Book

Academically Adrift: Limited Learning on College Campuses

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Abstract

In spite of soaring tuition costs, more and more students go to college every year. A bachelor’s degree is now required for entry into a growing number of professions. And some parents begin planning for the expense of sending their kids to college when they’re born. Almost everyone strives to go, but almost no one asks the fundamental question posed by Academically Adrift: are undergraduates really learning anything once they get there? For a large proportion of students, Richard Arum and Josipa Roksa’s answer to that question is a definitive no. Their extensive research draws on survey responses, transcript data, and, for the first time, the state-of-the-art Collegiate Learning Assessment, a standardized test administered to students in their first semester and then again at the end of their second year. According to their analysis of more than 2,300 undergraduates at twenty-four institutions, 45 percent of these students demonstrate no significant improvement in a range of skills—including critical thinking, complex reasoning, and writing—during their first two years of college. As troubling as their findings are, Arum and Roksa argue that for many faculty and administrators they will come as no surprise—instead, they are the expected result of a student body distracted by socializing or working and an institutional culture that puts undergraduate learning close to the bottom of the priority list. Academically Adrift holds sobering lessons for students, faculty, administrators, policy makers, and parents—all of whom are implicated in promoting or at least ignoring contemporary campus culture. Higher education faces crises on a number of fronts, but Arum and Roksa’s report that colleges are failing at their most basic mission will demand the attention of us all.
... This model of learning is rooted in decades of research on cognitive and psychosocial development (e.g., Erikson, 1968;Perry, 1968) indicating that students need to experience a combination of challenge and support for learning and development to occur. Yet critics of U.S. higher education claim that colleges and universities offer an education that is lacking in academic rigor (Arum & Roksa, 2011;Bok, 2006;Campbell & Cabrera, 2014;Jaschik, 2011;Pascarella, Blaich, Martin, & Hanson, 2011). Arum and Roksa's book, Academically Adrift (2011), states that students today spend less time on academic requirements, yet earn higher grades and graduate at higher rates. ...
... One of the most controversial examples of academic rigor research is found in Arum and Roksa's (2011) book, Academically Adrift, which found that although a modest proportion of college students do make incremental gains in critical thinking and reasoning skills, the majority make little to no substantial gains in these areas. In this book, Arum and Roksa contended that there is a connection between students' lack of "hard work" in college (i.e., less time spent on coursework) and the limited learning gains: ...
... The discourse on low academic challenge in college (Arum & Roksa, 2011;Bok, 2006;Braxton, 1993;Campbell & Cabrera, 2014;Pascarella et al., 2011) has been combined with the pressure to improve graduation rates (Frost & Teodorescu, 2001). Despite students' spending less time on academic requirements, graduation rates and grades have increased (Arum & Roksa, 2011;Frost & Teodorescu, 2001;Hu, 2005;Rojstaczer & Healy, 2012). ...
Article
Background/Context U.S. institutions of higher education have been criticized for providing limited learning gains and lacking rigor. Most understandings of academic rigor in higher education focus on how rigor manifests in students in terms of amount of work or approach to learning. Purpose/Objective This study examines rigor as posed by course practices. We define rigorous course practices as teaching practices and coursework that challenge learners to sustain a deep connection to the subject matter and to think in increasingly complex ways about the course content and its applications. The study sought to further the discourse on college academic rigor by describing rigor in coursework at two selective research institutions and examining which course contexts and teaching practices were associated with higher levels of rigor. Setting We studied two highly ranked, highly residential, selective, very highly research-oriented institutions on the East Coast of the United States: a mid-sized (< 5,000 undergraduates) private, urban institution and a large (∼15,000 undergraduates) public institution. Population/Participants We sampled 400 courses at each institution. Of the faculty who taught these courses, 31.4% agreed to participate. We conducted 150 class observations: 99 at Site 1 and 51 at Site 2. Research Design This study used a quantitative observational protocol. Data Collection and Analysis Data were collected during a week-long site visit, with observers using a structured rubric. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and OLS regression in blocks, partitioning the variance in academic rigor that can be explained by course characteristics (e.g., class size and discipline) and teaching practices (active learning, cognitively responsive teaching). Findings/Results Most courses in our sample focused on applying, and 85% of the courses achieved a higher-order level of cognitive complexity (analyzing, evaluating, or creating) at some point during the class session. Active learning and cognitively responsive teaching practices were associated with higher cognitive complexity and greater standards and expectations in the courses. Conclusions/Recommendations The discourse on academic rigor in higher education warrants further scrutiny and, could be balanced by studies that provide greater depth in the educational practices in classrooms. This study suggests that institutions and faculty may have a significant role in scaffolding rigor. Academic rigor is not simply about having bright, dedicated, and hard-working students but is also determined by classroom environments and processes that can be cultivated.
... influence how students make life decisions [4]. Unfortunately, college graduates in the United States appear to lack strong CT skills despite several years of instruction [5][6][7]. This may be due to overreliance on teaching and assessment approaches that emphasize mastery of large volumes of content and offer few opportunities to think critically while acquiring and using knowledge [8,9]. ...
... Unfortunately, adoption of these ideas and practices has been slower in tertiary STEM education [22]. Educators in undergraduate science classrooms rarely prioritize explicit direct instruction in CT skills or their assessment, fearing compromising the time available for "coverage" of content [6,23]. Thus, many instructors rely on teaching and assessing core content, assuming the CT skills will automatically develop along with deeper disciplinary knowledge [17,24]. ...
... Further, educators typically lack training on CT instruction [25]. Perhaps not surprisingly, on average, very small or empirically nonexistent gains in CT or complex reasoning skills have been found in a large proportion of students over the course of 4-year college programs [6,7,26]. ...
Article
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Critical thinking (CT) underpins the analytical and systems-thinking capacities needed for effective conservation in the 21st century but is seldom adequately fostered in most postsecondary courses and programs. Many instructors fear that devoting time to process skills will detract from content gains and struggle to define CT skills in ways relevant for classroom practice. We tested an approach to develop and assess CT in undergraduate conservation biology courses using case studies to address both challenges. We developed case studies with exercises to support content learning goals and assessment rubrics to evaluate student learning of both content and CT skills. We also developed a midterm intervention to enhance student metacognitive abilities at a light and intensive level and asked whether the level of the intervention impacted student learning. Data from over 200 students from five institutions showed an increase in students’ CT performance over a single term, under both light and intensive interventions, as well as variation depending on the students’ initial performance and on rubric dimension. Our results demonstrate adaptable and scalable means for instructors to improve CT process skills among undergraduate students through the use of case studies and associated exercises, aligned rubrics, and supported reflection on their CT performance.
... There is a growing need to investigate the quality of higher education students' critical thinking skills, since these have been shown to be important for students' learning and study success in higher education, and in working life (Arum & Roksa, 2011;Tuononen et al., 2019). Critical thinking is conceptualized as a demanding and multifaceted capacity covering a combination of a set of cognitive skills and the affective dispositions to use these skills (Hyytinen, Toom, & Shavelson, 2019;Ennis, 2015;Facione, 1990;Halpern, 2014). ...
... It involves a purposeful and self-regulatory act of thinking, which results in interpretation, analysis, evaluation, inference, and found explanation (Ennis, 2015;Halpern, 2014). Despite a widespread consensus on the importance of learning critical thinking, there is evidence that higher education students differ significantly in their ability to think critically (Arum & Roksa, 2011;Badcock et al., 2010;Evens et al., 2013). ...
... So far, there has been little research on the validity of CLA + International (Aloisi & Callaghan, 2018). Studies on its predecessor, CLA, indicate that the results of the assessment correlate with other assessments with similar goals (Arum & Roksa, 2011;Klein et al., 2007;Pascarella et al., 2011). However, studies on similarly constructed assessments indicate potential problems pertaining to CLA + International, notably regarding the combination of PT and SRQ. ...
Article
Our aim was to explore higher education students’ response and self-regulatory processes plus the relationship between these, as evidenced in two types of performance-based critical thinking tasks included in the Collegiate Learning Assessment (CLA+) International instrument. The data collection consisted of 20 cognitive laboratories. The data were analyzed using a qualitative approach. The tasks were found to trigger different response and self-regulatory processes. Overall, the performance task evoked more holistic processes than the selected-response questions, in which students’ processes were more question-oriented. The results also indicated the entanglement of students’ response and self-regulation processes. Three self-regulation groups were identified. Students with versatile self-regulation skills were able to complete the task thoroughly, whereas students with moderate self-regulation skills faced challenges in monitoring and evaluating their performance. Students who were lacking in self-regulation struggled both with the task as a whole and their own progress. Implications for higher education are discussed.
