Technical ReportPDF Available

The Philippine Marine Mammal Strandings from 2005 to 2016

Authors:

Abstract

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Marine mammals strand for various reasons. The recorded Philippine marine mammal stranding events from 2005 to 2016 was analyzed for patterns on (1) species composition of stranded marine mammals, (2) spatial and temporal variation of stranding events, and (3) proportions of alive and dead specimens, to mention a few. A total of 713 stranding events have been recorded comprised mainly of single stranders (n=638), mass stranding events (n=31), out of habitat (n=15) and Unusual Mortality Events (n=29). The UMEs occurred in Region I only. The annual frequency of recorded stranding events ranged from 24 (2005) to 111 (2015), with an average of 59 events per year. Most of the strandings occurred in Luzon (60%) while Visayas and Mindanao had equal share (20% each). Strandings have been recorded in all regions with coastline and in 64 coastal provinces. The top five regions on a national level which have had the highest number of recorded stranding events (i.e. stranding hotspots) were: Regions I (n= 158), V (n=92), VII (n=68), III (n=53) and II (n=48). The regions with the least number of recorded stranding events were: NCR (n=3), ARMM (n=6), 13 (n=11). In the Visayas, Region VI (n=47) was also an area of concern, apart from Region VII. Similarly, in Mindanao Regions XII (n=44), XI (n=42), and IX (n=25) were hotspots. Region IX was considered as a hotspot primarily because it has the highest proportion of live stranders on record (84%, 21 of 25). Overall, 60% (n=430) of all recorded stranding events involved live animals. In terms of seasonality, strandings were relatively more frequent during the Northeast monsoon (NE) in most provinces than the Southwest monsoon or Inter-monsoon. The bulk of the recorded strandings (76%) came from the top 20 provinces of the 64 represented. The top six provinces in terms of frequency of recorded strandings were Pangasinan (n= 63), Ilocos Norte (n= 52), Cagayan (n= 40), Sarangani (n= 37), Sorsogon (n=30), and Zambales (n=29). A total of 29 species (28 cetaceans plus the dugong) of marine mammals have been recorded throughout the Philippines, mostly confirmed through stranding records. Of the 29 species, 27 have stranding records, with Regions III and V both having the highest number of marine mammal species recorded (n=17); followed by Regions I and II (n=16), and 3 (n=15). The most frequent species that stranded was the spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris, n=115), followed by the Fraser’s dolphin (Lagenodelphis hosei, n=67), Risso’s dolphin (Grampus griseus, n=52), melon-headed whale (Peponocephala electra, n=45), Pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuate, n=37), dwarf sperm whale (Kogia sima, n=36), and the dugong (Dugong dugon, n=36). Another notable result was that the spinner dolphins was the most common stranded species and had been recorded to have stranded in 15 out of 16 regions. This implies that the spinner dolphin is most likely the most abundant and widely distributed marine mammal species in the Philippines. On the other hand, only 23 (3%) records of baleen whale strandings were documented. Majority of the stranding events involved adults (n=501, 70%). The ratio of stranded females to males was almost even (0.92). Furthermore, a total of 1561 individuals were recorded to have been involved in all (n=713) stranding events from 2005 to 2016: out of habitat = 745, single = 651, mass = 134, and UME = 31. All the out of habitat animals, except three (3), eventually made it back to open seas. Out of the single stranders, 395 (61%) stranded alive. Of these, 329 were released immediately or after a few hours of supportive care, including 5 baleen whales (i.e. adults to sub-adults). Sixty-six individuals were rehabilitated: 48 died (72%), 11 released (17%), 4 (6%) long-term care, and 3 euthanized (4%). The response