapeutic action) as well as in perfumes (fragancias and lotions). The current updates on the usefulness of the plant C. sativum are due to scientific research published in different web-based journals.
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Dengue is a potentially fatal mosquito-borne infection with 50 million cases per year and 2.5 billion people vulnerable to the disease. This major public health problem has recurrent epidemics in Latin America and occurred recently in Cape Verde and Madeira Island. The lack of anti-viral treatment or vaccine makes the control of mosquito vectors a high option to prevent virus transmission. Essential oil (EO) constituents can affect insect's behaviour, being potentially effective in pest control. The present study evaluated the potential use of Foenicultm vulgare (fennel) EO in the control of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. EOs isolated from fennel aerial parts collected in Cape Verde and from a commercial fennel EO of Portugal were analysed by NMR, GC and GC-MS. trans-Anethole (32 and 30%, respectively), limonene (28 and 18%, respectively) and fenchone (10% in both cases) were the main compounds identified in the EOs isolated from fennel from Cape Verde and Portugal, respectively. The larvicidal activity of the EOs and its major constituents were evaluated, using WHO procedures, against third instar larvae ofAe. aegypti for 24 h. Pure compounds, such as limonene isomers, were also assayed. The lethal concentrations LC50, C90 and LC99 were determined by probit analysis using mortality rates of bioassays. A 99% mortality of Ae. aegypti larvae was estimated at 37.1 and 52.4 µL L-1 of fennel EOs from Cape Verde and Portugal, respectively. Bioassays showed that fennel EOs from both countries displayed strong larvicidal effect against Ae. aegypti, the Cape Verde EO being as active as one of its major constituents, (-)-limonene.
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The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the mature fruits of Pimpinella anisum and Foeniculum vulgare were analyzed by GC-MS. The oil of aniseed was characterized by higher amounts of trans -anethole (96.80%) than fennel essential oil (83.43%). The isomer of trans -anethole, methyl chavicol (estragol) was also present in both plants, with 1.36% in fennel and 0.19% in aniseed. Apart from these two phenylpropanoids, nine sesquiterpenes and one monoterpene were present in essential oil of Pimpinella anisum , which constituted the other 3.01% of essential oil, but only γ-himachalene was present with more than 1%. In the case of fennel, eight monoterpenes constituted the other 15.21% of essential oil, and limonene and fenchone were present with contributions of 9.34 and 4.58%, respectively.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from fruits of six fennel accessions collected from wild populations occurring in the centre and south of Portugal. Composition of essential oils was established by Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The obtained yields of the essential oils were found to vary greatly in the range of 1.1 to 2.9% (v/w) and the chemical composition varied with the region of collection. A total of 16 compounds were identified. The main compounds were fenchone (16.9 – 34.7%), estragole (2.5 – 66.0%) and trans-anethole (7.9 – 77.7%). The percentages of these three main compounds were used to determine the relationship between the different oil samples and to group them into four different chemotypes: anethole/fenchone; anethole; estragole and anethole/estragole. Antifungal activity of essential oils was evaluated against six food spoilage fungi: Aspergillus niger, A. japonicus, A. oryzae, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizophus oryzae and R. stolonifer. Antibacterial activity was assessed against three Gram-positive strains: Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 and S. aureus ATCC 28213; and against six Gram-negative strains: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922; Morganella morganii LFG 08; Proteus mirabilis LFG 04; Salmonella enteritidis LFG 05; S. entiritidis serovar typhimurium LFG 06 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 by the disc diffusion agar method; the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using the broth macro-dilution method. The MIC values varied from 62.5 (E. coli ATCC 25922) to 2000 μg/mL (P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853).
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Caraway fruits contain essential oils that give caraway its characteristic aroma. This paper evaluates quantity and composition of the essential oil from the annual caraway grown in different production areas of Serbia. Experiments were conducted in three production areas: Banat, Bačka and Srem, during two years. The fruits contained 3.95% of oil on average. The highest content of essential oil was obtained in the production area of Banat, a part of Serbia where environmental conditions are very favourable for cultivation of medicinal plants. Weather conditions have not a significant influence on the content of essential oil in caraway fruits. However, weather conditions as well as production region had a great influence on seed yield and essential oil yield. There were 22 compounds determined in caraway essential oil by GC/MS. The main components were carvone and limonene, whose mixture constituted from 97.69 to 98.62% of total oil composition. Carvone/limonene ratio was 0.58% on average, therefore, it can be concluded that this annual caraway belongs to limonene chemotype.
