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The Pomegranates have been known for their numerous health benefits, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial and anti-viruses properties. Research indicates that pomegranates and their extracts may serve as natural alternatives due to their potency against a wide range of bacterial and viral pathogens. The characterization and effect of pomegranate were investigated from different extract water, ethanol, methanol, acetic acid and petroleum ether. Pomegranate has a vital role in the prevention of cancer, viral diseases, diabetes, bacterial infections, ultraviolet radiation-induced skin damage and infant brain ischemia due to synthesizing putative active molecules such as Gallic acid, Ellagic acid, Punicalin, Punicalagin, Anthocyanins, and Flavanols compounds. In this mini-review, we debate the antimicrobial and antiviral effects of pomegranate.
Journal of Biotechnology Science Research.2016;3(6):175-180
Review paper
The potential effects of Pomegranate on Bacteria and Viruses: A review
Osman Albarri1*, Işıl Var2, Amani Boushihassal1, Melda Meral3, Cansu Önlen3, Mariam Hassan
Mohamed1, FatihKöksal3
1Institute of Natural and Applied Sciences (Fen BilimleriEnstitüsü), Department of Biotechnology, Cukurova University, 01330
Balcali, Adana, Turkey.
2Department of Food Engineering, Agricultural Faculty, Cukurova University, TR-01100 Adana, Turkey
3Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Çukurova University , TR-01100 Adana, Turkey.
Article history:
Received: 8 April 2016
Received in revised form: 5 August
Accepted: 4 February 2017
Available online: 15 February
*Corresponding author
The Pomegranates have been known for their numerous health benefits, including antioxidant,
anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial and anti-viruses properties. Research indicates that
pomegranates and their extracts may serve as natural alternatives due to their potency against
a wide range of bacterial and viral pathogens. The characterization and effect of pomegranate
were investigated from different extract water, ethanol, methanol, acetic acid and petroleum
ether. Pomegranate has a vital role in the prevention of cancer, viral diseases, diabetes,
bacterial infections, ultraviolet radiation-induced skin damage and infant brain ischemia due
to synthesizing putative active molecules such as Gallic acid, Ellagic acid, Punicalin,
Punicalagin, Anthocyanins, and Flavanols compounds. In this mini-review, we debate the
antimicrobial and antiviral effects of pomegranate.
1. Introduction
Punica granatum are utilized by local people as the
part of their meal. Peoples supposed to consume
Punica granatum arial part and throw its peel as
waste. Punica granutam is also well known by
different local name like dalim, anar, and
pomegranate1. It belongs to the family of Punicaeae.
Punica granatum L., an ancient, mystical, and
highly distinctive fruit, is the pre-dominant
member of two species comprising the
Punicaceae family. Punica granatum are widely
available in Mediterranean basin and Southern Asia
in warm environment 2. The chief production of
pomegranates is carried out at Alicante and Murcia
provinces of India 3. Different part of pomegranate
like bark, leaves, immature fruits, and fruit rind have
some medicinal importance 3. Various investigations
were carried out to determine antioxidant,
anticarcinogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties of
pomegranate constituents3,4. Numerous studies
showed the role of pomegranate in prevention of
cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, dental
conditions, erectile dysfunction, bacterial infections,
male infertility, Alzheimer’s disease, arthritis, and
obesity using various extract of this plant 5-7. In this
mini review, we attempted to summarize the
Journal of Biotechnology Science Research (JBSR)
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Albarri et al/ Journal of Biotechnology Science Research.2016;3(6): 175-180
antimicrobial and anti-viral properties of
2. Antimicrobial Properties
The antimicrobial activities of pomegranate extracts
have been widely studied against several highly
pathogenic and sometimes antibiotic-resistant
organisms. The antimicrobial activity of the
pomegranate against clinical isolates strains of
pathogenic of S. aureus and E. coli were studied by
Pagliarulo C et al8. The antibacterial activity of
different extracts of pomegranate fruit against S.
aureus and E. coli determined with the agar-diffusion
method. It has been found that the crude and purified
peel extracts have high antibacterial activity, which
formed a large zone inhibition (15-30 mm) against
both the test microorganisms at concentration of 2, 4,
8 mg /disc, while the crude juice extracts of
pomegranate at concentration of 10 mg/ disc have not
demonstrated clear zone against E. coli. However, the
concentration of 20 mg/disc led to formation of a clear
inhibition zone of 13 mm, against both S. aureus and
E. coli. Purified juice of pomegranate at concentration
of 4 mg/d demonstrated a lower antibacterial activity,
forming an inhibition zone of 10 mm against S.
aureus and 8 mm against E. coli. The MBC (The
minimum bactericidal concentration: was defined as
the minimum extract concentration that killed 99% of
bacteria in the initial inoculums) of pomegranate
crude juice extracts was 160 µg/µl against both
clinically isolated microorganisms tested in this study.
