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Morpho-Anatomical and Biochemical Responses of Plants to Air Pollution

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Abstract

Air pollution has been aggravated by developments that typically occur as countries become industrialized: growing cities, increasing traffic, rapid economic development and industrialization, and higher energy consumption. The development of sustainable and cost effective technologies for air pollution abatement is one of the promising areas of research. The quest of an alternative eco-friendly technology relating to restoration of urban ecosystem has resulted in the study of influence of air pollutants on plants as an integral part of pollution ecology. Although, review relating to use of plant species in controlling air pollution have been carried, but extensive review on the use of anatomical, morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters of plants of urban forest as biomarkers of air pollution has not been done. The objective of this paper is to review the responses of plants to air pollution.
International Journal of Modern Botany 2017, 7(1): 1-11
DOI: 10.5923/j.ijmb.20170701.01
Morpho-Anatomical and Biochemical Responses of
Plants to Air Pollution
Uka U. N.1,2,*, Hogar J.1, Belford E. J. D.1
1Department of Theoretical and Applied Biology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
2Department of Applied Biology, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria
Abstract Air pollution has been aggravated by developments that typically occur as countries become industrialized:
growing cities, increasing traffic, rapid economic development and industrialization, and higher energy consumption. The
development of sustainable and cost effective technologies for air pollution abatement is one of the promising areas of
research. The quest of an alternative eco-friendly technology relating to restoration of urban ecosystem has resulted in the
study of influence of air pollutants on plants as an integral part of pollution ecology. Although, review relating to use of plant
species in controlling air pollution have been carried, but extensive review on the use of anatomical, morphological,
physiological and biochemical parameters of plants of urban forest as biomarkers of air pollution has not been done. The
objective of this paper is to review the responses of plants to air pollution.
Keywords Air Pollution Tolerance Index, Anticipated performance Index, Micromorphological, Physiological,
Biochemical
1. Introduction
The atmosphere is one of the key components of the
environment that is vital for the welfare of urban inhabitants.
Climatic conditions straightforwardly impacts life and
property. Air is a valuable normal asset that structures the
premise of human presence on earth. Climatic air gives
oxygen to plants and creatures by which they are to live.
Clean air contains 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen 0.93% argon,
0.038% carbon dioxide and other follow gases [17]. A
variety in the vaporous piece of earth's air emerging from
human exercises is a noteworthy worry of the world today.
The consistent increment in human populace, vehicular
movement and commercial enterprises had brought about
high concentration of gaseous and particulate pollutants [34].
Air quality decides the wellbeing status of the general
population. Lately, there has been an incredible increment in
urban populace. It has been accounted for by United Nations
Environment Program (2006) that more than 350 urban
communities of the world are having a populace of more than
One Million individuals. Quick urbanization has brought
about expanding urban air contamination in significant urban
communities, particularly in developing nations. Expansive
measure of pollutants has been transmitted as a consequence
of this urbanization and industrialization which invariably
* Corresponding author:
ufereuka@gmail.com (Uka U. N.)
Published online at http://journal.sapub.org/ijmb
Copyright © 2017 Scientific & Academic Publishing. All Rights Reserved
has its many environmental issues such as air, water and
noise pollution as well as waste management [10]. In urban
and Industrial regions and in addition it’s encompassing
zones around the world, air quality distortion is major
ecological issue [46].
It has been accounted for that urban outside air
contamination is in charge of 49,000 unexpected losses in
Africa yearly. In Africa, 35% of malady rate is brought on by
natural impact [25]. It is assessed that more than 1 billion
individuals are presented to open air contamination yearly.
Urban air contamination is connected to up to 1 million
unexpected losses and 1 million pre-local passings every
year. Urban air contamination is evaluated to cost around 2%
of GDP in developed nations and 5% in developing nations.
A late report discharged by the Harvard School of Public
Health showed that air contamination from traffic congestion
adds to more than 2,200 unexpected losses every year in the
United States costs the health system a huge amount of
money. In a large portion of the world's developing
economies, many of the vehicles are older and the damage
to people’s health from pollution may be much worse than in
advanced economies. The adjustment of surrounding
environment emerging from air pollution in urban region is
applying a significant impact on the morphological,
biochemical and physiological status of plants, and in this
manner its reactions. The unsafe impacts of air
contamination on plants are all around perceived [96, 110].
Plant reactions to air pollution are useful in early diagnosis of
airborne contaminants; estimating the concentration of
pollutants and getting direct distinguishing proof of various
2 Uka U. N. et al.: Morpho-Anatomical and Biochemical Responses of Plants to Air Pollution
air pollutants on the premise of plant species. The main focus
of the review highlights the effects of air pollution on the
anatomical, micromorphological, physiological,
biochemical and enzymatic activities of plants.
