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Smart farming: IoT based smart sensors agriculture stick for live temperature and moisture monitoring using Arduino, cloud computing & solar technology

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1. INTRODUCTION
The next era of Smart Computing will be totally
based on Internet of Things (IoT). Internet of Things
(IoT), these days is playing a crucial role of
transforming “Traditional Technology” from homes
to offices to “Next Generation Everywhere
Computing”. “Internet of Things” (Weber,R.H,
2010) is gaining an important place in research
across the nook and corner of this world especially
in area of modern wireless communications. The
term, Internet of Things (Suo et al, 2012) refers to
uniquely identifiable objects, things and their
respective virtual representations in Internet like
structure which was proposed in year 1998. Internet
Smart Farming: IoT Based Smart Sensors Agriculture Stick for Live
Temprature and Moisture Monitoring using Arduino, Cloud Computing
& Solar Technology
Anand Nayyar
Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Applications & IT KCL Institute of Management and
Technology, Jalandhar, Punjab
Er. Vikram Puri
M.Tech(ECE) Student, G.N.D.U Regional Center, Ladewali Campus, Jalandhar
ABSTRACT: Internet of Things (IoT) technology has brought revolution to each and every field of
common man’s life by making everything smart and intelligent. IoT refers to a network of things which
make a self-configuring network. The development of Intelligent Smart Farming IoT based devices is day
by day turning the face of agriculture production by not only enhancing it but also making it cost-effective
and reducing wastage. The aim / objective of this paper is to propose a Novel Smart IoT based Agriculture
Stick assisting farmers in getting Live Data (Temperature, Soil Moisture) for efficient environment
monitoring which will enable them to do smart farming and increase their overall yield and quality of
products. The Agriculture stick being proposed via this paper is integrated with Arduino Technology,
Breadboard mixed with various sensors and live data feed can be obtained online from Thingsspeak.com.
The product being proposed is tested on Live Agriculture Fields giving high accuracy over 98% in data
feeds.
Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT), Agriculture, Agriculture IoT, Agriculture Precision, Arduino Mega
2560, DS18B20 Temperature Sensor, Smart Farming, Soil Moisture Sensor, Cloud Computing, Solar
Technology, ESP8266, Thingspeak.com
of Things was discovered by “Kevin Ashton”
(Weber, R.H, 2010) in 1999 with regard to supply
chain management. These days, the strength and
adaptability of IoT has been changed and nowadays
it is being used even by normal user. From the point
of normal user, IoT (Ashton, 2009) has laid the
foundation of development of various products like
smart living, e-health services, automation and even
smart education. And from commercial point of
view, IoT these days is being used in business
management, manufacturing, intelligent
transportation and even agriculture.
One of main areas where IoT based research is
going on and new products are launching on
everyday basis to make the activities smarter and
efficient towards better production is “Agriculture”.
Agriculture sector is regarded as the more crucial
sector globally for ensuring food security. Talking of
India farmers, which are right now in huge trouble
and are at disadvantageous position in terms of farm
size, technology, trade, government policies, climate
conditions etc. No doubt, ICT based techniques have
solved some problems but are not well enough for
efficient and assured production. Recently, ICT has
migrated to IoT which is also known as “Ubiquitous
computing” (Patil et al, 2012). Agricultural
production requires lots of activities like soil and
plant monitoring, environmental monitoring like
moisture and temperature, transportation, supply
chain management, infrastructure management,
control systems management, animal monitoring,
pest control etc.
Figure 1. Current Scenario of IoT
IoT based agricultural convergence technology (Lee
et al, 2013) creates high value in terms of quality
and increased production and also reduces burden on
farmers in ample manner. In addition to Agricultural
IoT, the future of agriculture is “Precision
Agriculture” which is expected to grow at $3.7
billion by 2018. With data generated from GPS and
Smart Sensors on agricultural field and integration
of smart farming equipment along with Big Data
analytics, farmers would be able to improve crop
yields and make effective use of water and in turn
wastage of any sort would be reduced to a
remarkable level.
So, seeing the current scenario of agriculture which
is surrounded by tons of issues, it is utmost
requirement to have IoT based Smart Farming. In
order to implement smart farming in real world, IoT
based products are required to be developed and
implemented at regular intervals and also at a very
fast pace.