to strandings has remarkably improved through time. This was mainly attributed to the significant increase in numbers of PMMSN Chapter chapters and trained volunteers nationwide. The PMMSN now have at least 12 collaborating BFAR Regional Offices, 11 with MOAs and 1 currently being worked out. In 2010, 5 years after the establishment of PMMSN, there were 1736 trained volunteers. To date, there are 3690 trained volunteers, including at least 75 veterinarians who underwent a special training on medical management for stranded marine mammals. The existence of active PMMSN Chapters in several regions through the initiatives of BFAR Regional Directors, and local chief executives of provinces and cities/municipalities has enabled better response than before. Further, BFAR Regional Offices in regions I, II, II, IVA, V, VII, VIII, XI, and XIII have either already organized or are planning to organize provincial chapters of PMMSN through their Provincial Fisheries Offices to further enhance their capacity to respond to strandings. Regions IX, X and XII are currently setting up their respective Chapters. However, there are still many challenges. For instance, the coordination between the individual(s) who initially discover stranded marine mammals and trained local personnel (responders) needs to improve. Most often the discovering parties do not know who to call. This is unfortunate because, to date, there are many trained locals, especially in strategic (hotspot) areas, who are knowledgeable about stranding first response protocols. Supposedly, the assistance of the pertinent personnel from BFAR Regional Office (e.g. veterinarian) and/or PMMSN, would be required or immediately pursued only if there was no local individual(s) trained or after the animal has been given first aid and stabilized. Another challenge is finding accessible pond or enclosures for possible use as holding pens for rehabilitation of stranded animals in remote areas. Another noteworthy finding was the significant number of live animals rescued and released back into their habitats. For the last 12 years, at least 329 individuals were released after providing supportive care. That was equivalent to 27 animals per year. Furthermore, the success rate of rehabilitation has increased from 12% in 2010 to 23%, to date. The 11 animals successfully rehabilitated was equivalent to almost 1 animal released per year. Furthermore, four dolphins, mostly victims of dynamite blasts, and therefore are acoustically challenged, and with almost nil chances of survival if released, are now under human care with their conspecifics. The PMMSN has also observed increasing cases of stranders (dead or dying) with compacted GIT by marine debris. A systematic collection of information regarding these sorts of cases and the like is now in place. These would not have been possible if there was no organized national stranding network (i.e. the PMMSN) that looked after their welfare as well as systematically collected data. Ultimately, the engagement of empowered communities (e.g. PMMSN Chapters), especially mandated agencies (i.e. BFAR, LGUs) and their respective leaders, made the difference for the Philippine marine mammal strandings.
A preview of the PDF is not available
... These specific areas should be the primary or focal areas of interest for the concerned Provincial Fisheries Officers and BFAR Regional Directors in terms of strategic management or planning of trainings and the like. Previous reports (Aragones et al. 2010, Aragones and Laggui 2019 which also focused on regional hotspots practically showed very similar trends. ...
... The previous Technical Report (Aragones and Laggui 2019) showed that there are distinct regional hotspots in each island group of Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao from 2005 to 2018 dataset. These were the top five regions with the most frequent number of strandings (in descending order): Regions V, followed by I, IV-B, IX, and XI (Aragones and Laggui 2019). ...
