ArticlePDF Available

Abstract

Introduction: Consumption of junk food has a profound detrimental effect on psychological health. Participants who ate commercial foods especially doughnuts were at risk of mental health problems. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted at private colleges and the participants were college students whom were selected on the basis of non-probability convenient sampling. The sample size calculation was done using the W.H.O. software. Participants who had completed questionnaire were included and were excluded if they were on antidepressant medication. Questionnaire for this study was the New Zealand Adolescent Frequency Food Questionnaire. Results: majority of the students eat fast food on monthly basis 134(47.3%), while 94(33.2%) eat fast food on weekly basis, 39(13.8%) of the students eat fast food twice weekly and 15(5.3%) on daily basis. Factor analysis showed 24% correlation matrix of eating fast food with drinking fruit juice, 30% correlation with drinking tea or coffee, 37% correlation with milky drinks and 35% correlation with consumption of sugary drinks. The variable of how often you eat sweets showed 33% correlation with you were not able to feel happy, 32% you felt scared, 31% correlation with your sleep was restless and 32% correlation with you felt that people disliked you. One way ANOVA revealed statistically significant results and the Tukey pos hoc test showed that comparison of students from age 20- 25 years eating junk food with depression scores was also statistically significant. Conclusion: This research shows a positive correlation between consumption of junk food and occurrence of depression in children.
International Journal of Innovative Research in Medical Science (IJIRMS)
Volume 02 Issue 02 February 2017, ISSN No. 2455-8737
Available online at - www.ijirms.in
533
*Corresponding Author - Musleh Uddin Kalar © 2017 Published by IJIRMS Publication
Frequency of Junk Food and Depression in Children
Muhammad waqaruddin sheroze1, Narmeen shahid2, Nazish iqbal3, Uroosa asif qureshi4, Zainab hayat khan5, Tooba
afzal6, Mehwish zehra7, Ruba Ali Zahid8, Muhammad Ayoob Memon9, Amna Wahab10, Musleh Uddin Kalar11,
Mathew Vincent12
1-7Department of Medicine Abbasi Shaheed Hospital Karachi Medical and Dental College
8-9Department of Medicine, Jinnah Sindh Medical University
10Department of Medicine Abbasi Shaheed Hospital
11Qureshi Clinic of Family Medicine
12Department of Community Health, University of Northern Colorado
Abstract:
Introduction: Consumption of junk food has a profound detrimental effect on psychological health. Participants who ate
commercial foods especially doughnuts were at risk of mental health problems.
Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted at private colleges and the participants were college students
whom were selected on the basis of non-probability convenient sampling. The sample size calculation was done using the W.H.O.
software. Participants who had completed questionnaire were included and were excluded if they were on antidepressant
medication. Questionnaire for this study was the New Zealand Adolescent Frequency Food Questionnaire.
Results: majority of the students eat fast food on monthly basis 134(47.3%), while 94(33.2%) eat fast food on weekly basis,
39(13.8%) of the students eat fast food twice weekly and 15(5.3%) on daily basis. Factor analysis showed 24% correlation matrix
of eating fast food with drinking fruit juice, 30% correlation with drinking tea or coffee, 37% correlation with milky drinks and
35% correlation with consumption of sugary drinks. The variable of how often you eat sweets showed 33% correlation with you
were not able to feel happy, 32% you felt scared, 31% correlation with your sleep was restless and 32% correlation with you felt
that people disliked you. One way ANOVA revealed statistically significant results and the Tukey pos hoc test showed that
comparison of students from age 20- 25 years eating junk food with depression scores was also statistically significant.
Conclusion: This research shows a positive correlation between consumption of junk food and occurrence of depression in
children.
Introduction:
“Eating junk food has a negative effect on mental health,
making those who consume it regularly feel depressed,”1The
news is based on a Spanish study that looked at how 9,000
people‟s consumption of fast food and baked
goods, researchers found that people who consumed the
most fast food and baked goods were 37% more likely to
become depressed over a six-year period than people with
the lowest consumption.2In a cohort study of almost 9000
adults in Spain, those who consistently consumed "fast
food," such as hamburgers and pizza, were 40% more likely
to develop depression than the participants who consumed
little to none of these types of food. In addition,
investigators found that the depression risk rose steadily as
more fast food was consumed. Participants who often ate
commercial baked goods, such as croissants and doughnuts,
were also at significant risk of developing this
disorder.3Several studies have analyzed the association
between fast food and commercial bakery consumption and
physical diseases, such as obesity or coronary heart
disease.4Consuming healthy foods can reduce the risk of
severe depression, while consuming junk food can
significantly exacerbate depression and those who consume
junk food, where these foods provide nutrients that are less
healthy, more likely to experience mental health problems
than those who always apply a healthy diet.“This study
reinforces the hypothesis that a healthy diet has the potential
not only to help chase away depression, but also to prevent
it.5 Diet and mental state seem to be tightly entwined, with
new research showing an increased risk of depression in
junk-food eaters. Consumers of fast food and sweets,
compared with those who eat little or none, were 51 percent
more likely to develop depression, the new study showed.