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Objective(s): Protective effects of different extracts and essential oil from Pimpinella anisum L. seeds were examined against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced toxicity. The parameters such as serum transaminases, lactate dehydrogenase activity, hepatic glutathione content, liver lipid peroxidation and histopathological changes of liver were assessed as toxicity markers. In the in vitro model of this study, markers such as cell viability, cellular reduced and oxidized glutathione and lipid peroxidation in HepG2 cells were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Human liver cancer cell line HepG2 and male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with extracts and essential oil, and markers of hepatotoxicity were investigated. Results: The data revealed that the n-hexane extract, effectively attenuated CCl4-induced toxicity in both in vitro and in vivo models in current investigation. Conclusion: As the oxidative stress markers were ameliorated, it might be concluded that anise seed possesses protective effects probably due to its antioxidant constituents.
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The chemical compositions of the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation method from the aerial parts of Anethum graveolens were analysed by GC/MS. Twelve compounds constituting 96.7% of the oil were identified. The main compounds were alpha-phellandrene (31.8%), apiole (15.3%), dill ether (13.2%), limonene (11.8%), geraniol (10.6%) and p-cymene (5.3%). The chemical composition of the oils were found to be similar, however there was a great quantitative variation among the major compounds identified.
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Ultrasonic assist with headspace solid phase microextraction (UA-HS-SPME) have been applied, for the first time, for the extraction of volatile organic compounds of Carum carvi L. from Iran. The oils obtained were analyzed by GC–MS. Different experimental parameters such as fiber's coating type, sonication time, extraction time and temperature, and desorption time were investigated. Results showed that in the presence of UA-HS-SPME the highest extraction efficiency was achieved with a 100 μm polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fiber. Essential oil analysis showed that 10 compounds were identified through UA-HS-SPME-GC/MS method .The major component were carvone (57.7 %) and limonone (35.5 %).
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Plant products play a crucial role in the hepatoprotection through its antioxidants property. Therefore, search for modern medicine of plant origin with this property has become a central focus on hepatoprotection today. This study investigated to search a new hepatoprotective agent from natural sources, the methanol extract of nutitional plant, Daucus carota leaves was tested against liver damage of albino rats. Levels of serum marker enzymes i.e. SGOT, SGPT (aminotransferases), ALP (alkaline phosphatase) and TB (total bilirubin) in serum respectively. The histopathological changes of liver sections were also compared with the respective controls. 30% paracetamol induced significant (P<0.05) increase in liver enzymes alongwith the hepatic necrosis and other visible disarrangements in hepatic tissues. Simultaneously, oral treatment with kaempferol (KF) isolated from D. carota plant reversed to all the serum and liver parameters, dose-dependently, in 30% paracetamol treated rats. The biochemical results were also compared with the standard drug i.e. silymarin. These findings indicate the hepatoprotective potential of D. carota fruit against liver damage might be due to the presence of flavonoid like KF constituents.
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Foeniculum vulgare Mill and Coriandrum sativum L. are very popular spices in Indian kitchens. The present study was an attempt to evaluate the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition and antioxidant activity of the standardized oils of F. vulgare and C. sativum by an UV method using hippuryl-L-histidyl- L-leucine (HHL) as substrate. Standardization of the oils and identification of the chemical-markers (linalool and anethole) present in them was performed through HPLC and GC-MS. Coriander oil showed the higher ACE inhibition with an IC50 value of 34.8 ± 2.3 μg/mL, than fennel oil with an IC50 value of 40.7 ± 3.5 μg/mL. Both oils showed strong DPPH radical scavenging activity. This finding suggests that coriander and fennel oils can be potential leads for the management of hypertension as an ACE inhibitor.