... Collaborative learning-which requires students to learn together to achieve shared learning goals (Baker, 2015;Prince, 2004)-is the focus of considerable scholarship within higher education (Barkley et al., 2014). Recently, institutions of higher education have faced increasing questions regarding how much students learn and cognitively develop during college (Arum & Roksa, 2010). Along with this heightened focus on the development of college students' cognitive skills and dispositions (Hart Research Associates, 2013;Koenig et al., 2011), investigators have examined the influence of important instructional approaches, such as collaborative learning, on college students' cognitive outcomes Castle, 2014;Quitadamo et al., 2009). ...
... Taken in the context of recent criticisms of limited student learning and low student motivation to learn (see, for example, Arum & Roksa, 2010), the results of this study suggest that the use of collaborative learning (and subsequent adoption of deep approaches to learning) has the potential to enhance a specific dimension of cognitive growth-the need for cognition. Given the heightened focus on college students' cognitive development (Hart Research Associates, 2013), as well as concerns regarding their overall motivation to learn (Arum & Roksa, 2010), institutions of higher learning should refocus their efforts on enhancing teaching and learning. ...
... Taken in the context of recent criticisms of limited student learning and low student motivation to learn (see, for example, Arum & Roksa, 2010), the results of this study suggest that the use of collaborative learning (and subsequent adoption of deep approaches to learning) has the potential to enhance a specific dimension of cognitive growth-the need for cognition. Given the heightened focus on college students' cognitive development (Hart Research Associates, 2013), as well as concerns regarding their overall motivation to learn (Arum & Roksa, 2010), institutions of higher learning should refocus their efforts on enhancing teaching and learning. Although research is a vital component of every university, there remains comparatively less focus on the delivery of instruction in the modern academy (Knapper & Cropley, 2000;Norton, 2008). ...
... Students' development of critical thinking has been singled out as the principal goal of higher education (Arum & Roksa, 2010;Glen, 1995). Nevertheless, studies show that many students fail to develop these skills. ...
... Nevertheless, studies show that many students fail to develop these skills. One of the most cited of these studies is that of Arum and Roksa (2010). In their longitudinal study of 2,322 college students' learning, they found that from the beginning of the first college year to the end of the second year, students improved their CT skills by 0.18 standard deviation on average. ...
... The authors mention that the predicted four-year gain for a study published in 1963 was 1.22 standard deviation, while it was only 0.33 for a study published in 2011. Moreover, the overall CT gain from college studies was estimated to be 0.59 in Huber and Kuncel's (2016) meta-analysis, which is higher than that found in Arum and Roksa's (2010) study. ...
Article
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Critical thinking (CT) is considered important in second language (L2) learning. Previous studies have investigated and confirmed a correlation between critical thinking and L2 learning in face-to-face (f2f) learning. The present study aimed to investigate the correlation between CT and L2 proficiency in an online learning environment. The participants in this study were undergraduate Swedish students taking part in an online EFL course at a Swedish university. Students' CT skills were measured by the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST). As previous studies confirm that vocabulary size correlates with general language proficiency, it was seen as a suitable measure of students' L2 proficiency. Hence, the Vocabulary Size Test (VST) was used to measure students' vocabulary size. The present study was designed as a pre-test post-test study aiming to investigate the correlation between the processes of CT development and L2 learning during one semester of four months. Contrary to previous studies, no correlation between CT and L2 proficiency could be detected. Moreover, students in this study made no statistically significant improvement of CT and L2 proficiency. The results must be interpreted in light of students' already high levels of CT and L2 proficiency and the relatively short testing period.
... Previous studies indicate that critical thinking is pivotal in order to learn field-specific skills and knowledge (Arum & Roksa, 2011;Tuononen & Parpala, 2021), to aim at high-quality learning for understanding (Tuononen et al., 2019a), as well as to develop expertise in one's own field (Tuononen et al., 2017;Tuononen et al., 2019b). Critical thinking is a purposeful self-regulatory judgement about what to believe and what to do in a certain situation (Halpern, 2014;. ...
... It is a combination of complex cognitive skills such as problem solving, analysis and evaluation, and argumentation, but it also involves the disposition to use these skills. There is evidence that many higher education students have difficulties in critical thinking, more precisely in assessing the reliability and relevance of information, in recognizing biases and reaching a conclusion, and in generating convincing arguments (Arum & Roksa, 2011;Badcock et al., 2010;Evens et al., 2013;Hyytinen et al., 2015;Hyytinen et al., 2018;Nissinen et al., 2021). Skills in producing arguments are an integral part of critical thinking (Kuhn, 2019). ...
... More precisely, critical thinking is found to be an important factor for academic achievement and adaptation to higher education (e.g. Allen & Bond, 2001;Arum & Roksa, 2011;Badcock et al., 2010;Miller, 2003;van der Zanden et al., 2019). In order to better understand students' various needs, to add to our pedagogical understanding, and to provide study programmes with tools to support students' transition to Master's studies, the present study sets out to explore the ability of 1 st -year Master's students to utilize pharmaceutical knowledge from different sources in producing arguments and counter-arguments. ...
Article
Students in higher education have been shown to have difficulties in developing their critical thinking skills, such as analysis and problem solving, reasoning and argumentation. Open-ended tasks offer opportunities for students to develop their own interpretations of various sources, to critically analyse domain-specific knowledge and utilize that knowledge in their argumentation. This study focuses on the ability of new Master’s students (n=37) to utilize pharmaceutical knowledge from different sources in producing written arguments and counter-arguments in the context of open-ended assignment task. The data were analysed by qualitative content analysis. The results showed that there was substantial variation in how students analysed and processed pharmaceutical knowledge as well as how they utilized that knowledge in their argumentation. While some students were able to provide comprehensive analysis of the different sources, others superficially analysed and processed the sources and struggled to generate convincing arguments. Students’ written responses were typically one-sided: only a few students provided counter-arguments associated with the pharmaceutical problem-solving situation presented in the task. Understanding the nature of the challenges in argumentation and knowledge processing encountered by pharmacy students can help pharmacy educators to modify their pedagogical practices to better support students’ learning.
... Generic skills, such as critical thinking, collaboration, communication, argumentation, and problem-solving skills, usually refer to cognitive skills and higher order thinking skills, as well as twenty-first century competence and future citizens' literacy. Learning generic skills is widely singled out as the key aim of higher education in addition to domain-specific knowledge and skills (e.g., Arum and Roksa, 2011;Hyytinen et al., 2019;Shavelson et al., 2019). The importance of generic skills has been also highlighted in the transition phase to work and later in working life (Tuononen et al., 2019). ...
... These skills can be considered higher-order thinking skills and important for professionals in various fields. There is surprisingly little research on generic skills and their relation to learning processes, although these skills are needed in quality learning and studying (Badcock et al., 2010;Arum and Roksa, 2011;Tuononen and Parpala, 2021). In addition, these skills are important for lifelong learning. ...
... Furthermore, while cross-sectional studies do not inform us about the development of generic skills, even longitudinal designs that focus on short periods of time can provide inaccurate information about actual development of skills. The learning of generic skills takes time (Arum and Roksa, 2011;Hyytinen et al., 2019;Muukkonen et al., 2019), and such designs may not be able to capture the development, or the development that they capture may not be lasting. Additionally, only a few studies used performance-based assessments to explore generic skills. ...
Article
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The research field on generic skills in higher education has expanded rapidly. In addition, the importance of generic skills has been highlighted both in educational policy discourses and in practice of higher education. The present study reviews theoretical, methodological, and empirical viewpoints on learning generic skills and synthesizes the empirical evidence about the factors that enhance and impede student learning of generic skills. Altogether 116 articles were included in the analysis. The systematic analysis revealed remarkable variation in concepts, research methods, and operationalization of generic skills. These findings suggest that research in this field is still incoherent. According to the results, contextual factors that enhance or impede higher education students' learning of generic skills were investigated more often than individual factors. Furthermore, the articles included in this review emphasized learning of work-oriented professional skills over higher-order thinking skills. To ensure the development of research on generic skills, it is important to focus on more coherent theorization and operationalization of the various generic skills. More longitudinal studies with methods that genuinely capture actual skills and their development are also needed to advance the field. The results can be used for future discussions on theorization, empirical research, and practical development of student learning of generic skills.