... The species composition of the stranders in 2019 to 2020 was expectedly like previous years (2005)(2006)(2007)(2008)(2009)(2010)(2011)(2012)(2013)(2014)(2015)(2016)(2017)(2018)(2019)(2020). The top five most frequent species that stranded according to the previous Technical Report were: spinner dolphin, dugong, pygmy sperm whale, pantropical spotted dolphin, and Risso's dolphin (Aragones and Laggui 2019). In this report, the three of the previous top five species remained: spinner dolphin, pygmy sperm whale, Fraser's dolphin, dugong, and melon-headed whale. ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Stranding of marine mammals is complex and understanding this phenomenon requires continuous surveillance, monitoring, data collection and research. The Philippine Marine Mammal Stranding Network (PMMSN) has collected 1178 records of stranding events nationwide from 2005 to 2020. This Technical Report is a follow-up to the second Report (i.e., Aragones and Laggui 2019). As stated in the second Technical Report the consequent series of Reports will cover two-year periods only. Thus, this third Report covers the stranding dataset from 2019 to 2020. However, as in the first (Aragones et al. 2017) and second Reports, updates on the general trends for the larger data set (2005 to 2020) will also be provided. This Report showcases analyses of the stranding records from 2019 to 2020 (n=220) for trends in stranding frequency by year, region, season, monsoon, species, sex, age class, original disposition, release and rehabilitation success. The spatial coverage presented in this report was specific to regions and provinces primarily for administrative purposes. Identification of more specific or smaller spatial areas (i.e., by municipality/city) for potential stranding hotspots was assessed using Fishnet Tools (using 15 x 15 km grids). Furthermore, seasonality of stranding events was categorized according to the prevailing monsoons. The Northeast (NE) monsoon months are November to February (NDJF), Southwest (SW monsoon) monsoon months are June to September (JJAS), and Spring Inter-monsoon (Spring IM) in October (or Lull before NE monsoon) and the Winter Inter-monsoon (Winter IM) from March to May (MAM, or Lull before SW monsoon). The stranding data was also presented in the more classic seasonal context of DJF, MAM, JJA, SON. As data analytics advances, future reports will be improved further.
... Being top consumers of production, their abundance and distribution play important roles in the function and structure of aquatic ecosystems (Baum and Worm, 2009). Furthermore, their large fat reserves (blubber), which can serve as contaminant depots, and long life spans make them one of the best sentinels of the aquatic environment (Bossart, cetaceans and the dugong (Dugong dugon) (Aragones et al., 2017). Twenty-seven of the 29 confirmed species were recorded to strand with an average of 59 events per year from 2005-2016 data (Aragones et al., 2017). ...
... Furthermore, their large fat reserves (blubber), which can serve as contaminant depots, and long life spans make them one of the best sentinels of the aquatic environment (Bossart, cetaceans and the dugong (Dugong dugon) (Aragones et al., 2017). Twenty-seven of the 29 confirmed species were recorded to strand with an average of 59 events per year from 2005-2016 data (Aragones et al., 2017). A high preponderance during the Northeast monsoon in regions with coastline including 64 coastal provinces were documented by the authors. ...
... Among the most frequent cetaceans to strand included whales, e.g. Kogia sima (n=36) from a total of 713 events (2005)(2006)(2007)(2008)(2009)(2010)(2011)(2012)(2013)(2014)(2015)(2016) (Aragones et al., 2017). Pertinent tissue samples can be obtained from these events, albeit logistic impediments, to elucidate gaps in marine mammal science. ...
Article
Full-text available
Stranded marine mammals may serve as opportunities for probing scientific queries. This study subjected formalin-fixed tissues of two cetaceans, Mesoplodon densirostris (Blainville’s beaked whale) and Kogia sima (dwarf sperm whale), found stranded in Region 11 (Davao) of the Philippines between April and July 2014 to histopathological analyses following necropsy and hematological evaluations. Lesions observed in 2 of 2 animals (100%) were congested hepatic sinusoids, hemorrhages, hemosiderosis, parasitic disease, and pulmonary edema. Other lesions (1 of 2, 50%) were seen in the (1) gastrointestinal tract (congestion, Lieberkhun mononuclear cell infiltrations, villi blunting and adhesion), (2) kidney (blood sludging, membranous glomerulopathy, tubular cell atrophy), and (3) lungs (fungal granuloma, pneumonia). M. densirostris showed severe iron deficiency and thrombocytopenia but with lymphocytosis. K. sima revealed low white blood cell count and neutropenia but with thrombocytosis and hemoconcentration. This study suggests that systemic infection for both animals with (1) membranous glomerulopathy and endoparasitism-associated pneumonia (in M. densirostris) and (2) microthrombi formation (in K. sima) were the major causes of their deaths. Presented results, however limited, may serve as baseline data underpinning cetacean clinicopathological research in the Philippines.