The objective of this research paper is to propose
IoT Based Smart Stick which will enable farmers to
have live data of soil moisture, environment
temperature at very low cost so that live monitoring
can be done.
The structure of the paper is as follows: Section
II will cover over of Overview of IoT Technology &
Agriculture- Concept & Definition, IoT Enabling
Technologies, IoT Applications in Agriculture,
Benefits of IoT in Agriculture and Present and
Future Scenario of IoT in Agriculture. Section III
elaborates “Novel Proposed IoT Based Smart
Farming Agricultural Stick- Overview, Components-
Sensors and Modules, Circuit Diagrams and
Working. Section IV will highlight live
demonstration of IoT Based Smart Stick and live
data results. Section V will cover conclusion and
future scope.
2. IOT TECHNOLOGY & AGRICULTURE
2.1 Internet of Things- Concept & Definition
Internet of Things (IoT) (Atzori et al 2010) (Nayyar,
2016) consists of two words- Internet and Things.
The term “Things” in IoT refers to various IoT
devices having unique identities and have
capabilities to perform remote sensing, actuating and
live monitoring of certain sorts of data. IoT devices
are also enabled to have live exchange of data with
other connected devices and applications either
directly or indirectly, or collect data from other
devices and process the data and send the data to
various servers. The other term “Internet” is defined
as Global Communication network connecting
trillions of computers across the planet enabling
sharing of information.
As forecasted by various researchers, 50 Billion
devices based on IoT would be connected all across
the planet by year 2020. The Internet of Things (IoT)
has been defined as (Smith, 2012):
A Dynamic global network infrastructure with
self-configuring capabilities based on standard and
interoperable communication protocols where
physical and virtual “Things” have identities,
physical attributes, and virtual personalities and use
intelligent interfaces and are seamlessly integrated
into the information network, often communicate
data associated with users and their environments”.
An ideal IoT device consists of various
interfaces for making connectivity to other devices
which can either be wired or wireless.
Any IoT based device consists of following
components:
I/O interface for Sensors.
Interface for connecting to Internet.
Interface for Memory and Storage.
Interface for Audio/Video.
IoT devices can be of various forms like
wearable sensors, smart watches, IoT smart home
monitoring, IoT intelligent transport systems, IoT
smart health devices etc.
2.2 IoT Enabling Technologies
Internet of Things has a strong backbone of various
enabling technologies- Wireless Sensor Networks,
Cloud Computing, Big Data, Embedded Systems,
Security Protocols and Architectures, Protocols
enabling communication, web services, Internet and
Search Engines.
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN): It consists of
various sensors/nodes which are integrated together
to monitor various sorts of data.
Cloud Computing: Cloud Computing also known
as on-demand computing is a type of Internet based
computing which provides shared processing
resources and data to computers and other devices
on demand. It can be in various forms like IaaS,
PaaS, SaaS, DaaS etc.
Big Data Analytics: Big data analytics is the
process of examining large data sets containing
various forms of data typesi.e. Big Data to
uncover hidden patterns, unknown correlations,
market trends, customer preferences and other useful
business information.
Communication Protocols: They form the
backbone of IoT systems to enable connectivity and
coupling to applications and these protocols
facilitate exchange of data over the network as these
protocols enable data exchange formats, data
encoding and addressing.
Embedded Systems: It is a sort of computer
system which consists of both hardware and
software to perform specific tasks. It includes
microprocessor/microcontroller, RAM/ROM,
networking components, I/O units and storage
devices.
2.3 IoT Applications in Agriculture
With the adoption of IoT in various areas like
Industry, Homes and even Cities, huge potential is
seen to make everything Intelligent and Smart. Even
the Agricultural sector is also adopting IoT
technology these days and this in turn has led to the
development of AGRICULTURAL Internet of
Things (IoT)”
Table 1. Various projects and applications are
integrated in Agricultural fields leading to efficient
management and controlling of various activities
Application Name
Description
Crop Water Management
In order to perform
agriculture activities in
efficient manner, adequate
water is essential. Agriculture
IoT is integrated with Web
Map Service (WMS) and
Sensor Observation Service
(SOS) to ensure proper water
management for irrigation
and in turn reduces water
wastage.