The researchers saw that as depression levels increased, so
did the amount of junk food eaten.6Eating commercially
baked goods (cakes, croissants, and doughnuts) and fast
food (hamburgers, hotdogs, and pizza) is linked to a 51
percent increase in the incidence of depression, compared to
those who eat little or none of these foods.7 Those who
Open Access Journal Research Article ISSN - 2455-8737
International Journal of Innovative Research in Medical Science (IJIRMS)
Volume 02 Issue 02 February 2017, ISSN No. 2455-8737
Available online at - www.ijirms.in
534
*Corresponding Author - Musleh Uddin Kalar © 2017 Published by IJIRMS Publication
regularly eat high-fat foods, processed meals, desserts and
sweets are almost 60 per cent more likely to suffer
depression than those who choose fruit, vegetables and
fish.8A diet rich in lean meat or fish, whole grains, fruits and
vegetables was associated with a lower risk of depression or
anxiety, while a junk-food diet-loaded with processed foods,
sugary treats and saturated fats-correlated to higher rates of
reported depression.9In addition to causing obesity, rich
foods can actually cause chemical reactions in the brain that
ultimately lead to depression.10A healthy diet including
vegetables, meat, fruit and fishes was associated with lower
odds for depression and anxiety disorders whereas diet rich
in processed food sugary products was associated with
higher depression and anxiety.11Nutrition and dietary habits
are undeniably linked to mental health. An adequate diet
consisting of healthy food is necessary for maintaining good
mental health.12
Rationale: The aim of this study was to observe the
unfavorable role of fast food and commercial baked food
eating on the occurrence of depression.
Materials and Methods:
Study Design and Study Cases:
This cross sectional study was conducted at private colleges
of Karachi, Pakistan from April 2014 till May 2015. The
participants were college students of 20-28 years old and
were selected on the basis of non-probability convenient
sampling.
Sample Size:
The sample size calculation was done using the W.H.O.
software for “Sample Size Calculation” edited by L.
Lemeshow and S. K. Lwanga, where α=5%, 1-β=90,
Po=0.74, Pa=0.65, n (sample size) =220. The researcher
recruited 283 subjects to avoid the chances of type 2 error.
Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria:
Participants were excluded if they had a history of diabetes,
were users of antidepressant medication or had reported a
previous clinical diagnosis of depression. Additionally,
participants with missing values for BMI were also excluded
from the analyses. Finally 250 participants who had
completed questionnaire were included in the present study.
Questionnaire
Questionnaire for this study was the New Zealand
Adolescent Frequency Food Questionnaire (NZAFFQ). The
food questionnaire is made up of three sections: The first
section contains 12 multiple-choice questions on general
eating habits, including intakes of food group servings, meal
consumption patterns and frequency of takeaway
consumption. The NZAFFQ was produced by combining
and modifying the Health Behaviour in School-aged
Children (HBSC) FFQ11 and the Children‟s Dietary
Questionnaire (CDQ).12These FFQs were developed to
describe food patterns of children and adolescents and
therefore contain only a limited list of food items. In
particular, the HBSC FFQ included 15 items covering the
most commonly consumed foods known to be important
sources of fibre and calcium among European youth.
The CDQ included 28 items described as „encouraged
foods‟ (fruits, vegetables, water, reduced fat products) and
„discouraged foods‟ (high fat or sugar foods, sweetened
beverages and full fat dairy products) for adolescents in
Australia. These two validated questionnaires formed the
basic construct of the NZAFFQ as they covered different
important aspects (i.e. variety and intake frequency) of an
adolescent‟s diet and have been used to derive index-based
dietary patterns.13,14,15 Section 2 of the food questionnaire
assessed „usual consumption 'of 32 food items, covering 15
items from the HBSC FFQ11and included extra questions on
food groups relevant to the New Zealand adolescent
population. Changes to the original HBSC FFQ included the
addition of questions on consumption of meats and different
types of soft drinks.
Although a specific time frame for „usual‟ was not defined,
we believed that this was likely to cover the period of the
previous four weeks, based on results of our pretesting
group interviews. For the last section of the NZAFFQ
(Section 3), we assessed intakes of 13 fruits, 22 vegetables
and 7 miscellaneous foods consumed in the past seven days,
as in the original CDQ.16To improve face validity of the
NZAFFQ, dietitians were consulted to review this FFQ.
Test-retest reliability
The median Spearman‟s correlation coefficient (SCC)
between the two administrations of the NZAFFQ was 0.71,
and SCCs ranged from 0.46 for fruit juice or cordial to0.87
for non-standard milk (Table 2). The median ICC was 0.69
(range 0.26-0.92) and 71% (24 of 34) of the food groups had
ICCs above 0.6.17
Relative validity
As shown in Table 2, SCCs above 0.3 were seen for over
two-thirds (23) of the 34 food groups in the FFQ. The
median SCC was 0.40, and individual SCCs ranged from
0.04 for convenience foods to 0.70 for standard milk
(whole-fat milk). High correlations (SCC 0.50) were
observed for breakfast cereals, milk (standard and
nonstandard), eggs, sweet bakery products and sweet snack
bars. Overall, the exact agreement between the methods in
ranking participants into thirds was highest for meat
alternatives (78%), but lowest for red or yellow vegetables
and potatoes (27%).17
The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale
for Children (CES-DC)
International Journal of Innovative Research in Medical Science (IJIRMS)
Volume 02 Issue 02 February 2017, ISSN No. 2455-8737
Available online at - www.ijirms.in
535
*Corresponding Author - Musleh Uddin Kalar © 2017 Published by IJIRMS Publication
The CES-DC is a 20 item self-report depression inventory
with a possible scores ranging from 0 to 60. Each response
to an item is scored as follows: 0 = “Not At All”, 1 = “A
Little”, 2 = “Some”, 3 = “A Lot.” However, items 4, 8, 12
and 16 are phrased positively, and thus are scored in the
opposite order: 3 = “Not At All, 2 = “A Little”, 1 = “Some”,
0 “A Lot”
Higher CES-DC scores indicate increasing levels of
depression. Weissman et al. (1980), the developers of the
CES-DC, have used the cutoff score of 16 as being
suggestive of depressive symptoms in children and
adolescents. That is, scores over 16 can be indicative of
significant levels of depressive symptoms.18,19
Results:
Descriptive Statistics, Test of Normality, Test of
Homogeneity of Variances and ANOVA of Depression
Scores
The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to
determine whether there are any statistically significant
differences between the means of three independent groups
of age after meeting the six assumptions.