... The lack of haematological reference values for the different species of cetaceans greatly affects the ability of veterinarians and marine mammal rehabilitators to make informed decisions in the diagnosis, treatment, and plan of action for live dolphin stranders (Sharp et al., 2014). This challenge is especially important in the Philippines because majority (65%) of cetaceans that stranded in the country from 2005 to 2016 were alive (Aragones et al., 2017). As far as the authors' knowledge and research is concerned, there is no published data on the reference blood values for spinner dolphins despite the species' apparent abundance and cosmopolitan distribution. ...
... However, this is currently the only available reference value for this species and will still serve as a valuable tool for veterinarians and marine mammal rehabilitators for future stranding events of spinner dolphins in the Philippines. This is critical as the spinner dolphin is the most common strander in the country as per the Philippine Marine Mammal Stranding Database (Aragones et al. 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
The spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) is one of the smallest odontocetes that commonly strands in the Philippines. Despite its apparent abundance and cosmopolitan distribution, there is no published data on the haematological and serum chemical reference values for this species. This limitation greatly affects the ability of veterinarians and marine mammal rehabilitators to make informed decisions in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, and the formulation of action plans when individuals of this species strand alive. This study used blood samples from two subadult female spinner dolphins that were successfully rehabilitated after stranding in 2014 to establish haematological and serum chemistry reference values for the species. The overall resulting values of the blood parameters recorded such as the WBC (5.01-10.45 10 3 /μL), RBC (4.23-6.18 10 6 /μL), and PCV (42-50%) generally demonstrated narrow ranges and were close to the published reference values for other similar conspeci c odontocetes. Although there were only two individuals of the species used in this study, the data gathered serves as a valuable reference tool for future cases of spinner dolphin strandings in the Philippines.
... The lack of haematological reference values for the different species of cetaceans greatly affects the ability of veterinarians and marine mammal rehabilitators to make informed decisions in the diagnosis, treatment, and plan of action for live dolphin stranders (Sharp et al., 2014). This challenge is especially important in the Philippines because majority (65%) of cetaceans that stranded in the country from 2005 to 2016 were alive (Aragones et al., 2017). As far as the authors' knowledge and research is concerned, there is no published data on the reference blood values for spinner dolphins despite the species' apparent abundance and cosmopolitan distribution. ...
... However, this is currently the only available reference value for this species and will still serve as a valuable tool for veterinarians and marine mammal rehabilitators for future stranding events of spinner dolphins in the Philippines. This is critical as the spinner dolphin is the most common strander in the country as per the Philippine Marine Mammal Stranding Database (Aragones et al. 2017). ...
... Our modern records consist of four types: stranding, bycatch, sighting, and satellite tracking. We extracted these records from multiple sources, including peer-reviewed publications (e.g., Aragones et al., 2010;Chua et al., 2019;Liu et al., 2022b), book chapters (e.g., Wang, 2012), online databases, conference papers (e.g., Jaaman et al., 2002), investigation reports (e.g., Aragones et al., 2017), and any other available "grey literature". See details about information sources in Supplementary Table S1. ...
Article
Full-text available
Spatiotemporal information is crucial for cetacean research and conservation, particularly for wide-ranging and migratory species. Sperm whales are distributed worldwide in deep oceans; however, little is known about the species in the western margin of the Pacific Ocean. Here, we examined the available information related to the occurrence, distribution, and potential habitats of sperm whales in the waters off China. Historical whaling information (18th–20th century) indicates that sperm whales have been captured in the East China Sea (ECS) and South China Sea (SCS). Furthermore, sporadic strandings have been recorded since the 1910s, and more frequently from 1990 onwards. Since 1990, accidental sightings have been documented in the eastern ECS, northeastern and southern SCS, and their adjacent waters. More recently (2019–2022), field encounters have been reported in dedicated ship-based investigations in the Xisha and Nansha waters, providing robust evidence of the regular existence and potential residency of sperm whales in the northwestern and central areas of the SCS. Female nursery groups suggest that the Xisha waters might be an important nursing ground for sperm whales. Satellite tracking data of four adults showed that sperm whales in the SCS might display both fine-scale and long-distance movements. Taken together, it appears sperm whales are currently active in the waters off China, and that deep waters (depth >200 m) in the ECS and SCS may provide the species with critical habitats. This review provides crucial baseline information on sperm whales in the waters off China, which may help to facilitate future research efforts and conservation initiatives for the species at national and cross-regional scales. More field investigations and other monitoring approaches including acoustic monitoring, biologging, photo-identification, and genetics are required to reveal the distribution, movement, and habitat use patterns of sperm whales in these waters.