Precision Agriculture
High accuracy is required in
terms of weather information
which reduces the chances of
crop damage. Agriculture IoT
ensures timely delivery of
real time data in terms of
weather forecasting, quality
of soil, cost of labor and
much more to farmers.
Integrated Pest Management
or Control (IPM/C)
Agriculture IoT systems
assures farmers with accurate
environmental data via proper
live data monitoring of
temperature, moisture, plant
growth and level of pests so
that proper care can be taken
during production.
Food Production & Safety
Agriculture IoT system
accurately monitors various
parameters like warehouse
temperature, shipping
transportation management
system and also integrates
cloud based recording
systems.
Other Projects Implemented
Till Date
1. The Phenonet
Project by Open IoT
2. CLAAS Equipment
3. Precisionhawk’s
UAV Sensor
Platform
4. Cleangrow’s Carbon
Nanotube Probe
5. Temputech’s
Wireless Sensor
Monitoring.
2.4 Benefits of IoT in Agriculture
The following are the benefits of IoT in Agriculture:
1. IoT enables easy collection and management
of tons of data collected from sensors and
with integration of cloud computing services
like Agriculture fields maps, cloud storage
etc., data can be accessed live from anywhere
and everywhere enabling live monitoring and
end to end connectivity among all the parties
concerned.
2. IoT is regarded as key component for Smart
Farming as with accurate sensors and smart
equipment’s, farmers can increase the food
production by 70% till year 2050 as depicted
by experts.
3. With IoT productions costs can be reduced to
a remarkable level which will in turn
increase profitability and sustainability.
4. With IoT, efficiency level would be
increased in terms of usage of Soil, Water,
Fertilizers, Pesticides etc.
5. With IoT, various factors would also lead to
the protection of environment.
2.5 IoT and Agriculture Current Scenario and
Future Forecasts
Table 2. shows the growth of IoT based adoption in
Agriculture sector from Year 2000-2016 and
Forecasts of year 2035-2050.
Year
Data Analysis
2000
525 Million Farms connected to IoT
2016
540 Million Farms till Date are
connected to IoT
2035
780 Million Farms would be connected
to IoT
2050
2 Billion Farms are likely to be
connected to IoT
3. NOVEL PROPOSED IOT BASED SMART
AGRICULTURE STICK
In today’s era of IoT, lots of new research in terms
of Smart IoT based product’s development is being
carried out to facilitate Smart Farming in terms of
Crop Management, Pest Management, Agriculture
Precision, Agriculture Fields Monitoring via Sensors
and even Drones.
In this section, Smart IoT based Agricultural
stick being developed for live monitoring of
Temperature, Moisture using Arduino, Cloud
Computing and Solar Technology is discussed.
3.1 Definition- Smart Agriculture IoT Stick
Smart Farming Based Agriculture IoT Stick is
regarded as IoT gadget focusing on Live Monitoring
of Environmental data in terms of Temperature,
Moisture and other types depending on the sensors
integrated with it. Agricultural IoT stick provides the
concept of “Plug & Sense” in which farmers can
directly implement smart farming by as such putting
the stick on the field and getting Live Data feeds on
various devices like Smart Phones, Tablets etc. and
the data generated via sensors can be easily shared
and viewed by agriculture consultants anywhere
remotely via Cloud Computing technology
integration. IoT stick also enables analysis of various
sorts of data via Big Data Analytics from time to
time.
3.2 Components
In this section, various components i.e. Modules and
Sensors being used for Smart IoT Agricultural Stick
development is discussed:
3.2.1 Modules
3.2.1.1 Arduino Mega 2560
Arduino Mega 2560 is designed for developing
Arduino based robots and doing 3D printing
technology based research.
Technical Specifications: Arduino Mega 2560 is
based on ATmega2560. Consists of 54 digital Input/
Output pins, 16 analog inputs, 4 UART (Universal
Asynchronous Receiver and Transmitter). Can
simply connect to PC via USB port.
Figure 2. Arduino Mega 2560
3.2.1.2 ESP 8266
ESP8266 Wi-Fi Module is SOC with TCP/IP
protocol stack integrated which facilitates any
microcontroller to access Wi-Fi network. ESP8266
module is cost effective module and supports APSD
for VOIP Applications and Bluetooth co-existence
interfaces.
