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Pursuing Quality: How Search Costs and Uncertainty Magnify Gender-based Double Standards in a Multistage Evaluation Process

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Abstract

Despite lab-based evidence supporting the argument that double standards—by which one group is unfairly held to stricter standards than another—explain observed gender differences in evaluations, it remains unclear whether double standards also affect evaluations in organization and market contexts, where competitive pressures create a disincentive to discriminate. Using data from a field study of investment professionals sharing recommendations on an online platform, and drawing on status theory, we identify the conditions under which double standards in multistage evaluations contribute to unequal outcomes for men and women. We find that double standards disadvantaging women are most likely when evaluators face heightened search costs related to the number of candidates being compared or higher levels of uncertainty stemming from variation in the amount of pertinent information available. We rule out that systematic gender differences in the actions or characteristics of the investment professionals being evaluated are driving these results. By more carefully isolating the role of this status-based mechanism of discrimination for perpetuating gender inequality, this study identifies not only whether but also the conditions under which gender-based double standards lead to a female disadvantage, even when relevant and objective information about performance is readily available.

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... Gendered double standards regarding competence are most likely to emerge in contexts where male and female job candidates' quality is ambiguous (Biernat & Kobrynowicz, 1997;Foschi, 2000), begging the question of whether exceptionally qualified women working in elite occupational contexts will face the same biases. Moreover, recent empirical evidence shows that gender bias can be attenuated, and even reversed, in certain circumstances: high-ranking or highly tenured women are perceived just as positively (Botelho & Abraham, 2017), or more positively (Bohren, Imas, & Rosenberg, 2019;Rosette & Tost, 2010), than equivalently high-ranking or highly tenured men. Referred to as the "qualified female leader advantage" (Eagly, 2007), this effect appears most likely to occur in male-dominated and stereotypically masculine contexts. ...
... Understanding the impact of sponsors is critical to developing a more comprehensive understanding of inequities in the hiring process. Second, we extend the literature on gender bias attenuation (Botelho & Abraham, 2017) and reversal (Bohren et al., 2019;Rosette & Tost, 2010) by providing evidence of this phenomenon in the context of referrals. Namely, positive perceptions of highly tenured women also improve the outcomes of female candidates who receive their referrals. ...
... This evidence has important implications for understanding sponsorship because individuals of high tenure or rank are also those with greater opportunities to engage in sponsorship (Burt, 1998;Ibarra, Carter, & Silva, 2010;Kanter, 1977). As an example of conditions under which bias is attenuated, Botelho and Abraham (2017) observe evidence of gender bias in evaluations of recommendations provided by female financial investment professionals compared to men. But this bias is eliminated for women whose performance is ranked in the top decile (Botelho & Abraham, 2017). ...
Article
The critical role that referrals play in the hiring process, particularly for candidates contending with negative stereotypes and biases, is well documented. However, how those stereotypes and biases impact sponsors, and the effectiveness of the referrals that they provide, is not well understood. Drawing on evidence of reversals of gender bias, we explore the impact of sponsors’ gender and tenure on the effectiveness of their referrals in the context of U.S. Supreme Court law clerk hiring decisions. This is an appropriate setting because success in the application process for these elite early career positions is contingent on having a strong recommendation from a judge with which the candidate has previously worked, making it ideal to study gender differences in the effectiveness of referrals. Analyses show candidates recommended by male sponsors are more likely to be hired compared to those recommended by female sponsors overall, but this dynamic is also dependent on the sponsor’s tenure and the candidate’s gender. For female sponsors, higher levels of tenure are associated with better hiring outcomes for their female candidates only. All other gender combinations do not benefit from sponsor seniority. Possible mechanisms, limitations, and implications for future research directions are discussed.
... Organizational scholars have shown that a priority for hiring firms is a job candidate's ability to fit into and remain committed to their firm (Chatman 1991, O'Reilly et al. 1991, Rivera 2012, Leung 2014, Goldberg et al. 2016, Galperin et al. 2020, which may also disadvantage former founders relative to wage employees. Further, the mechanisms driving an evaluation outcome in a multistage evaluation process may depend on which stage is considered (e.g., interview request vs. wage offered) (see Botelho 2017, Botelho andAbraham 2017, Botelho and Gertsberg 2022 for a discussion). ...
... Recruiters, who are gatekeepers at the start of the hiring process, are frequently incentivized to find candidates that will be considered a good match and remain at the firm (Fernandez et al. 2000, Rivera 2012, Leung 2014, Goldberg et al. 2016, Galperin et al. 2020. Therefore, the criteria affecting their evaluation of job candidates may differ from the criteria of those evaluating job candidates in a subsequent hiring stage (Botelho 2017, Botelho & Abraham 2017, Botelho and Gertsberg 2022. In fact, a recent survey has provided evidence that recruiters perceive former male founders as less likely to fit and to stay committed at established firms and that women are not subject to a founder penalty because of reduced negative stereotypes about fit and commitment (Kacperczyk and Younkin 2021). ...
... In fact, we find evidence that employers do not prefer former founders who experienced success and who may bring extraordinary capabilities into their firms, indicating that mechanisms related to quality are not the key mechanisms driving evaluations of former founders in the initial stage of hiring in our context. However, the mechanisms responsible for observed evaluations may differ, depending on evaluation stage (Botelho and Abraham 2017, Botelho 2017, Botelho and Gertsberg 2022. Thus, it is critical empirically and theoretically to understand how mechanisms are dependent on the evaluation stage under consideration. ...
Article
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Organizations tout the importance of innovation and entrepreneurship. Yet, when hiring it remains unclear how they evaluate entrepreneurial human capital—namely, job candidates with founder experience. How hiring firms evaluate this experience—and especially how this evaluation varies by entrepreneurial success and failure—reveals insights into the structures and processes within organizations. Organizations research points to two perspectives related to the evaluation of founder experience: Former founders may be advantaged, due to founder experience signaling high-quality capabilities and human capital, or disadvantaged, due to concerns related to fit and commitment. To identify the dominant class of mechanisms driving the evaluation of founder experience, it is important to consider how these evaluations differ, depending on whether the founder’s venture failed or succeeded. To isolate demand-side mechanisms and hold supply-side factors constant, we conducted a field experiment. We sent applications varying the candidate’s founder experience to 2,400 software engineering positions in the United States at random. We find that former founders received 43% fewer callbacks than nonfounders and that this difference is driven by older hiring firms. Further, this founder penalty is greatest for former successful founders, who received 33% fewer callbacks than former failed founders. Our results highlight that mechanisms related to concerns about fit and commitment, rather than information asymmetry about quality, are most influential when hiring firms evaluate former founders in our context.
... A popular instantiation of this strategy is the Rooney rule, which requires the decision maker to select at least one individual from the affected group for interview. The hope is that during the interview, the decision maker will assess the "true" value of the individual [13] and this interaction will reduce their implicit bias [29]. In addition, variants of the Rooney Rule have also been used for the final stage of a selection process such as that for board membership or highly-priced entry jobs to directly counter the effects of implicit bias [49,19,69,78]. ...
... Since x and x are functions of randomly generated utilities, they, and hence, K and K are random variables. Under Assumption (9), we show that K and K respectively are concentrated around the optimizers of optimization problems (13) and (14). Where for any γ ∈ [0, 1] 4 and k ∈ R 4 ...
... Let x(k) be the selection that picks k σ items with the highest latent utility from I σ for all σ ∈ {0, 1} 2 . Suppose k is feasible for Program (13) and Program (14). The constraints in Program (13) ensure x(k) selects a total of n candidates, and the additional constraints in Program (14) ensure x(k) picks at least L 1 and L 2 candidates from G 1 and G 2 . ...
Preprint
In selection processes such as hiring, promotion, and college admissions, implicit bias toward socially-salient attributes such as race, gender, or sexual orientation of candidates is known to produce persistent inequality and reduce aggregate utility for the decision maker. Interventions such as the Rooney Rule and its generalizations, which require the decision maker to select at least a specified number of individuals from each affected group, have been proposed to mitigate the adverse effects of implicit bias in selection. Recent works have established that such lower-bound constraints can be very effective in improving aggregate utility in the case when each individual belongs to at most one affected group. However, in several settings, individuals may belong to multiple affected groups and, consequently, face more extreme implicit bias due to this intersectionality. We consider independently drawn utilities and show that, in the intersectional case, the aforementioned non-intersectional constraints can only recover part of the total utility achievable in the absence of implicit bias. On the other hand, we show that if one includes appropriate lower-bound constraints on the intersections, almost all the utility achievable in the absence of implicit bias can be recovered. Thus, intersectional constraints can offer a significant advantage over a reductionist dimension-by-dimension non-intersectional approach to reducing inequality.
... There is substantial evidence showing that women tend to have lower returns to their careers in the labor force than men (Warner and Corley 2017, Pew Research Center 2018, Catalyst 2021. Several decades of research on gender stereotyping, role (in)congruity, and discrimination all point to a similar finding: women's qualifications are discounted and their capability to perform the job questioned compared with equivalent men, leading to gender disparities in evaluations and hiring outcomes (Goldin and Rouse 2000, Milkman et al. 2015, Botelho and Abraham 2017, Quadlin 2018, Sarsons et al. 2021. This body of work suggests that women must acquire additional qualifications to demonstrate their competence and overcome gendered double standards in the workplace. ...
... More specifically, there are compelling reasons to anticipate that overqualification will lead to different labor market outcomes for male versus female job candidates. It is well established that women's qualification signals are discounted and their capability to perform on the job questioned compared with equivalent men due to negative gender stereotypes and biases (Biernat and Kobrynowicz 1997, Foschi 2000, Botelho and Abraham 2017. As a result, women must acquire additional qualifications and achievements to demonstrate their capabilities. ...
... This finding is consistent with a new stream of research showing that assumptions about women's possible experiences with gender discrimination influence evaluations of women in the workplace (Rosette and Tost 2010, Botelho and Abraham 2017, Bohren et al. 2019, Abraham 2020, Campbell et al. 2020. Importantly, analyses show that assumptions about prior firm experiences are made about both male and female candidates. ...
Article
Evidence suggests that possessing more qualifications than is necessary for a job (i.e., overqualification) negatively impacts job candidates’ outcomes. However, unfair discounting of women’s qualifications and negative assumptions about women’s career commitment imply that female candidates must be overqualified to achieve the same outcomes as male candidates. Across two studies, experimental and qualitative data provide converging evidence in support of this assertion, showing that gender differences in how overqualification impacts hiring outcomes are due to the type of commitment—firm or career—that is most salient during evaluations. Overqualified men are perceived to be less committed to the prospective firm, and less likely to be hired as a result, than sufficiently qualified men. But overqualified women are perceived to be more committed to their careers than qualified women because overqualification helps overcome negative assumptions that are made about women’s career commitment. Overqualification also does not decrease perceptions of women’s firm commitment like it does for men: supplemental qualitative and experimental evidence reveals that hiring managers rationalize women’s overqualification in a way they cannot for men by relying on gender stereotypes about communality and assumptions about candidates’ experiences with gender discrimination at prior firms. These findings suggest that female candidates must demonstrate their commitment along two dimensions (firm and career), but male candidates need only demonstrate their commitment along one dimension (firm). Taken together, differences in how overqualification impacts male versus female candidates’ outcomes are evidence of gender inequality in hiring processes, operating through gendered assumptions about commitment. Funding: This research was funded by internal faculty research funds provided by Tepper School of Business, Carnegie Mellon University. Supplemental Material: The online appendices are available at https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.2021.1550 .