... Third, proposed interventions for enhancing critical thinking skills were designed for small homogenous populations [8]. Fourth, published critical thinking skills interventions lacked details on the treatment, instructional strategies, assessment tools, or teaching styles [9]. Fifth, interventions were not grounded in well-established educational theories [7][8][9]. ...
... Fourth, published critical thinking skills interventions lacked details on the treatment, instructional strategies, assessment tools, or teaching styles [9]. Fifth, interventions were not grounded in well-established educational theories [7][8][9]. Sixth, studies failed to include adequately large or representative samples of populations under investigation [6]. Seventh, experimental, and quasi-experimental studies featured little to no control over potential confounders [7]. ...
... There is a plethora of critical thinking conceptualizations [2,9]. Many refer to critical thinking as transferrable, cross-disciplinary, and universal set of dispositions and skills [5]. ...
Article
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Critical thinking is a requisite skill for college success, employability, and conducive active civic participation. Empirical studies have noted to the low achievement of Arab students on critical thinking assessments. Insufficient endeavors have attempted to propose effective interventions enhancing critical thinking abilities among Arab students. The current analysis provides a preliminary overview of a special course designed to improve critical thinking skills among Arab college students. Results indicated a great improvement in all areas of critical thinking including explanation of information, identification of strategies, implementing solutions, and formulating logical inferences. Students’ scores on a critical thinking assessment increased from sufficient to good as a result of participating in the program. The gains are consistent after controlling for gender, major, class seniority, and nationality. Notwithstanding these promising results, this paper is limited in several respects including the choice of critical thinking assessments represented by two questions, the highly contextualized setting making it difficult to be replicated, and the convenient sampling strategy used to recruit participants. This set of limitations, however, does not discourage proactive attempts like designing special courses to enhance students’ critical thinking acquisition in the Middle East.
... Or perhaps, students would remember the language of instructors who curve exams and offer extra credit. Academic grades are often used as a proxy for predicting future success, despite evidence to the contrary (Roth et al., 1996;Arum and Roksa, 2011), so one could imagine that students pay close attention to instructors' references to grades. Another possibility might be that students would remember the personal stories that instructors had shared about themselves. ...
... Thus, students are conditioned to consider a high grade to be a metric for academic success, because it is required to enroll in subsequent courses, to finish their degrees, and to gain access to opportunities in pursuit of their career goals. Researchers considered this quote as Negatively Phrased Instructor Talk and categorized it within the Focusing on the Grade/Short Term category, because grades are not a predictor of future success (Roth et al., 1996;Arum and Roksa, 2011) and the quote does not emphasize learning biology for the long term (Schinske and Tanner, 2014). Consider the following Instructor Talk stimulus set quote from the perspective of a student: I take credit for only five percent of your grade or less than that. ...
Article
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Instructor Talk-the noncontent language used by an instructor during class time-is likely to influence learning environments in science classrooms from the student perspective. Despite Instructor Talk being found in every science course thus far, investigations into student perceptions and memories of it are limited. We investigated to what extent undergraduate biology students 1) were aligned with researchers in their perceptions of Instructor Talk as Positively Phrased or Negatively Phrased and 2) remembered Instructor Talk. To test these ideas, we engaged 90 biology students in a multipart assessment. First, students were given randomly selected Instructor Talk quotes, half Positively Phrased and half Negatively Phrased, and were asked to evaluate each quote as promoting a positive or negative learning environment. Overall, students evaluated the Instructor Talk quotes similarly to researchers' categorizations (p < 0.0001). Second, students were asked to provide examples of remembered instructor language from their biology courses that they felt promoted a positive or negative learning environment. Most students shared multiple memories, and ∼75% of these memories could be coded with the Instructor Talk frameworks. Given that students perceive and remember Instructor Talk as impacting the learning environment, Instructor Talk may be an explanatory variable for differential student outcomes across studies of active learning.
... However, it is important to note that visually impaired consumers are resilient and adapt to such market practices through alternative information sources (i.e., searching their memories; listening to commercials, friends, and family), which assists them in the decision-making process. In addition, other sensory perceptions in such individuals are overdeveloped, compensating for their visual limitations (Arum & Roksa, 2011). ...
... It is also noteworthy that visual appeal has been increasingly privileged in schools. We live in a society that is permeated by multiple forms of cultural and artistic expressions, in which graphics, pictures, letters, and numbers are highly common (Arum & Roksa, 2011). In the school environment, much educational content relies heavily on visual resources, which hinders the learning of students with visual impairment and thus their access to knowledge. ...
Article
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This study analyzes the consumption of elementary-school educational service by visually impaired individuals based on the theory of consumer vulnerability and resilience of Baker and Mason (2012). To this end, an ethnographic investigation was performed on a non-governmental organization (NGO) involved in the education of visually impaired students and conducted in accordance with the procedure of Transformative Consumer Research described by Crockett, Downey, Firat et al. (2013). Data were collected through narrative interviews with 16 elementary-school students, six in-depth interviews with managers and teachers from the NGO Lar, and five in-depth interviews with the guardians of the students, in addition to seven months of participant observations. The data were analyzed using the data analysis spiral technique. The results indicate that pressures from the individual, family, school community, and macro forces caused the state of vulnerability. Impotence in the face of practices by school managers and teachers as well as dependence on friendly schools appeared in the form of shock caused by two triggers events: the attempt to enroll students and the first days of school. The resilience of the consumers, the school community, and the NGO contributed to reduce the vulnerability.
... (écrits professionnalisants). Enfin, toute une catégorie de la production textuelle amène les futurs enseignants à (re)penser leurs actions : les textes (méta-)réflexifs. Ces écrits ont une place importante dans le cursus puisqu'ils visent à doter l'étudiant d'une posture réflexive (Paquay, 1994 ;Wittorski, 2007) essentielle à l'apprentissage et à la réussite aussi bien dans l'enseignement supérieur que dans la vie professionnelle (Altet, 2004 ;Arum & Roksa, 2011 ;Tuononen, et al., 2019). ...
... En outre, au sein de cette littéracie, la pratique complexe du texte réflexif, peu médiatisée, impose une négociation délicate au sein d'attendus scripturaux académiques, professionnalisants et personnels (Buysse & Vanhulle, 2005) qui est inconnue des étudiants à leur entrée, voire jusqu'à, bien souvent, leur sortie de formation initiale. Nous avons déjà montré qu'il est complexe pour eux de produire de tels textes (Colognesi et al., 2019) mais quand un enseignement est offert, les productions s'améliorent de manière notoire (Colognesi et al., 2021), malgré le fait que les étudiants diffèrent considérablement dans leur capacité à penser de manière critique (Arum & Roksa, 2011 ;Evens et al., 2013 ;Utriainen et al., 2016 ;Tuononen et al., 2019 Sur la base de l'analyse de journaux de bord, Jorro (2005) a identifié trois seuils de réflexivité dans lesquels les (futurs) enseignants peuvent se placer lorsqu'ils écrivent un texte réflexif. Le premier seuil, le reflet, engage l'écrivant à « témoigner du désir de dire la pratique, de traduire une réalité de terrain » (Jorro, 2005, p. 11). ...
Preprint
Dans cette contribution, nous nous sommes intéressés à l’évolution de l’écriture des futurs enseignants dans leurs rapports d’autoévaluation de stage. Spécifiquement, nous nous sommes demandés (1) de quoi parlent les étudiants dans ces rapports, (2) comment leur écriture évolue au fil de la formation et (3) si des indicateurs de réflexivité sont présents dans ces écrits. Pour y répondre, nous avons analysé tous les rapports d’autoévaluation que six étudiants ont produits pendant leur formation. L’analyse de contenu opérée a permis de mettre en évidence des liens entre la progression de l’écriture et l’écriture réflexive de l’étudiant et sa progression de stage en stage.
... Numerous researchers, policymakers, and educators have recognized the key role of CT in the context of postsecondary education (e.g., Arum & Roksa, 2011;Hammer & Green, 2011;Moore, 2011Moore, , 2013. Indeed, CT has been described as an essential component of high-quality postsecondary education. ...
... Instead of rote learning by teaching-by-telling, cognitively demanding teaching employs in-class, teacher-led questions requiring students to exhibit a higher-order understanding of course content (Draeger et al., 2013;Nelson-Laird et al., 2014). However, academic rigor or the planning and implementation of academically demanding courses are not priorities of contemporary college programs (Arum & Roksa, 2011). According to Bok (2013), in the absence of sustained academic rigor, beneficiaries of higher education cannot be expected to exhibit intellectual habits like CT in the economic, social, and political domains. ...