Differently from the juice extracts, the peel
pomegranate extracts exhibited the following
antimicrobial activity: MIC 30 µg/µl and MBC70
µg/µl against E. coli; and MIC 20 µg/µl and MBC 50
µg/µl against S. aureus8. Sydney et al 9 also reported
antibacterial activity of pomegranate extract against
Clostridium difficile. It has been found that
pomegranate extract exhibits in vitro activity against
Clostridium difficile. This research was the first data
of antimicrobial in vitro activity for pomegranate
extract against toxigenic C. difficile. The antibacterial
activity of extracts of pomegranate fruit on C. Difficile
determined with the agar-diffusion method, it has
been found that all the C. difficile strains tested had
MICs at 12.5-25 μg/ml GAE level range, so the use of
pomegranate extract is very important to prevention of
C. difficile disease or colonization 9. There was other
studied that talked about the activity of pomegranate
extract against Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris DSM
3922 vegetative cells and spores in apple juice 10. This
bacteria is leading to spoilage of fruit juices and acidic
food products through produce taint compound and
their spores can survive during thermal pasteurization,
in other words their spores were not killed by
pasteurization11, 12. The counts (log CFU/ml) of A.
acidoterrestris vegetative cells in the apple juice at
difference concentration were studied. It has been
found that the count of vegetative cells in apple juice
at different concentrations of pomegranate extract
(PE) were decreased during time, the count of
vegetative cells in apple juice without pomegranate
extract was approximately 7.36 log CFU/mL at the 24
hour while the count of vegetative cells in apple juice
with different concentration of pomegranate extract
were tested and results were as follow : at
concentration 10 µg/ml of pomegranate extract was
4.34 log CFU/mL, at concentration 20 µg/ml of
pomegranate extract was 4.19 log CFU/mL, and at
concentration 40 µg/ml of pomegranate extract was
4.10 log CFU/mL. The inhibitory activity of PE
against spores was evaluated in relation to sporulation
media. PDA, BATA, BAA and MEA have been used
for sporulation. A. acidoterrestris spores in the apple
juice with different concentrations of PE (2.5-40
mg/mL) were tested. The extract of PE inhibits the
germination of spores from all sporulation media in
the apple juice when compared to the control spores
due to its role in the destruction of cell wall and
membrane of bacteria and the effect on the cell
division 10. Gullon et al13 showed antibacterial activity
of the pomegranate peel flour (PPF) against
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella sp, Listeria
monocytogenes and Listeria innocua bacterial strains.
Antimicrobial activity of pomegranate extracts was
tested using a microdilution assay .The antimicrobial
activities of pomegranate extracts, expressed as
minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and
minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), were
evaluated. It has been found that the growth of
Salmonella sp and L. monocytogenes were inhibited
Albarri et al/ Journal of Biotechnology Science Research.2016;3(6): 175-180
by a concentration (MIC) 50 mg/mL of PPF, while the
MIC of PPF against L. innocua was 20 mg/ml and
against P. aeruginosa was 40 mg/ml. Regarding MPC
of PPF for Salmonella sp and L. monocytogenes were
60 mg/mL, for P. aeruginosa was 50 mg/ml and L.
innocua was 30 mg/ml13. Türkyılmaz et al14 has
reported antimicrobial activity of PJ (Pomegranate
juice) against B. megaterium and B. subtilis. It has
been found that the pomegranate extract has high
antibacterial activity against B. subtilis and B.
megaterium with the inhibition zone (16.0 mm) and
(14.4 mm), respectively14. The antimicrobial
mechanisms (Figure 1) of phenolic compounds
involve the reaction of phenolics with microbial cell
membrane proteins and/or protein sulfhydryl groups
that yield bacterial death due to membrane protein
precipitation and inhibition of enzymes such as
glycosyltransferases15-17. Food-borne diseases and
urinary tract infections are conventionally treated on
the Indian Sub-continent using Pomegranate peel
extracts (PoPx)18,19while ellagitannins, punicalagin,
ellagic acid and gallic acid as natural antimicrobial
agents have been widely exploited against S. aureus
and E. coli for their ability to precipitate membrane
proteins and inhibit enzymes such as
glycosyltransferases, leading to cell lysis20 21, 22.