... Therefore, we posit that receiving a status award will lead evaluators to place less weight on unreliable indicators of candidate quality, such as gender. Researchers have documented a significant and persistent gender bias in observed evaluations across a variety of contexts, including academia (Card et al. 2019), entrepreneurship (Brooks et al. 2014), labor markets (Correll et al. 2007), digital platforms (Botelho and Abraham 2017), and within organizations (Castilla 2008). To the extent that receiving a status award has this predicted disciplining effect, we would expect an attenuation in observed gender bias in evaluations after an evaluator receives the status award. ...
... Gender is one factor that, although unrelated to candidate quality, is consistently shown to affect observed evaluations. In fact, even when there is no reason to believe that men and women differ in terms of quality, researchers have demonstrated gender bias in evaluations across a variety of contexts (Correll et al. 2007, Castilla 2008, Brooks et al. 2014, Bohren et al. 2019, Card et al. 2019, as well as when objective indicators of candidate performance are available (Botelho and Abraham 2017). Moreover, gender bias extends to evaluation processes, where the candidate under evaluation is only affiliated with or represented by a woman, such as entrepreneurship pitches (Brooks et al. ...
... Given that evaluation outcomes allocate key resources to individuals and organizations (Merton 1968), it is important to move beyond documenting gender bias and unpack the conditions under which gender bias is magnified or attenuated in evaluation processes. Along these lines, researchers have highlighted how the structure of the evaluation process plays a significant role in attenuating (or magnifying) gender bias, such as the presence of gender cues (Goldin and Rouse 2000), the search costs and level of information evaluators face (Botelho and Abraham 2017), and the range of the rating scale evaluators use (Rivera and Tilcsik 2019). Therefore, our focus on gender bias also helps fill a gap in our understanding regarding how evaluator characteristics affect observed gender bias. ...
Article
Full-text available
We theorize that status awards will have a disciplining effect on evaluators, changing how they evaluate. Specifically, status awards will lead evaluators to place less weight on unreliable indicators of candidate quality, such as gender. We test this theory using data from restaurant evaluations on Yelp, focusing on the relationship between an evaluator’s restaurant rating and their reporting of being served by a man or a woman in their review text. We use Yelp’s evaluator status award (“Elite”) to analyze whether observed gender bias in the star ratings given to restaurants decreases after an evaluator receives this status award. We find that evaluators rate restaurants more similarly after receiving the award, regardless of whether they report being served by a man or a woman. Status awards in our context close the gender gap in restaurant ratings by 56.5% (a 0.07 stars improvement out of an initial rating gap of −0.13 stars). This reduction in gender bias is mostly due to a decrease in the number of extremely low (1 star) ratings in reviews that reference female servers. Research on status and evaluations has mostly focused on how evaluators react to increases in candidate status. We demonstrate the importance of evaluator status as a mechanism for decreasing observed gender differences in evaluations. This paper was accepted by Isabel Fernandez-Mateo, organizations.
... Scholars across a variety of disciplines continue to recognize the persistence of gender bias in established organizations and society (Botelho and Abraham, 2017;Fernandez-Mateo and King, 2011;Oliver et al., 2018). Thus, it is perhaps unsurprising that the number of female-owned enterprises has increased at a rapid rate (Hechavarria et al., 2019;Terjesen and Lloyd, 2015). ...
... field of entrepreneurship is informed by a unique system of beliefs-namely, a business logic (Battilana and Lee, 2014;Besharov and Smith, 2014)-that is created, encoded, and enforced to penalize efforts that do not match established templates of success. 3 Within the field of entrepreneurship, the business logic includes a strong social categorization of gender, which relegates men and women into distinct roles and functions, while forwarding the notion that they are deserving of different outcomes (Botelho and Abraham, 2017). For example, the ideal image of a successful businessperson displays decidedly masculine behaviors, including competitive, agentic, and self-interested actions in pursuit of profit (Jennings and Brush, 2013;Schein, 2001). ...
... Actors within the field of entrepreneurship take note of these differences and make judgments of women-owned enterprises accordingly. An important consequence of this effect is that it may constrain women's behavior in such a way that maintains social arrangements (Berger et al., 1977;Botelho and Abraham, 2017;Correll and Ridgeway, 2003). Thus, while the field of entrepreneurship may serve as a symbolic beacon of emancipation for women (Rindova et al., 2009), in reality, the promise of freedom, economic prosperity, and free-market exchange is itself governed by a business logic that disproportionality favors and empowers men (Berger et al., 1977;Correll and Ridgeway, 2003). ...
Article
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We develop an institutional perspective to examine the important, albeit largely overlooked, occurrence of borrowing discouragement for female-owned enterprises: the likelihood that they will not seek business financing because they believe their requests will be rejected. Given a prevailing business logic casting the field of entrepreneurship as largely male-typed, we theorize that female-owned enterprises will be more likely than their male-owned counterparts to exhibit borrowing discouragement. However, we also further propose that gender-based borrowing discouragement will be influenced by female empowerment levels in three distinct indicators of female empowerment that vary by geographic region within a society: social and economic autonomy, reproductive rights, and political participation. We find strong support for our predictions using a unique multi-sourced sample of 4090 small businesses operating in the United States.
... This paper examines how unsophisticated investors' judgment and decision-making are jointly affected by gender of an expert advisor, the sell-side equity analyst, and gender of the advice recipient, the investor, themself. Extant ethics literature has examined barriers faced by female equity analysts when they are being evaluated for entry into the financial services field (Adams et al., 2016;Fang & Huang, 2017) and promotion (Botelho & Abraham, 2017;Lin & Neely, 2017) as well as the effects of overgeneralization of female risk aversion (e.g., Zalata et al., 2019) in professional contexts. We extend this line of research to their joint effects on recipients of such professionals' advice. ...
... 6 These stereotypes are associated with female analysts needing to be better educated than male analysts to enter the profession (Adams et al., 2016;Fang & Huang, 2017), and elite male analysts receiving a higher base salary and larger pay increases than female analysts (Lin & Neely, 2017). As such, females need to outperform males to be deemed equal performers, yet even that may not be sufficient for promotion (Botelho & Abraham, 2017). ...
... Participants identify their own gender in the post-experimental questionnaire investors' greater receptivity to female analyst's advice. Even if this specific knowledge is unknown by female investors, it is likely that they would hold general beliefs that females must outperform males to advance in a maledominated industry (e.g., Botelho & Abraham, 2017). Thus, our second experiment informs all investors that female and male analysts perform equally well at their analysis task and examines whether the ingroup favoritism result continues to be exhibited. ...
Article
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We examine whether an unsophisticated investor’s own gender interacts with gender of a sell-side equity analyst to affect the investor’s judgment. Prior research shows two potential sources of gender-based discrimination that affect female investors. First, female investors’ advisors offer less risky hence lower return portfolios to female investors than to male investors with similar risk preferences as female investors are perceived as more risk adverse. Second, female equity analysts are subject to greater barriers to enter and advance in investment firms that act as if they believe clients prefer male investment advisors in a male stereotypical occupation. Using two experiments, we use the judge-advisor framework to predict and find that investor’s gender and analyst’s gender jointly influence investor’s judgment. Specifically, female-female analyst-investor pair generates the strongest reaction to analyst’s advice compared to any other analyst-investor pair, everything else equal. Further, we find that efforts to highlight equal gender performance activates gender stereotypes that reduce female investors’ receptivity to female analysts’ advice. By linking the two previously different sources of discrimination we show that they reinforce each other and find that attempts to “level the playing field” by emphasizing gender performance parity may have unexpected results.
... Gendered double standards regarding competence are most likely to emerge in contexts where male and female job candidates' quality is ambiguous (Biernat & Kobrynowicz, 1997;Foschi, 2000), begging the question of whether exceptionally qualified women working in elite occupational contexts will face the same biases. Moreover, recent empirical evidence shows that gender bias can be attenuated, and even reversed, in certain circumstances: high-ranking or highly tenured women are perceived just as positively (Botelho & Abraham, 2017), or more positively (Bohren, Imas, & Rosenberg, 2019;Rosette & Tost, 2010), than equivalently high-ranking or highly tenured men. Referred to as the "qualified female leader advantage" (Eagly, 2007), this effect appears most likely to occur in male-dominated and stereotypically masculine contexts. ...
... Understanding the impact of sponsors is critical to developing a more comprehensive understanding of inequities in the hiring process. Second, we extend the literature on gender bias attenuation (Botelho & Abraham, 2017) and reversal (Bohren et al., 2019;Rosette & Tost, 2010) by providing evidence of this phenomenon in the context of referrals. Namely, positive perceptions of highly tenured women also improve the outcomes of female candidates who receive their referrals. ...
... This evidence has important implications for understanding sponsorship because individuals of high tenure or rank are also those with greater opportunities to engage in sponsorship (Burt, 1998;Ibarra, Carter, & Silva, 2010;Kanter, 1977). As an example of conditions under which bias is attenuated, Botelho and Abraham (2017) observe evidence of gender bias in evaluations of recommendations provided by female financial investment professionals compared to men. But this bias is eliminated for women whose performance is ranked in the top decile (Botelho & Abraham, 2017). ...
... Gendered double standards regarding competence are most likely to emerge in contexts where male and female job candidates' quality is ambiguous (Biernat & Kobrynowicz, 1997;Foschi, 2000), begging the question of whether exceptionally qualified women working in elite occupational contexts will face the same biases. Moreover, recent empirical evidence shows that gender bias can be attenuated, and even reversed, in certain circumstances: high-ranking or highly tenured women are perceived just as positively (Botelho & Abraham, 2017), or more positively (Bohren, Imas, & Rosenberg, 2019;Rosette & Tost, 2010), than equivalently high-ranking or highly tenured men. Referred to as the "qualified female leader advantage" (Eagly, 2007), this effect appears most likely to occur in male-dominated and stereotypically masculine contexts. ...
... Understanding the impact of sponsors is critical to developing a more comprehensive understanding of inequities in the hiring process. Second, we extend the literature on gender bias attenuation (Botelho & Abraham, 2017) and reversal (Bohren et al., 2019;Rosette & Tost, 2010) by providing evidence of this phenomenon in the context of referrals. Namely, positive perceptions of highly tenured women also improve the outcomes of female candidates who receive their referrals. ...
... This evidence has important implications for understanding sponsorship because individuals of high tenure or rank are also those with greater opportunities to engage in sponsorship (Burt, 1998;Ibarra, Carter, & Silva, 2010;Kanter, 1977). As an example of conditions under which bias is attenuated, Botelho and Abraham (2017) observe evidence of gender bias in evaluations of recommendations provided by female financial investment professionals compared to men. But this bias is eliminated for women whose performance is ranked in the top decile (Botelho & Abraham, 2017). ...
Preprint
The important role that referrals play in the hiring process, particularly for those contending with negative stereotypes and biases, is well documented in the literature. However, how those stereotypes and biases impact the efficacy of sponsors providing the referrals is largely missing from prior work, overlooking additional effects that characteristics of the sponsor can have on the outcomes of the candidate receiving the referral. We take a multi-methods approach and provide evidence for differences in male and female sponsors' efficacy, such that while male sponsors are generally more effective, seniority increases female sponsors' effectiveness. Study 1 provides experimental evidence for a causal relationship between sponsor gender and sponsor tenure, such that greater tenure increases female sponsors' perceived credibility and this, in turn, increases female sponsors' effectiveness, although seniority does not improve male sponsors' effectiveness. Study 2 validates and extends these findings in archival data from the U.S. Supreme Court law clerkship hiring process and provides additional evidence that while candidates of male sponsors are associated with better outcomes in general, sponsor gender interacts with sponsor tenure to influence the probability of the candidate being selected for a top-tier position. (189/200 words)
... Therefore, my research may provide guidance on how economic consequences help or hinder current approaches to anti-discrimination and diversity programs (e.g., Kalev, Dobbin, and Kelly, 2006;Paluck and Green, 2009). This study also contributes to the broader literature on evaluation processes-both the research specifically focused on discrimination (e.g., Botelho and Abraham, 2017) and the research focused on why audiences are motivated to respond to other markers of status (e.g., Simcoe and Waguespack, 2010;Kovács and Sharkey, 2014;Malter, 2014)-wherein one might expect to find that economic consequences also influence evaluations. ...