Article
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Purpose This study explores the relationships between the cognitive demands of the questions asked by a teacher educator (TE) and prospective teachers’ (PT) capacity for critical thinking (CT). Design/Approach/Methods Participants comprised a TE and 32 PTs. The cognitive demands of the TE's questions and PTs’ CT were analyzed using a systematic observation approach. Findings Results indicate that there are tangible connections between the increasing mental demand of TE questions and PTs’ higher-order cognitive processing. The PTs achieved higher-order CT when the TE asked more cognitively demanding questions. For instance, when the TE's questions were pitched at the cognitive demand levels—namely, the analyze, evaluate, and/or create levels—the PT answers were longer and reflected higher CT, such as inductive reasoning, suggesting new ways of thinking, or legitimating the arguments of others. Accordingly, results suggest that intentionally subjecting PTs to sustained higher cognitive demands via questions may help them reach their optimal CT capacity. Originality/Value Although proposed teaching strategies have been invaluable in proposing content-specific interventions for fostering the CT of university students, how lecturers should use their questions to conduct such interventions has been overlooked. This study addresses this gap.
... Empirical studies on student culture do reveal traits and practices that seem to confirm worries expressed by academics, both young and seasoned. For example, an increasing proportion of university students in the United States have inadequate prior knowledge, lack aptitude for studies, and are not really interested in their studies (Arum & Roksa, 2011). Furthermore, the reasons why they claim to be enrolled in a university range from not having a job and seeing higher education as something to occupy their time, doing it because other people are doing it, or doing it because they do not want to be left out of the "knowledge society" for not having enough education, or even because it is a way of securing a job that is 'not too bad'. ...
... This unfortunate reality is sensed by university teachers. According to Arum and Roksa (2011), 40% of college faculty believe that most of their students lack basic skills required for university level work. This variation in student abilities and interests makes it difficult for teachers to provide a satisfactory classroom experience. ...
Thesis
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The widespread applicability of quality assurance processes has induced a re-labeling of students as clients (see, for example: OECD, 1998), as well as an imposition of compatible evaluation and teacher training. Quality assurance, a now globalised practice in higher education institutions, is an instance of the “audit culture” (Power, 1997, 2010; Strathern, 2000a), and has come to signify good government in universities. Its “rituals of verification” (Power, 1997) are now hegemonic and widespread practices. Quality assurance is also an intrinsic element of academic capitalism (Slaughter & Leslie, 1997; Slaughter & Rhoades, 2004), and deployed through the same mechanisms. The phenomenon of quality assurance has created a technology (Foucault, 1988) in the practices of evaluation and accreditation, which largely ignores evident differences of context and culture that emerge in situ, and focuses on creating “virtual” (Miller, 1998) similarities through a “tyranny of transparency” (Strathern, 2000c) that instead of revealing, conceals important issues from the teaching/learning experience, fetishizing the classroom session. Through quality assurance, universities present themselves to the public – and to each other – through a common language and common goals. The language of quality assurance, which I define as the ‘talk of quality’, describes quality as a summation of continuously changing and externally defined criteria that an institution must fulfil in order to be perceived positively by the public. This ‘talk of quality’ seeps into everyday decisions and transactions, generates alliances or competition, and continuously reinforces an imagined hierarchy of universities. Given the pervasiveness of this discourse, its visibility and repetitiveness, but above all, its use in day to day “rituals of verification” involving teachers and students, it's not enough to analyse higher education transformations through policies, funding schemes, numbers of staff and students, facilities, research production or ranking achievements. Instead I analyse quality assurance practices and discourse, as they are applied in two specific contexts. The analysis revealed that the ‘talk of quality’ present in two universities displays almost identical concepts and notions, and supports the development of specialised managerial capacity. Evaluation and accreditation processes are conducted in both universities and promote the enforcement of “rituals of verification”, specifically teacher evaluation, which constitutes a technology (Foucault, 1988) for the subjectification of teachers, the effects of which have been described by several researchers. A fixed notion of good teaching has been defined in both universities through specific indicators. The results from each application of the process generate ‘truths’ about teachers supported by neutral sounding pedagogical concepts. Alongside the constant evaluation of teaching, both universities have also launched teacher training programmes and incentive – and punishment – systems tied to evaluation results. The transformation of students into clients emerges as a necessity for this technology to function. In order to present teacher evaluation as a simple and effective guiding tool to better teaching, an honest feedback from students, the questionnaire relies on assumptions about students’ responses as clients genuinely concerned with filling it in the intended way. The empirical analysis revealed that instead, students at both universities have their own criteria for judging teaching, which instead of relying on standardised and specific indicators, like those of the questionnaire, relies on shared ideas about how teachers make them feel, how they relate to them, how 'useful' they perceive the course in question, and how they define knowledge and university life. Students also approach the questionnaire – which they largely perceive as a power tool applied by the management – from their own strategies of “college management” and “professor management” (Nathan, 2005), which allow them to shape the university’s choices to their own schemes. As evidenced by the empirical analysis, the ‘student-centred’ approach of quality assurance, which relies on the idea of the student as a demanding client and the teacher as a service provider, produces a management-centred higher education in which important elements are concealed by the same process that means to reveal them.
... COVID-19 research has shown that loneliness is common among socially isolated individuals (Tull et al., 2020) and is especially prevalent in young adults (Groarke, Berry, et al., 2020;Groarke, McGlinchey, et al., 2021;Li & Wang, 2020). Loneliness during the pandemic may be particularly problematic for college students because they deeply value socially active campus communities (Cheng, 2004), and typically spend more time socializing than any other activity (Arum & Roksa, 2011;Finlay et al., 2012). However, due to campus closures, about 86% of college students have experienced social isolation during the pandemic Wang, Hedge, et al., 2020). ...
... The effect also adds to a growing body of work showing that loneliness and boredom are depression risk factors during the COVID-19 pandemic (Chao et al., 2020;Droit-Volet et al., 2020;Elmer et al., 2020;Liu et al., 2020). Prior to the pandemic, college students spent more time socializing than doing other activities (Arum & Roksa, 2011;Finlay et al., 2012). As social activity options are limited by the pandemic, and college students are more sedentary than before the pandemic (Huckins et al., 2020), loneliness and boredom both may be consequences. ...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic triggered increased rates of depression, especially among college students. Due to social distancing guidelines, loneliness has been suspected as a prominent factor in depression during the pandemic. Research is needed to identify possible mechanisms through which loneliness conveys risk for pandemic-era depression. Two potential mechanisms are boredom and repetitive negative thinking (RNT). This study examined cross-sectional associations between depression, loneliness, boredom, and RNT in a sample of college students (N = 199) in April 2020 immediately following campus closure. Results showed a serial indirect effect of loneliness on depression through boredom then RNT. Moreover, specific indirect effects of loneliness on depression were found through boredom and RNT, individually. Though limited by the cross-sectional design, these data align with cognitive-behavioral theory and identify boredom and RNT as possible mechanisms of the association between loneliness and depression in college students during the COVID-19 pandemic.
... ている (Barrie, 2006;Arum & Roksa, 2010;Bok, 2006;and Blömeke et al., 2013 The most widely endorsed approach to designing college and university courses is to start by writing statements of learning objectives. These are seen as foundational to achieving coherence across teaching, learning and assessment activities, and for informing students about what to expect. ...
... The higher education literature strongly endorses the goal of higherorder capabilities for all graduates, often listing them in institutional publicity under such headings as graduate outcomes, generic skills or higher education competences (Barrie, 2006;Arum & Roksa, 2010;Bok, 2006;and Blömeke et al., 2013). In a recent international survey, the three most commonly occurring cognitive competences were critical thinking, problem solving and communication . ...
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The most widely endorsed approach to designing college and university courses is to start by writing statements of learning objectives. These are seen as foundational to achieving coherence across teaching, learning and assessment activities, and for informing students about what to expect. This approach is flawed. Statements of outcomes lack concrete referents, so their interpretations are contextually dependent and can drift over time. In addition, multiple objectives are samples from a larger universe of possibilities, and their structure implies discrete outcomes. What is needed is a portrayal of the integrated higher-order cognitive capability that should characterise learning in higher education. Also needed is clarity on the standard of student work required to earn credit in a course. Starting from actual assessment tasks and graded and accessible student responses to those tasks would obviously necessitate significant changes to current practice but provide a direct, intrinsically valid foundation for curriculum development.