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Many herbal remedies have been employed in various medical systems for the treatment and management of different diseases. The Anethum Graveolens commonly known as "Dill" has been recognized in different system of traditional medicines for the treatment of different diseases and ailments of human beings. This review supports all updated information on its pharmacognosy, pharmacological activity and traditional uses. Preliminary phytochemical screening of this plant revealed the presence of flavonoids, essential oil, phenolic compounds. It has been reported as antibacterial, antispasmodic, hyperlipidimic, antiulcer activity, antioxidant, hypolipidemic, genotoxicity, diuretic effect. There is no report available on isolated constituents of bioactive compound from whole fruits of Anethum Graveolens which support its further to isolating a useful pharmacologically active compound as a drug.
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Liver is a vital organ play a major role in metabolism and excretion of xenobiotics from the body. Liver injury or liver dysfunction is a major health problem that challenges not only health care professionals but also the pharmaceutical industry and drug regulatory agencies. Liver cell injury caused by various toxic chemicals (certain anti-biotic, chemotherapeutic agents, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), thioacetamide (TAA) etc.), excessive alcohol consumption and microbes is well studied. The available synthetic drugs to treat liver disorders in this condition also cause further damage to the liver. Hence, Herbal drugs have become increasingly popular and their use is wide spread. Herbal medicines have been used in the treatment of liver diseases for a long time. A number of herbal preparations are available in the market. The present review is aimed at compiling data on promising phytochemicals from medicinal plants that have been tested in hepatotoxicity models using modern scientific system.
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Hepatoprotective activity of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) essential oil was studied using a carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis model in rats. The hepatotoxicity produced by chronic carbon tetrachloride administration was found to be inhibited by Foeniculum vulgare essential oil with evidence of decreased levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin. Histopathological findings also suggest that Foeniculum vulgare essential oil prevents the development of chronic liver damage. The changes in body weights in the rats assigned to the study groups supported these biochemical and histopathological findings. The results of this study clearly indicate that Foeniculum vulgare essential oil has a potent hepatoprotective action against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats.
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Objective: Nimesulide, a 4-nitro-2-phenoxy methane sulphonamide is very effective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory Drug (NSAID), but at higher doses it leads to hepatotoxicity. This study was carried out on albino rats to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of aqueous-ethanolic extract of Cuminum cyminum (Cc.E) seeds. Methods: Aqueous ethanolic extract of fresh dried cumin seed was prepared and was subjected to phytochemical analysis. For Biochemical investigations, the animals were divided into seven groups and hepatotoxicity was induced by oral administration of 100 mg/Kg Nimesulide suspension. After 15 days of treatment, the animals were dissected out and their livers were preserved for histopathological examination. Results: There was a significant increase in serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and serum tolal bilirubin (TB) level in intoxicated controls, which were restored towards normal in Cuminum cyminum (100, 200 and 300 mg/Kg, P.O.) treated animals. The results were compared with Silymarin (25 mg/Kg, P.O.) treated animals. Conclusion: The extract significantly (p< 0.001) reduced the serum enzyme in comparison to intoxicated control group. Furthermore, histopathological examination on the rat liver tissues supported the hepatoprotection. So, we recommend for further studies to isolate the pure component and the mechanism that displayed the hepatoprotective activity for making standard drug.
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In this study, we have examined the protective effect of Vernonia cinerea against carbon tetrachloride (1.0ml / kg b.wt / day) administered intraperitoneally for 2 days in male albino Wistar rats. The levels of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, creatinine, and urea were determined. The activities of glutathione, Vitamin C and the levels of lipid peroxides in 10% w/v liver homogenate were also determined. The CCl4 induction resulted a significant elevation in the levels of serum marker enzymes, bilirubin and creatinine with decreased urea. The activities of hepatic glutathione and vitamin C were also significantly depleted with increased lipid peroxides in CCl4 intoxicated rats. The oral administration of herbal drug alone did not show any toxicity in the liver tissue. These results suggest that the herbal drug may probably act as a natural antioxidant against CCl4 induced hepatic oxidative stress.