3. Antiviral properties
Influenza virus continues to be a major cause of
morbidity and mortality each year with 31,000 deaths
reported yearly in the US, despite access to vaccines.
However, frequent recombination events and viral
evolution necessitate the change in vaccine
composition requiring administration of new vaccines
yearly. Researchers have shown that pomegranate
polyphenols were virucidal against influenza A virus,
suppressed the replication of the virus in host cells,
and inhibited agglutination of chicken red blood cells
caused by the virus using real-time polymerase chain
reaction, a plaque assay, and a median tissue culture
infective dose 50% hemagglutination assay23-24-25.
Anti-influenza viricidal activity has also been
associated with other flavonoid compounds26. The
pomegranate has been used in phage amplification
assays as a viricidal agent27. In addition, pomegranate
extract has been reported to have microbiocidal
effects on HIV-1 28. Table 1 displayed various
studies of pomegranate toward different bacterial
Figure 1 Depicted how pomegranate does impact bacterial cell.
Effect of Pomegranate
of the virus
Reductions in
viral infectivity
and binding to
host cell
the cell
Damage in the
cell wall and
membrane of
Albarri et al/ Journal of Biotechnology Science Research.2016;3(6): 175-180
Tabel 1 Showed antimicrobial activities of various parts of pomegranate
4. Conclusion
We discussed in this review the antimicrobial
activity of pomegranate against bacterial and
viruses with mechanisms of action including vital
growth bacteria , effect on bacterial cell signaling,
reductions in viral infectivity and binding to host
cell receptors, and structural damage to viruses, and
this review support potential benefit of
pomegranate extracts in food preservation and
decontamination. This application could be
particularly useful in lesser developed countries
where food sanitation can easily be compromised.
Results of the studies on antibacterial benefits of
pomegranate extracts against bacteria hold promise
toward using them in the alternative medicine.
Additional trials should be conducted to confirm
the benefits.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Part of the plant
Bacterial strains
Water extracts
Bacillus megaterium
P. aeruginosa
S. aureus,
Corynebacter iumxerosis
E. coli
Enterococcus faecalis
Micrococcus luteus
Whole fruit
Aqueous and methanol
S. typh
S. typhimurium
S. paratyphi
Water, methanol,
petroleum ether, and
chloroform extracts
E. coli, S. aureus
B. subtilis
L. monocytogenes
Y. enterocolitica
K. pneumoniae
P. aeruginosa
Whole fruit Peels
Water and ethanol extracts
hexane, butanol and ethyl
Different strains of E. coli
Methicillin-resistant S.
Water extracts
Methicillin-sensitive and
S. aureus
Water extracts
B. subtilis
E. coli
P. aeruginosa
Proteus mirabilis
S. aureus
Whole fruit
Ethanol extracts
P. aeruginosa
B. subtilis
Whole fruit
Raw extracts
E. coli
Enteroccoccus faecalis
Enterobacter aerogenes
S. aureus
Microccocus luteus
P. aeruginosa
Juice Whole fruit
Aqeous extract Ethyl
acetate extract
Aeromonas hydrophila
S. aureus
Albarri et al/ Journal of Biotechnology Science Research.2016;3(6): 175-180
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Cite this article as Albarri O, Var I, Boushihassal A, Meral M, Önlen C, Mohamed MH, Köksal K (2016) The potential
effects of Pomegranate on Bacteria and Viruses: A review. Journal of Biotechnology Science Research 3(6):175-180.