Technical Specifications: 802.11b/g/n; Wi-Fi Direct,
1MB Flash Memory, SDIO 1.1/2.0, SPI, UART,
Standby Power Consumption of <1.0mW.
Figure 3. ESP8266 Wi-Fi Module
3.2.1.3 BreadBoard BB400
BreadBoard-400 is a solderless breadboard with 400
connection tie points i.e. 400 Wire insertion points.
BB400 has a 300 tie-point IC-circuit area plus four
25-tie point power rails. Housing is made of White
ABS plastic, with a printed numbers and letters of
rows and columns.
Technical Specifications: 36 Volts, 2Amps, 400 tie
points, 50000 insertions.
Figure 4. Breadboard
3.2.1.4 BreadBoard Power Supply
Power Module designed for MB102 breadboard.
Technical Specifications: Compatible to 5v or 3.3v,
Output Voltage: 5v and 3.3v, Max output current:
<700mA; Suitable for Arduino, AVR, PIC, ARM
Figure 5. BreadBoard Power Supply
3.2.1.5 Solar Plate
6 Watts High-performance solar panel utilizes highly
efficient crystalline solar cells to increase light
absorption and improve efficiency.
Technical Specifications: 0.53mA; Voltage: 11.2v
Figure 6. 6 Watts Solar Panel
3..2.1.6 Battery
Li-Ion 11.2V battery is made of 3 A-Grade 18650
cylindrical cells with PCB and poly switch for full
protection. It is Light weight and has high energy
density.
Technical Specifications: 2200mAh; 11.2V.
Figure 7. 11.2 Volts Battery
3.2.1 Sensors
3.2.2.1 Temperature Sensor-DS18B20
The DS18B20 temperature sensor provides 9-bit to
12-bit Celsius temperature measurements and has
alarm function with non-volatile user-programmable
upper and lower trigger points. The DS18B20 has
64-bit serial code which allows multiple DS18B20s
to function on same 1-wire bus.
Technical Specifications: Unique 1-Wire Interface;
Measures Temperature from -55oC TO +125OC;
Coverts temperature to 12-bit digital word in 750ms.
Figure 8. DS18B20 Waterproof Temperature Sensor
3.2.2.2 Soil Moisture Sensor
Soil Moisture Sensor is used for measuring the
moisture in soil and similar materials. The sensor
has two large exposed pads which functions as
probes for the sensor, together acting as a variable
resistor. The moisture level of the soil is detected by
this sensor. When the water level is low in the soil,
the analog voltage will be low and this analog
voltage keeps increasing as the conductivity between
the electrodes in the soil changes. This sensor can be
used for watering a flower plant or any other plants
requires automation.
Technical Specification: 3.3V to 5V; Analog Output;
VCC external 3.3 V to 5V.
Figure 9. Soil Moisture Sensor
3.2.3 Circuit Description
Figure 10. Circuit of “Novel Smart Agriculture IoT Stick for
Monitoring Temperature and Soil Moisture”- Designed in
Proteus Software
Figure 11. PCB Design for ESP8266.
Description:
IoT based Smart Agriculture Stick incorporates
Arduino Mega 2560 unit that provides base for live
monitoring of temperature and soil moisture and
sends the data to the cloud via ESP8266 Wi-Fi
module. In this IoT product, 3 values are measured:
Environmental Temperature, Soil Moisture and
Solar Panel Voltage powering the entire system.
DS18B20 Temperature Sensor is relatively accurate
digital temperature sensor and uses MAXIM’s 1-
wire bus protocol for transmitting as well as
receiving data in bytes and supports parasite power
mode.
The following formula shows to calculate the
Temperature:
Temperature = ((HighByte <<8) + LowByte) * 0.0625
Soil Moisture Sensor works on the resistance
changing principle. It has two large pads as probes
for the Soil Moisture sensing and also acts as a
variable resistor. When water level is low in soil,
conductivity is less between the pads and resistance
is higher. When water level is high in soil,
conductivity is high between the pads and resistance
is low and provides higher signal out. ESP8266 is
low-cost Serial to Wi-Fi module and easily
interfaces with Arduino Mega 2560. ESP8266 is
based on AT Commands and fully supports
TCP/UDP stack. Arduino is configured as Digital
DC Voltmeter to measure the solar voltage. Arduino
Mega 2560 is basically measures up to 5V through
the analog pins. One diode is used between the solar
panel and battery for protection of solar from back
current provided by the battery.