2. Impact of Air Pollution on Micro
Morphology and Anatomy of Plants
The utilizing of the tree leaves as aggregate biomonitors of
air pollution is of incredible environmental significance
[11, 114]. The leaves go about as air pollution receptors and
biological absorbers or filters of pollutants [113, 23],
shockingly not as much as consideration has been given to
morphological and anatomical parameters of plants as
markers of reactions to changing urban environment quality
[8]. It has been accounted for that morpho-anatomical
adjustments are promising measures to gauge the air quality
of the urban habitat [22].
Studies have recorded changes in plants because of a wide
range of environmental pollutants, and the vast majority of
these works allude to physiological modifications [36, 54,
74]. Stomatal and epidermal cell size, lower recurrence,
thickening of cell wall, epicuticular wax deposition
alterations and chlorosis are among the auxiliary alterations
in leaves subjected to air pollution [87, 92, 101]. A few
authors considered foliar epidemis as a bioindicator of
environmental quality [60, 5, 8]. [101] observed that general
plant development was influenced with serious mutilations
in foliar epidermal characters. It likewise brought up the
significance of the cuticle and epidermal features in the
determination of resistance/ sensitivity of each species to
environmental pollutants.
The histo-anatomical structure of the leaves of some
Fabaceae species as influenced through air contamination
demonstrated a stomatal abatement in size and increment to
thickness of leaves and additionally dark phenolic deposits in
palisade and light parenchyma [26]. Studies on impact of
micromorphology and leaf epidermal components of plants
revealed that in the polluted sites, leaves became smaller
with reduced length and width and stomata index per leaves
area [88].
[58] reported that Nerium indicum Mill., Boerhaavia
diffusa L., Amaranthus spinosus L., Cephalandra indica
Naud and Tabernaemontana divaricata L. can without much
of a stretch maintain a strategic distance from the impacts of
air pollution by modifying their physiological pathways
relating to photosynthesis and respiration. Stomatal closure
of Boerhaavia, Amaranthus, Cephlandra and stomatal
clogging up in Nerium and Tabernaemontana help these
plants in preventing the entry of poisonous gases.
[84] reported that acclimatization of plants to air pollution
may change their morphological structure, for example,
thicker epidermal cells and more trichomes. [67] examined
the anatomic and morphological attributes of normal birch
Betula pendula (Roth.) leaves influenced by industrial
emissions. The most clear negative changes showed up as the
decrease in the thickness of the cuticle and width of the lower
epidermis cells. A factually critical increment in the
thickness of the pallisade and elastic mesophyll, thickness of
a lamina and thickness of the upper epidermis tissue were
determined as the adaptive changes. In a study directed on
the foliar epidermal characteristics of C.siamea, [80]
discovered increment in densities of stomata, trichomes and
epidermal cells, longer trichomes and decrease in size of
epidermal cells at polluted sites when contrasted with at
reference site.
[49] investigated the cuticular and epidermal elements of
Syzygium cuminii L. and Lantana camara L. growing near a
diesel generator set and at a control site. They watched
extremely noteworthy contrasts in trichome recurrence,
stomatal opening and callus arrangement in the two sets. In
another study, [48] reported significant structural changes on
leaf surface structures of Calotropis procera L. and, Nerium
indicum L. under the impact of automobile exhausts
pollutants
[32] reported structural and micro-morphological changes
in leaves of Salix alba as brought on through air pollution.
[40] reported that reduction in size of epidermal cell and
stomata, and increment in the quantity of epidermal cells,
stomata and trichomes occur on exposure to SO2
contamination.
[57] explored the anatomical and micromorphological
modifications in leaves of Eugenia uniflora and Clutia
robusta subjected to simulated acid rain. There was
disintegration and morphological change of epicuticular wax
in both upper and lower epidermis of the plant. [78]
examined Platanus orientalis leaves subjected to automobile
air pollution in urban and rural sites. At the urban site,
stomatal thickness and stomata widths were lower on leaves
from the urban than those from country site. [109] observed
that air pollution brought on through auto fumes
demonstrated checked modification in epidermal attributes,
with diminished number of stomata, stomata records and
epidermal cells per unit zone, while length and
expansiveness of stomata and epidermal cells were observed
to be expanded in leaves samples, in this manner its use as
biomarkers of auto pollution.