... However, inconsistent results were reported in studies in Australia, Malaysia, and Saudi Arabia (Alharbi & Yakout, 2018;Chik et al., 2012;Glew et al., 2015;Zheng et al., 2014). The importance of English proficiency for ESL students had been noted as a factor that determines academic achievement and performance (Arum & Roksa, 2011;Crawford & Candlin, 2013;Garone & Van de Craen, 2017). Despite the students' low English language usage, their academic achievement was high. ...
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Introduction Nursing students who speak English as a second language (ESL) face academic challenges such as academic and clinical underperformance and slower course progression. English language usage and its effect on Saudi undergraduate nursing students’ academic achievement is limited in the literature. Objectives To identify the level of and the effect of English language usage on academic achievement among Saudi undergraduate nursing students. Methods A cross-sectional, correlational descriptive design was employed. Data were collected from a convenience sample of nursing students (N = 90) attending a public nursing program in Saudi Arabia using English Language Usage Scale (ELUS-11). Data were analyzed using univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistics. Results Saudi nursing students’ academic achievement was high. However, their English language usage was low. Yet, the student’s highest average score was related to listening, followed by reading, general, writing, and speaking. The general linear model revealed that English language usage influenced academic achievement (B = .026, p <.001) after controlling the sample gender and academic level. Conclusions The findings showed English language usage was associated with academic achievement. Saudi nursing students were willing to succeed in their studies despite their low levels of English skills. Providing English resources such as courses through extracurricular activities and workshops for the students might enhance their use of English, which might improve their academic achievement.
... A study reported that teachers are of the view that teaching critical thinking and fostering this skill among students is very much needed for students of higher education level mentioning it over 99% as "very important" or "essential" (DeAngelo et al., 2009, p. 3). In another study conducted by Arum and Roksa (2011), shocking research findings observed 45% college students having no significant critical thinking skills which ultimately indicate to change teaching strategies and practices, making necessary improvement in curriculum as well as the environmental changes. ...
... Writing skills are a highly rated competency in both education and professional domains like international business because they allow writers to communicate what they know (Arum and Roksa 2011a;Milhauser and Rahschulte 2010). Writing can also be considered a learning activity with potential to involve the critical thinking and effort that are needed to elicit conceptual understanding (Galbraith 2015;Klein and Boscolo 2016). ...
Article
Conceptual understanding is important for professionals because a broad and deep synthesis of knowledge enables flexible and original thinking in complex problem solving. However, little is known about the appearance of conceptual understanding at the student level. This article therefore investigates the appearance of conceptual understanding in writing, since writing skills are a highly rated competency in both education and professional domains like international business. 44 students in their final year studying international business wrote literature reviews to illustrate how different levels (negligible, weak, moderate, strong and extraordinary) appeared for six components of conceptual understanding (global context, local context, business practices, practice instances, business concepts and business mechanisms). Two results are suggested. The first is that conceptual understanding in students’ writing is broad rather than deep, suggesting fragmented rather than integrated knowledge needed for conceptual understanding. The second is that different patterns of conceptual understanding emerge between and within students’ writing, both in the varying depths of conceptual understanding per component and in the different ways conceptual understanding manifests. Methodological issues and further research are discussed. Implications for education include suggestions for teachers to stimulate knowledge integration for conceptual understanding through the use of rubrics and iterative cycles.
... We specifically consider this finding for women in the context of those "out-of-class" experiences which feature in the item text. To that end, we speculate that this finding may represent a distinctive form of peer effects by suggesting that such effects are far more interdependent and holistic than individual; an essential aspect of the learning that occurs in college rather than a distraction to such gains (c.f., Arum & Roksa, 2011). Such a finding provides additional quantitative support to the recent claim made by Felten and Lambert (2020) that "relationships are the beating heart of the undergraduate experience" (p. 1). ...
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This study examines how collegiate climates and practices can promote innovation capacities among an international longitudinal sample of undergraduate women. Using a pre-test/post-test quantitative design with a reliable and valid dependent measure of innovation capacities, this study employs structural equation modeling to robustly estimate collegiate effects over-and-above students’ entry characteristics and personality traits. Results indicate that curricular practices (e.g., faculty challenge, course-taking patterns) and co-curricular engagement (e.g., connecting experiences) spur the development of innovation capacities among our sample of women. Findings are discussed and implications for theory, research, and practice are provided.
... This is unexpected. Research has shown that students increase their critical thinking skills during college [20], although some have questioned if the trend has been declining [21]. One study indicated that divergent thinking, which is thought to relate to a students' ability to approach problems in new manners, remains stagnant with progression through engineering curricula [22]. ...
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Traditional engineering curriculum can be enhanced by incorporating project-based service learning opportunities. One example of a pedagogical approach to this is the EPICS program, founded at Purdue University. Students at two universities with EPICS programs were quantitatively assessed for the program's impacts on critical thinking and intercultural competency, and the cognitive diversity implications and professional development outcomes were examined. Instruments for assessing these attributes include the Critical-thinking Assessment Test, Intercultural Development Inventory test, Hermann Brain Dominance Instrument, and focus groups, respectively. Improvements in critical thinking and intercultural competency were observed for students involved in EPICS for more than three semesters compared to both a first year and senior cohort not participating in the program. EPICS also engaged students with more diverse thinking preferences compared to a set of students engaged only in a traditional engineering curriculum. Professional development outcomes were also improved through involvement in the EPICS program. These studies indicate that there are clear benefits to students through their involvement in project-based service learning with the EPICS program, as well as to universities, by offering opportunities to engage and retain students with cognitively diverse problem-solving approaches.
... The moral panic spawned by Arum and Roksa (2011) and subsequent publications (e.g. Tinto 2019; Armstrong & Hamilton 2013) led to wide-scale concern that students were unengaged, were learning very little during their time in higher education (HE) and were graduating without the skills and aptitudes required by the contemporary workplace. ...
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This paper, while conceptual in nature, is informed by both research and practice. Exploring the “engagement interface” as the site for student engagement (SE), we offer a conceptual contribution in engaging with the Kahu and Nelson (2018) model by bringing in a fuller understanding of SE grounded in the higher education context rather than being uncritically transplanted from a compulsory education context. This involves consideration of the multiple facets of SE as well as the dynamic, shifting and multilocal nature of the construct. The paper then proceeds to enhance the details of the model, grounding them in a finer-grained reading of the literature and relating educational constructs to the model’s proposed “mechanisms” in a conceptually substantiated way. This further extends Kahu and Nelson’s aim of illuminating the “black box” of SE. Our third contribution is to practice by proposing tactics: informed by the literature, we invite practitioners to consider ways in which they can increase the likelihood of facilitating engagement with, and by, students more constructively.
... At the same time, time to degree completion has increased remarkably ( Bound et al., 2012 ). The problem is even more critical for students from historically underrepresented groups, including first generation, economically disadvantaged, African American, and Latinx students ( Arum and Roksa, 2011 ). In addition, college dropouts do not have substantially higher earnings than high school graduates compared to those who completed a bachelor' degree ( Oreopoulos and Petronijevic, 2013 ). ...
Article
We study the long-term effects of a psychological intervention on longitudinal academic outcomes and degree completion of college students. All freshmen at a large public university were randomized to an online growth mindset, belonging, or control group. We tracked students' academic outcomes including GPA, number of credits attempted and earned, major choices, and degree completion. We found no evidence of longitudinal academic treatment effects in the full sample. However, the mindset treatment improved term GPAs for Latinx students and the probability for Pell-eligible and Latinx students to major in selective majors. We also found no evidence of increased rates of on-time graduation, however, the treatment raised the probability to graduate with selective majors in four years, especially for Latinx students.
... Policies supporting expansion to previously underrepresented socio-economic groups already started about sixty years ago (J. W. Meyer et al., 1997;Schofer & Meyer, 2005), but the advent of the 'knowledge society' (Arum & Roksa, 2011;Stevens, 2015) -and more recently of the 'Fourth Industrial Revolution' stressing the centrality of technical specialization and the reskilling of workers in technological fields -is expected to increase this demand further. The combination of growing demand and rising costs has increased the problem of students' debt to dramatic levels (Kamenetz, 2006), posing threats to the sustainability of the system and creating generations of college graduates whose huge debts influence their future life transitions (Avery & Turner, 2012;NAR & ASA, 2018). ...