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Various phytochemicals and bioactive compounds are sourced from medicinal plants. This study focused on finding the most potent plant extracts whose combination could exhibit better antioxidant and antimicrobial activities compared to the efficacy of the individual extracts. The combined plant extracts were O. stamineus, E. longifolia, A. bilimbi, P. granatum , and M. nigra. Ultrasound extraction technique was used for the extraction of the plant material before screening the extracts for the presence of several phytochemical groups. After the screening for the presence of phytochemicals, the extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against five microorganisms (S. aureus, B. subtilis, P. vulgaris, E. coli, and C. albicans) at 3 different concentrations (600, 400 and 200 mg/mL) using disc diffusion method. The aim of this antimicrobial screening was to identify and select the most potent extracts for the combination study. From the screening result, P. ganatum and M. nigra had the highest antimicrobial activity against all the tested organisms, as well as the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity of 95.40 % (IC 50 = 120.2 μg/mL) and 90.20 % (IC 50 = 330.0 μg/mL), respectively. Hence, both extracts were combined and screened for antimicrobial and antioxidant activities at the same concentration range but at different combination ratios of 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1 (v/v). The results showed the extract mixtures at different combination ratios of 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1 (v/v) to exhibit good antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. However, the combination ratio of 1:1 gave the best antioxidant activity as it achieved an IC 50 value of 82.0 μg/mL. Therefore, it is concluded that the mixture of the selected extracts exhibited strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, coupled with a significant level of antifungal activity.
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Background and Objective: Natural plants have been evaluated as sources of antimicrobial agents against wide range of microorganisms. The aim of this study is to investigate antibacterial potency of pomegranate peels, seed and whole fruit extracts against these Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, The effect of pomegranate extracts on bacteria Journal of Raparin University-Vol.5, No.15, (December 2018)) 6 (p-ISSN (2410-1036) e-ISSN (2522-7130) Streptococcus pneumonia, and Bacillus sp), and Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp, Shigella sp, and Pseudomonas sp). Methods: The fresh fruits extracts (peels, seeds and whole fruit) were separately prepared with methanol and distil water (D.W) by standard procedure. The samples were stored in refrigerator at 4°C until use. The bacterial samples were taken from scientific research center in Koya-Erbil-Kurdistan region-Iraq. The antibacterial activity of different pomegranate extracts was determined by using disc diffusion method. Results: The results of present study showed that different pomegranate extracts with methanol and water have effect on the bacterial growth. The study demonstrated that there was more significant effect on growth of gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus sp and Streptococcus pneumonia) than gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp, Shigella sp, and Pseudomonas sp) based on the inhibition zone diameter. Conclusion: This study indicates that different pomegranate extracts peels, seed and whole fruit may serve as natural alternatives due to their potential chemical agents against variety of bacterial infections. Performing more studies require to isolate the active antibacterial agents in pomegranate and know their mechanisms of action so that they could use in therapeutic purposes.
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5 Abstract: Aeromonas hydrophila is a very prevalent species. It can cause both intestinal and nonintestinal infections in humans and can often be fatal. Moreover, in the recent years, naturally occurring antioxidant compounds have gained considerable attention as antibacterial agents. The present study aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of pomegranate fruit juice (PJ) against Aeromonas hydrophila- induced intestinal histopathological alterations as one of the edible safe natural products. Seventy-two adult MF1 male mice were used and divided into three groups; first group, control group, was injected with phosphate-buffered saline PBS at dose and intervals parallel to the treated groups. Second group was injected i.p. with purified lipopolysaccharides (LPS) extracted from Aeromonas hydrophila once a week for four weeks. Third group was injected with LPS suspension as second group and synergistically received drinking water supplemented with pomegranate fruit extract. The bacteria infected group showed severe deterioration in the intestinal mucosa in the form of villar atrophy, necrosis of apical enterocytes and wide destruction of crypt cells. At th e ultrastructural level, many enterocytes showed completely damaged organelles and dissolved cytoskeletal. The treatment with pomegranate juice significantly and substantially prevented the intestinal histopathological changes and normalized its morphometric parameters. It was concluded that pomegranate juice holds great promise as antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory new therapeutic. Also, we advise use of pomegranate in human nutrition as table fruit or juice for its antioxidant qualities.
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Recently, natural products have been evaluated as sources of antimicrobial agents with efficacies against a variety of micro-organisms. This report describes the antimicrobial activities of pomegranate rind extract (PRE) singularly and in combination with cupric sulphate against methicillin-sensitive and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA, MRSA respectively), and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin positive community acquired MSSA (PVL positive CA-MSSA). PRE alone showed limited efficacy against MRSA and MSSA strains. Exposure to copper (II) ions alone for 2 hours resulted in moderate activity of between 102 to 103 log10 cfu mL-1 reduction in growth. This was enhanced by the addition of PRE to 104 log10 cfu mL-1 reduction in growth being observed in 80% of the isolates. However, the PVL positive CA-MSSA strains were more sensitive to copper (II) ions which exhibited moderate activities of between 103 log10 cfu mL-1 reduction in growth for 60% of the isolates. PRE, in combination with Cu(II) ions, was seen to exhibit moderate antimicrobial effects against clinical isolates of MSSA, MRSA and PVL positive CA-MSSA isolates. The results of this study indicate that further investigation into the active ingredients of natural products, their mode of action and potential synergism with other antimicrobial agents is warranted. This is the first report of the efficacy of pomegranate against clinical PVL positive CA-MSSA isolates.