Assumption 1: The dependent variable was
depression scores which was a continuous variable.
Assumption 2: The independent variable of age
had three categories.
Assumption 3: There was independence of
observations, indication no relationship between
the observations in each age group or between the
groups themselves. There were different
participants in each group with no participant being
in more than one group.
Assumption 4: There were no significant outliers.
Assumption 5: The dependent variable of
depression was normally distributed for each
category of the independent variable.
Assumption 6: There was homogeneity of
variances.
There was a statistically significant difference between
groups as determined by one-way ANOVA (F(2,169) =
12.01, p = .00001). The Tukey post hoc test revealed that
comparison of students from age 20 - 25 years eating junk
food with depression scores was statistically significant.
Table1.
Among the participants 43(15.2%) were male and
240(84.8%) were females. 269(95.1%) of students ranged
between 15-24 years of age. 197(69.6%) of the students
were college students, 75(26.5%) were university students
and only 7(2.5%) were school going.
The data shows that majority of the students eat fast food on
monthly basis 134(47.3%), while 94(33.2%) eat fast food on
weekly basis, 39(13.8%) of the students eat fast food twice
weekly and 15(5.3%) on daily basis.
252(89.0%) students drink fruit juice and most of them
95(33.6%) drink fruit juices weekly. Artificially sweetened
drinks were consumed by 211(74.6%) of the students but it
was consumed on monthly basis by highest percentage of
students i.e85(30%) students. 206 students drink milky
drinks and among them 76(26.9%) drink them on daily
basis.
Tea or coffee was consumed by 185 (65.4%) of students and
among them 158 (55.8%) consumed daily. Among milky
drinks 206 (72.8%) students consumed them and 76 (26.9%)
of these drinks were consumed on daily and 58 (20%) on
weekly basis.
Chocolaty drinks were consumed by 147 (51.9%)of students
and among them 25 (8.8%) of them consumed on daily
basis. Among them 67 (23.6%) of students consumed them
on monthly basis.
Sugar added drinks were consumed by (80%) of students
and among them44 (15.5%) of students consumed daily and
71 (25%) of students consumed them on monthly basis.
Breakfast cereals were consumed by 128 (45%) of students
and among them 57 (20%) of students daily and 36 (12.7%)
consumed on weekly basis.
White bread or bun was consumed by 164 (58%) of students
and among them 50 (17.7%) of students consumed daily.
Rice, pasta or noodles was consumed by 209 (73%) of
students and among them 100 (35%) consumed daily and 82
(29%) of students consumed on weekly basis.
Cheese was consumed by 179 (63%) of students and among
them 99 (35%) consumed on monthly basis.
Standard milk was consumed by 226 (79%) of students
among them 126 (44.5%) consumed on daily basis. Yogurt
was consumed by 238 (84%) of students and among them
44 (15.5%) consumed daily and 93 (32%) of students
consumed on weekly basis.
Poultry was consumed by 234 (82%) of students and among
them 47 (16.6%) consumed daily and 78 (27%) consumed
on weekly basis.
Eggs were consumed by 248 (87.6%) of students and among
them 58 (20.5%) consumed daily, 76 (26.9%) consumed
twice a week and 73 (25.8%) consumed on weekly basis.
Nuts or seeds were consumed by 233 (78%) of students
among them 26 (9%) consumed daily, 31 (11%) twice a
International Journal of Innovative Research in Medical Science (IJIRMS)
Volume 02 Issue 02 February 2017, ISSN No. 2455-8737
Available online at - www.ijirms.in
536
*Corresponding Author - Musleh Uddin Kalar © 2017 Published by IJIRMS Publication
week, 48 (17%) weekly and 119 (42%) consumed on
monthly basis.
Legumes were consumed by 159 (56%) of students among
them 68 (24%) consumed on weekly basis.
Red meat was consumed by 208 (71%) of students among
them 10 (3.5%) consumed daily, 66 (23.3%) consumed
twice a week, 80 (28.3%) consumed weekly and 44 (15.5%)
consumed on monthly basis.
Fish and sea food was consumed by 233 (82%) of students
and among them 6 (2%) consumed daily, 23 (8%) twice a
week, 59 (20.8%) weekly, 147 (51.9%) on monthly basis.
Fruits were consumed by 275 (97.2%) of students and
among them 136 (48%) was consumed on daily basis, 75
(26.5%) was consumed twice a week, 51 (18%) weekly, and
12 (4.2%) was consumed on monthly basis.
Cruciferous vegetables were consumed by 217 (76.7%) of
students and among them 17 (6%) consumed daily, 51
(18%) twice a week, 97 (34.3%) weekly and 8 (20.5%)
consumed on monthly basis.
Green leafy vegetables were consumed by 244 (86.2) of
students and among them 44 (15.5%) consumed daily, 75
(26.5%) consumed twice a week, 94 (33.2%) consumed
weekly and 36 (12.7%) consume on monthly basis.
Marrow like vegetable cucumber was consumed by 237
(83.7%) and among them 72 (25.4%) consumed on weekly
basis.
Red or yellow vegetables were consumed by 237 (83.7%)
and among them 92 (32.5%) were consumed on weekly
basis.
Potatoes were consumed by 271 (95.8%) and among them
90(31.8%) consumed daily, 88 (31.1%) consumed daily and
70 (24.7%) consumed on weekly basis.
Sweet bakery products were consumed by 254 (89.8%) and
among them 31 (11%) consumed daily, 57 (20.1%)
consumed twice a week, 87 (30.7%) consumed weekly and
79 (27.9%) consumed on monthly basis.