Decrease in leaf surface range and length of petiole causes
less contact with natural toxins, particularly air pollution and
enhances resistance of plants against pollution. Some
physiological unsettling influence may have happened which
brought on decrease in morphological and anatomical
characters of plant species [93]. Leaf length is viewed as one
of the qualities, which mirror the capacity of plant to ensure
against stress [6].
3. Effect of Air Pollution on Ascorbic
Acid Content of Plants
Ascorbic acid content is the measure of ascorbic acid
International Journal of Modern Botany 2017, 7(1): 1-11 3
present in the leaf of a plant. It likewise assumes a critical
part in light response of photosynthesis, actuates guard
component, and under stress condition, it can supplant water
from light response. Ascorbic acid in plants has been shown
to play an important role in pollution tolerance [93]. Be that
as it may it’s reducing activity is pH dependent. High pH
may build the productivity of change from hexose sugar to
Amino Acid (AA). Pollution load dependent increase in
ascorbic acid content of all the plant species may be due to
the increased rate of production of reactive oxygen species
(ROS) during photo-oxidation of SO2 to SO3 where sulfites
are generated from SO2 absorbed. The plants with high
sensitivity to SO2 and NO2 shut the stomata faster when
exposed to the pollutants [101]. However the reducing
activity of ascorbic acid is pH dependent being more at
higher and less at lower pH hence the leaf extract pH on the
higher side gives tolerance to plants against pollution. It has
been reported that a definite correlation between ascorbic
acid content and resistance to pollution exist in plants.
Resistant plants contain high measure of ascorbic acid, while
sensitive plants have a low level of ascorbic acid. In this way,
plants keeping up high ascorbic acid level even under
contaminated conditions are thought to be tolerant to air
pollutions [46].
4. Effect of Air Pollution on Relative
Water Content of Plants
Relative water content (RWC) is the measure of water a
plant contains when it is unequipped for taking in more water.
This state is known as full saturation. A plant does not need
to be in this state so as to survive. In any case, knowing the
rate of water a plant is fit for holding is one approach to
figure out whether a plant is stressed. The high water content
inside of a plant body will keep up its physiological
equalization under stress, such as exposure to air pollution
when the transpiration rates are usually high. High RWC
favours drought resistance in plants. In the event that the leaf
transpiration rate diminishes because of the air pollution,
plant can't live well because of losing its motor that pulls
water up from the roots to supply photosynthesis (1%-2% of
the aggregate). At that point, the plants neither convey
minerals from the roots to leaf where biosynthesis happens,
nor cool the leaf [55]. Leaf water status relies on a few
physiological variables, for example, leaf turgor,
development, stomatal conductance, transpiration,
photosynthesis and respiration. The relative water substance
demonstrates change in leaf grid hydration condition and
will create higher acridity condition when RWC is low. More
water will weaken causticity [71]. Relative water substance
is connected with protoplasmic porousness in cells causes
loss of water and broke up supplements, bringing about right
on time senescence of leaves [4].
5. Effect of Air Pollution on Chlorophyll
Content of Plants
Chlorophyll measurement is an important tool to evaluate
the effects of air pollutants on plants as it plays an important
role in plant metabolism and any reduction in chlorophyll
content corresponds directly to plant growth [111].
Chlorophyll is the chief photoreceptor in photosynthesis, the
light-determined procedure in which carbon dioxide is
"settled" to yield starches and oxygen. Leaf chlorophyll
substance and carotenoids in this manner can give valuable
information about physiological status of plants. Depletion
in chlorophyll immediately causes a decrease in productivity
of plant and subsequently plant exhibits poor vigor.
Consequently, plants keeping up their chlorophyll even
under polluted environment are said to be tolerant ones [100].
Chlorophyll pigments exist on highly organized state, and
under stress they may undergo a few photochemical
responses, for example, oxidation, reduction,
pheophytinisation and reversible bleaching; consequently
any modification in chlorophyll focus may change the
morphological, physiological and biochemical conduct of
the plant [24]. [40] observed a reduction in chlorophyll a,
chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll content, carotenoid, total
sugar, protein, dust-catching limit and leaf size in the
specimens from contaminated sites containing containing
automobile exhaust and industrial pollutants and from
pollution-free. [30] study on automobile exhausts effect on
diverse biochemical parameters of the ordinarily occurring
roadside trees revealed a reduction in total chlorophyll
content, protein and amino acids of F. religiosa, R.communis
and C. papaya leaves in relationship to their different
controls. They were observed changes in biochemical
substance in Cassia occidentalis as a result of auto pollution.
[50] investigated changes in biochemical contents in Cassia
occidentalis in response to automobile pollution and
observed critical reduction in chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b
and total chlorophyll substance.