... For example, ''employers prefer men because cultural beliefs about the relative performance capacity of men and women bias cognition'' (Correll and Benard, 2006: 111). In practice, this type of status-based discrimination can lead to the application of double standards (Botelho and Abraham, 2017). Other types of discrimination that are performance motivated include theories of attributional augmenting that explain how gender can change the weight given to other information (Baron, Markman, and Hirsa, 2001) and more generally how traits such as gender ''frame'' decisions that should rationally not directly involve such traits (Ridgeway, 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
Past research indicates that increasing the economic consequences of evaluations should theoretically discourage discrimination by making it more costly. I theorize that such consequences may also encourage discrimination in settings in which evaluators may be motivated by performance expectations, e.g., stereotypes. I explore this theory using data from an online lending platform whose loan guarantee policy reduced the potential economic consequences of using borrowers’ demographics during lending decisions. I find evidence that with the policy in place, lenders evaluated female borrowers less favorably than male borrowers. This finding is consistent with the theory that the policy discouraged performance-motivated discrimination (that driven by beliefs about performance abilities) and simultaneously encouraged consumption-motivated discrimination (that driven by a like or dislike of others because of their demographic traits). Because I theorize about underlying motives for discrimination, the insights developed here should apply to a wide range of types of discrimination that vary according to these motives, including classic taste-based discrimination, homophily-driven discrimination, statistical discrimination, and status-based discrimination. Economic consequences may therefore represent an important dynamic link between different types of discrimination.
... Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that situational uncertainty and complexity allow for more bias in evaluation (Botelho & Abraham, 2017;Davison & Burke, 2000). The more uncertainty and complexity involved, the less evidence for an accurate assessment, and the more weight is necessarily placed on inference. ...
Article
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Managing grand challenges demands a relational leader who encourages collaboration, coordination, and trust with various stakeholders. Although leaders appear to play a critical role in addressing grand challenges, relatively little research exists about the factors that inform stakeholder perceptions of leaders during a grand challenge. To address this limitation, we integrate implicit leadership theory and gender role theory to consider stakeholders’ gender prescriptive expectations when evaluating leader effectiveness during the COVID-19 pandemic. We theorize that stakeholders advantage female leaders based on mental schemas of what is required in a pandemic—relational leadership—and stakeholders’ prescriptive expectations of female leaders as more relational. Using a laboratory experiment, we find that female leaders are perceived as more relational, and hence, more effective than their male counterparts. Our findings advance scholars’ and practitioners’ understanding of strategic leadership, stakeholder management, and grand challenges.
... Extant literature suggests that gender plays a particularly important role in influencing an employee's chances to form high-status connections. For example, prior studies found that men and women differ systematically in how they react to status differences (Botelho & Abraham, 2017;Correll & Ridgeway, 2003;Ridgeway & Correll, 2004) as well as in the conditions they face when attempting to build valuable connections within the workplace (Ibarra, 1992;Singh et al., 2010). A second, less explored insight is that insofar as the formation of high-status connections presents distinct challenges and opportunities depending on an employee's gender (Abraham, 2020;Ibarra, 1993Ibarra, , 1995, the pathways that enable men to gain entry into a highstatus colleague's collaboration network may not work as well for women, and vice-versa. ...
... First, we focused on the influence of investor gender in early rounds of financing, where uncertainty about the potential of the new venture is at its peak. As uncertainty is reduced, however, the stigma of incompetence arising from same-gender support should diminish, just as the availability of disconfirming performance information decreases the influence of stereotypes (Heilman 1984, Botelho andAbraham 2017). We would thus expect the influence of investor gender on perceptions of the startup to wane as the rounds progress, the business gains traction, and uncertainty decreases. ...
Article
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Female support of other women has been put forth as a remedy to the gender gap across many domains. Yet the potential costs associated with gender homophily are not well understood. We propose that homophily aggravates negative gender bias in evaluation. Focusing on the context of entrepreneurship, we theorize that future investors will discount a female entrepreneur’s competence as the key factor in an early-stage investment decision, when the investment comes from a female investor. Consequently, female-backed female entrepreneurs may struggle to raise additional funds from new investors. In a field study of venture-backed startups, we find that firms with female founders who received funding from female rather than male VCs are two times less likely to raise additional financing. We find no equivalent investor gender effect for male-founded firms. In an experimental study, we find that pitches by female-backed female entrepreneurs receive lower evaluations compared with all other pitches, and that this is driven by perceptions of entrepreneur competence. Our findings suggest that well-intentioned calls for women to invest in women not only place an undue burden on female investors, but may also undermine the long-term success of female entrepreneurs.
... Consider that organizational inequality may be driven by factors that represent both objective performance differences (i.e., rewarding higher productivity with higher salaries), as well as other nondiagnostic factors (e.g., age, gender, or race; Trevor et al., 2012). By making the reference group explicit, researchers may bring to light pervasive economic gaps that would have otherwise remain obscured (e.g., asking participants about inequality among male and female employees emphasizes gender pay gaps; Abraham, 2017; Botelho & Abraham, 2017). At the same time, making reference groups salient may inadvertently hide economic gaps that would have otherwise been salient (e.g., asking participants about Asian-American exemplars reduces perceptions of racial inequality; Kuo et al., 2020). ...
Article
Subjective perceptions of inequality can substantially influence policy attitudes, public health metrics, and societal well‐being, but the lack of consensus in the scientific community on how to best operationalize and measure these perceptions may impede progress on the topic. Here, we provide a theoretical framework for the study of subjective perceptions of inequality, which brings critical differences to light. This framework—which we conceptualize as a series of four guiding questions for studying subjective perceptions of economic inequality—serves as a blueprint for the theoretical and empirical decisions researchers need to address in the study of when, how, and why subjective perceptions of inequality are consequential for individuals, groups, and societies. To lay the foundation for a comprehensive approach to the topic, we offer four theoretical and empirical decisions in studying subjective perceptions of inequality, urging researchers to specify: (1) What kind of inequality? (2) What level of analysis? (3) What part of the distribution? and (4) What comparison group? We subsequently discuss how this framework can be used to organize existing research and highlight its utility in guiding future research across the social sciences in both the theory and measurement of subjective perceptions of inequality.
... Substantial bodies of research in sociology, psychology, and economics consider how gender impacts evaluative processes and outcomes. These processes entail social interaction at various stages and in various ways such as the manner in which peers influence how co-workers evaluate one another (e.g., Castilla 2011, Bothelo andAbraham 2017). Gender effects potentially apply to both parties to the interaction. ...
Preprint
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Can chatbots causally change human evaluations? I developed an experiment to find out.
... Academia may need to pay closer attention to the contributions of its female researchers and educators and further explore the nexus between gender diversity and performance. Generally, extant literature argues that researchers might place a lower level of evaluation or prefer not to draw from research that is produced by females (Joshi, 2014) and that groups with a higher level of gender diversity may still be undervalued due to "gender-based double standards in evaluative judgements" and thus be less frequently cited (Botelho & Abraham, 2017;Moss-Racusin et al., 2012, as as cited in Nielsen & Borjeson, 2019, p. 10). Also in academia, understanding whether a researcher's gender explains the discrepancy in research performance (Mayer & Rathmann, 2018) is important because it is not only correlated to capacity, reputation, career prospects and trajectory (Nielsen, 2016), but it is also a significant factor in determining tenure, promotion and research support (Mayer & Rathmann, 2018). ...
Article
Although the nexus between performance and gender diversity has been widely researched in different contexts, we know little about the role gender diversity in co-authoring procurement research plays on research productivity. Using diversity performance literature as a theoretical backdrop and drawing on data from articles published in three procurement journals, the study runs negative binomial regressions. This study has implications for academic institutions and research team’s performance with the results demonstrating that gender diversity has trivial impact on research performance and that the publication outlet is a significant predictor of research performance.
... Similarly, Ewens and Townsend (2020) find that male investors express less interest in female entrepreneurs relative to male entrepreneurs, and that the male-led ventures they select underperform. These findings are especially important given that entrepreneurship is fraught with uncertainty, which increases observed bias in evaluation processes (Botelho and Abraham 2017). Furthermore, this bias is most likely cumulative, as entrepreneurs depend on positive evaluations in one area to assist in another. ...
... Forskare har påvisat problem med ojämlikhet bland exempelvis advokater (Philips 2005), arkitekter (Adams & Tancred 2000), läkare (Barker 1998) och präster (Bagilhole 2002). Samtidigt finns det mycket forskning som visar att denna ojämlikhet går att hantera med reformer, lagstiftning, nya normer och värderingar samt inte minst förändringsarbete på arbetsplatsnivå (Rivera & Tilcsik 2019;Botelho & Abraham 2017;Castilla 2015Castilla , 2008. ...
Chapter
In this research anthology, inequality in Swedish working life in a Sweden marked by increased inequality, is studied. Racialised inequality, racism and discrimination in individual workplaces are focused, but inequalities based on class and gender are also studied. The concept of inequality regime is used by several of the authors to analyse work organizations. The workplaces studied are found in different sectors, not least in healthcare. The book also includes contributions that provide comparative international perspectives and studies of the development of inequality over time. The anthology contains 12 chapters based on empirical studies of working life, one chapter that analyses working life inequality from a political theory perspective, an introduction and a closing chapter that frames and draws conclusions from the different studies, as well as an afterword. The authors are 22 researchers from different social science disciplines.
... This differentiation has long-term consequences. The names babies receive typically follow them for life and impact life outcomes (Bertrand & Mullainathan, 2004;Botelho & Abraham, 2017;Laham et al., 2012). Phonetically gendering baby names reflects parents' preferences for gendering their child, even if implicitly. ...
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Findings in several domains have documented a gender-equality paradox, where greater social and economic gender equality predicts increased gender differentiation. Many of these findings have used subjective rating scales and thus have been dismissed as artifactual due to different reference groups in more versus less gender-equal societies. Although recent research has documented the gender-equality paradox using an objective criterion—pursuit of degrees in STEM—the robustness of this finding has also been challenged. The current investigation offers evidence for the gender-equality paradox using an objective marker of gender differentiation: baby names. We find given names are more phonetically gendered in more gender-equal societies, with female names being more likely unvoiced (a softer sound) and male names being more likely voiced (a harder sound). We offer a theoretical explanation based on optimal distinctiveness theory to explain why increasing gender equality might motivate a preference for greater gender differentiation.
... The study's findings complement previous research that has shown that a higher dividend is paid by the board, which is diverse in terms of gender [44]. A study by Botelho and Abraham [8] suggests that financial education is one of the parameters that are considered to minimize genderbased risk aversion. This could not be considered in the study due to the lack of data on directors' financial education. ...