Figure 12. Implementation of Voltage Divider
R1 = 100 K
R2 = 10 K
VOUT = VIN * (R2 / (R1+R2))
4. LIVE IMPLEMENATION AND REAL TIME
DATA ANALYSIS AND MONITORING
In this section, the overall working of the system is
being discussed.
The following diagram shows the Animated View of
the Smart IoT Based Agriculture Stick being
proposed for Agriculture Temperature and Moisture
Monitoring.
Figure 13. Overall System Working of “Smart IoT Based
Agriculture Stick”
The Following Diagram shows the complete details
of the system being developed by us: “Smart IoT
Agriculture Stick Monitoring- Temperature and
Moisture”.
Figure 14. Complete Agriculture IoT Stick Monitoring
Temperature and Humidity
Figure 15. Soil Moisture Sensor and Temperature Sensor
Mounted on IoT Agriculture Stick.
Figure 16. Stick Mounted with Sensors in Flowerpot giving
Live Data of Temperature and Moisture.
Figure 17. Complete system with Arduino Board, BreadBoard
and Laptop giving results using ThingSpeak.com website
Figure 18. Live Data of Soil Moisture with Date and Time
from Thingspeak.com
Figure 19. Live Data of Temperature with Date and Time from
Thingspeak.com
Figure 20. Live Data of Solar Power Plates powering the entire
Agriculture IoT Stick.
5. CONCLUSION
In this Research Paper, a Novel Smart Farming
Enabled: IoT Based Agriculture Stick for Live
Monitoring of Temperature and Soil Moisture has
been proposed using Arduino, Cloud Computing and
Solar Technology. The stick has high efficiency and
accuracy in fetching the live data of temperature and
soil moisture. The Agriculture stick being proposed
via this paper will assist farmers in increasing the
agriculture yield and take efficient care of food
production as the stick will always provide helping
hand to farmers for getting accurate live feed of
environmental temperature and soil moisture with
more than 99% accurate results.
6..FUTURE SCOPE
Future work would be focused more on increasing
sensors on this stick to fetch more data especially
with regard to Pest Control and by also integrating
GPS module in this IoT Stick to enhance this
Agriculture IoT Technology to full-fledged
Agriculture Precision ready product.
6. REFERNCES
Ashton, K. (2009). That ‘internet of things’ thing. RFiD
Journal, 22(7), 97-114.
Atzori, L., Iera, A., & Morabito, G. (2010). The internet of
things: A survey.Computer networks, 54(15), 2787-2805.
Bahga, A., & Madisetti, V. (2014). Internet of Things: A
Hands-on Approach. VPT.
https://www.arduino.cc/en/Main/arduinoBoardMega2560
(Accessed on April 25, 2016)
https://www.sparkfun.com/products/13678 (Accessed on April
25, 2016)
http://www.busboard.com/BB400T (Accessed on April 25,
2016)
http://www.cybronyx.com/breadboard-power-suply.html
(Accessed on April 25, 2016)
https://www.maximintegrated.com/en/products/analog/sensors-
and-sensor-interface/DS18B20.html (Accessed on April 25,
2016)
https://www.sparkfun.com/products/13322 (Accessed on April
25, 2016)
Lee, M., Hwang, J., & Yoe, H. (2013, December). Agricultural
Production System Based on IoT. In Computational Science
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Internet of Things (IoT) has been a serious influence in agriculture since its application to the sector. This paper provides an in depth review of the employment of good technologies in agriculture and elaborates the progressive technologies for good agriculture together with, web of Things, cloud computing, machine learning, and computer science. The application in smart agriculture in crop production and post-harvesting is mentioned. The impact of climate change on agriculture is additionally thought-about. This paper contributes to information by iterating the challenges of good technology to agriculture whereas lightness the problems known from existing framework of smart agriculture. The authors determine several gaps in existing analysis affecting the application of IoT in smart agriculture, and counsel any analysis to boost the current food production globally, to supply higher food management and property measures across the world. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial 4.0 International License.