It is already reported that pollution stress decreases the
chlorophyll level in tree species ([75, 68, 9, 49]. The
chlorophyll content of plant varies from species to species;
age of leaf and also with the pollution level as well as with
other biotic and abiotic conditions [43]. Studies [61] also
suggest that high levels of automobile pollution decreases
chlorophyll content in higher plants near roadsides. Air
pollution emitted from automobiles adversely affected the
ambient air and tree (Ficus religiosa) and (Polyalthia
longifolia) pigments thus can be utilized for urban plantation
and greenbelt development in industrial area to reduce the
level of air pollution [115]. Chlorophyll content of plants
varies from the pollution status of the area i.e. higher the
pollution level in the form of vehicular exhausts lower the
chlorophyll content and as well varies with the tolerance as
well as sensitivity of the plant species i.e. higher the sensitive
4 Uka U. N. et al.: Morpho-Anatomical and Biochemical Responses of Plants to Air Pollution
nature of the plant species lower the chlorophyll content [35].
[24] compared the effect of air pollutants generated from the
exhaust of industries and automobiles on the chlorophyll
content of leaves. Photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a,
chlorophyll b and carotenoids were quantified and a
reduction in the photosynthetic pigments of plant leaves
growing in higher polluted site as compared to none or less
polluted ones was recorded.
6. Effect of Air Pollution on Plant
Carotenoids
Carotenoids are a class of regular fat-dissolvable pigments
located chiefly in plants, green growth and photosynthetic
microscopic organisms, where they assume a basic part in
the photosynthetic process; furthermore shield chlorophyll
from photoxidative destruction [13]. A reduced carotenoid
content under air contamination has been reported [104].
7. Effect of Air Pollution on the Leaf
Extract pH
Leaf extract pH is the pH of the concentrates from the
leaves of the plant. Photosynthesis is diminished in plants
when the leaf pH was low [55]. Plants with low pH are more
prone to air contamination, while those with pH around 7 are
more tolerant [100]. In vicinity of acidic pollutants, the leaf
pH is brought down and decrease extraordinarily in sensitive
species [75]. Consequently, the larger amount of leaf pH
offers resistance to the species against contamination. [91]
have reported that in the presence of acidic pollutant, the leaf
pH is brought down and the decline is more prominent in
sensitive species. A movement in cell sap pH towards the
acidic side in vicinity of an acidic pollutant may diminish the
productivity of transformation of hexose sugar to ascorbic
acid. The relationship between visible injury and hidden
injury using few biochemical parameters, results showed that
pH of the leaf wash and cell sap increased with increase in
distance from pollution sources, pH of the leaf wash and cell
sap gets reduced due to the presence of pollutants, which are
acidic in nature, while total phenol content increases as a
result of air pollution impact [76].
8. Effect of Air Pollution Total Phenol
Air pollution induces qualitative and quantitative changes
in secondary metabolite composition [39, 56]. Phenol acts as
a free radical scavenger to protect plants away from damage
by oxidative stress. The role of phenol in the resistance
mechanism of plants against air pollution was reported by
[15]. In the study, total phenols in the leaves of plants
growing in the polluted site were higher compared to the
control. Increase of the phenolic compound level has also
been observed after the exposure of plants to several toxic
pollutants [83]. Air pollution influences the accumulation of
phenolic content in the leaves [72, 76]. [61] reported that
Changes in concentrations of total flavonoids and phenolics
in Catharanthus roseus L.‖ and ―Ocimum sanctum L. may
serve as biomarkers of urban auto pollution as both the
parameters showed a positive relationship with the vehicular
pollution load across the different sites. [83] have also
reported significant increase in total phenol contents in
wheat under air pollution stress. This is without cost, so
being exposed to pollutants suffers from the damage caused
by air pollution. Consequently, they develop leaf injury
symptoms specific to particular air pollutant or mixture and
alter their metabolism and leaf architecture to acclimatize to
new environment. However, despite these changes, plants
survive well at the polluted environment sites [108].
9. Air Pollution Tolerance Index
Air pollution tolerant index expresses the capacity of a
plant to battle against air contamination. The Air pollution
tolerance index of species is given as [A(T+P)]+ R/10, where
A is the Ascorbic acid content of the leaf in mg/g-1, T is the
aggregate chlorophyll of leaf in mg/g-1, P is the leaf extricate
pH, and R is the percent relative water content of leaf tissue.
The aggregate whole is separated by 10 to acquire a
reasonable figure. Plants which have higher index value are
tolerant to air contamination and can be brought about as
sink to alleviate contamination, while plants with with low
index value show less resistance and can be utilized to
demonstrate be levels of air pollution (Singh and Rao, 1983).