Chapter
This chapter puts the history and evolution of MOOCs in context by presenting the main institutional features of the national higher education (henceforth HE) systems of the USA and Europe, and how MOOCs interact with this environment. The first part of the chapter draws on the sociological literature about new institutionalism and organizational studies. The main concepts used to frame the MOOC phenomenon are the following: organization field, i.e. the setting in which organizational forms are structured and institutionalized; isomorphism, a concept which highlights the homogeneity of practices and stability; and organizational ecology, which stresses dynamics of competition, selection and diversity. The second part of the chapter illustrates the institutional context of HE in the USA and describes the early and recent development of MOOCs in the USA. The third part of the chapter focuses on the characteristics of European HE systems and provides an overview of the dynamics that traverse European MOOC initiatives.
... Higher Education Institutions not only affect but also are being affected by developments (Erdoğmuş, 2019). For this reason, the quality of higher education and expectations from higher education institutions gain importance (Arum & Roksa, 2010;Dwyer et al., 2006;Taylor, 2010). Education, which enables individuals to look to the future with more confidence by increasing the welfare level of their lives, is considered as significant by every individual due to its contribution to societies and development levels (Timur, 2000). ...
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p style="text-align: justify;">This study aims to determine the expectations of university students on the part of the Higher Education System and to what extent these expectations are met. Phenomenological approach, which is counted among qualitative research models, was utilized as the research model. The data obtained from student interviews were analyzed by content analysis. Findings were presented as themes and categories. The research participants consist of 21 students studying at different universities and programs in the 2020-2021 academic year. This study ascertained that the opinions of participating students in terms of themes, categories and codes and their satisfaction levels vary depending on the university they attend. Students expect from the Higher Education System that it enables them to get to their dream job, curricula and materials based on their needs, qualified lecturers, a foreign language education, academic freedom, a democratic environment, equal opportunities in education, an substructure, socio-cultural and physical-material opportunities, international interaction, practice-oriented opportunities for training/internship and participation in administration. The faculty or program choice is highly determined by the condition of a country, the gained scores in the central examination system, surroundings, offered orientation assistances in secondary education, the quality-perceptions of students related to universities, acquisition of employment and the sufficiency of universities to acquire a profession. Findings of this research made clear, that the level of The Higher Education System responding to the expectations of the students differs according to the possibilities of universities.</p
... Given the prominence of critical thinking within the education discourse, it would be reasonable to assume a degree of conceptual uniformity in the literature, but this, however, is far from the case. Despite several extant expositions of critical thinking in the fields of psychology (Halpern, 1998;King & Kitchener, 1994Schön, 1987), education (Bailin, Case, Coombs & Leroi, 1999;Davies & Barnett, 2015;Ennis, 2015) and philosophy (Facione, 1990;Fisher & Scriven, 1997;Scheffler, 1965;Siegel, 1989), there is still no clear agreement concerning what the terms actually mean (Arum & Roksa, 2011;Barnett, 1997;Siegel, 1989). ...
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Cultural norms affect the efficacy of critical thinking instruction. In several sub-Saharan African countries, governments have publicly declared critical thinking skills to be a major educational priority to increase global economic competitiveness. However, many schools and education systems have not taken action to translate the stated government policies into revised curricula, pedagogies and assessment frameworks. Faced with these challenges, the overall objective of the study is to analyse, by means of an integrative systematic review, how the concept, implementation and assessment of critical thinking has been contextualized in sub-Saharan Africa. Of the 51 documents that met the inclusion criteria, a total of 5 categories, 95 codes, and 1,075 quotes were analysed. The findings highlight that researchers and practitioners apply western concepts of critical thinking to the sub-Saharan context without questioning its actual transferability. Moreover, the analysis shows that there is a lack of familiarity with adaptation strategies of assessment tools and teaching methods in sub-Saharan Africa.
... Universities have faced considerable scrutiny in recent years for their apparent failure to adequately equip students with the complex reasoning and problem solving skills thought to be at the core of higher education [1][2][3]. A growing body of literature highlights the demand on a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 following research question: how do faculty and students experience design thinking within higher education courses? ...
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A growing body of literature highlights the increasing demand on college graduates to possess the problem finding, problem framing, and problem-solving skills necessary to address complex real-world challenges. Design thinking (DT) is an iterative, human-centered approach to problem solving that synthesizes what is desirable, equitable, technologically feasible, and sustainable. As universities expand efforts to train students with DT mindsets and skills, we must assess faculty and student DT practices and outcomes to better understand DT course experiences. Understanding how DT is taught and experienced within higher education can help schools promote student learning and align their training programs with professional, personal, and civic needs. In this study, surveys were completed by 19 faculty and 196 students from 23 courses at four universities. DT teaching and learning was characterized by three DT practices and five outcomes. Statistically significant differences were found by discipline of study and student type (i.e., graduate vs undergraduate), but not by gender or race/ethnicity. These results can be used to inform the development of classroom-based DT teaching and learning strategies across higher education institutions and disciplines.
... Some findings suggest that students who received greater exposure to clear and organized classroom instruction and deep learning experiences (both associated with liberal education pedagogy) achieved greater gains in CT (Pascarella et al., 2013). Others argue that for many students, a college education contributes little to CT skills (Arum & Roksa, 2011;Caplan, 2019). ...
Article
Many colleges identify the development of critical thinking (CT) as a key learning outcome. Nonetheless, few studies examined the development of CT during college, and the instruments employed in them are often limited. This article introduces the Critical Reasoning Assessment (CRA), a new instrument based on the Reflective Judgment Model (RJM; King and Kitchener 1994) designed to engage students in analyzing ethical dilemmas while being easy to administer and score. Using the CRA, we measured the CT skills of college students in three studies, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. The results demonstrated substantial growth in CT skills during the first year and between the first and the fourth years of college; 42% and 60% of the participants advanced to a higher level of CT by the end of their first and fourth year, respectively. This study introduces a comprehensive, theory-based, easy-to-score and interpret instrument measuring CT. Applied to longitudinal data, it adds to limited findings on CT developmental trajectories and quantifies substantively interpretable shifts in the quality of CT.
... Many students simply show no measurable improvement in general critical thinking ability during college (Arum & Roksa, 2011). Moreover, improving a student's understanding of domain knowledge (e.g., neuroscience) does not necessarily improve a student's ability to identify fallacies within that domain (e.g., neuromyths; Im et al., 2018). ...
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Participants performed a categorization training task, where each trial presented an example scenario in which an individual makes a claim based on an observation, and participants marked which fallacy or bias, if any, the individual in the scenario was committing. In two studies, we measure the effect of this training task on critical thinking, measured using an open-ended critical thinking assessment, both pre- and post-training. In Study 1, we pilot these materials in an online college course across a full academic semester and observe credible improvements in critical thinking performance. In Study 2, we conduct a pre-registered randomized controlled experiment using online research participants and observe credible improvements in critical thinking relative to no training, and relative to comparable learning activities focused on conventional curricular content. We infer that the categorization training task facilitated inductive learning of patterns of biased and flawed reasoning, which improved participants’ ability to detect and identify such patterns in the delayed open-ended critical thinking assessment. Such categorization training shows promise as an effective and practical method for improving learners’ resistance to online disinformation.
... The tensions between competence-based and traditional models are evident at the postsecondary level where the credit hour has become the de facto standard for measuring learning. The credit hour was initially created by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching to measure the amount of time students and faculty interacted for purposes of faculty retirement pensions ⎯ essentially a human resources and employment administrative issue, not a learning one (Harris, 2002;Laitinen, 2012) ⎯ and studies have shown mixed results linking learning to the credit hour (Arum & Roksa, 2011). Thus, there are questions about the credit hour as a unit for measuring learning, and competence-based approaches are seen by some as a way to open higher education opportunities and access to a broader, more diverse range of students, particularly adult students. ...
... Their interests may conflict to view the HE purpose differently and make policy difficult. Arum and Roksa (2011) claim that HE students make no real progress in high-level thinking and complex problem-solving. Ones with a broader life picture perform better than those seeing university through instrumental lenses (Entwistle & Peterson, 2004). ...
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This article argues that in haste to define people as victims, from specific identities like race, a new woke religion is giving an interesting world a malign image. Higher Education (HE) promotes woke agendas that narrow debates and confine curricula content, by dismissing thinking and action that does not align with new identity policy and practice. This is the roar of “smug, entitled mediocrities”, says Burchill (2021). The word woke is discussed and how HE uses it to limit opportunities, damage relationships and foster divisions with disastrous results. Woke-speak robs people of individuality and decency. Education, with a duty to fit students for life and work, should also have a role in developing personal awareness, responsibility and ideas of citizenship. To achieve this, governing systems need radical overhaul to minimise human divisions and improve life quality. HE must take a lead by promoting both instrumental and intrinsic values. In moral philosophy, these values are the distinction between what is a means to an end and what is an end in itself.