Sweet snack bar was consumed by 206 (72.8%) and among
them 67 (23.7%) consumed on weekly basis.
Nut spread was consumed by 128 (45.2%) and among
them74 (26.1%) consumed on monthly basis.
Ice cream was consumed by 273 (96.5%) and among
them101 (35.7%) consumed on weekly basis.
Sweets were consumed by 245 (86.6%) and among them 49
(17.3%) consumed daily, 67 (23.7%) consumed twice a
week and 76 (26.9%) consumed on weekly basis.
Convenience food was consumed by 264 (93.3%) and
among them165 (58.3%) consumed on monthly basis.
Savory biscuits and crisps were consumed by 251 (88.7%)
and among them 61 (21.6%) consumed daily 67 (23.7%)
consumed twice a week, 80 (28.3%) consumed weekly and
45 (15.9%) consumed on monthly basis.
Factor Analysis: Correlation Matrix of screening how often
do you eat fast food with the variable of how often you
drink fruit juice showed 24% correlation, 30% correlation
with how often you drink tea or coffee, 37% correlation with
how often you drink milky drinks and 35% correlation with
how often you take sugary drinks.
The variable of how often you eat sweets showed 25%
correlations with the variable of how often you eat fast food,
37% correlation with how often you drink fruit juice and
35% correlation with how often you take sugary drinks.
The variable of how often you eat sweets showed 33%
correlation with you were not able to feel happy, 32% you
felt scared, 31% correlation with your sleep was restless and
32% correlation with you felt that people disliked you.
Table 2
Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy was
0.69 indicating that patterns or correlations are relatively
compact. In this research the value of Bartlett‟s test of
Sphericity is highly significant (p < 0.0001). Table 3
In the factor analysis model, principal component analysis,
method varimax was used. Eigen values are shown
associated with each linear component (factor) before and
after extraction. Analysis shows 37 linear components
within the data set. The eigen values associated with each
factor represent the variance explained in percentage by that
particular linear component. Factor 1 with eigen value 5.8
has been extracted, which explains large amount of variance
25.74% whereas subsequent factors explain only small
amounts of variance. The eigen value associated with this
factor is again displayed along with percentage of variance
explained in the column labeled Extraction Sums of Squared
Loadings. The eigen value in this portion of the table is the
same as the value before extraction except that the values
for the discarded factors are ignored. Table4. Scree plot is
the graphical presentation of eigen values against all the
factors. This graph is useful for determining how many
factors to retain. The point of interest is where the curve
starts to flatten. It can be seen that the curve begins to flatten
after factor 12. Factors 13 till 37 have eigen value less than
1, so only factors 1 to 12 have been retained, graph 1.
International Journal of Innovative Research in Medical Science (IJIRMS)
Volume 02 Issue 02 February 2017, ISSN No. 2455-8737
Available online at - www.ijirms.in
537
*Corresponding Author - Musleh Uddin Kalar © 2017 Published by IJIRMS Publication
Discussion:
Most of the participants were of age range 20-28 years
(95.1%) and majority were college students (69.6%).
Majority of participants consumed fast food on monthly
basis (47.3%). Artificially sweetened drinks, milky drinks
and sugar added drinks were consumed by (72.8%, 72.8%,
80%) of the participants respectively. Bakery items, savory
biscuits and sweets were consumed by (89.8%, 88.7%,
86.6%) of the participants respectively. Most of the
Participants also consumed poultry (82%) and eggs (87.6%).
Participants who eat fast food have less consumption of fruit
juices, milky drinks and sugary drinks. Majority of the
students eat fast food on monthly basis (47.3%), while
(33.2%) eat fast food on weekly basis, sweet bakery
products were consumed by majority on weekly basis
(30.7%), artificially sweetened drinks were consumed
majority on monthly basis (30%), meat was consumed by
weekly basis (28.3%), fish was consumed on monthly basis
by majority (51.9%), cereals were consumed by majority
daily (20%), these results are similar to study conducted on
students of three European countries.10
Sánchez-Villegas A1, Toledo E, de Irala J, Ruiz-Canela M,
Pla-Vidal J, Martínez-González MA showed a positive
relationship between the consumption of fast food and risk
of depression. In addition consumption of commercial baked
foods was also optimistically associated to depressive
disorders.20 Akbaraly et al found a significant association
between the adherence to a processed food pattern and
depressive symptoms using CES-D scale after 5 years of
follow up.21
Some studies have recommended that high-fat, low-
carbohydrate ketogenic diets can disturb cognition22 Diets
rich in saturated or total fats can increase free radical
production and promote pro-inflammatory states.23,24 These
diets induced oxidative damage and inflammation is
associated with reduced expression of BDNF (brain-derived
neurotrophic factor), lower neuronal plasticity and poorer
cognitive ability in animal models.24 BDNF is a
neurotrophic related to several actions such as synaptic
plasticity, neuronal survival and differentiation. Moreover,
its levels have been reduced among depressed patients.25
Conclusion:
This research shows a positive correlation between
consumption of junk food and occurrence of depression in
children.
Recommendations:
Eating junk food has detrimental effects on health which
may include depression. Therefore it is necessary that
prospective studies should be conducted to authenticate this
fact more and also aware people about junk food‟s adverse
effects. Eating habits should be improved towards healthier
diet which may improve mental health.
Table 1 Descriptive Statistics, Test of Normality, Test of Homogeneity of Variances and ANOVA of Depression Scores
Descriptive Statistics
Age
Mean
Standard Deviation
20-22
13.9483
1.30347
23-25
16.0526
1.04234
26-28
14.1228
1.50084
Test for Normality
Age
20-22
23-25
26-28
Test for Homogeneity of Variances
Levene Statistic
8.616
ANOVA
F statistic
12.015
Multiple Comparisons between different Age Groups of Depression Scores
Statistically significant difference between groups verified by Tukey Post hoc test.