Consequently, on the premise of their indices, diverse plants
may be classified into tolerant, moderately tolerant,
intermediate and sensitive plants [16, 94]. The identification
and categorization of plants into sensitive and tolerant
groups is is fundamental in light of the fact that sensitive
plants serve as markers and tolerant ones as sinks for the
decrease of air contamination in urban and industrial spaces
[99]. In this APTI detailing, the physiological whole A (T+P)
+ R, the expansion of aggregate chlorophyll and leaf pH
values (T+P) was incorporated as they are firmly connected
with one another and a plant needs to keep up their level to
endure contamination stress. The degradation of chlorophyll
in the plants under air pollution stress is straightforwardly
identified with the cell pH under two regimes below and
above 3.5 [85, 116]. The multiplication of ascorbic acid with
(T+P) measures the plant detoxification capacity. A
relationship between's ascorbic acid with chlorophyll is
known. At more than pH 3.5, Superoxide radicals are
dismutated into Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by Superoxide
dismutase (SOD). Ascorbic acid plays important roles in the
protection of chlorophyll from H2O2 induced damage. In this
manner large amounts of ascorbic acid are required by the
plant to gain imperviousness to contamination. As
chlorophyll combination is encouraged by ascorbic acid, a
lessening in ascorbic acid may hamper the chlorophyll union
in green parts of the plant (Agrawal et al, 1991). Since
International Journal of Modern Botany 2017, 7(1): 1-11 5
decreasing force of ascorbic acid shields the chloroplast from
contaminations in pH subordinate way, the presentation of
ascorbic acid (AA) as a multiplicant in the formular A(T+P)
speaks to the limit of chloroplast in moderation of pollutants
after their entrance inside the plant cells. The acquaintance of
relative water content with A (T+P) demonstrates the
capability of cell membrane in maintenance of cell integrity
under polluted conditions. In the interim, T, the TCh is
additionally identified with AA efficiency and AA is packed
chiefly in chloroplasts. Photosynthetic proficiency was noted
emphatically reliant on leaf pH. Photosynthesis decreased in
plants when the leaf pH was low. Consequently, in the
proposed APTI recipe, P, the leaf extract pH and T, the TCh
have been added together and then multiplied with AA
content.
Numerous authors like [17, 99, 1] utilized Ascorbic acid
content, chlorophyll, relative water substance and leaf
extract pH to assess the weakness of a few plants to air
contaminations by registering these four physiological
parameters together in an arrangement implying their air
pollution tolerance index (APTI). Similar study of air
pollution tolerance index was also conducted by [41, 105, 2]
reported that the plants show alteration in the biochemical
processes or accumulation of certain metabolites by the
effect of certain pollutants. The air pollution tolerance
indices (APTI) of ten frequently grown plant species around
Industrial area showed that Pongamia glabra (6.49%) had
the higher APTI value which reflects the higher tolerance
level in air pollution. Similarly Terminalia cattapa (2.1%)
showed lower APTI value which is a reflection of its
sensitive nature against air pollution [51].
[70] exhibited different pollution tolerance capacities of
plant species attributed the APTI values to differential
response from plants to four physiological variables to be
specific: Ascorbic acid, total chlorophyll, leaf extract pH and
relative water content as influenced by air pollution. The
author reported that Delonix regia as the most tolerant plant,
B. Spectabilis, D.erecta and A. occidentalis as modestly
tolerant plants in the study area. An evaluation of air
pollution tolerance index [APTI] of Polyalthia longifolia,
(Sonner) Thw , Alstonia scholaris, R. Br., and Mangifera
indica, L.,during different seasons in the roadside areas
studied revealed Polyalthia longifolia, (Sonner) Thw. to be a
tolerant variety and the others as sensitive species to air
pollutants [35].
[103] studied the susceptibility levels of different plants
on the basis of their Air Pollution Tolerance Indices. Results
revealed Ficus glomerata to be tolerant and Acacia nilotica
to be sensitive species. The evaluation of the resistivity and
susceptibility level of tree species to air pollution on the basis
of Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) value showed that
Polyalthia longifolia, Albizia saman, Azadiracta indica,
Pongamia pinnata, Swietenia mahogany, Michelia
champaca, Millingtonia hortensis and Tamarindus indica
are tolerant to air pollutants and can be used as an effectively
indicators and pollution scavengers.