... In summary, a paucity of research has investigated the long-term effects of college experiences and environments on alumni intellectual outcomes, while much of the research on civic outcomes would benefit from an update given the myriad sociopolitical movements that have occurred over the past decade. Furthermore, the erosion of national confidence in the value of a postsecondary degree, seen in arguments and commentary that today's college students may simply not be learning enough (Arum & Roksa, 2011;Delbanco, 2012;Mitchell & Belkin, 2017), will likely persist unimpeded without empirical evidence of higher education's influence on students beyond the college years. It is from this vantage point we assert the significance of the present research. ...
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Scholars and the public alike have questioned the benefits of obtaining an undergraduate education. Although research has extensively examined short-term outcomes associated with college experiences, relatively few studies have investigated non-economic outcomes beyond graduation. This paper explored the link between college experiences and post-college outcomes among 21,716 bachelor’s degree recipients from 68 private institutions. Although some variation across demographics was observed, good teaching, academic challenge, and diversity experiences were consistently—and often strongly—related to alumni’s perceptions of intellectual and civic growth.
... At the same time, time to degree completion has increased remarkably (Bound, Lovenheim, & Turner, 2012). The problem is even more critical for students from historically underrepresented groups, including first generation, economically disadvantaged, African American, and Latinx students (Arum & Roksa, 2011). In addition, college dropouts do not have substantially higher earnings than high school graduates compared to those who completed a bachelor' degree (Oreopoulos & Petronijevic, 2013). ...
Article
This article presents an unusual study of a reading group conducted during the COVID-19 lockdown, shutdown and social isolation. The international collectivity created through this reading community probed not only scholarly monographs but the nature of a celebrity intellectual. As the higher education sector suffers redundancies, cutbacks and restructures, how does the precariat adjunct academy manage the celebrity intellectual and Quit Lit? More importantly, what is the use of academic reading and writing in a PhD programme confronting a pandemic?
Article
Research in the past decades has repeatedly revealed that first year university students struggle to understand two-dimensional projectile motion concepts. In contrast to high school, projectile motion frequently makes use of components and it requires at least a basic understanding of trigonometry concepts. To follow the lessons and generate conceptual understanding in two-dimensional projectile motion, students need to connect the concepts developed in the last three years of high school. The present study compared the effects of two instructional approaches, i.e. projectile motion Physics Education Technology (PhET) simulation vs. phenomenon-based experiential learning, on students’ conceptual understanding of the integration of motion along two independent axes among first-year physics students. A purposive sample consisted of 154 first-year physics students at a public university in South Africa. The study adopted an experimental, mixed-method research design. A self-developed and piloted Projectile Motion Conceptual Test and semi-structured interviews with 12 students from across the performance spectrum were used for data collection. A reliability coefficient of 0.72 was established using the Kuderson–Richardson correlation moment coefficient. The results denoted that PhET simulation outperformed phenomenon-based experiential learning in improving students’ conceptual understanding of the integration of motion along independent axes in projectile motion. The ANOVA-test showed that the PhET groups achieved significantly higher scores on the post-test than phenomenon-based experiential learning groups. The findings of this study are diagnostic and they assist module designers in determining conceptual difficulties students face in projectile motion.
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Critical thinking is one of the most desirable outcomes of education, yet it is often not well defined in curricula. Additionally, there are open questions concerning the domain specificity of critical thinking. In this work, we present two studies aimed at secondary education. Starting from Halpern’s conceptualisation of critical thinking we developed a test for assessing critical thinking within the domain of physics (more specifically electricity and magnetism). In the second study, we conducted an intervention study in a quasi-experimental design. Together with experienced teachers, we designed lessons that elicit critical thinking based on the First Principles of Instruction of Merrill. Compared with a control group, the experimental group obtained a significantly higher score on the domain specific critical thinking (measured using the test of the first study), but there was no difference between the groups with regard to domain general critical thinking.
Article
The article addresses the challenge for universities and colleges to prepare students for the world they inhabit through relevant course offerings and new approaches to teaching. Unfortunately, these structures of higher education still resemble chapels, where the professor is ‘priest,’ and with a pedagogy that is informed by monologue, methodological nationalism, and a general lack of awareness of the rapidly changing social and physical world around us. Starting with the Gutenberg revolution, and following the ideas of Marshall McLuhan, Sven Birkerts and Joseph Brodsky,the article approaches the consequences of the new information technologies that are profoundly rewiring our minds and replacing our ability to think critically. The author asks: what might education look like today? How might we challenge young people to learn how to think? The first task appears to critique and transform the political architecture of classrooms and the teacher centeredness of pedagogical activity, replacing monologue with dialogue. Students need to be shown how to critically distance themselves from the seductions of information technologies, and educational institutions should return to requiring deep reading and discussion of extended narratives.
Article
While research has shown class attendance is important for undergraduate student success, few studies have examined why students choose to not attend class. What is more, existing research has focused on absenteeism among undergraduates at land-grant institutions and professional schools. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine reasons for absenteeism among students at a small, regional, minority-serving institution. Three focus groups were used to collect data, and thematic data analysis revealed class attendance was impacted by (a) teacher attributes, (b) student attributes, (c) process variables, and (d) context variables. Based on these attributes and variables, recommendations are provided to instructors and administrators on how to improve class attendance at small, regional, minority-serving institutions.
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The purpose of this evaluative research is to assess the implementation of the Muhammadiyah learning program which is a compulsory subject in all Muhammadiyah and Aisyiah Universities (PTMA). The study was conducted at the University of Muhammadiyah Prof. Dr. Hamka (Uhamka) from January to April 2020. This research is qualitative. The informants were selected using a purposive technique, consisting of students, lecturers, Uhamka leaders, and the leadership of the Muhammadiyah Higher Education and Research Council. Data was collected using interview techniques, Focused Group Discussion (FGD), and documentation. The data were analyzed by evaluating the CIPP model. The results of the study show that there are still several obstacles in the learning of Muhammadiyah, among others, in terms of context, there are still debates about the content of the curriculum. Renewal efforts have been made with the publication of new textbooks. There were obstacles regarding the availability, qualifications, and certification of Kemuhammadiyahan lecturers from the input side. In terms of process, the duration of learning which is only 2 credits is felt to be insufficient to implement learning with empowerment strategies. Finally, in terms of products, despite the development of student views about Muhammadiyah, these developments have not significantly changed the religious traditions they believe in so far.
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Betimsel araştırma yöntemlerinden korelasyonel araştırma kullanılan bu çalışma üniversite öğrencilerinin bilişsel olgunluk ve düşünme becerileri arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi ve etkili olabilecek faktörlerin ortaya konulmasını amaçlamaktadır. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu sağlık bilimleri fakültesinde öğrenim gören 258 üniversite öğrencisi oluşturmaktadır. Çalışma içerisinde öğrencilerin bilişsel olgunluğunu değerlendirmek için “Üniversite Öğrencileri Bilişsel Gelişim Ölçeği”, düşünme becerilerini değerlendirmek için ise “Bilgisayarca Düşünme Ölçeği” kullanılmıştır. Üniversite Öğrencileri Bilişsel Gelişim Ölçeği Katung, Johnstone ve Downie (1999) tarafından Perry modeli dikkate alınarak tasarlanmıştır. Türkçe geçerlik güvenirlik çalışması ise Şenocak (2006) tarafından yapılmış ve güvenirlik kat sayısı .94 olarak bulunmuştur. Bilgisayarca Düşünme Ölçeği ise, Korkmaz, Çakır ve Özden (2017) tarafından geçerlik güvenirliği yapılmış ve Cronbach’s Alpha değerleri .73 ile .87 arasında bulunmuştur. Analizler sırasında verilerin normallik dağılımını belirlemek için çarpıklık basıklık değerlerine bakılmış ve ±1 arasında olduğu görülmüştür. Uygun parametrik analizler sonucunda öğrencilerin yaşadıkları bölge, sosyal etkinlik katılım düzeyi gibi değişkenlerde puanlar arası anlamlı farklılık bulunurken, bilişsel olgunlukları ve düşünme becerileri arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir ilişki bulunmuştur.