Article
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This study attempts to determine whether gender diversity on the firm's board affects the dividend payout ratio concerning firms listed on Nifty 50 in India. Multiple regression analysis and the logit model have been employed. The dependent variable is the dividend payout policy of the firm, and the independent variable is gender diversity. The regression model incorporated control variables that have been popularly listed in the extant literature. The robustness of the results has also been tested. It was found that there exists a positive association between the percentage of female directors and the dividend payout ratio. Results also found that there is a positive impact of the number of female directors on the dividend to total assets. This implies that gender diversity on board positively affects the payout ratio of firms. This study is the first of its kind to investigate the association of gender diversity on the firm's board and dividend payout ratio.
... Factors that contribute to a persistent lack of females in top leadership positions have been documented, ranging from sex discrimination, and double standards to stereotyping of sex roles and leadership roles to bias in performance evaluations, and work-family conflicts (e.g., Joshi et al., 2015;Botelho and Abraham, 2017;Thomas et al., 2017;Padavic et al., 2020). At the same time as these challenges to women have been documented, there has also been an ongoing debate about whether women have certain advantages in leadership (Vecchio, 2002;Eagly, 2007) based on contemporary models of effective leadership. ...
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The impact of gender on assessments of leadership performance and leadership potential was examined through two clusters of leadership behaviors, one set related to traditional constructions of leadership labeled directing others and another associated with contemporary constructions of leadership labeled engaging others. Based on data collected from a sample of 91 senior leaders in one US financial services organization over a 3-year period prior to Covid-19, the results showed a negative relationship between directing others behaviors and leadership potential ratings for females and a positive relationship between these variables for males. A negative relationship between engaging others behaviors and performance assessments was also found for females. This study highlights the continuing bias in leadership assessments of women and explores the contradictions between the perception and the reality of women's leadership.
... Many evaluative processes result in consequential individual, organizational, or societal outcomes, including the adjudication of guilt in trials 1 or merit and funding in scientific or business contexts, such as entrepreneurial pitches or proposals (e.g., Couzin-Frankel 2013, Lee et al. 2013, Huang and Pearce 2015, Wu 2016, Botelho and Abraham 2017, Li 2017, Greenberg 2019a, Bian et al. 2021. Consequently, understanding the mechanisms that influence how individuals update their evaluations after exposure to peers is important. ...
Article
In many facets of life, individuals make evaluations that they may update after consulting with others in their networks. But not all individuals have the same positional opportunities for social interaction in a given network or the ability and desire to make use of those opportunities that are available to them. The configuration of a person’s network can also alter how information is spread or interpreted. To complicate matters further, scant research has considered how positions in social networks and the valence of network content interact because of the difficulty of (a) separating the “player” from the position in networks and (b) measuring all germane content in a particular network. This research develops a novel experimental platform that addresses these issues. Participants viewed and evaluated an entrepreneurial video pitch and were then randomly assigned to different networks, and positions within networks, and thus various opportunities for peer influence that were orthogonal to their network history, inclinations, attributes, or capabilities. Furthermore, all the content of social interaction, including its valence, was recorded to test underlying assumptions. Results reveal that those assigned to a position with brokerage opportunities in a network updated their evaluations of the entrepreneurial video considerably more negatively.
... However, in the exponential model, the effect of x 1 is proportional to the predicted y, thus depending on both x 1 and x 2. The difference between the additive linear and multiplicative exponential models was largely ignored in the reviewed articles. For example, Botelho and Abraham (2017) used four dependent variables: number of views, number of comments, and two ratings of online recommendations. All four variables were used to test the same hypotheses; an additive model was used for the two ratings variables, but when explaining the number of views and number of comments, the model was multiplicative. ...
Article
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Transforming variables before analysis or applying a transformation as a part of a generalized linear model are common practices in organizational research. Several methodological articles addressing the topic, either directly or indirectly, have been published in the recent past. In this article, we point out a few misconceptions about transformations and propose a set of eight simple guidelines for addressing them. Our main argument is that transformations should not be chosen based on the nature or distribution of the individual variables but based on the functional form of the relationship between two or more variables that is expected from theory or discovered empirically. Building on a systematic review of six leading management journals, we point to several ways the specification and interpretation of nonlinear models can be improved.
... Attribution errors are more likely when the distinction between in-and out-group members is salient and the favorability of the in-group is higher (Brewer 1979). They intensify when evaluators have less information about the event and actors (Botelho and Abraham 2017). Accordingly, shareholders evaluating director candidates, about whom they have limited information, can be expected to make gendered attributions under agency threat conditions. ...
Article
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Given the growing corporate social responsibility (CSR) pressures to increase board gender diversity and the scrutiny afforded to firms that fail to appoint female directors, one may expect shareholders to vote with greater support for women (than for men) nominated to boards. However, diversity management research suggests that pressures to improve female representation in organizations and in leadership roles may also backfire. We propose a threat-contingency model of shareholder dissent against female director candidates to explain when shareholders will be more or less likely to dissent against female (relative to male) directors. Specifically, we advance CSR legitimacy threats and agency threats as conditions contextualizing shareholder dissent against female director candidates. Using a sample of 50,202 director elections at 1,104 public firms from 2003 to 2015, we find that female directors receive less dissent from shareholders; further, low female board representation intensifies this leniency as CSR legitimacy threats become more salient. However, when firm-related agency threats occur (e.g., firm underperformance and media controversies), shareholders’ leniency toward female director candidates dissipates, and when directors themselves present agency threats (e.g., director attendance problems and nonindependence), shareholders evaluate female directors more harshly than male directors. Underlining the relevance of our theory, our supplementary analyses show that shareholder dissent increases the probability of director turnover. These findings contribute to theory and research on women on boards, firm responses to institutional pressures, and shareholder dissent.
... Cultural capital might be understood as having a similar kind of halo effect; people rich in cultural capital are often presumed to be competent in many (arguably unrelated) dimensions of ability (Rivera 2015). In used car markets, buyers often consider the cleanliness of a car as evidence of its mechanical condition (Akerlof 1970). 1 Halo effects can lead to the de-coupling of merit and status-in which highlyregarded people, things, or services may not have the highest intrinsic quality (Lynn, Podolny, and Tao 2009;Botelho and Abraham 2017). Hospitals that provide excellent bedside manner, comfort, amenities, convenience, and emotional empathy may be seen as providing robustly excellent treatment and considered great hospitals even if technical medical quality is lacking or unknown. ...
Article
Consumer-driven health care is often heralded as a new quality paradigm in medicine. However, patients-as-consumers face difficulties in judging the quality of their medical treatment. With a sample of 3,000 U.S. hospitals, we find that neither medical quality nor patient survival rates have much impact on patient satisfaction with their hospital. In contrast, patients are very sensitive to the “room and board” aspects of care that are highly visible. Quiet rooms have a larger impact on patient satisfaction than medical quality, and communication with nurses affects satisfaction far more than the hospital-level risk of dying. Hospitality experiences create a halo effect of patient goodwill, while medical excellence and patient safety do not. Moreover, when hospitals face greater competition from other hospitals, patient satisfaction is higher but medical quality is lower. Consumer-driven health care creates pressures for hospitals to be more like hotels. These findings lend broader insight into unintended consequences of marketization.
... For example, it could be that the audience is less accepting of claims made by low-status producers (females, minorities, etc.) (see also Rossiter 1993). This can happen as least in part because evaluators use double standards when judging those from low-versus high-status groups (Foschi 1989(Foschi , 1996; see also Botelho and Abraham 2017). For example, if evaluators set the bar for a strong performance at "seven out of ten correct" for high-status individuals but "eight out of ten correct" for lowstatus individuals, low-status individuals will have to perform at a consistently higher level to be judged equally as competent as a high-status individual. ...
Article
In academia, women trail men in nearly every major professional reward, such as earnings, publications, and funding. Bibliometric studies, however, suggest that citations are unique with regard to gender inequality: female penalties have been reported, but gender parity or even female premiums are routinely documented as well. Two questions follow from this puzzle. First, does gender matter for citations in sociology and neighboring social science disciplines? No theoretically informed study of gender and citations exists for the social science core. We begin to fill this gap by analyzing roughly 10,000 publications in economics, political science, and sociology. In contrast to many big data studies, we estimate the effect of author gender on citations alongside other author-, article-, journal-, and (sub)field-level predictors. Our results strongly suggest that when male and female authors publish articles that are comparably positioned to receive citations, their publications do in fact accrue citations at the same rate. This finding raises a second question: Why would gender matter “everywhere but here”? We hypothesize that the answer is related to the mechanisms (e.g., self-selection, biased assessments of commitment) that are activated in the context of some professional rewards but not citations. We discuss why a null gender finding should not be discarded as an anomaly but rather approached as an analytical opportunity.
... Perhaps because reputational information reduces the time and energy required for individuals to make evaluations (Zahra and George 2002), teachers also rely on how well students have done in the past to evaluate their present performance (Allen 2005;Kelly 2008). Despite consensus that reputational information can shape subsequent evaluation, social scientists remain divided over the magnitude of reputational effects and their implications for educational inequality (Botelho and Abraham 2017;Jussim and Harber 2005). One line of scholarship asserts that teacher reliance on reputational information sets in place self-fulfilling prophecies (Rosenthal and Jacobson 1968). ...
Article
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Studies suggest that students’ prior performance can shape subsequent teacher evaluations, but the magnitude of reputational effects and their implications for educational inequality remain unclear. Existing scholarship presents two major perspectives that exist in tension: do teachers primarily use reputational information as a temporary signal that is subsequently updated in response to actual student performance? Or do teachers primarily use reputational information as a filter that biases perception of subsequent evidence, thus crystallizing student reputations and keeping previously poor-performing students stuck in place? In a field experiment, we recruited a random sample of 832 junior high school teachers from the second-most populous province of China to grade a sequence of four essays written by the same student, and we randomly assign both the academic reputation of the student and the quality of the essays produced. We find that (1) reputational information influences how teachers grade, (2) teachers rely on negative information more heavily than positive information, and (3) negative reputations are crystallized by a single behavioral confirmation. These results suggest that students can escape their prior reputations, but to do so, they must contradict them immediately, with a single confirmation sufficient to crystallize a negative reputation.
... lower rates of acceptance for papers, publishing in less-prestigious journals, less grant funding and fewer invitations to conferences due to gender bias) (Anon. 2017;Holman et al. 2018;Nittrouer et al. 2018;Sheltzer 2018;Astegiano et al. 2019, European Commission 2019Fox and Paine 2019), gendered institutional cultures leading to bias at all stages of professional life (from recruitment and selection, to recommendation, evaluation, promotion, training, and compensation) (Heilman and Eagly 2008;Bohnet 2016;Botelho and Abraham 2017) and social cultures leading to imbalances in caring responsibilities (Howe-Walsh and Turnbull 2016) as well as incorrect and biased perceptions of reduced performance by mothers (Correll et al. 2007). Citation metrics, which are increasingly important in the allocation of grant funding, promotions and recruitment are also biased against women (Downes and Lancaster 2020). ...
Article
Internships are a common way for firms to hire college-educated workers, prompting concerns about how internship hiring affects various forms of inequality in the transition from school to work. Some of these concerns center on whether internships might be less accessible for workers from non-white racial groups. In this paper, I examine racial disparities in internship hiring and argue that, relative to full-time hiring, in internship hiring firms have less information about candidates’ qualifications and are also less motivated to screen candidates intensely. Therefore, group-based status beliefs play a larger role in the screening of intern candidates than in the screening of full-time candidates, leading to larger disadvantages for low-status workers (i.e., non-white workers). I examine these claims using data from a Silicon Valley software firm recruiting for both software engineering internships and entry-level software engineering positions. I find evidence consistent with such “cursory screening” of intern candidates leading to non-white (i.e., Asian, Hispanic, Black) job candidates being more strongly disadvantaged relative to white candidates in competing for internships as compared with full-time positions.