... Specifically, the study aimed to detect T. gondii in cetacean tissues through molecular method and find significant association between the occurrence of T. gondii in cetacean tissues and stranding event parameters such as stranding season and cetacean sex and age. The 14-year marine mammal stranding reports revealed increasing trend in the stranding events of cetaceans in the Philippines (Aragones and Laggui, 2019;. These events are opportunities to collect biological samples from local cetacean species, many of which are pelagic and deep diving species. ...
Article
Full-text available
Toxoplasma gondii infections affect marine mammal species worldwide. Investigating the presence of the protozoan parasite in marine mammals is crucial to understanding land-sea connection in relation to the movement of pathogenic and potentially pathogenic microorganisms in the marine environment. The main objective of this study was to detect T. gondii, through nested PCR targeting the RE gene of the parasite, in select cetaceans (n=19) that stranded in different parts of the Philippines from January to December 2019. T. gondii was detected in four cetaceans, specifically, in the brain tissue of a pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata), brain and stomach tissues of a Cuvier’s beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris), brain and skeletal tissues of a pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps), and lung tissue of another pantropical spotted dolphin. No statistically significant association was established between the stranding parameters and presence of T. gondii DNA in tissues of cetaceans. To the best knowledge of the authors, this study is the first to report the presence of T. gondii in a Cuvier’s beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris). The detection of T. gondii in deep dwelling cetacean species supports the claim that toxoplasmosis may have extended beyond coastlines where pathogen run-off is likely. T. gondii prevalence among cetaceans in the Philippines has received attention for the past five years, and there is a need to continue the surveillance of T. gondii among local cetacean populations given its implications in the conservation and management of these marine mammals.
... Previous reports (e.g. Aragones et al. 2010Aragones et al. , 2017) focused on regional hotspots. ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Stranding of marine mammals is complex and understanding it requires more data and studies. The Philippine Marine Mammal Stranding Network (PMMSN) has collected 952 records of stranding events nationwide from 2005 to 2018. This Technical Report is a follow-up to the first Report (i.e. Aragones et al. 2017), which analyzed strandings data from 2005 to 2016, and this second series covered two years (2017-2018). The next series of Reports will similarly cover two-year periods only. As in the first Report, this second Report will initially give the general trends for the larger data set (2005 to 2018). The bulk of this Report is about the analyses of the stranding records from 2017-2018 (n= 229) for trends in stranding frequency by year, region, season, species, gender, age class, original disposition, release and rehabilitation success. The spatial coverage presented in this report was specific to regions and provinces primarily for administrative purposes. Identification of more specific or smaller spatial areas (i.e. by municipality/ city) for potential stranding hotspots was assessed using Fishnet Tools (using 15 x 15 km grids). Furthermore, seasonality of stranding events was categorized according to the prevailing monsoons. The Northeast (NE) monsoon months are November to February (NDJF), Southwest (SW monsoon) monsoon months are June to September (JJAS), and Spring Inter-monsoon (Spring IM) in October (or Lull before NE monsoon) and the Winter Inter-monsoon (Winter IM) from March to May (MAM, or Lull before SW monsoon). As data analytics advances, future reports will be improved further.