Chapter
Because of the international reputation and positive socioeconomic impacts achieved by US higher education, current efforts at the ‘massification’ of other national systems often look to America for guidance. But with respect to equity of access to bachelor’s degree education, the US possesses a number of limitations. For example, regarding the percentage of young US adults who have completed tertiary education as well as measures of social mobility, the US now trails a number of EU nations. This chapter reviews US research on student access addressing the nature and impacts of US college and university financial aid, the informational and behavioural constraints confronting lower income student applicants, and the effects of higher education affirmative action programmes intended to correct past discrimination. The strengths and weaknesses of these US policies are explored as a possible guide to the design of college and university access policies in other countries.
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Apresenta as conclusões do Seminário e os textos das comunicações dos participantes sobre práticas bem-sucedidas e reflexões sobre o tema dos videojogos e o seu ensino.
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In this chapter, I consider what might happen if the pandemic acts as a portal for teaching and learning in higher education. I suggest the need to make commitments to five interlocking characteristics of post‐pandemic pedagogy: Context, Learning, Equity, Agency, and Relationships. The future of teaching and learning, in short, is CLEAR.
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The research aimed at identifying the Effectiveness of therapy program used on some of the behavioral, cognitive and assertive techniques on Reducing Avoidant Personality Disorder with A sample of Blind students, and Getting continuation The effectiveness of therapy program on Reducing Avoidant Personality Disorder with A sample of Blind students, at the after testing; by the following questions answering: the first question; what the effectiveness of therapy program on reducing avoidant personality disorder with A sample of blind students, the second question; what continuation The effectiveness of therapy program on reducing avoidant personality disorder with A sample of blind students, in the follow-up testing. The reviews showed rarity at the research of personality disorders with the handicapped, the researchers are not finding the research; that used the same of current therapy program techniques, and the research used the experimental method. In this research; the researchers are used some of procedures to determine the effectiveness of therapy program on reducing Avoidant personality disorder of blind in the following: the measurement of avoidant personality disorder with blind, at pre-test and post-program testing, the measurement of anxiety reduction and self-assertion improvement, in the after testing, The sample of this research consisted of group of (6) students of the visually impaired in the blind school in Cairo, from (55) blind students. Some of scales were used in this research: scale avoidant personality disorder, Anxiety scale, and self-assertion scale; in additional to case study application. هدفَ البحثُ إلى تعرف فعالية برنامج علاجي قائم على بعض الفنيات السلوكية والمعرفية والتوكيدية في خفض أعراض اضطراب الشخصية التجنبية لدي عينة من الطلاب المكفوفين، وتعرف مدى استمرارية فعالية البرنامج العلاجي بعد انتهائه في خفض أعراض اضطراب الشخصية التجنبية لدى عينة البحث؛ وذلك من خلال الإجابة عن السؤالين التاليين: السؤال الأول؛ ما أثر برنامج علاجي مقترح في خفض أعراض اضطراب الشخصية التجنبية لدى عينة من الطلاب المكفوفين، والسؤال الثاني؛ ما مدى استمرارية أثر البرنامج العلاجي في خفض اضطراب الشخصية لدى عينة البحث. وقد أظهرت مراجعة الدراسات السابقة ندرة في أبحاث علاج اضطرابات الشخصية، ولاسيما لدى فئة المكفوفين، كما لم يعثر الباحثان على دراسة استخدمت برنامجًا علاجيًا اعتمد على نفس الفنيات العلاجية -المستخدمة في البحث الحالي-في خفض اضطراب الشخصية التجنبية لدى المكفوفين، كما يمثل المنهج التجريبي المنهج الرئيس للدراسة والبحث. وقد استخدم الباحثان بعض الإجراءات لقياس فعالية البرنامج العلاجي في خفض اضطراب الشخصية التجنبية لدى عينة البحث، وهذه الإجراءات تتمثل في التالي: قياس درجة اضطراب الشخصية التجنبية لدى عينة البحث قبل وبعد تطبيق البرنامج العلاجي، وقياس مدى التحسن في خفض القلق، وتحسن درجات تأكيد الذات لدى عينة البحث بعد تطبيق البرنامج، وقد تم تطبيق الدراسة التجريبية للبحث على عينة من الطلاب المكفوفين قوامها (6) مكفوفين بمعهد النور للمكفوفين-القاهرة ممن تتراوح أعمارهم بين (16) و (18) عامًا، تم استخراجها من العينة الكلية للبحث، والبالغ عدد (55) طالبًا من المكفوفين، وتمثلت أدوات الدراسة في التالي: مقياس اضطراب الشخصية التجنبية، ومقياس تأكيد الذات، ومقياس القلق، واستمارة دراسة الحالة. وقد توصل البحث إلى النتائج التالية: أولاً: وجود فروق دالة إحصائيًا بين متوسطي رتب درجات أفراد عينة البحث التجريبية في القياسين: القبلي والبعدي، على مقاس اضطراب الشخصية التجنبية، لصالح القياس البعدي؛ مما يشير إلى وجود أثر إيجابي للبرنامج في خفض اضطراب الشخصية التجنبية لدى عينة البحث. ثانيًا: عدم وجود فروق دالة إحصائيًا بين متوسطي رتب درجات أفراد عينة البحث التجريبية في القياسين: البعدي والتتبعي، على مقياس اضطراب الشخصية التجنبية؛ مما يشير إلى استمرار فعالية البرنامج العلاجي في خفض اضطراب الشخصية التجنبية لدى عينة البحث، بعد فترة من انتهائه. ثالثًا: أظهرت النتائج فعالية البرنامج العلاجي في خفض أعراض اضطراب الشخصية التجنبية لدى عينة البحث التجريبية؛ من خلال بعض القياسات السيكو مترية، والتي تتمثل فيما يلي: خفض درجة القلق، وتحسن درجة تأكيد الذات لدى أفراد عينة البحث. وقد أوصى الباحثان بأهمية تضمين برامج تأهيل المكفوفين العديد من المهارات الاجتماعية والسلوكية والتوكيدية ورعاية الذات، والتي تعزز الشخصية وتدعمها.
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Throughout the study duration of an architect-to-be, undertaking research has been one of the essential methods of students' architectural knowledge seeking. Architectural schools all around the globe necessitate research competency as part of the graduation requirement both for undergraduate and postgraduate students. The importance of research and writing in architectural education is apparent because having the competency to do research and writing could develop students' analytical thinking. Research competency is also essential for architectural students to improve their problem-solving proficiency. Students often choose and embark on research without much prior knowledge of the selected research subject. Hence, the vast scope of architectural research domains is mostly not well-known. Students also have difficulty understanding and choosing appropriate research methodology for their research. This situation often results in hardship for them to complete their research on time. Therefore, this study had the objective to identify the domains of architectural research among Master of Architecture students in International Islamic University Malaysia. The second objective of this research was to examine the trend of students' research methods in completing their master's degrees. This research used both qualitative and quantitative approaches to achieve the objectives. Content analysis was used to analyse the relevant subject literature and examine students' submitted dissertations. Meanwhile, this research employed descriptive analysis of quantitative data to illustrate the findings in diagrammatic forms. This research found that architectural research is unique because it has a wide breadth of relevant knowledge that encompasses various disciplines related to almost all aspects of human life. This research also found that students had minimal understanding of the availability of various research methods. Most of the students used the most common methods they were familiar with, such as simulation and case study methodologies. Hopefully, the findings could guide future students to explore other research methods and have accurate preparation before embarking on architectural research.
Chapter
The main concentration in the present work is given to identify the effect of the student–teacher relationship on the academic achievement of university students. For this purpose, data is collected from 292 students of various universities situated in Jaipur, India. The survey was conducted from January 2018 to April 2018. A questionnaire of 36 questions was filled by all respondents enthusiastically, out of which six questions are demographic. Responses have been collected on a five-point Likert scale. In the sample, 55.5% male and 44.5% students are included with 28.1% day-boarding and 71.9% hosteller students. Maximum 52.7% of students belong to the third year, and a minimum of 2.1% students are included from fourth year from various branches like engineering, science, arts and management. The reliability of the questionnaire was checked by Cronbach’s Alpha, and logistic regression analysis is performed. Two logistic regression models are developed concerning gender and locality of students, and odd ratios are identified. Finally, it is recommended that findings can be used to enhance the academic achievements of the students.
Chapter
As a continuation and further development of the interview study presented in Chap. 2, a questionnaire was developed to be able to assess epistemological beliefs of a large number of participants in general or of pre-service teachers in this specific study, respectively. One goal was to see whether the different arguments given in the interviews could be found within a population solely consisting of students (without experts like professors of mathematics).
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