Age
20-22 compared with 23-25
26-28
23-25 compared with 26-28
International Journal of Innovative Research in Medical Science (IJIRMS)
Volume 02 Issue 02 February 2017, ISSN No. 2455-8737
Available online at - www.ijirms.in
538
*Corresponding Author - Musleh Uddin Kalar © 2017 Published by IJIRMS Publication
Table 2: Factor Analysis-Correlation matrix
Variables
Correlations
how often do you eat fast food
how often you drink fruit juice
24%
how often you drink tea or coffee
30%
how often you drink milky drinks
37%
how often you take sugary drinks
35%
how often you eat sweets
how often you eat fast food
25%
how often you drink fruit juice
how often you take sugary drinks
37%
35%
how often you eat sweets
you were not able to feel happy
33%
you felt scared
32%
your sleep was restless
31%
you felt that people disliked you
32%
Table 3: Factor Analysis-Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy (KMO) and Bartlett’s Test
Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy
0.69
Bartlett‟s Test of Sphericity Sig.
0.0001
Table 4: Factor Analysis-Total Variance Explained & Eigen Values
Component
Initial Eigen Values
Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings
Total
% of Variance
Cumulative %
Total
% of Variance
Cumulative %
1
5.886
25.744
25.744
3.886
25.744
25.744
2
4.849
8.806
22.549
3.549
8.806
22.549
3
4.500
7.143
29.692
3.200
7.143
29.692
4
4.350
6.428
36.120
2.350
6.428
36.120
5
3.289
6.138
42.259
2.289
6.138
42.259
6
3.153
5.491
47.750
2.153
5.491
47.750
7
3.112
5.294
53.044
1.812
5.294
53.044
8
2.087
5.176
58.220
1.587
5.176
58.220
9
2.922
4.390
62.610
1.376
4.845
62.610
10
1.890
4.237
66.847
1.245
4.265
66.847
11
1.855
4.071
70.918
1.123
3.754
70.918
12
1.808
3.846
74.764
1.121
3.288
74.764
13
.754
3.592
78.356
14
.717
3.543
79.769
15
.698
3.512
80.95
16
.687
3.481
81.76
17
.675
3.421
82.55
18
.673
3.398
83.76
19
.684
3.374
84.83
20
.698
3.352
85.98
21
.691
3.326
85.99
22
.688
3.319
86.12
23
.682
3.299
86.19
24
.678
3.287
86.76
25
.672
3.278
86.89
26
.669
3.269
86.97
27
.665
3.259
87.12
28
.659
3.254
87.26
International Journal of Innovative Research in Medical Science (IJIRMS)
Volume 02 Issue 02 February 2017, ISSN No. 2455-8737
Available online at - www.ijirms.in
539
*Corresponding Author - Musleh Uddin Kalar © 2017 Published by IJIRMS Publication
29
.653
3.249
87.39
30
.649
3.239
87.98
31
.638
3.187
88.18
32
.608
2.895
89.976
33
.549
2.615
90.590
34
.541
2.576
93.167
35
.523
2.491
95.658
36
.475
2.260
97.918
37
.437
2.082
100.000
References
[1] NHS Choices. Fast food „linked to depression‟
[Internet]. 2012 cited 2014 May 22. Available from
http://www.nhs.uk/news/2012/04april/Pages/fast-
junk-food-depression-link.aspx
[2] Colangelo LA1, He K, Whooley MA, Daviglus
ML, Liu K. Higher dietary intake of long-chain
omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is inversely
associated with depressive symptoms in women.
Nutrition. 2009 Oct;25(10):1011-9.
[3] Sanchez-Villegas A1, Henríquez P, Figueiras A,
Ortuño F, Lahortiga F, Martínez-González MA.
Long chain omega-3 fatty acids intake, fish
consumption and mental disorders in the SUN
cohort study. Eur J Nutr. 2007 Sep;46(6):337-46
[4] Sánchez-Villegas A1, Doreste J, Schlatter J, Pla J,
Bes-Rastrollo M, Martínez-González MA.
Association between folate, vitamin B(6) and
vitamin B(12) intake and depression in the SUN
cohort study. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2009
Apr;22(2):122-33
[5] Ford AH1, Flicker L, Thomas J, Norman P,
Jamrozik K, Almeida OP. Vitamins B12, B6, and
folic acid for onset of depressive symptoms in
older men: results from a 2-year placebo-controlled
randomized trial. J Clin Psychiatry. 2008
Aug;69(8):1203-9
[6] Kyrozis A1, Psaltopoulou T, Stathopoulos P,
Trichopoulos D, Vassilopoulos D, Trichopoulou A.
Dietary lipids and geriatric depression scale score
among elders: The EPIC-Greece cohort. J Psychiatr
Res. 2009 May; 43(8):763-9.
[7] Wolfe AR1, Ogbonna EM, Lim S, Li Y, Zhang J.
Dietary linoleic and oleic fatty acids in relation to
severe depressed mood:10 years follow-up of a
national cohort. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol
Psychiatry. 2009 Aug 31; 33(6):972-7.
[8] Sánchez-Villegas A1, Delgado-Rodríguez M,
Alonso A, Schlatter J, Lahortiga F, Serra Majem L,
Martínez-González MA. Association of the
International Journal of Innovative Research in Medical Science (IJIRMS)
Volume 02 Issue 02 February 2017, ISSN No. 2455-8737
Available online at - www.ijirms.in
540
*Corresponding Author - Musleh Uddin Kalar © 2017 Published by IJIRMS Publication
Mediterranean dietary pattern with the incidence of
depression: the SeguimientoUniversidadde
Navarra/University of Navarra follow-up (SUN)
cohort. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2009 Oct;
66(10):1090-8.