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Проанализированы тенденции научных исследований, практических разработок и освоения в мире, России и Ленинградской области цифровых технологий мониторинга и контроля здоровья, а также физиологического состояния коров молочного направления продуктивности. Анализ внедрения их в молочное скотоводство Ленинградской области позволил выявить тесную взаимосвязь концентрации поголовья и уровня молочной продуктивности с освоением в хозяйствах систем автоматического сбора данных, использованием датчиков и сенсоров различных типов в управлении стадом. Определено, что к объектам цифровизации в молочном животноводстве Ленинградской области можно отнести крупные молочные комплексы (свыше 800 гол.), на которых производится более 75% молока, где применяют в основном импортное доильное оборудование, оснащенное цифровыми системами сбора и обработки информации об индивидуальных надоях животных, датчики и сенсоры, определяющие состояние здоровья коров, половую охоту и другие зооветеринарные признаки. На основе анализа основных производственных показателей (поголовье, надой, информация об используемых датчиках, электронных автоматических весах) хозяйства Ленинградской области, производившие в 2021 году более 95% молока в регионе, были разделены на группы по поголовью и продуктивности. Оценено внедрение цифровых технологий в зависимости от продуктивности, поголовья и способа содержания животных. The tendencies of research, practical design and development of digital technologies for monitoring and control of health and physiological condition of dairy cows in the world, Russia and the Leningrad region have been analyzed. The analysis of the process of their mastering in dairy cattle breeding in the Leningrad region has revealed the close interconnection between the processes of herd concentration and milk productivity level and the development of automatic data collection systems in farms and the use of various types of sensors in herd management. It is determined that the objects of digitalization in dairy cattle breeding in the Leningrad region can include large dairy complexes (over 800 head), where more than 75% of milk is produced. The complexes mainly use imported milking equipment with digital systems for collecting and processing information on individual milk yields, detector and sensors on the state of health of cows, estrus and other zooveterinary traits. Based on the analysis of the main production indicators for the farms of the Leningrad region, which produced more than 95% of the milk in the region in 2021, such as herd size, milk yield, information on the sensors used, electronic automatic scales, the farms were divided into groups by livestock and productivity. The introduction of digital technologies depending on the productivity, livestock and type of animal housing was evaluated.
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Despite the fact that the agricultural process is more data-driven, exact, and intelligent than ever before, the reality is that today’s agriculture industry is more data-driven, precise, and intelligent than ever before, regardless of public perception. Virtually every industry has been altered by the rapid expansion of Internet-of-Things (IoT)-based technologies, including “smart agriculture,” which has transitioned from statistical to quantitative methodologies. Such large advancements are upending conventional farming practises and offering new chances in the middle of numerous issues. A new paper looks at the promise of wireless sensors and the Internet of Things in agriculture, as well as the challenges that may occur when these technologies are integrated with traditional farming methods. Using Internet of Things (IoT) devices and communication protocols, wireless sensors utilized in agriculture applications are fully investigated. Sensors for soil preparation, crop status, irrigation, insect and pest detection, and other agricultural applications are on the list. From sowing to harvesting, packing, and transportation, this technique is explained. This article also discusses the use of unmanned aerial vehicles for agricultural monitoring and other useful purposes, such as crop yield optimization. When feasible, cutting-edge IoT-based agricultural ideas and systems are presented. Finally, we highlight present and future IoT trends in agriculture, as well as possible research challenges, based on this comprehensive analysis.
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IOT is a revolutionary technology that represents the future of computing and communications. It refers to a network of objects and is often a self-configurating wireless network. The single digital market, future internet, sharing of knowledge, social networks, protection of data and open access to wisdom will all be essential for securing global food security. The development of wisdom based systems for the farming sector has to be focused on Internet of Things including geomatics or 3S (RS, GIS and GPS), sensor technology, WSN, RFID and Cloud Computing. The increased use of geomatics in agriculture is adding to a greener agriculture and greater environmental stewardship while maintaining the economic viability of farming enterprises. Satellite and aerial imagery play a significant role in modern agriculture. Advances in image sensors and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) help to identify and delineate landscape to manageable field level food production zones more quickly and effectively than before and at much higher resolutions. Image processing software support these sensors providing greater analytical capabilities and improved knowledge than was previously possible. RFID technology is fairly mature and food traceability is now more common in the developed world. Agri-business organizations are increasingly becoming active in the social media. At least 43 per cent of the input suppliers to farm sector are active in social media such as LinkedIn, Twitter and You Tube which are the most popular platforms for agri-business companies. Cloud computing is "a new style of computing in which dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources are provided as a service over the Internet". Despite the advances made in the technologies, application of IOT for agriculture still remains a formidable task, since integration of diverse domains for online monitoring of agricultural supply chain and management of complex agro ecosystems require concerted and collaborative efforts in a structured manner.