Article
Full-text available
The relatively high frequency of marine mammal stranding events in the Philippines provide many research opportunities. A select set of stranders (n = 21) from 2017 to 2018 were sampled for bacteriology and histopathology. Pertinent tissues and bacteria were collected from individuals representing eight cetacean species (i.e. Feresa attenuata, Kogia breviceps, Globicephala macrorhynchus, Grampus griseus, Lagenodelphis hosei, Peponocephala electra, Stenella attenuata and Stenella longirostris) and were subjected to histopathological examination and antibiotic resistance screening, respectively. The antibiotic resistance profiles of 24 bacteria (belonging to genera Escherichia, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Proteus, and Shigella) that were isolated from four cetaceans were determined using 18 antibiotics. All 24 isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic class, and 79.17% were classified as multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR). The MAR index values of isolates ranged from 0.06 to 0.39 with all the isolates resistant to erythromycin (100%; n = 24) and susceptible to imipenem, doripenem, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, and gentamicin (100%; n = 24). The resistance profiles of these bacteria show the extent of antimicrobial resistance in the marine environment, and may inform medical management decisions during rehabilitation of stranded cetaceans. Due to inadequate gross descriptions and limited data gathered by the responders during the stranding events, the significance of histopathological lesions in association with disease diagnosis in each cetacean stranding or mortality remained inconclusive; however, these histopathological findings may be indicative or contributory to the resulting debility and stress during their strandings. The findings of the study demonstrate the challenges faced by cetacean species in the wild, such as but not limited to, biological pollution through land-sea movement of effluents, fisheries interactions, and anthropogenic activities.
Article
Full-text available
Underwater noise poses serious threats to marine mammals, which rely on underwater sound primarily for communication, orientation, and foraging. In this study, underwater noise from dynamite fishing was analyzed to infer possible effects on local marine mammals, particularly cetaceans. Simulated explosions were performed on 9 July 2018 using confiscated explosives from illegal fishers in San Fernando, La Union. The acoustic properties of blasts from single pulse explosions were characterized using sound recordings captured by a hydrophone. Dominant frequencies from the sound recordings showed that the noise generated by the explosions can be perceived by marine mammals sensitive to the auditory bandwidth of 7 Hz to 180 kHz. Blast charge weights were estimated to determine sound pressure levels generated by the explosions at varying distances from the source. These results imply that marine mammals within 150 m of the explosion will experience debilitating injuries (e.g., acoustic trauma, disorientation) even from a single pulse. By characterizing the acoustic properties of these local explosives, its potential impacts to local marine mammals and other marine organisms can be elucidated. These acoustic calculations can be further enhanced by considering backscattered waves and determining the actual chemical composition of these explosives.
Article
Full-text available
Global marine mammal research is disproportionately lacking compared to terrestrial mammal research and is strongly biased toward populations in Europe, North America, New Zealand, and Australia. With high extinction risks facing marine mammals in the tropics, we sought to identify potential drivers of research effort and extinction risk evaluations for marine mammals in the Philippines as a model for tropical island nations with limited resources and research capacity. Using a bibliographic approach, we compiled all materials on marine mammal research in the Philippines from 1991 to 2020, which we categorized into eight thematic areas of research focus. We reviewed all materials based on their research focus to assess the current scientific knowledge of local marine mammal populations. Using a simple metric to calculate research effort allocation, we found that all marine mammal species in the Philippines receive inadequate research attention. Using generalized linear models, we analyzed the relationship of potential factors that drive research effort. The model with the lowest Akaike Information Criterion value suggests that frequency of marine mammal stranding incidents may influence an increase in research effort on marine mammals by providing access to biological specimens that would normally be difficult to obtain. Strandings are unfortunate events with often unclear causes, but they provide an opportunity to collect data from behaviorally cryptic animals in areas where financial constraints often hamper scientific progress. We also determined that a national Red List evaluation was predicted by increased research effort. Maximizing local research using all materials from strandings and building research capacity may be an alternative to expensive field-based methods to increase knowledge on local marine mammal populations.