[9] Liu C1, Xie B, Chou CP, Koprowski C, Zhou D,
Palmer P et al.Perceived stress, depression and
food consumption frequency in the college students
of China Seven Cities. Physiol Behav. 2007 Nov
23;92(4):748-54
[10] Jeffery RW1, Linde JA, Simon GE, Ludman EJ,
Rohde P, Ichikawa LE et al. Reported food choices
in older women in relation to body mass index and
depressive symptoms. Appetite. 2009
Feb;52(1):238-40
[11] Vereecken CA, Maes L: A Belgian study on the
reliability and relative validity of the Health
Behaviour in School-Aged Children food-
frequency questionnaire. Public Health Nutr 2003,
6:581588.
[12] Magarey A, Golley R, Spurrier N, Goodwin E, Ong
F: Reliability and validityof the Children's Dietary
Questionnaire; a new tool to measure children's
dietary patterns. Int J Pediatr Obes 2009, 4:257
265.
[13] Magarey A1, Watson J, Golley RK, Burrows T,
Sutherland R, McNaughton SA et al. Assessing
dietary intake in children and adolescents:
Considerations and recommendations for obesity
research. Int J Pediatr Obes. 2011 Feb;6(1):2-11
[14] Moreno LA1, Kersting M, de Henauw S,
González-Gross M, Sichert-Hellert W, Matthys C
et al. How to measure dietary intake and food
habits in adolescence: the European perspective. Int
J Obes (Lond). 2005 Sep; 29Suppl 2:S66-77.
[15] Rockett HR, Berkey CS, Colditz GA. Evaluation of
dietary assessment instruments in adolescents. Curr
Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2003 Sep;6(5):557-62
[16] Berkey CS1, Rockett HR, Field AE, Gillman MW,
Frazier AL, Camargo CA Jr, Colditz GA. Activity,
dietary intake, and weight changes in a longitudinal
study of preadolescent and adolescent boys and
girls. Pediatrics. 2000 Apr; 105(4):E56.
[17] Wong JE1, Parnell WR, Black KE, Skidmore PM.
Reliability and relative validity of a food frequency
questionnaire to assess food group intakes in New
Zealand adolescents. Nutr J. 2012 Sep 5; 11:65.
[18] Weissman MM, Orvaschel H, Padian N. Children‟s
symptom and social functioning self-report scales.
Comparison of mother‟s and children reports. J
Nerv Ment Dis. 1980 Dec; 168(12):736-40.
[19] Faulstich ME, Carey MP, Ruggiero L, Enyart P,
Gresham F. Assessment of depression in childhood
and adolescence. An evaluation of the Center for
Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for
Children (CES-DC). Am J Psychiatry. 1986 Aug;
143(8):1024-7.
[20] Cristina Ruano, Patricia Henriquez, Miguel Ruiz
Canela, M AM Gonzalez, M. B. Rastrollo,
Almudena Sanchez Villegas et al. Commercial
Bakery, Fast Food and Soft Drink Consumption
and Quality of Life in the Sun Project. Scientific
Research. 2014, 5; 1291-1300.
[21] Sánchez-Villegas A1, Toledo E, de Irala J, Ruiz-
Canela M, Pla-Vidal J, Martínez-González
MA.Fast-food and commercial baked goods
consumption and the risk of depression. Public
Health Nutr. 2012 Mar;15(3):424-32.
[22] Akbaraly TN, Brunner EJ, Ferrie JE, Marmot MG,
Kivimaki M, Singh Manoux A. Dietary pattern and
depressive symptoms in middle age. Br J
Psychiatry 2009 Nov; 195(5):408-13.
[23] Zhao Q, Stafstrom CE, Fu DD, Hu Y, Holmes GL.
Detrimental effects of ketogenic diet on cognitive
function in rats. Pediatr Res. 2004 Mar; 55(3):498-
506.
[24] Pistell PJ, Morrison CD, Gupta S, Knight AG,
Keller JN, Ingram DK et al. Cognitive impairment
following high fat diet consumption is associated
with brain inflammation. J Neurommunol. 2010
Feb 26; 219(1-2):25-32.
[25] Wu A, Ying Z, Gomez Pinilla F. The interplay
between oxidative stress and brain derived
neurotrophic factor modulates the outcome of a
saturated fat diet on synaptic plasticity and
cognition. Eur J Neurosci. 2004 Apr; 19(7):1699-
707.
[26] Bocchio-Chiavetto L, Bagnardi V, Zanardini R,
Molteni R, Nielson MG, Placentino A et al. Serum
and plasma BDNF levels in major depression: a
replication study and meta-analysis. World J Biol
Psychiatry. 2010 Sep; 11(6):763-73.
Article
Background: Available evidence indicates that junk foods, defined as unhealthy foods with high-calorie and low-nutrient value, negatively affect mental and metabolic health of children. This study aimed to conduct a meta-analysis to clarify the association between junk food consumption and psychological distress in children and adolescents. Methods: A systematic literature search of relevant documents published in PubMed, Web of Science, and SCOPUS was conducted up to 2022. All observation studies which assessed association of junk foods and psychological distress in children and adolescents were included. Random-effect model was used to pool odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) from individual studies. Subgroup meta-analysis was performed based on junk foods categories (sweet drinks, sweet snacks and snacks). Results: Data of 17 included articles on junk foods consumption in relation to depression, stress, anxiety, sleep dissatisfaction and happiness in children and adolescents were included in this systematic review. According to random effect model, the pooled OR in the highest vs. the lowest category of junk foods was 1.62 (95% CI: 1.35-1.95) for depression, 1.34 (95% CI: 1.16-1.54) for stress, 1.24 (95% CI: 1.03-1.50) for anxiety, 1.17 (95% CI: 1.05-1.30) for sleep dissatisfaction and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.75-0.92) for happiness. In subgroup meta-analysis, there were significant associations between different types of junk foods and psychological distress (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This meta-analysis showed that junk foods consumption was associated with increased odds of psychological distress in children and adolescents. These findings support the current recommendation of decreasing junk foods intake.