Article
In this study, we advance novel understandings of strategies that marginalized entrepreneurs use to overcome institutional bias and mobilize crucial resources. Using grounded theory, we analyzed qualitative interview data from 97 women entrepreneurs across Iran, India, and the United States to understand the source and nature of the institutional constraints they faced, the strategies they used to overcome these constraints, and the agency and legitimacy that ensued as a result. We found that marginalized entrepreneurs engaged in three focal strategies: family transmutation, ally activation, and enabler cooptation. We propose that these strategies enhance marginalized entrepreneurs’ likelihood of securing needed resources, but with different consequences for their agency and legitimacy. We offer several contributions to entrepreneurial resource mobilization and institutional literatures. This study explores how marginalized entrepreneurs gain agency, legitimacy, and other resources in the face of institutional biases. Our findings from interviews with 97 women entrepreneurs in Iran, India, and the U.S. show that when marginalized entrepreneurs face biases from their families, they can use a family transmutation strategy to gain family support and enhance their agency and legitimacy. Furthermore, marginalized entrepreneurs who encounter constraints from non‐family members can use an ally activation strategy to alleviate these constraints and enhance their agency and legitimacy. Finally, we found that in the face of self‐constraints that marginalized entrepreneurs impose on themselves, the use of an enabler cooptation strategy may have an adverse effect on their agency and legitimacy, even though it may facilitate their temporary resource access.
Article
Harsh prison conditions have been widely examined for their effects on the mental health of incarcerated people, but few studies have examined whether mental health status exposes individuals to harsh treatment in the penal system. With prisoners confined to their cells for up to 23 hours each day, often being denied visitors or phone calls, solitary confinement is an important case for studying harsh treatment in prisons. Routinely used as punishment for prison infractions, solitary confinement may be subject to the same forces that criminalize the mentally ill in community settings. Analyzing a large administrative data set showing admissions to solitary confinement in state prison, we find high rates of punitive isolation among those with serious mental illness. Disparities by mental health status result from the cumulative effects of prison misconduct charges and disciplinary hearings. We estimate that those with serious mental illness spend three times longer in solitary confinement than similar incarcerated people with no mental health problems. The evidence suggests the stigma of dangerousness follows people into prison, and the criminalization of mental illness accompanies greater severity of incarceration.
Article
The author advances the theory that when evaluation bears high stakes and is subject to high uncertainty of quality, a greater presence of numbers in the evaluated materials positively influences the evaluator’s assessment of the quality of the evaluated object and leads to less variance in the overall assessment of quality by evaluators. The author explores these ideas in a case study of the MacArthur Foundation’s 2016–2017 $100 million winner-take-all grant competition for nonprofit organizations and tests them using judges’ numeric scores and comments together with information from the application materials, tax records, and previous funding histories of the applicant organizations. In this competition, organizations that included more numbers of any kind in their application materials received on average higher scores. Furthermore, the independent judges on the nondeliberative panel were more likely to give the applicants similar scores. Quantification thus both carries a premium—it predicts higher scores—and produces evaluative convergence.
Article
Gender differences in peer review and the associated impact on innovation financing are well documented but less well understood. We study peer review in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Small Business Innovation Research program, a public initiative seeking to increase women's access to innovation funds. We theorize that reviewers use status characteristics inappropriately as heuristics and create gender bias. Econometric analysis shows evidence of direct bias against female applicants, an effect linked to challenges for newcomers in demonstrating individual legitimacy rather than concerns of the organizational legitimacy of the associated firm. We also demonstrate a corrective redistribution to reverse this bias and create equity in the funding outcome. As these results negatively impact diversity in innovation, we propose policy recommendations to overcome this bias. Peer review is an important mechanism to rank and select technical proposals for funding. We examine the role of gender in a government program conducting this process. Controlling for the proposal quality and other factors, we show that the gender of the proposer is linked to lower scores. This effect is associated with proposals from females who are new to the program, suggesting their challenges in demonstrating credibility as leaders of these projects, and exacerbated by the fact that women represent a disproportionately high share of newcomers. Subsequently, the program reverses this bias such that the funding outcomes do not show the same inequities. This has important implications for policies supporting gender diversity in innovation.
Article
In this article, we ask whether macro-level changes during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic relate to changes in the levels of discrimination against women and Black job-seekers at the point of hire. We develop three main hypotheses: that discrimination against women and Black job-seekers increases due to a reduction in labor demand; that discrimination against women decreases due to the reduced supply of women employees and applicants; and that discrimination against Black job-seekers decreases due to increased attention toward racial inequities associated with the Black Lives Matter protests during the summer of 2020. We test these hypotheses using a correspondence audit study collected over two periods, before and during the early COVID-19 pandemic, for one professional occupation: accountants. We find that White women experience a positive change in callbacks during the pandemic, being preferred over White men, and this change is concentrated in geographic areas that experienced relatively larger decreases in women's labor supply. Black women experience discrimination pre-pandemic but receive similar callbacks to White men during the pandemic. In contrast to both White and Black women, discrimination against Black men is persistent before and during the pandemic. Our findings are consistent with the prediction of gender-specific changes in labor supply being associated with gender-specific changes in hiring discrimination during the COVID-19 pandemic. More broadly, our study shows how hiring decision-making is related to macro-level labor market processes.
Article
Although successful commercial entrepreneurship has beneficial consequences for the economy, it is unclear whether it is unequivocally good for broader society. We shed light on this macro issue by delving into a specific micropathway linking commercial entrepreneurship with positive spillover effects for broader society. We ask which commercial entrepreneurs who have experienced economic success through a financial exit event from their for-profit venture engage in philanthropy—defined as systematically stimulating, supporting, and shaping social change efforts—after exit. Utilizing the status characteristics framework, we conceptualize how hierarchical positions on ascribed social status characteristics (caste and gender in our setting) and achieved social status characteristics (eliteness of Indian tertiary educational attainment and overseas tertiary educational attainment in our setting) regulate successful commercial entrepreneurs’ subsequent involvement in philanthropy. We argue that successful commercial entrepreneurs from disadvantaged ascribed-status groups or privileged achieved-status groups are more likely to transition to philanthropic activities because they more keenly perceive the need for societal change and are also more motivated to take action. Quantitative analyses on a sample of 673 Indian entrepreneurs who experienced a successful financial exit from their for-profit venture during 2003–2013, supplemented by qualitative interviews, support our theorizing. We advance management research by highlighting founder transitions from successful commercial entrepreneurship to philanthropy as a hitherto understudied mechanism driving positive social change. We thus open up new research avenues around the less-studied exit stage of entrepreneurship that allows for the integration of currently unconnected literatures around corporate philanthropy, elites, entrepreneurship, and social impact.
Article
Research summary Career paths depend not only on individuals’ own competitiveness but also on the competitiveness of others in a position to advocate for them. In this paper we study competitiveness when rewards accrue to another individual. In particular, we ask how female and male managers’ competitiveness changes when rewards from competition accrue to their female or male protégés, relative to when they accrue to themselves. Using an experimental approach, we find that when rewards accrue to protégés, male and female managers are equally competitive because female managers increase their competitiveness. However, male managers compete more for male rather than female protégés. This gap disappears when male managers know their protégés’ risk preferences suggesting a novel intervention to ensure equity in the sponsorship process. Managerial Summary Sponsorship is key to individuals’ career development and firms’ human capital strategy. In this experimental study simulating an organizational setting, we investigate one aspect of sponsorship and ask whether managers’ and protégés’ genders affect managers’ willingness to compete on behalf of their protégés. We find that when the rewards from competition accrue to protégés, female managers increase their competitiveness and eliminate the gender competitiveness gap present when rewards accrue to managers themselves. This suggests that, from a competitiveness standpoint, female and male managers are equally strong sponsors. However, male managers compete more for male, relative to female, protégés. This gap disappears when male managers have information about protégés’ risks preferences, suggesting a novel approach that organizations can implement to reduce discrimination in sponsorship. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
Combining signaling theory and gender role congruity theory, this study examines if the quality signals of entrepreneurs and their ventures are perceived differently because of their gender, which, in turn, affects the crowdfunding performance. In a sample of 14,729 campaigns in Kickstarter, this study shows that gender determines the effectiveness of signals in enhancing funding performance, but not uniformly to the disadvantage of women. While females are rewarded less with the signals of competence and qualification, they benefit more from the signal of social ties. This study offers implications for evaluating entrepreneurial projects and strategies for crafting an effective pitch.
Article
Research has shown that audiences penalize novelty in women’s work but also that such penalty may vary. This study builds on theories of uncertainty and status signaling to identify contingencies that may account for the variation in the female penalty for novelty, particularly in the production of technological and scientific knowledge. Drawing on theories of expectation states and gender status beliefs, I posit that peer audiences have a baseline bias against novelty in women’s work and penalize novelty in female authors’ contributions. However, when authors possess status characteristics that are more task-relevant than gender, this penalty erodes. I identify two academic status characteristics, prestigious graduate degrees and prestigious mentors, which offset the female penalty for novelty. Longitudinal multi-source data on the productivity of academic engineers show that female engineers who have these characteristics face no significant citation penalty for the novelty of their work. Implications of these findings for gender inequality and for policies that aim to reduce it are discussed.
Article
Social movements have the potential to effect change in strategic decision making. In this paper, we examine whether the #MeToo movement, spurred by the Harvey Weinstein scandal, leads to changes in the likelihood of Hollywood producers working with female writers on new movie projects. Because #MeToo affected the entire industry, we use variation in whether producers had past collaborations with Weinstein to investigate whether and how #MeToo may spur change. We find that producers previously associated with Weinstein are, on average, about 35% more likely to work with female writers after the scandal than they were before, relative to nonassociated producers, and the size of this effect increases with the intensity of the association. Female producers are the main drivers of our results, perhaps because they are more likely than male producers to resonate with the movement’s cause and face relatively low costs of enacting change. Changes made by other groups, such as production teams with the most intense association with Weinstein and less experienced all-male teams, may be better explained by motivations to mitigate risk. We also find that producers do not sacrifice writer experience by hiring more female writers and that both experienced and novice female writers have benefited from the increased demand. Our study shows that social movements that seek to address gender inequality can, indeed, lead to meaningful change. It also provides perspective for thinking about whether, and to what extent, changes may occur in broader settings. This paper was accepted by Isabel Fernandez-Mateo, organizations.
Article
Destigmatization is an understudied social process in which the negative outcomes for a previously stigmatized group improve. We theorize that during a period of destigmatization, the effects of stigma persist more strongly for people stigmatized by association than for those directly stigmatized. We propose that this occurs because, during periods of destigmatization, conscious prejudice has diminished but nonconscious prejudice remains, so people correct for their explicit biases toward individuals with the stigmatizing trait but are unaware of their ongoing implicit prejudice toward those stigmatized by association. Our evidence comes from archival data on individual employment in film during the cold war years in Hollywood. It shows that as the stigma of being on an anticommunist blacklist weakened, the employment penalty for being a coworker of a blacklisted artist was greater than the penalty for actually having been on the blacklist itself. A supplemental experiment, designed to address the limitations of archival data, shows the same imbalanced employment penalties in another stigma currently undergoing destigmatization (that of physical disability). Paradoxically, as stigmas recede, harmful effects persist more for associates of stigmatized individuals than for the stigmatized themselves. This paper was accepted by David Simchi-Levi, organizations.