A study of Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) on plant
species growing at the cross-roads of Ahmedabad city
showed order of tolerance as follows Ficus benghalensis
Ficus religiosa Ficus glomerata Azadiracta indica
Polyalthia longifolia [16]. [71] assessment of air quality
usingair pollution tolerance index approach in polluted sites
concluded that species like , Mangifera indica, Tamarindus
indica Litchi chinensis Artocarpus heterophylls and Delonix
regia can be potentially used for biomonitoring of air quality
in polluted areas.
[2] examined the air pollution tolerance indices (APTI) of
plant species around three industrial areas The result shows
that the most tolerant tree species in the industrial areas with
respect to APTI were Ficus religiosa, Azadirachta indica
and Pongamia pinnata (L.) industrial area and minimum in
Electronic city. [44] opined that changes in air pollution
tolerance index are biochemically induced from ambient
environmental condition and reported Albizia amara to be an
intermediately tolerant species. [66] evaluate air pollution
tolerance index (APTI) of five different plant species around
City area and Navsari Agricultural University campus
(Control). Among the trees in the selected area Cassia fistula
depicted the highest APTI value as compared to other
species followed by Saraca asoca and Sizygium cumini and
proved to be tolerant variety in the city area as per the APTI
value. However, Tectona grandis and Terminalia catapa
found to be intermediate sensitivity for the polluted site (City
area).
[43] initiated the identification of tolerant as well as
sensitive herbal tree and plant species available in the
campus of Periyar University. In the study, 30 herbal trees
and 30 herbal plant species were selected for the evaluation
of Air pollution tolerance index (APTI). The author
concluded that since, biomonitoring of plants is an important
tool to evaluate the impact of air pollution on plants, the tree
species such as Empilica offficinalis, Callistemon citrinus,
Pithecellobium dulce, and plant species such as Withonia
somnifera, Chrysanthemum coronariums, and Mirabilis
jalaba can be used as biomonitors of vehicular pollution
stress. [7] evaluated pollution tolerance indices of plant
species growing within the locality of contaminated and
controlled sites. All the plants were found to be sensitive to
pollution. The APTI values were within the range of 7.38 to
10.12 within the contaminated site and 6.44 to 9.6 in control
site. as compared between the 2 sites; though no vital
distinction between APTI values was found, all the values
were slightly higher within the polluted site than the
controlled for all the six plants except in Leucaeana
leucocephala and a substantial variation was determined
among the four parameters when their percentage variations
were considered. Aegle marmelos, Senna sp. and Vine
spectabilis were found to be tolerant towards pollution.
6 Uka U. N. et al.: Morpho-Anatomical and Biochemical Responses of Plants to Air Pollution
10. Enzymatic Responses of Plant
Species to Air Pollution
Urban air pollution is a problem in developing and
developed countries [53]. There is steady extension of toxic
gasses and other substances arising from rapid growth of
industries and automobile vehicles [33]. Air pollutants can
enter into plant tissues via stomata and increase the level of
reactive oxygen species (ROS) causing serious damage to
the DNA, proteins and lipids ([94; 29]. The plant cells have
several antioxidative defence mechanisms to protect plants
against these oxidative stressors [38, 77, 79, 69, 89, 20].
These defence mechanisms include both enzymatic (e.g.
superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and ascorbate
peroxidase, glutathione reductase) and non enzymatic
metabolites (e.g. tocopherol, carotenoids, glutathione and
ascorbate).
An increase in SOD and POD activities gave rise to
tolerance in plants exposed to SO2, NO2, and O3 either as
single or combined pollutants has shown that SOD and
CAT/POD enzyme system serve as an interlinked primary
protection in reducing the potential for cellular injury
[86, 14]. The reduction in cellular damage mediated by
oxyradicals in plants with SOD has been reported by [17].
It has been reported that CAT activity increased in plants
exposed to polluted areas [112, 59]. A study in the changes in
antioxidant enzyme activities of wild plant species in
polluted areas revealed that CAT activity was found to be
low in 9 of the 12 species growing in 0-100m sample area
[64]. Studies on activity of Catalase enzyme in some Ficus
species have shown that Catalase activity was less in the
leaves of plant growing in polluted area compared to those
growing in low polluted area [14].
The level of peroxidase enzymes is universally accepted
as an indicator parameter to environmental pollution [40].