Article
Full-text available
Background Due to the absence of a current and validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for use in New Zealand adolescents, there is a need to develop one as a cost-effective way to assess adolescents’ food patterns. This study aims to examine the test-retest reliability and relative validity of the New Zealand Adolescent FFQ (NZAFFQ) to assess food group intake in adolescents aged 14 to 18 years. Methods A non-quantitative (without portion size), 72-item FFQ was developed and pretested. Fifty-two participants (aged 14.9 ± 0.8 years) completed the NZAFFQ twice within a two-week period for test-retest reliability. Forty-one participants (aged 15.1 ± 0.9 years) completed a four-day estimated food record (4DFR) in addition to the FFQs to enable assessment of validity. Spearman’s correlations and cross-classification analyses were used to examine relative validity while intra-class correlations were additionally used for test-retest reliability. Results Weekly intakes were estimated for each food item and aggregated into 34 food groups. The median Spearman’s correlation coefficient (SCC) between FFQ administrations was 0.71. SCCs ranged from 0.46 for fruit juice or cordial to 0.87 for non-standard milk. The median intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) between FFQ administrations was 0.69. The median SCC between food groups from the FFQ and the 4DFR was 0.40 with the highest SCC seen for standard milk (0.70). The exact agreement between the methods in ranking participants into thirds was highest for meat alternatives (78%), but lowest for red or yellow vegetables and potatoes (27%). The mean percent of participants misclassified into extreme thirds for food group intake was 12%. Conclusions Despite a small sample size, the NZAFFQ exhibited good to excellent short-term test-retest reliability and reasonable validity in ranking the majority of the food group intakes among adolescents aged 14 to 18 years. The comparability of the validity to that in the current literature suggests that the NZAFFQ may be used among adolescent New Zealanders to identify dietary patterns and rank them according to food group intake.
Article
Full-text available
Whereas the relationship between some components of diet, such as n-3 fatty acids and B-vitamins, and depression risk has been extensively studied, the role of fast-food or processed pastries consumption has received little attention. Consumption of fast food (hamburgers, sausages, pizza) and processed pastries (muffins, doughnuts, croissants) was assessed at baseline through a validated semi-quantitative FFQ. Participants were classified as incident cases of depression if they reported a physician diagnosis of depression or the use of antidepressant medication in at least one of the follow-up questionnaires. Cox regression models were fit to assess the relationship between consumption of fast food and commercial baked goods and the incidence of depression. The SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra - University of Navarra Follow-up) Project, Spain. Participants (n 8964) from a Spanish cohort. After a median follow-up of 6·2 years, 493 cases of depression were reported. A higher risk of depression was associated with consumption of fast food (fifth (Q5) v. first quintile (Q1): hazard ratio (HR) = 1·36; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·81; P trend = 0·003). The results did not change after adjustment for the consumption of other food items. No linear relationship was found between the consumption of commercial baked goods and depression. Participants belonging to consumption quintiles Q2-Q5 showed an increased risk of depression compared with those belonging to the lowest level of consumption (Q1; HR = 1·38; 95 % CI 1·06, 1·80). Fast-food and commercial baked goods consumption may have a detrimental effect on depression risk.
Article
Full-text available
To assess the reliability and validity of a new parent report measure of children's dietary patterns, allowing assessment against national guidelines. The 28-item Children's Dietary Questionnaire (CDQ) was developed based on Australian healthy eating guidelines and knowledge of current dietary intake of Australian children. It assesses intake patterns in either the previous week or 24 hours of foods for which intake is recommended (positive indicators - fruit, vegetables, water, reduced fat products) and foods for which intake is discouraged (negative indicators - high fat/sugar foods [non-core foods], sweetened beverages and full fat dairy products). Four food group subscales are generated: fruit and vegetable, fat from dairy, sweetened beverages and non-core foods. Test-retest reliability, internal consistency, relative validity and the ability to detect change were tested in five separate study samples of children, totalling 706 children aged 4 to 16 years. The fruit and vegetable and non-core foods subscales demonstrated good internal consistency (alpha 0.76 and 0.62, respectively) and item:total correlations greater than 0.2. The fat from dairy and the sweetened beverages subscales consistently performed poorly. All subscales demonstrated satisfactory test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.51 to 0.90) and ability to detect change in the expected direction following a weight management intervention. Relative validity suggests ability to distinguish positive or negative dietary risk based on CDQ scores at the group but not individual level. The CDQ shows acceptable reliability and relative validity for assessing group level child dietary patterns with key aspects of healthy eating guidelines.
Article
Full-text available
Studies of diet and depression have focused primarily on individual nutrients. To examine the association between dietary patterns and depression using an overall diet approach. Analyses were carried on data from 3486 participants (26.2% women, mean age 55.6 years) from the Whitehall II prospective cohort, in which two dietary patterns were identified: 'whole food' (heavily loaded by vegetables, fruits and fish) and 'processed food' (heavily loaded by sweetened desserts, fried food, processed meat, refined grains and high-fat dairy products). Self-reported depression was assessed 5 years later using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies - Depression (CES-D) scale. After adjusting for potential confounders, participants in the highest tertile of the whole food pattern had lower odds of CES-D depression (OR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.56-0.99) than those in the lowest tertile. In contrast, high consumption of processed food was associated with an increased odds of CES-D depression (OR = 1.58, 95% CI 1.11-2.23). In middle-aged participants, a processed food dietary pattern is a risk factor for CES-D depression 5 years later, whereas a whole food pattern is protective.