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In two-year trials taking place at the Faculty of Horticulture in Lednice (Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry in Brno), three cultivars of sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. ssp. vulgare var. azoricum [Mill.] Thell) - Precoce di Bologna, Rudy F1 and Zefa Fino have been evaluated. The trials were conducted in two terms in each of the trial years (summer and autumn term). In the harvest time, nutritional value was evaluated: content of vitamin C, minerals (K, Na, Ca, Mg), dietary fibre, dry matter and nitrates. Besides, the weights of pseudobulbs and its yield have been evaluated. The content of the monitored substances ranged in the following intervals: vitamin C 87-347 mg/kg, K 4,241-5,851 mg/kg, Na 77-512 mg/kg, Ca 56-363 mg/kg, Mg 82-389 mg/kg, dietary fibre 5.75-7.59 g/kg, dry matter 61-75.8 g/kg, nitrates 650 to 3,767 mg/kg, weight of pseudobulb 199-383 g. A significant influence of cultivar on K content has been observed; furthermore, growing term markedly influenced the content of vitamin C, K, Na, Ca, Mg, dietary fibre, nitrates and on weight of pseudobulb. A significant influence of year on the content of vitamin C, Ca, Mg, dietary fibre, dry matter, nitrates and weight of pseudobulb has been recorded as well. From the three tested cultivars, Zefa Fino showed significantly higher average yield (331 kg/100 m2) in summer terms and Rudy F1 (267 kg/100 m2) in autumn terms.
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Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) is an industrial plant whose quality is affected by the irrigation regimes. In this study, the essential oil and total phenolic contents of seeds as well as total phenolic, anthocyanin, and flavonoid contents of leaves were determined in cumin accessions under three different (70, 150, and 200mm) irrigation regimes during the period from 2010 to 2012 in Isfahan, Iran. While no significant differences were generally observed among the accessions with respect to the traits measured in this study, all the traits exhibited increased values in plants grown under drought stress. However, leaf flavonoid and phenolic contents exhibited greater increases under the 150mm irrigation while more seed phenolics and essential oils as well as leaf anthocyanins were produced under the 200-mm irrigation regime. Results suggest that the 150-mm irrigation regime is best for improving the production of leaf flavonoids and phenolics while the 200-mm irrigation regime yields better results with seed phenolics and essential oils as well as leaf anthocyanins. The highest correlation (r2=0.99) was obtained between drought tolerance index and anthocyanin content, which makes it suitable for use as a criterion in the selection of the more drought tolerant genotypes of this species.
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Objective: To study the anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective properties of an ethanolic extract of Parsley 'Petroselinum crispum' leaves. Materials and methods: An ethanolic extract of Parsley was subjected for evaluation of anti-inflammatory and anti-hepatotoxic activities against inflammation induced by carrageenan and cotton pellet granuloma and hepatic damage induced by carbon tetrachloride, respectively in rats. Apart from enzymes, non-protein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) groups were also estimated in liver. Histopathological test on liver was carried out and phenobarbitone-induced sleeping time in mice was also measured in different groups. Results: The phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, sterols and or triterpenes. The extract exhibited significant protection against carrageenan-induced inflammation, cotton pellet-induced granuloma and CCl 4-induced hepatic damage. Conclusion: Petroselinum crispum exhibited significant anti-inflammatory and anti-hepatotoxic activities which merits further detailed investigations.
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Medicinal plants have been used traditionally worldwide for the prevention and treatment of liver disease. Pimpinella anisum (Anise) or Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel) are used frequently as spices. The present work aimed to investigate the possible potential protective effect of Anise and Fennel essential oils, against carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) induced fibrosis in rats. Administration of ccl4 (1.5ml/kg /kg.b.wt ) intra-pretoneally (IP) in olive oil (1:7 dilution) for 7 successive weeks resulted in liver damage manifested by significant increase in serum AST.ALT. ALP, decreased total protein and increased triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL while decreased the HDL level. Rats treated orally with essential oil of Pimpinella anisum (Anise, 125 &250mg/kg) or Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel, 200 &400kg/b.wt.) for 7 successive weeks and intoxicated with CCL4 showed a significant protection againstinduced increase in serum liver enzyme (AST,ALT, ALP), restored total protein level and ameliorate the increased triglycerides, total, cholesterol, LDL and decreased the HDL. A significant corrective effect of either Anise or fennel oils on biochemical parameters were supported by histopathological examination of the rats. In conclusion, these data indicated that essential oils of Pimpinella anisum (Anise) or Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel) possessed a hepatoprotective activity against hepatotoxicity induced by CCL4 induced fibrosis model in rats.