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Authors' contributions The work is being carried out in collaboration between the authors AN and VP. Author AN has done detailed and depth survey is being done on Internet of Things (IoT)-history, overview of technology, recent developments and challenges cum issues surrounded in IoT. Author AN surveyed regarding various products and sensors which are available till date in the market and proposed a novel idea of Data Glove. Author VP surveyed an in-depth brain storming of construction and development of Data Glove-overall product design, sensors integration, circuit design and overall code and testing is done by both authors. Abstract The dawn of Internet of Things (IoT) has started its journey for new era of smart and portable devices. IoT is regarded as hard-core for integrating various sensors, microcontrollers and all sorts of communication protocols and lays the foundation for futuristic communication standard i.e. Human-Things Interaction. The aim of this research paper is to highlight the concept of Internet of Things (IoT) and in addition to this, a Data Glove-An IoT based smart wearable gadget capable to perform various tasks like temperature monitoring, ambient light detection and gesture control has been proposed. Data Glove is equipped with various sensors like LM35, Ambient, 3-Axis Accelerometer and Arduino IDE Serial Monitor for capturing the sensor data. Data Glove is highly energy efficient and can be operated by Original Research Article Nayyar and Puri; BJMCS, 15(5): 1-12, 2016; Article no.BJMCS.24854 2 9V battery and has huge potential for live implementations in varied areas like Robotics cum Artificial Intelligence, Corporate Houses for Sensor data measurement, R&D Institutes and even can be deployed in various day to day activities.
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In the past decade, internet of things (IoT) has been a focus of research. Security and privacy are the key issues for IoT applications, and still face some enormous challenges. In order to facilitate this emerging domain, we in brief review the research progress of IoT, and pay attention to the security. By means of deeply analyzing the security architecture and features, the security requirements are given. On the basis of these, we discuss the research status of key technologies including encryption mechanism, communication security, protecting sensor data and cryptographic algorithms, and briefly outline the challenges.
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There has been much research and various attempts to apply new IoT technology to agricultural areas. However, IoT for the agriculture should be considered differently against the same areas such as industrial, logistics. This paper presents the IoT-based agricultural production system for stabilizing supply and demand of agricultural products while developing the environment sensors and prediction system for the growth and production amount of crops by gathering its environmental information. Currently, the demand by consumption of agricultural products could be predicted quantitatively, however, the variation of harvest and production by the change of farm's cultivated area, weather change, disease and insect damage etc. could not be predicted, so that the supply and demand of agricultural products has not been controlled properly. To overcome it, this paper designed the IoT-based monitoring system to analyze crop environment, and the method to improve the efficiency of decision making by analyzing harvest statistics. Therefore, this paper developed the decision support system to forecast agricultural production using IoT sensors. This system was also a unified system that supports the processes sowing seeds through selling agricultural products to consumers. 3 Corresponding author The IoT-based agricultural production system through correlation analysis between the crop statistical information and agricultural environment information has enhanced the ability of farmers, researchers, and government officials to analyze current conditions and predict future harvest. Additionally, agricultural products quality can be improved because farmers observe whole cycle from seeding to selling using this IoT-based decision support system.
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The Internet of Things, an emerging global Internet-based technical architecture facilitating the exchange of goods and services in global supply chain networks has an impact on the security and privacy of the involved stakeholders. Measures ensuring the architecture's resilience to attacks, data authentication, access control and client privacy need to be established. An adequate legal framework must take the underlying technology into account and would best be established by an international legislator, which is supplemented by the private sector according to specific needs and thereby becomes easily adjustable. The contents of the respective legislation must encompass the right to information, provisions prohibiting or restricting the use of mechanisms of the Internet of Things, rules on IT-security-legislation, provisions supporting the use of mechanisms of the Internet of Things and the establishment of a task force doing research on the legal challenges of the IoT.
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