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The antimicrobial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals was evaluated with antibiotic susceptible and resistant microorganisms. In addition, the possible synergistic effects when associated with antibiotics were studied. Extracts from the following plants were utilized: Achillea millifolium (yarrow), Caryophyllus aromaticus (clove), Melissa offficinalis (lemon-balm), Ocimun basilucum (basil), Psidium guajava (guava), Punica granatum (pomegranate), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Salvia officinalis (sage), Syzygyum joabolanum (jambolan) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme). The phytochemicals benzoic acid, cinnamic acid, eugenol and farnesol were also utilized. The highest antimicrobial potentials were observed for the extracts of Caryophyllus aromaticus and Syzygyum joabolanum, which inhibited 64.2 and 57.1% of the tested microorganisms, respectively, with higher activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria (83.3%). Sage and yarrow extracts did not present any antimicrobial activity. Association of antibiotics and plant extracts showed synergistic antibacterial activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The results obtained with Pseudomonas aeruginosa was particularly interesting, since it was inhibited by clove, jambolan, pomegranate and thyme extracts. This inhibition was observed with the individual extracts and when they were used in lower concentrations with ineffective antibiotics.
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Arils from six pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) varieties grown in the Mediterranean region of Turkey were tested for their antimicrobial properties by the agar diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods against seven bacteria: (Bacillus megaterium DSM 32, Pseudomonas aeruginosa DSM 9027, Staphylococcus aureus Cowan 1, Corynebacterium xerosis UC 9165, Escherichia coli DM, Enterococcus faecalis A10, Micrococcus luteus LA 2971), and threefungi (Kluvyeromyces marxianus A230, Rhodotorula rubra MC12, Candida albicans ATCC 1023). It has been observed that the pomegranate aril extracts had antimicrobial effect on all microorganisms, giving inhibition zones ranging in size from 13 to 26 mm. The MIC values for active pomegranate extracts ranged between 30 and >90 microg/mL. The results obtained appeared to confirm the antimicrobial potential of the Punica granatum varieties.
Antisalmonella activity of some important plants in the Ayurvedic system of traditional medicine used in India to treat enteric diseases was screened. The aqueous and methanol extracts of 47 medicinal plants were studied for their antibacterial activity against pathogenic Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi A, and Salmonella typhimurium. The in vitro antibacterial activity was performed by agar well diffusion method and the results are expressed as the average diameter of zone of inhibition of bacterial growth around the well. Of the herbal extracts tested, 33 plant extracts were found to have antibacterial activity against at least one of the salmonella strains tested with inhibition zones ranging from 9 to 27 mm. Both extracts of Nyctanthes arbortristis, Garcinia indica, Rubia cordifolia, Azadiracta indica, and Momordica charantia exhibited strong anti-salmonella activity . The aqueous extracts were found to be more active than methanol extracts in the present study.
In the vegetable kingdom there are many substances showing antimicrobial properties. Though these secondary compounds are not indispensable for vegetables, they increase plant survival possibilities. Those can be used as therapeutic agents, additives, alimentary preservatives or biological agents for agricultural diseases. In fact, pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is a fruit tree species that shows very low bacterial disease incidence. The current study analyses and evaluates the antimicrobial effectiveness of pomegranate fruit raw extracts over the following bacterial species: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Enteroccocus faecalis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Staphyloccocus aureus, Microccocus luteus and Bacillus sp. Our results shows that all the crude extracts from P. granatum fruit posses antimicrobial activity although, at the concentrations tested, none was more effective than a solution containing 1% phenol. According to the data obtained, the most powerful extract resulted to be the one from the pomegranate juice. The antimicrobial effectiveness of the extracts also depends on the species of bacteria evaluated, the more sensitive being the Gram-positive species Staphyloccocus aureus and Bacillus sp. Our next aim will be the identification and purification of the juice substances that shows this antimicrobial activity.