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The present study was carried out to determine the hepatoprotective effect of some herbal oils as Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) and Fennel (foeniculum vulgare) oil seeds against carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) that caused hepatotoxicity in rats. The experiment was performed on 30 adult rat that classified into two main groups, the first main group (6 rats) was kept as control (-ve) group while the second main groups (24 rat) were administered a dose of (2 mlCCL4 /kg b.wt.) twice a week for two weeks to induce chronic damage in the liver then classified into four subgroups (six rats each) as follow, one of them (6 rats) was fed on the basal diet and used as a positive control group (+ve), however, the other three subgroups were fed on basal diets and obtained orally dill oil (1 mllkg), Fennel oil (1 mllkg), mixture of (0.5 dill and 0.5 mllkg fennel) oil, respectively for 4 weeks. The hepatotoxicity produced by CCL4 administration was found to be inhibited by either Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) or Fennel (foeniculum vulgare) oil or by the mixture of both Dill and Fennel oil with evidence of significant (p<0.05) decrease levels of serum AST and ALT and significantly (p<0.05) increase the level of serum total protein and albumin. Moreover, Dill and Fennel oil supplementation induced suppression of the increased ALP activity with the concurrent depletion of raised bilirubins suggests the possibility of these oils to have ability to stabilize biliary dysfunction in rat liver during hepatic injury by CCI4. On the other hand, the increase in MDA level and the decrease activity of SOD enzymes in liver induced by CCI4 suggests enhanced lipid peroxidation leading to tissue damage and failure of antioxidant defense mechanism to prevent formation of excessive free radicals. Treatment with either Dill or Fennel oil and their mixture significantly (p<0.05) reverses these changes. Also, the studied oils have hyoplipidemic effects. Hence it is likely that the mechanism of hepatoprotection of either Dill or Fennel oil is due to its antioxidant effect. Dill or Fennel oil and their mixtures have a potent hepatoprotective action against CCL4 induced liver toxicity in rats. So that, the use of Dill and Fennel oil in food formulations may be beneficial to patients who suffer from liver diseases associated with oxidative stress.
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Emamectin benzoate (EB) is an avermectin insecticide used extensively in pest control on vegetable and field crops. Few studies have been done for evaluating adverse effects of EB. In the current study, we evaluated the toxic effects of EB on male rats and the possible ameliorative role of fennel essential oil (FEO). Thirty-two male rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups. All groups were treated orally with distilled water (control group), 0.5 ml FEO kg−1BW (FEO group), 2.5 mg EB kg−1BW (EB group), and 0.5 ml FEO kg−1BW + 2.5 mg EB kg−1BW(FEO + EB group) for 28 days. The obtained results showed that EB treatment resulted in a significant decrease in body weight, body weight gain, RBC count, Hb concentration, % PCV, MCV and MCHC. Moreover, EB significantly decreased total leukocyte, lymphocyte, monocyte and platelet count but significantly increased granulocyte count. EB markedly decreased total protein, albumin, globulin, IgG and IgM concentrations with a significant increase inTNF-� secretion. EB had a negative impact on the liver as it significantly increased ALT,ALP, and MDA, while decreasing SOD activity. Regarding to the histopathological examination, EB treatment induced coagulative necrosis and blood vessels congestion of the liver in treated rats. Furthermore, it resulted in depletion and necrosis of the white pulp of the spleen in treated rats. The co-administration of FEO with EB, however, improved the majority of parameters studied, suggesting that FEO is an important substance in decreasing toxic effects of EB.
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The antiviral activity of hydro-distilled essential oils obtained from Allium cepa L. (bulbs), Allium sativum (bulbs), Cuminum cyminum (seeds), Corriandrum sativum (herb and seeds), Petroselinum sativum (herb) and Ocimum basilicum (herb) cultivated in Egypt against (HSV1) were tested by using cytopathicity (CPE) assay. African green monkey kidney (Vero) cell line (virus infected cells) were incubated with different levels of the seven essential oils[onion, garlic, cumin, coriander (herb and seeds), parsley and basil] 200, 500 and 1000μg/ml and the EC50 were 1060, 320, 400, 2045, 341, 386 and 615 μg/ml, respectively. On the other hand the antioxidant activity of essential oils against DPPH radical were determined in vitro by treated with different concentrations of 7 essential oils 25, 50, 75, 100, 200 μg/ml and the percentages of DPPH inhibition and EC50 were recorded. Chemical compositions of essential oils were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Onion, garlic, cumin, coriander (herb and seeds), parsley and basil essential oils were found to contain 33, 21, 20, 19, 24, 17 and 33 compounds, respectively.