Article
Full-text available
The general consensus of a rapidly changing ocean ecosystem being affected by anthropogenic activities needs to be understood in relation to both wildlife and human health. The risks and challenges for the Philippines include lack of scientific information on waterborne diseases that are potentially zoonotic. The present study fills in this knowledge gap by detecting the occurrence of bacteria, Giardia, and Toxoplasma gondii in locally found cetacean species. Cetaceans (n = 30) that stranded from January 2012 through March 2013 were appropriately responded to, and biological materials were taken whenever applicable. A total of 25 bacteria were isolated from nine stranders. Phenotypic and genotypic methods of isolate identification yielded 12 consensus genera: Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Burkholderia, Enterococcus, Moraxella, Proteus, Providencia, Rhizobium, Serratia, Sphingomonas, Staphylococcus, and Vibrio. No screened strander was positive for Giardia. Serological assay detected antibodies for T. gondii in five stranders, while nested polymerase chain reaction positively amplified the B1 gene of the parasite in two stranders. This study provides the first report on bacteria and T. gondii in cetaceans found in the Philippines. Since the detected microorganisms include species recognized to cause new infections in marine mammals worldwide, the findings of the study underscore the potential of stranded cetaceans to serve as sentinels for studying the movement of emerging pathogens in marine habitats, provide clues on the health status of their free-ranging populations, and present the health risks available to humans who share the same water resource with them.
Article
Marine Mammals: Evolutionary Biology, Third Edition is a succinct, yet comprehensive text devoted to the systematics, evolution, morphology, ecology, physiology, and behavior of marine mammals. Earlier editions of this valuable work are considered required reading for all marine biologists concerned with marine mammals, and this text continues that tradition of excellence with updated citations and an expansion of nearly every chapter that includes full color photographs and distribution maps. • Comprehensive, up-to-date coverage of the biology of all marine mammals • Provides a phylogenetic framework that integrates phylogeny with behavior and ecology • Features chapter summaries, further readings, an appendix, glossary and an extensive bibliography • Exciting new color photographs and additional distribution maps.
Article
Beaked whales of the Family Ziphiidae are the least known of all cetacean families. Here, using mitochondrial DNA Control Region and Cytochrome B, and supported by morphological comparisons of skull and teeth, we identified a 4.6 m female beaked whale, stranded in Maco, Compostela Valley, Philippines on December 19 2012, as the Deranayigala's beaked whale, Mesoplodon hotaula . This is the first record of M. hotaula in the Philippines and only the eighth specimen in the world.
Book
This thorough revision of the classic first edition brings this authoritative book right up-to-date. Articles describe every species in detail, based on the very latest taxonomy, and a host of biological, ecological and sociological aspects relating to marine mammals. The latest information on the biology, ecology, anatomy, behavior and interactions with man is provided by a cast of expert authors - all presented in such detail and clarity to support both marine mammal specialists and the serious naturalist. Fully referenced throughout and with a fresh selection of the best color photographs available, the long-awaited 2nd edition remains at the forefront as the go-to reference on marine mammals. * More than 20% NEW MATERIAL includes articles on Climate Change, Pacific White-sided Dolphins, Sociobiology, Habitat Use, Feeding Morphology and more * Over 260 articles on the individual species with topics ranging from anatomy and behavior, to conservation, exploitation and the impact of global climate change on marine mammals * New color illustrations show every species and document topical articles FROM THE FIRST EDITION "This book is so good... a bargain, full of riches...packed with fascinating up to date information. I recommend it unreservedly it to individuals, students, and researchers, as well as libraries". - Richard M. Laws, MARINE MAMMALS SCIENCE "...establishes a solid and satisfying foundation for current study and future exploration" - Ronald J. Shusterman, SCIENCE.