Article
Women tend to be segregated into different subspecialties than men within male-dominated occupations, but the mechanisms contributing to such intra-occupational gender segregation remain obscure. In this study, I use data from an online recruiting platform and a survey to examine the hiring mechanisms leading to gender segregation within software engineering and development. I find that women are much more prevalent among workers hired in software quality assurance than in other software subspecialties. Importantly, jobs in software quality assurance are lower-paying and perceived as lower status than jobs in other software subspecialties. In examining the origins of this pattern, I find that it stems largely from women being more likely than men to apply for jobs in software quality assurance. Further, such gender differences in job applications are attenuated among candidates with stronger educational credentials, consistent with the idea that relevant accomplishments help mitigate gender differences in self-assessments of competence and belonging in these fields. Demand-side selection processes further contribute to gender segregation, as employers penalize candidates with quality assurance backgrounds, a subspecialty where women are overrepresented, when they apply for jobs in other, higher-status software subspecialties.
Chapter
The journalist Hannah Semer has always fascinated me. I grew up in Israel during the 1970s and 1980s, when Semer’s was one of the few women’s voices heard in the public arena, alongside figures such as politicians Shulamit Aloni, Geula Cohen, Tamar Gozansky, and Supreme Court Justice Miriam Ben-Porat. Semer was an exceptional figure; she broke through the glass ceiling of journalism in a way no other Israeli female journalist did before or has done since, and very few female journalists worldwide have equaled her professional and public achievements. Semer held jobs that traditionally were—and still remain—the exclusive preserve of male journalists: parliamentary correspondent, political correspondent, editorial writer on political affairs, and, most exceptionally, editor-in-chief of a daily newspaper for two decades.
Chapter
The 2017 Google memo and the #MeToo movement were the tip of a very large iceberg, and pointed to a deep-seated and pervasive problem. While harassment in the entertainment industry received the greatest focus in the media, these cultural phenomena also brought attention to the persistent disadvantages experienced by women in business and their refusal—and, perhaps more importantly, the refusal of the organizations they work for—to maintain that status quo. That refusal stems not only from social justice motivation but also from the positive business impact experienced by organizations that employ a diverse workforce.
Article
This initial, exploratory study on gender bias in collaborative medical decision making examined the degree to which physicians' reliance on a team member's patient care advice differs as a function of the gender of the advice giver. In 2018, 283 anesthesiologists read a brief, online clinical vignette and were randomly assigned to receive treatment advice from 1 of 8 possible sources (physician or nurse; man or woman; experienced or inexperienced). They then indicated their treatment decision, as well as the degree to which they relied upon the advice given.The results revealed two patterns consistent with gender bias in participants' advice taking. First, when treatment advice was delivered by an inexperienced physician, participants reported replying significantly more on the advice of a man versus a woman, F(1,61) = 4.24, P = .04. Second, participants' reliance on the advice of the woman physician was a function of her experience, F(1,62) = 6.96, P = .01, whereas reliance on the advice of the man physician was not, F(1,60) = 0.21, P = .65.These findings suggest women physicians, relative to men, may encounter additional hurdles to performing their jobs, especially at early stages in their careers. These hurdles are rooted in psychological biases of others, rather than objective features of cases or treatment settings. Cultural stereotypes may shape physicians' information use and decision-making processes (and hinder collaboration), even in contexts that appear to have little to do social category membership. The authors recommend institutions adopt policies and practices encouraging equal attention to advice, regardless of the source, to help ensure advice taking is a function of information quality rather than the attributes of the advice giver. Such policies and practices may help surface and implement diverse expert perspectives in collaborative medical decision making, promoting better and more effective patient care.
Article
The authors investigate what determines differences in change in pay between men and women executives who move to new employers. Using proprietary data of 2,034 executive placements from a global search firm, the authors observe narrower pay differences between men and women after job moves. The unconditional gap shrinks from 21.5% in the prior employer to 15% in the new employer. After controlling for typical explanatory factors, the residual gap falls by almost 30%, from 8.5% at the prior employer to 6.1% in the new placement. This change reflects a relative increase in performance-based compensation for women and a lower level of unexplained pay inequality generally in external placements. Controlling for individual fixed effects, observed women have higher pay raises than do men. Finally, the authors find suggestive evidence that pay differences may also be moderated by differences in the supply and demand for women executives.
Article
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Age discrimination at work is a widespread destructive phenomenon that often takes subtle forms. Based on negative stereotypes about older employees, we argue that older employees often experience that they are perceived as less ideal followers than younger employees. We propose that older and younger employees do not differ in what they assume their supervisors expect of an ideal follower (implicit followership theories, IFTs). Thus, we hypothesize that older employees perceive that they compare less favorably to their supervisors' IFTs than younger employees (i.e., worse IFT‐fit). This should entail lower quality of the relationship between leader and follower (leader‐member‐exchange, LMX), which, in turn, should have detrimental effects on employees' health (i.e., burnout) and job attitudes (i.e., job satisfaction, turnover intentions, and identification). We tested our model in a field study with 379 employees. Results differed for ideal and counter‐ideal follower attributes. Concerning counter‐ideal follower attributes (e.g., being incompetent), age had the proposed negative effect on psychological health and job attitudes that mediated through IFT‐fit and LMX. Concerning ideal follower attributes (e.g., thinking ahead), older employees expected their supervisors not only to think less of them than of their younger colleagues, but also expected them to have less demanding IFTs—contrary to our expectations. Employee age was negatively related to psychological health and job attitudes, mediated through lower perceived IFTs, worse perceived appraisal of the actual employee and their joint effects on LMX.
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Although increases in status often lead to more favorable inferences about quality in subsequent evaluations, in this paper, we examine a setting in which an increase to an actor's status results in less favorable quality evaluations, contrary to what much of sociological and management theory would predict. Comparing thousands of reader reviews on Goodreads.com of 64 English-language books that either won or were short-listed for prestigious book awards between 2007 and 2011, we find that prizewinning books tend to attract more readers following the announcement of an award and that readers' ratings of award-winning books tend to decline more precipitously following the announcement of an award relative to books that were named as finalists but did not win. We explain this surprising result, focusing on two mechanisms whereby signals of quality that tend to promote adoption can subsequently have a negative impact on evaluation. First, we propose that the audience evaluating a high-status actor or object tends to shift as a result of a public status shock, like an award, increasing in number but also in diverse tastes. We outline how this shift might translate into less favorable evaluations of quality. Second, we show that the increase in popularity that tends to follow a status shock is off-putting to some, also resulting in more negative evaluations. We show that our proposed mechanisms together explain the negative effect of status on evaluations in the context of the literary world.
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Significance We identify a profound and consistent gender gap in entrepreneurship, a central path to job creation, economic growth, and prosperity. Across a field setting (three entrepreneurial pitch competitions in the United States) and two controlled experiments, we find that investors prefer entrepreneurial pitches presented by male entrepreneurs compared with pitches presented by female entrepreneurs, even when the content of the pitch is the same. This effect is moderated by male physical attractiveness: attractive males are particularly persuasive, whereas physical attractiveness does not matter among female entrepreneurs. These findings fundamentally advance the science related to gender, physical attractiveness, psychological persuasion, bias, role expectations, and entrepreneurship.
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examines efforts to understand how individuals differ in risk taking / begin by outlining six conceptual approaches to studying risk taking / our review of research using these approaches finds evidence of both individual and situational differences in risk taking, i.e. understanding risk taking requires understanding both individual traits and risk-taking situations / organize our survey of individual differences in risk taking by situational categories, follow this with a look at several intersituational studies and what they find, and end with a general discussion and summary of these efforts personality characteristic or situation / risk as physical sensation / risk in games and lotteries / risk in everyday life experiences / risk in business and finance (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A model that describes conditions influencing the display of gender-related behavior is presented as a supplement to existent models of sex differences. Whereas many previous models stress the importance of distal factors, our model emphasizes the degree to which gender-related behavior is variable, proximally caused, and context dependent. More specifically, we propose that gender-related behaviors are influenced by the expectations of perceivers, self-systems of the target, and situational cues. This model of gender-related behavior builds on theory and data in the areas of (a) expectancy confirmation processes and (b) self-verification and self-presentation strategies. Support for the model is presented, and suggestions are offered for its future development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Explanations of gender inequality typically emphasize individual characteristics, the structure of internal labor markets, or pressures from the institutional environment. Extending the structuralist and institutional perspectives, this article argues that the demographic composition of an organization's exchange partners can influence the demographic composition of the focal organization when the focal organization is dependent upon its partners. Specifically, law firms with women-led corporate clients increase the number of partners who are women attorneys. Data on elite law firms and their publicly traded clients support a bargaining power hypothesis whereby law firms promote women attorneys when their corporate clients have women in three key leadership positions: general (legal) counsel, chief executive officer, and board director. These effects are stronger when the law firm has few clients, reinforcing the hypothesis that interorganizational influence is more vital when a focal organization is dependent on its exchange partner. The results also support a related explanation based on homophily theory. The analysis rules out several alternative explanations and establishes a relationship between the presence of women-led clients and the promotion of women attorneys in law firms.
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Expectation states theory is, in many ways, a textbook example of a theoretical research program. It is deductive, programmatic, formalized mathematically, cumulative, precise, and predictive; and its propositions have been subjected to rigorous evaluation. More importantly, however, it is a theory that illuminates core issues in social psychology and sociology more broadly. It is fundamentally a “macro-micro-macro” explanation about one way that categorical inequality is reproduced in society. Cultural beliefs about social categories at the macro level impact behavior and evaluation at the individual level, which acts to reproduce status structures that are consistent with pre-existing macro-level beliefs. Status structures in groups can be thought of as the building blocks of more macro-level structural inequalities in society. For example, to the extent that status processes make it less likely for women in work groups to emerge or be accepted as leaders, in the aggregate we will observe that more men than women hold leadership positions in organizations, a stratification pattern that is reproduced at least partially by the way macro-level beliefs impact individual behaviors and evaluations. By focusing on the role of differentiated performance expectations, expectation states theory provides a unifying explanation for how reward structures, behavioral patterns, and macro-level beliefs about a diverse array of social categories produce similar effects on the organization of interactional status hierarchies, the building blocks of societal stratification. It helps us understand how inequitable structures emerge in these smaller structures, which increases our understanding of the emergence and reproduction of inequality in society more generally.
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How much are we influenced by an author's identity when evaluating his or her work? This paper exploits a natural experiment to measure the impact of status signals in the context of open standards development. For a period of time, e-mails announcing new submissions to the Internet Engineering Task Force would replace individual author names with “et al.” if submission volumes were unusually high. We measure the impact of status signals by comparing the effect of obscuring high- versus low-status author names. Our results show that name-based signals can explain up to three-quarters of the difference in publication rates between high- and low-status authors. The signaling effect disappears for a set of prescreened proposals that receive more scrutiny than a typical submission, suggesting that status signals are more important when attention is scarce (or search costs high). We also show that submissions from high-status authors receive more attention on electronic discussion boards, which may help high-status authors to develop their ideas and bring them forward to publication. This paper was accepted by Jesper Sørensen, organizations.
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Hit songs, books, and movies are many times more successful than average, suggesting that “the best” alternatives are qualitatively different from “the rest”; yet experts routinely fail to predict which products will succeed. We investigated this paradox experimentally, by creating an artificial “music market” in which 14,341 participants downloaded previously unknown songs either with or without knowledge of previous participants' choices. Increasing the strength of social influence increased both inequality and unpredictability of success. Success was also only partly determined by quality: The best songs rarely did poorly, and the worst rarely did well, but any other result was possible.