Phenolic compounds were extracted from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel, mesocarp and arils. Extracts and juices were characterised by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n). In total, 48 compounds were detected, among which 9 anthocyanins, 2 gallotannins, 22 ellagitannins, 2 gallagyl esters, 4 hydroxybenzoic acids, 7 hydroxycinnamic acids and 1 dihydroflavonol were identified based on their UV spectra and fragmentation patterns in collision-induced dissociation experiments. To the best of our knowledge, cyanidin-pentoside-hexoside, valoneic acid bilactone, brevifolin carboxylic acid, vanillic acid 4-glucoside and dihydrokaempferol-hexoside are reported for the first time in pomegranate fruits. Furthermore, punicalagin and pedunculagin I were isolated by preparative HPLC and used for quantification purposes. The ellagitannins were found to be the predominant phenolics in all samples investigated, among them punicalagin ranging from 11 to 20g per kilogram dry matter of mesocarp and peel as well as 4-565mg/L in the juices. The isolated compounds, extracts and juices were also assessed by the TEAC, FRAP and Folin-Ciocalteu assays revealing high correlation (R(2)=0.9995) of the TEAC and FRAP values, but also with total phenolic contents as determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and by HPLC. Selection of raw materials, i.e. co-extraction of arils and peel, and pressure, respectively, markedly affected the profiles and contents of phenolics in the pomegranate juices, underlining the necessity to optimise these parameters for obtaining products with well-defined functional properties.
Background For ≈ 24 years the AIDS pandemic has claimed ≈ 30 million lives, causing ≈ 14,000 new HIV-1 infections daily worldwide in 2003. About 80% of infections occur by heterosexual transmission. In the absence of vaccines, topical microbicides, expected to block virus transmission, offer hope for controlling the pandemic. Antiretroviral chemotherapeutics have decreased AIDS mortality in industrialized countries, but only minimally in developing countries. To prevent an analogous dichotomy, microbicides should be: acceptable; accessible; affordable; and accelerative in transition from development to marketing. Already marketed pharmaceutical excipients or foods, with established safety records and adequate anti-HIV-1 activity, may provide this option. Methods Fruit juices were screened for inhibitory activity against HIV-1 IIIB using CD4 and CXCR4 as cell receptors. The best juice was tested for inhibition of: (1) infection by HIV-1 BaL, utilizing CCR5 as the cellular coreceptor; and (2) binding of gp120 IIIB and gp120 BaL, respectively, to CXCR4 and CCR5. To remove most colored juice components, the adsorption of the effective ingredient(s) to dispersible excipients and other foods was investigated. A selected complex was assayed for inhibition of infection by primary HIV-1 isolates. Results HIV-1 entry inhibitors from pomegranate juice adsorb onto corn starch. The resulting complex blocks virus binding to CD4 and CXCR4/CCR5 and inhibits infection by primary virus clades A to G and group O. Conclusion These results suggest the possibility of producing an anti-HIV-1 microbicide from inexpensive, widely available sources, whose safety has been established throughout centuries, provided that its quality is adequately standardized and monitored.
Influenza epidemics cause numerous deaths and millions of hospitalizations each year. Because of the alarming emergence of resistance to anti-influenza drugs, there is a need to identify new naturally occurring antiviral molecules. We tested the hypothesis that pomegranate polyphenol extract (PPE) has anti-influenza properties. Using real time PCR, plaque assay, and TCID 50% hemagglutination assay, we have shown that PPE suppresses replication of influenza A virus in MDCK cells. PPE inhibits agglutination of chicken red blood cells (cRBC) by influenza virus and is virucidal. The single-cycle growth conditions indicated that independent of the virucidal effect PPE also inhibits viral RNA replication. PPE did not alter virus ribonucleoprotein (RNP) entry into nucleus or translocation of virus RNP from nucleus to cytoplasm in MDCK cells. We evaluated four major Polyphenols in PPE (ellagic acid, caffeic acid, luteolin, and punicalagin) and demonstrated that punicalagin is the effective, anti-influenza component of PPE. Punicalagin blocked replication of the virus RNA, inhibited agglutination of chicken RBC's by the virus and had virucidal effects. Furthermore, the combination of PPE and oseltamivir synergistically increased the anti-influenza effect of oseltamivir. In conclusion, PPE inhibited the replication of human influenza A/Hong Kong (H3N2) in vitro. Pomegranate extracts should be further studied for therapeutic and prophylactic potential especially for influenza epidemics and pandemics.