[115] studies on effect of air pollutants in biochemical
parameters of selected plant species revealed an increase in
POD activity at commercial and heavy traffic street location
comparison to residential locations. The activity of
peroxidase enzymes was investigated in Populus plants
exposed to ozone air pollutant and the higher activity of
peroxidase enzymes was reported due to ozone exposure
[12]. The increase in peroxidas activity varies with the plant
species and the concentration of pollutants. [42] reported that
leaves of the resistant plants might have high peroxidase
activity. Leaves of the trees characterized by considerable
resistance to the action of SO2 may have a high peroxidise
activity [42]. Peroxidase activity in plants has been shown to
be a sensitive indicator of pollutant exposure [53, 90] and
suggested as a marker to evaluate air pollution [81, 37]. The
Peroxidase activity of 6 plants growing within 0-100m in a
polluted area was high, while 4 plants were low compared to
the control (Mutiu et al., 2009).
Superoxide dismutase activity in 5 plants species within
100m in polluted area was high, while it was low in other
species [64]. Increased Superoxide dismutase activity from
pollutants exposure was found in Snap bean [52], Pine and
Spruce [100] and Sugar beet [21]. However, some studies
reported no change in SOD activity in plants [65].
[64] studied the changes in antioxidant enzyme activities
of wild plant species in polluted areas. Catalase (CAT)
activity was found to be low in 9 of the 12 species growing in
the polluted area, compared to the control plants areas. CAT
detoxifies H2O2 by breaking it down directly to form water
and oxygen. If CAT activity is reduced, H2O2 which is toxic
to living cells can accumulate in cell compartments.
Nevertheless, it was determined that CAT is less efficient
than POX in scavenging H2O2 because of its low substrate
affinity [97].
The main response to pollutants is provided by an increase
in SOD and POX activities as long as the stress level does
not exceed the plant's defensive capacity [97]. POX activity
in plants has been shown to be a sensitive indicator of
pollutant exposure [53, 90], and suggested as a marker to
evaluate air pollution [81, 107]. Peroxidase enzyme belongs
to the class of oxidoreductase, which occurs in a wide variety
of trees and shrubs and has been extensively studies in
attempts to develop a method for early identification of
chronic injury from air pollution. [112, 59] reported that
catalase activity increased in plants exposed to polluted areas
or substrates.
11. Anticipated Performance Index (API)
of Trees
The Air Pollution Tolerance Index shows the effect of the
pollutants only on the biochemical parameters. In order to
combat air pollution by planning the green belt development
in a particular area, many socio-economic factors are to be
considered. Thus, the Anticipated Performance Index has
been used to determine the same [27]. This is a grading
system where a tree species is graded based on APTI along
with socio-economic parameters. Based on the grading
system, a tree gets a maximum of 16 points, which are scaled
to percentages and based on the score obtained; the category
will be determined [18]. Several studies have been carried
out to estimate the anticipated performance Index of tree
species. [62] estimated the anticipated performance Index of
select urban trees, results indicated that in terms of API, M.
indica, comes under good category. F. religiosa, S. siamea,
E.microtheca, A. auriculiformis, S. cumini scored good, thus
M.indica was highly recommended for planting in terms of
mitigating air pollution as well as an urban tree. Research on
Anticipated Performance Index of certain tree species in
India showed that, Mangifera indica and Ficus religiosa
with the highest scoring was assessed good for heavy traffic
areas or planting along roadsides [102].
[63] study, revealed that evaluation of Anticipated
Performance Index of plants is useful in the selection of
appropriate tree species for urban green belts development.
The study indicated that Ficus benghalensis, Mangifera
indica, Swetenia mahoganii and Saraca indica are the most
tolerant plant to grow in industrial areas.The results on
International Journal of Modern Botany 2017, 7(1): 1-11 7
Anticipated Performance Index value of selected tree species
studies carried out by [106] revealed that Spathodea
campanulata and Enterolobium saman were judged to be
good performers, while Muntingia calabura qualified for the
moderate performer category Peltophorum pterocarpum was
found to unsuitable as a pollution sink because of its lower
anticipated performance.
[82] assessment of different plants based on their API
values reveals that Artocarpus heterophyllus is most tolerant
and can be expected to perform well as it falls under the
category of very good performer and its plantation in urban
as well as peri-urban areas are recommended. Psidium
guajava and Hibiscus rosa sinensis were moderately suitable
for plantation in Green Belt and their plantation in town
squares and on the outskirts of villages and towns may
considerably reduce air pollution. In the remaining plant
species, one was identified as poor performer and one was
coming under very poor category. Study on air pollution
biomonitoring in an urban area of Varanasi by [73]
recommended Ficus infectoria as the best performers while
Mangifera indica and Ficus religiosa were classified into the
excellent performer category. [19] study indicates tree
species (Eucalypytus oblique) and shrub species
(Bougainvillea glabra) are accepted to perform well for the
development of ―Green belt‖ in campus area of university,
Rohtak, Haryana. The study also reveals that evaluation of
anticipated performance index (API) of plant species is
useful in the selection of suitable plant species for urban
green belt development.