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Although knowledge sharing among competitors is seemingly counterintuitive, scholars have found that competitors share knowledge under certain conditions: among actors who have a preexisting relationship and who expect direct reciprocity. However, there are examples of knowledge sharing among competitors that cannot fully be explained using these relational mechanisms. In this study, I propose that in markets where competitors are a set of key stakeholders, knowledge sharing is a strategic response to high levels of buy-in uncertainty related to a potential opportunity, namely, the likelihood that stakeholders will come to realize the value of a potential opportunity in a timely fashion. Using a unique data set of knowledge sharing among investment professionals on a digital platform, this study leverages variation in the platform's knowledge-sharing structure to test this theory. I find that knowledge sharing among these competitors is most likely when buy-in uncertainty for a given opportunity is high and that this knowledge sharing does lead to subsequent buy-in.
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This paper tests the assumption that evaluators are biased to positively evaluate high-status individuals, irrespective of quality. Using unique data from Major League Baseball umpires' evaluation of pitch quality, which allow us to observe the difference in a pitch's objective quality and in its perceived quality as judged by the umpire, we show that umpires are more likely to overrecognize quality by expanding the strike zone, and less likely to underrecognize quality by missing pitches in the strike zone for high-status pitchers. Ambiguity and the pitcher's reputation as a “control pitcher” moderate the effect of status on umpire judgment. Furthermore, we show that umpire errors resulting from status bias lead to actual performance differences for the pitcher and team. Data, as supplemental material, are available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.2014.1967 . This paper was accepted by Jesper Sørensen, organizations.
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We present the results of an experiment that explores whether women are less willing than men to guess on multiple-choice tests. Our test consists of practice questions from SAT II history tests; we vary whether a penalty is imposed for a wrong answer and the salience of the evaluative nature of the task. We find that when no penalty is assessed for a wrong answer, all test takers answer every question. But, when there is a penalty for wrong answers, women answer significantly fewer questions than men. We see no differences in knowledge of the material or confidence in the test takers, and differences in risk preferences explain less than half of the observed gap. Making the evaluative aspect of the test more salient does not impact the gender gap. We show that, conditional on their knowledge of the material, test takers who skip questions do significantly worse on our test. Data, as supplemental material, are available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.2013.1776 This paper was accepted by Uri Gneezy, behavioral economics.
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The percent female of an occupation lowers the pay it offers to both men and women, net of skill demands, nonpecuniary amenities and disamenities, and industrial and organizational characteristics. Net of these variables, including percent female, occupations involving nurturance offer lower wages to both men and women. We interpret these net wage penalties for working in a more female occupation, and for doing nurturant work, as sex discrimination in wage setting; occupations and types of skill are devalued because they are typically done by women. We suggest a thesis of the gendered valuation of roles and skills. The sex gap in pay would be reduced by policies mandating comparable worth in setting occupations' pay levels. Other factors contributing to the sex gap in pay include men's higher representation in jobs with authority and in occupations typically located in higher paying industries. Some nonpecuniary amenities and disamenities affect pay consistent with the theory of compensating differentials, but these make no contribution to the sex gap in pay.
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Status characteristics constitute significant elements of small group and societal stratification systems, and understanding their creation has theoretical and practical importance. We generalize Ridgeway's pathbreaking theory of status construction in three stages. First, we show that a conceptual change, using goal objects instead of exchangeable resources, permits us to explain the creation of many more status characteristics. Second, we explicate an interaction mechanism, behavior interchange patterns, that can transform other characteristics into status characteristics, even creating status differences where no characteristic is salient. Third, we show how new characteristics themselves can be created and given status value from deviance and personality attribution processes. We briefly note some parallels with other theorists'work, suggest some independent tests, and consider theoretical and applied implications of this work. Murray Webster, is Professor of Sociology at the University of North Carolina, Charlotte. With John Skorvetz and Joseph Whitmeyer (and supported by the National Science Foundation), he is conducting research to extend a dynamic model of task group differentiation. With Joseph Whitmeyer he is developing a theory of secondorder expectations and behavior, and with Guillermina Jasso he is testing and extending a theory of comparison processes and fair earnings for women and men.
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This article presents the results from two expectation-states studies on gender and double standards for task competence. The emergence of such standards under several experimental conditions is investigated. In both studies, men and women, participating in opposite-sex dyads, worked first individually and then as a team in solving a perceptual task. As predicted, result from Experiment 1 show that although subjects of both sexes achieved equal levels of performance, women were held to a stricter standard of competence than men. This difference was more pronounced when the referent of the standard was the partner rather than self. Experimetn 2 investigates the extent to which the double standard is affected by level of accountability for one's assessments. Results show a significant difference by sex of referent of standard when accountability was low, but not when it was increased. In both studies, measures of perceived competence in self and in partner reflected reported standards, as predicted. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
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In a market context, a status effect occurs when actors are accorded differential recognition for their efforts depending on their location in a status ordering, holding constant the quality of these efforts. In practice, because it is very difficult to measure quality, this ceteris paribus proviso often precludes convincing empirical assessments of the magnitude of status effects. We address this problem by examining the impact of a major status-conferring prize that shifts actors' positions in a prestige ordering. Specifically, using a precisely constructed matched sample, we estimate the effect of a scientist becoming a Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) Investigator on citations to articles the scientist published before the prize was awarded. We do find evidence of a postappointment citation boost, but the effect is small and limited to a short window of time. Consistent with theories of status, however, the effect of the prize is significantly larger when there is uncertainty about article quality, and when prize winners are of (relatively) low status at the time of election to the HHMI Investigator Program. This paper was accepted by David Hsu, entrepreneurship and innovation.
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Existing explanations of tokenism predict similar experiences for all numerically small, low-status groups. These explanations, however, cannot account for variation in the experiences of different low-status minority groups within the same setting. This article develops a theory of tokenism that explains such variation. Drawing on 117 interviews in the leveraged buyout industry (LBO) and a comparison of the differing experiences of female and African American male tokens in that setting, I argue that tokenism is contingent on the local cultural context in which it is embedded. Specifically, I identify two elements of an occupation’s culture—its hierarchy of cultural resources and its image of the ideal worker—that can specify some status characteristics as more relevant to and incompatible with the occupation’s work than others. In LBO, the industry values cultural resources that, on average, women lack but men possess, and the ideal worker is defined such that it directly conflicts with cultural beliefs about motherhood. Consequently, in this context, gender is a more relevant status characteristic for exclusion than is race, and female tokens are differentially disadvantaged. In addition to revising received wisdom about tokenism, this study integrates and advances social psychological and cultural theories of exclusion by deepening our understanding of the role of cultural resources and schemas in occupational inequality.
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We report on an experiment that utilizes an application-files design to recreate several features of a hiring decision for junior-engineer positions. The critical situation under study involved an assessor (either male or female) and a male and a female candidate with highly similar professional qualifications but different self-presentation styles. We investigate effects from sex category of assessor, sex category and self-presentation of pair of candidates, and type of assessment decision (namely, choice between the two applicants, and ratings of their competence and suitability). Our hypotheses consider both gender as status and as social identity, and predict different outcomes depending on assessment decision. We found no evidence of bias against the female applicant. The question about competence elicited effects from self-presentation only, from both men and women; the choice of applicant and suitability measures show no bias against the female candidate by men and a bias in her favor by women.
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It is common for scholars interested in race and poverty to invoke a lack of access to job networks as one of the reasons that African Americans and Hispanics face difficulties in the labor market. Much research has found, however, that minorities do worse when they use personal networks in job finding. Research in this area has been hampered by the complicated and multi-step nature of the job-finding process and by the lack of appropriate comparison data for demonstrating the various ways in which minorities can be isolated from good job opportunities. We seek to specify what it means to say that minorities are cut off from job networks. Building on the literature on social networks in the labor market, we delineate the various mechanisms by which minorities can be isolated from good job opportunities. We examine how these mechanisms operate, using unique data on the chain of network contacts that funnel to an employer offering desirable jobs. We find that network factors operate at several stages of the recruitment process. We find scant evidence, however, that these network factors serve to cut off minorities from employment in this setting. We conclude with a discussion of the theoretical and methodological implications of the case for the study of networks, race, and hiring.
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This paper argues that the efficiency of the price-setting process in the stock market is contingent on the coherence of a stock's position in the industry-based classificatory structure that guides valuation. While this structure helps investors interpret ambiguous economic news, it is imperfect because stocks vary in the extent to which they are coherently classified, as revealed by the stocks'position in the network of coverage by securities analysts. The main hypotheses are that incoherent stocks are traded more often because such stocks are more likely to be subject to differences in the interpretive models used to understand material information; and that both volume and volatility are higher for incoherent stocks because convergence on a common interpretation relies more heavily on self-recursive market dynamics. These hypotheses are validated via analyses of market activity in the aftermath of first-quarter earnings announcements for U.S.- based firms from 1995 to 2001. The results help reorient research away from debates as to whether financial-market activity is excessive and toward the mechanisms that underlie such activity. More generally, the approach advanced in this paper illustrates how structural sociology may illuminate the structural bounds on market efficiency.
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This article explores the social processes that produce penalties for illegitimate role performance. It is proposed that such penalties are illuminated in markets that are significantly mediated by product critics. In particular, it is argued that failure to gain reviews by the critics who specialize in a product's intended category reflects confusion over the product's identity and that such illegitimacy should depress demand. The validity of this assertion is tested among public American firms in the stock market over the years 1985-94. It is shown that the stock price of an American firm was discounted to the extent that the firm was not covered by the securities analysts who specialized in its industries. This analysis holds implications for the study of role conformity in both market and nonmarket settings and adds sociological insight to the recent "behavioral" critique of the prevailing "efficient-market" perspective on capital markets.
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This paper proposes that organizations overcome problems of market uncertainty by adopting a principle of exclusivity in selecting exchange partners. This general proposition in turn implies two specific hypotheses. First, the greater the market uncertainty, the more that organizations engage in exchange relations with those with whom they have transacted in the past. Second, the greater the uncertainty, the more that organizations engage in transactions with those of similar status. A study of investment banking relationships in the investment grade and non-investment-grade debt markets from 1981 to 1987 provides support for the hypotheses. The implications of this analysis for stratification and concentration in the market are discussed.
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Gender inequality in paid work persists, in the form of a gender wage gap, occupational sex segregation and a “glass ceiling” for women, despite substantial institutional change in recent decades. Two classes of explanations that have been offered as partial explanations of persistent gender inequality include economic theories of statistical discrimination and social psychological theories of status-based discrimination. Despite the fact that the two theories offer explanations for the same phenomena, little effort has been made to compare them, and practitioners of one theory are often unfamiliar with the other. In this article, we assess both theories. We argue that the principal difference between the two theories lies in the mechanism by which discrimination takes place: discrimination in statistical models derives from an informational bias, while discrimination in status models derives from a cognitive bias. We also consider empirical assessments of both explanations, and find that while research has generally been more supportive of status theories than statistical theories, statistical theories have been more readily evoked as explanations for gender inequalities in the paid labor market. We argue that status theories could be more readily applied to understanding gender inequality by adopting the broader conception of performance favored by statistical discrimination theories. The goal is to build on the strong empirical base of status characteristic theory, but draw on statistical discrimination theories to extend its ability to explain macro level gender inequalities.