Article
Objective: To examine whether use of vitamins B(12), B(6), and folate was associated with reduced severity of depressive symptoms and 2-year incidence of clinically significant depression. Method: The investigators recruited 299 men aged 75 years and older free of clinically significant depression (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI] score < 18). They were randomly assigned to treatment with 400 mu g B(12) + 2 mg folic acid + 25 mg B(6) per day (N = 150) or placebo (N = 149). The BDI was the primary outcome measure of the Study. Follow-tip assessments took place 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after baseline. Analyses were intention-to-treat. The study was conducted from June 2001 to June 2004. Results: 118 and 123 men treated with vitamins and placebo, respectively, completed this 2-year trial (19.4% dropout rate). Analysis of variance for repeated measures showed that there was no difference between the groups (F = 0.76, df = 1, p = .384) nor was there it significant change of BDI scores over time (F = 1.26, df = 4, p = .284). Cox regression revealed that participants treated with vitamins were 24% more likely to remain free of depression during the trial, although the difference between groups was not significant (95% CI = 0.68 to 2.28). At the end of the study, 84.3% of men treated with vitamins and 79.1% of those treated with placebo remained free of clinically significant depressive symptoms. The number of people needed to treat to show benefit was 21. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that treatment with B(12), folic acid, and B(6) is no better than placebo at reducing the severity of depressive symptoms or the incidence of clinically significant depression over a period of 2 years in older men. Trial Registration: www.anzctr.org.au Identifier: ACTRN012605000045617.
Article
The influence of dietary fatty acids (FAs) other than omega-3 FAs on mood has been largely overlooked. The authors prospectively assessed the association between dietary linoleic and oleic FAs and the risk of severe depressed mood (SDM) among 4856 adults aged 25–74 years who were examined in 1971–1975 as a part of a national survey. Intakes of FAs were obtained at baseline from a 24-hour recall and categorized into thirds. SDM was defined as Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale scores at follow-up survey ≥ 22 or taking anti-depression medication. After an average of 10.6 years of follow-up, the proportion of individuals with SDM were 11.45 (SE = 0.96) % and 17.45(1.05) % respectively among 1947 men and 2909 women. The odds ratios (ORs) were 1 (reference), 1.64(95% CI = 1.06, 2.54) and 2.34 (1.41, 3.87) respectively for men with lowest, middle and highest third of linoleic FA intake (p for trend = 0.001); the ORs were 1 (reference), 0.88 (0.56, 1.38) and 0.48 (0.25, 0.95) respectively for women with lowest, middle and highest third of oleic FA intake (p for trend = 0.0347). No association was observed from saturated FA. These estimates were adjusted for fish consumption at baseline and major physical diseases at follow-up. The authors concluded that increased intake of oleic FA was associated with reduced risk among women while increased intake of linoleic FA was associated with increased risk of SDM among men.
Article
Abstract Dietary intake and food habits are important contributors to the obesity epidemic. They are highly modifiable components of energy balance and are usually targeted in both obesity prevention and treatment programs. However, measurement of total diet creates challenges and can convey a large burden in terms of cost, technical expertise, impact on respondents and time. It is not surprising therefore that comprehensive reports of dietary intake in children are uncommon and, when reported, have limitations. The aim of this paper is to guide researchers and practitioners in selecting the most appropriate dietary assessment method for situations involving children and adolescents. This paper presents a summary of the issues to consider when choosing a method, a description of some of the more commonly used dietary assessment methods for young people and a series of case-studies to illustrate the range of circumstances faced when measuring dietary intake. We recommend that researchers consider the specific components of dietary intake addressed in their research and practice, and whether diet should be reported comprehensively or as targeted components. Other considerations include age, cognitive ability, weight status, physical activity level, respondent burden, and reliability and validity in the context of program goals and research questions. A checklist for selecting the appropriate dietary methodology is provided. This guide aims to facilitate the reporting of dietary intake and food habits in the context of obesity using valid and reliable measures, thus contributing to the evidence-base for nutrition policies and programs relating to obesity.
Article
Alterations of BDNF signalling in major depression (MD) are supported by studies demonstrating decreased levels of the neurotrophin serum and plasma content in MD patients. We conducted a replication study and we performed two meta-analyses on studies analysing serum and plasma BDNF levels in MD patients. The samples were composed by 489 patients/483 controls for the meta-analysis on serum and by 161 patients/211 controls for that on plasma levels. We performed also subgroup analyses to examine whether the decrease in BDNF levels in MD was influenced by gender. In the replication study we found decreased serum BDNF levels in MD patients (P<0.01) and we demonstrated that is down-regulated the mature form of the neurotrophin (mBDNF). No significant difference was evidenced for plasma BDNF levels. The meta-analyses showed a reduction of both BDNF serum (P<0.0001) and plasma levels (P=0.02) in MD. No difference in the effect size on serum BDNF was observed between males and females (P=0.18). In conclusion, our results provide evidence of peripheral BDNF alteration in MD and support the rationale for further investigation aiming to the identification of biomarkers for differential diagnosis and personalization of therapies in this disorder.
Article
C57Bl/6 mice were administered a high fat, Western diet (WD, 41% fat) or a very high fat lard diet (HFL, 60% fat), and evaluated for cognitive ability using the Stone T-maze and for biochemical markers of brain inflammation. WD consumption resulted in significantly increased body weight and astrocyte reactivity, but not impaired cognition, microglial reactivity, or heightened cytokine levels. HFL increased body weight, and impaired cognition, increased brain inflammation, and decreased BDNF. Collectively, these data suggest that while different diet formulations can increase body weight, the ability of high fat diets to disrupt cognition is linked to brain inflammation.