Chapter
Sage is an evergreen perennial shrub with strong antioxidant properties. This chapter describes the botany, history, producing regions, flavor and aroma, parts used, and active constituents. The chapter also highlights the uses of sage in different recipes around the world. Sage has been reported to have antiseptic, antimicrobial, anticancer, antiproliferative, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. Finally the medicinal uses, functional properties, and antioxidant properties of sage are discussed in great detail.
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Isofuranodiene is a natural sesquiterpene rich in Smyrnium olusatrum, a forgotten culinary herb which was marginalised after the domestication of the improved form of celery. Our recent data showed that isofuranodiene inhibited the proliferation and induced apoptosis in cancer cells. In this study, we investigated its protective effect on D-galactosamine/lipopolysacchride (GalN/LPS) induced liver injury in rats. Oral administration of isofuranodiene (20 and 50 mg/kg) dramatically inhibited GalN/LPSinduced serum elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and significantly ameliorated liver injury as evidenced by the histological improvement in H&E staining. Furthermore, isofuranodiene treatment significantly inhibited GalN/LPSinduced mRNA expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in liver tissues. The results from this study showed that isofuranodiene protect GalN/LPS-induced liver injury in rats and suggested that it may be a potential functional food ingredient for the prevention and treatment of liver diseases.
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Context: Wild carrot, Daucus carota L. ssp. carota (Apiacae), is widely distributed throughout the world and has various uses in traditional medicine in Lebanon. Objective: The present study aimed to fractionate and analyze the chemical composition of the Daucus carota oil extract (DCOE) fractions and to evaluate their antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties in vitro and in vivo. Materials and methods: DCOE was chromatographed on silica gel column to produce four fractions: pentane (F1), 50:50 pentane:diethyl ether (F2), diethyl ether (F3), and 93:7 chloroform: methanol (F4). Qualitative and quantitative analyses of oil fractions were performed by GC-MS and HPLC techniques. The in vitro antioxidant properties were assessed using DPPH, FIC, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The hepatoprotective property was determined by examining the levels of serum markers (alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST)) and hepatic antioxidant (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)) enzymes in CCl4-intoxicated mice pretreated with intraperitoenal 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg b.w. of the oil fractions for 5 d. Results: GCMS analysis of F2 revealed the presence of 2-himachalen-6-ol (61.4%) which is reported for the first time in Daucus carota species. F3 and F4 were rich in phenolics and flavonoids and demonstrated significant DPPH activity (IC50¼0.29 and 0.38 mg/ml, respectively) and high FRAP values (225.11 and 437.59 mmol FeSO4/g, respectively). The sesquiterpene-rich fraction F1 had the highest FIC ability (IC50¼0.28 mg/ml). Pretreatment with F1 and F4 reversed the CCl4-induced decrease in SOD, CAT, and GST levels and reduced significantly hepatic damage. Discussion and conclusion: The current results suggested that wild carrot oil fractions exhibited a unique chemical composition and possessed significant antioxidant activities as well as hepatoprotective effects against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity.
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This study evaluated the optimal conditions for extracting dietary fiber (DF) from deoiled cumin by shear emulsifying assisted enzymatic hydrolysis (SEAEH) using the response surface methodology. Fat adsorption capacity (FAC), glucose adsorption capacity (GAC), and bile acid retardation index (BRI) were measured to evaluate the functional properties of the extracted DF. The results revealed that the optimal extraction conditions included an enzyme to substrate ratio of 4.5%, a reaction temperature of 57°C, a pH value of 7.7, and a reaction time of 155min. Under these conditions, DF extraction efficiency and total dietary fiber content were 95.12% and 84.18%, respectively. The major components of deoiled cumin DF were hemicellulose (37.25%) and cellulose (33.40%). FAC and GAC increased with decreasing DF particle size (51-100μm), but decreased with DF particle sizes <26μm; BRI increased with decreasing DF particle size. The results revealed that SEAEH is an effective method for extracting DF. DF with particle size 26-51μm had improved functional properties. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.