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▪ Abstract The gender system includes processes that both define males and females as different in socially significant ways and justify inequality on the basis of that difference. Gender is different from other forms of social inequality in that men and women interact extensively within families and households and in other role relations. This high rate of contact between men and women raises important questions about how interaction creates experiences that confirm, or potentially could undermine, the beliefs about gender difference and inequality that underlie the gender system. Any theory of gender difference and inequality must accommodate three basic findings from research on interaction. (a). People perceive gender differences to be pervasive in interaction. (b). Studies of interaction among peers with equal power and status show few gender differences in behavior. (c). Most interactions between men and women occur in the structural context of roles or status relationships that are unequal. These s...
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this paper presents a conceptualization that includes defining standard (either for ability or for lack of ability) as either "stricter" or "more lenient" than another, and defining expectations as either "strong" or "weak," depending on whether or not they meet given standards this is followed by a review of selected literature and an outline of several processes to be investigated in this area, with special attention to the use of double standards the paper also illustrates the advantages of studying a variety of problems within the context of the expectation states program (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Used expectation states theory to develop hypotheses concerning the evaluation of an individual in an experiment that recreated several features of a hiring decision in a professional field. Variables examined included sex of applicant, sex of assessor, applicant's academic record, and type of decision. 51 male and 53 female undergraduates read the files of job candidates and made hiring recommendations. Academic record had a stronger effect than either sex of applicant or sex of assessor. Effects of sex of applicant were noticeable in reward allocations but not in ability assignment, and they were affected by the applicant's record. Rewards show bias against the female when her record was average but not when it was outstanding. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This experiment recreates several features of the selection of candidates for junior professional positions. The situation of central interest involves an assessor (either male or female) and a pair consisting of a male and a female applicant with either equivalent or slightly different academic records. We also investigate effects from quality of record (either excellent or poor) and type of decision (namely, choice between applicants, and ratings of competence and suitability). Our hypotheses consider both gender as social status and as social identity, and predict different outcomes depending on decision type. In line with those predictions, findings show that, at both levels of performance, the question about competence elicited effects only from the two applicants' relative academic standing, while the choice and suitability measures show effects from that standing as well as from sex category of applicant and of assessor. Results and their interpretation are presented and discussed in detail.
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This article reviews theory and research on double standards, namely, the use of different requirements for the inference of possession of an attribute, de-pending on the individuals being assessed. The article focuses on double standards for competence in task groups and begins by examining how status characteristics (e.g. gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic class) become a basis for stricter standards for the lower status person. I also discuss other bases for this practice (e.g. personality charac-teristics, allocated rewards, sentiments of either like or dislike). Next, I describe double standards in the inference of other types of valued attributes (e.g. beauty, morality, men-tal health) and examine the relationship between these practices and competence double standards. The article concludes with a discussion of "reverse" double standards for competence, namely, the practice of applying more lenient ability standards to lower status individuals.
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This paper shows that gender di®erences exist in a professional setting where man-agers have a similar educational background and work experience. Using data from the U.S. mutual fund industry we find that female managers are more risk averse, follow less extreme and more consistent investment styles and trade less than male managers. Although female and male managers do not differ in average performance, female man-agers receive significantly lower inflows. This suggests that they might be stereotyped as less skilled. Furthermore, they mainly work in companies that are large, well established and that are located in less conservative states of the U.S. --
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Focusing empirically on what affected client defections from Arthur Andersen during its dramatic collapse in 2002, this study proposes that accountability-induced status anxiety is an important factor in the dissolution of interfirm relationships. Status anxiety - concerns about being devalued because other actors question the quality of a firm's partners - can motivate firms to disassociate themselves from their compromised high-status partners to protect their own status position. I hypothesize that accountability triggers status anxiety when firms are directly accountable to important audiences, when firms are surrounded by other firms that already have disassociated themselves from common partners, and when firms have committed themselves to a particular level of partner quality. Event-history analyses provide strong support for the accountability perspective on status anxiety: firms surrounded by stronger audiences, more defecting firms, and stronger commitments to audit quality were themselves more likely to defect.
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Examines how the performance of young firms is influenced by their interorganizational exchange networks and whether the prominence of business partners affects the ability to acquire critical resources, particularly capital. The following four hypotheses are posited: (1) the greater the prominence of the strategic alliance partners of a young company, the better the performance of the new venture; (2) the greater the prominence of the organizations that have acquired ownership stakes in a young company, the better the performance of the new venture; (3) the greater the prominence of the investment bank of a young company, the better the performance of the new venture; and (4) the greater the uncertainty about the quality of the company, the larger the impact of the prominence of the firm's exchange partners on its performance. Data used to test these hypotheses were gathered from 301 young, venture-capital-backed biotechnology firms. Results from the empirical analysis provide strong evidence that the characteristics and prominence of organizations affiliated with young firms have a direct affect on performance. Firms launch IPOs faster and the IPOs earn greater market value with reputable partners. In addition, the advantage of having prominent affiliates is contingent on the level of uncertainty about the startup's quality. The greater the uncertainty, the more that outside evaluators depend upon the prominence of affiliates to draw inferences about the firm's quality. It is clearly demonstrated that sponsorship has the capacity to substitute for accomplishment and experience as a basis for young firms' success. However, experience and accomplishments take on added significance for firms that lack notable sponsors. (SFL)
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Four studies tested a prediction derived from the shifting-standards model (Biernat, Manis, & Nelson, 1991) regarding the role stereotypes play in judgments of individual group members. Previous research has documented that stereotyping effects are stronger on objective than on subjective response scales, and the present studies found that these effects were intensified when participants were under heavy cognitive load. Stereotyping effects increased on objective judgment scales, but decreased on subjective scales. The latter is a paradoxical effect: By relying on stereotypes, one may increasingly use them as within-category comparative standards, which leads to the apparent reduction of stereotyping effects.
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A two-stage disaggregate attribute choice model is proposed and empirically implemented. The first stage of the model is attribute processing to screen the number of alternatives down to a lesser number. The second stage is brand (alternative) processing which considers the attributes simultaneously while allowing for tradeoffs among the attributes. This two-stage approach is then applied to the same real world data set as two single stage disaggregate models, logit and Maximum-Likelihood-Hierarchical (MLH) which are state of the art models representing the alternative and attribute processing approaches, respectively. The predictive accuracy of the two-stage approach compares favorably to the single stage models. In addition, it seems to offer diagnostic information that can provide managerial insights not found in the output of the single stage model.
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Despite the explosive growth of electronic commerce and the rapidly increasing number of consumers who use interactive media (such as the World Wide Web) for prepurchase information search and online shopping, very little is known about how consumers make purchase decisions in such settings. A unique characteristic of online shopping environments is that they allow vendors to create retail interfaces with highly interactive features. One desirable form of interactivity from a consumer perspective is the implementation of sophisticated tools to assist shoppers in their purchase decisions by customizing the electronic shopping environment to their individual preferences. The availability of such tools, which we refer to as interactive decision aids for consumers, may lead to a transformation of the way in which shoppers search for product information and make purchase decisions. The primary objective of this paper is to investigate the nature of the effects that interactive decision aids may have on consumer decision making in online shopping environments. While making purchase decisions, consumers are often unable to evaluate all available alternatives in great depth and, thus, tend to use two-stage processes to reach their decisions. At the first stage, consumers typically screen a large set of available products and identify a subset of the most promising alternatives. Subsequently, they evaluate the latter in more depth, perform relative comparisons across products on important attributes, and make a purchase decision. Given the different tasks to be performed in such a two-stage process, interactive tools that provide support to consumers in the following respects are particularly valuable: (1) the initial screening of available products to determine which ones are worth considering further, and (2) the in-depth comparison of selected products before making the actual purchase decision. This paper examines the effects of two decision aids, each designed to assist consumers in performing one of the above tasks, on purchase decision making in an online store. The first interactive tool, a recommendation agent (RA), allows consumers to more efficiently screen the (potentially very large) set of alternatives available in an online shopping environment. Based on self-explicated information about a consumer's own utility function (attribute importance weights and minimum acceptable attribute levels), the RA generates a personalized list of recommended alternatives. The second decision aid, a comparison matrix (CM), is designed to help consumers make in-depth comparisons among selected alternatives. The CM allows consumers to organize attribute information about multiple products in an alternatives × attributes matrix and to have alternatives sorted by any attribute. Based on theoretical and empirical work in marketing, judgment and decision making, psychology, and decision support systems, we develop a set of hypotheses pertaining to the effects of these two decision aids on various aspects of consumer decision making. In particular, we focus on how use of the RA and CM affects consumers' search for product information, the size and quality of their consideration sets, and the quality of their purchase decisions in an online shopping environment. A controlled experiment using a simulated online store was conducted to test the hypotheses. The results indicate that both interactive decision aids have a substantial impact on consumer decision making. As predicted, use of the RA reduces consumers' search effort for product information, decreases the size but increases the quality of their consideration sets, and improves the quality of their purchase decisions. Use of the CM also leads to a decrease in the size but an increase in the quality of consumers' consideration sets, and has a favorable effect on some indicators of decision quality. In sum, our findings suggest that interactive tools designed to assist consumers in the initial screening of available alternatives and to facilitate in-depth comparisons among selected alternatives in an online shopping environment may have strong favorable effects on both the quality and the efficiency of purchase decisions—shoppers can make much better decisions while expending substantially less effort. This suggests that interactive decision aids have the potential to drastically transform the way in which consumers search for product information and make purchase decisions.
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Experimental economics is a rapidly growing field of inquiry, and there currently exist several textbooks and surveys describing the results of laboratory experiments in economics. This primer, however, is the first hands-on guide to the physical aspects of actually conducting experiments in economics. It tells researchers, teachers and students in economics how to deal with human subjects, how to design meaningful laboratory environments, how to design experiments, how to conduct experiments and how to analyse and report the data. It also deals with methodological issues. It can be used to structure an undergraduate or graduate course in experimental economics.
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This chapter summarizes recent research in economics that investigates differentials by race and gender in the labor market. We start with a statistical overview of the trends in labor market outcomes by race, gender and Hispanic origin, including some simple regressions on the determinants of wages and employment. This is followed in Section 3 by an extended review of current theories about discrimination in the labor market, including recent extensions of taste-based theories, theories of occupational exclusion, and theories of statistical discrimination. Section 4 discusses empirical research that provides direct evidence of discrimination in the labor market, beyond “unexplained gaps” in wage or employment regressions. The remainder of the chapter reviews the evidence on race and gender gaps, particularly wage gaps. Section 5 reviews research on the impact of pre-market human capital differences in education and family background that differ by race and gender. Section 6 reviews the impact of differences in both the levels and the returns to experience and seniority, with discussion of the role of training and labor market search and turnover on race and gender differentials. Section 7 reviews the role of job characteristics (particularly occupational characteristics) in the gender wage gap. Section 8 reviews the smaller literature on differences in fringe benefits by gender. Section 9 is an extensive discussion of the empirical work that accounts for changes in the trends in race and gender differentials over time. Of particular interest is the new research literature that investigates the impact of widening wage inequality on race and gender wage gaps. Section 10 reviews research that relates policy changes to race and gender differentials, including anti-discrimination policy. The chapter concludes with comments about a future research agenda.
One hundred male and female MBA students evaluated a woman applicant for a managerial position when the proportion of women in the applicant pool was varied. Results indicated that personnel decisions of both males and females were significantly more unfavorable when women represented 25% or less of the total pool. Additional findings suggest that this effect was mediated by the degree to which sex stereotypes predominated in forming impressions of applicants. The results were interpreted as supportive of the thesis that situational factors can function to reduce the adverse effects of sex stereotypes in employment settings.
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