12. Conclusions
Air pollution tolerance Index and Anticipated
Performance Index have demonstrated that plants in locality
can be utilized to choose most appropriate plants for the
advancement of woodlands. It is noteworthy that alot of
studies have been done on these themes in Asian continent;
such cannot be said in other climes. It therefore behooves on
researchers to carry more studies in order to distinguish
plants that can be utilized for air pollution alleviation in the
area. The importance of urban trees cannot be over
emphasized as studies have revealed their ability to cleanse
the atmosphere. It therefore becomes imperative that
Researchers, Urban Planners as well as aboriculturists
should cross fertilize ideas as it relates pollution scavenging
and urban greening, thus the fundamental information of
essential learning of natural and human environment is vital.
It can be deduced from this review that biomonitoring of air
pollutants will complement instrumental air quality
monitoring; consequently the planting of pollution
remediation species at strategic location can indicate the air
pollution health of the area. Research emphasizes should
incorporate combination of plant responses to stresses
caused by air pollutants in field conditions.
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... Presence of urban forests and trees, however, has been recognized as beneficial in these places since their presence has been correlated with atmospheric pollutant removal and climate change mitigation (FAO 2018;Nowak et al. 2014). All the same, in urban centers with air quality problems, anatomical, morphological, physiological, and biochemical disturbances have been observed in urban forests and trees (Chan and Yao 2008;Gulia et al. 2015;Rendon et al. 2014;Uka et al. 2017). Particulate matter (PM) and other gases are among the atmospheric pollutants that can cause negative effects and Responsible Editor: Philippe Garrigues have a high potential of affecting urban forests and trees (Kumar Prajapati 2012;Rai 2016). ...
... Lastly, including relative water content in the equation accounts for cell capacity to maintain their integrity in the presence of atmospheric pollutants. The whole term of the equation, comprising the four biochemical parameters, is divided into 10 in order to obtain a manageable value, as shown in Equation 1 ( Singh et al. 1991;Uka et al. 2017), ...
... On the other hand, the lowest value of the parameter was recorded at LAYE zone in the Fraxinus uhdei species (1.66 mg g −1 ); at PJIC and UNNV zones, the lowest values corresponded to the Jacaranda mimosifolia species (1.33 and 1.11 mg g −1 , respectively); and at MANT zone, the lowest content of ascorbic acid was recorded for the Tabebuia chrysantha-rosea species (1.16 mg g −1 ). As regards total chlorophyll content (T), it has been indicated that trees sensitive to atmospheric pollution can have inhibited photosynthetic activity, resulting in chlorophyll depletion and carotenoids in their leaves (Rai 2016;Uka et al. 2017). The results obtained show that T values for the 54 trees range between 1.13 and 6.56 mg g −1 (see Table 6 and Fig. 8c). ...
Article
High atmospheric pollution levels in urban areas have become a global problem that threatens both human health and urban ecosystems. Trees that grow near areas with vehicular and industrial emissions can be highly affected, since they constitute the main barrier for emitted pollutants, with trees being either tolerant or sensitive to them. Different methodologies worldwide have been implemented to evaluate the tolerance and sensitivity of tree species to atmospheric pollutants. In this research, the air pollution tolerance index (APTI) and the anticipated performance index (API) are evaluated in order to determine both the degree of tolerance or sensitivity of trees to pollutants in the air and their performance in urban areas. To this end, six tree species found in four biomonitoring zones in the city of Medellín, Colombia, were selected: Mangifera indica, Tabebuia chrysantha-rosea, Erythrina fusca, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Fraxinus uhdei,andSpathodea campanulata. A total of 54 individual trees were evaluated by means of the APTI and API, and it was determined that the species with the highest tolerance (APTI≥16) and the best performance (81<API<90) was Mangifera indica, which highlights the importance of this species in urban areas with air quality problems. On the other hand, it was determined that the most sensitive species (APTI≤11) are Tabebuia chrysantha- rosea, Erythrina fusca,andSpathodea campanulata, while the species with poor performance (41<API<50) are Tabebuia chrysantha-rosea, Erythrina fusca,andJacaranda mimosifolia. These values, therefore, can be used to classify which species can be planted as pollutant sinks and which as air quality bioindicators and thus highlight the importance of urban forests and trees for environmental management and planning in big cities with air quality problems.
... Presence of urban forests and trees, however, has been recognized as beneficial in these places since their presence has been correlated with atmospheric pollutant removal and climate change mitigation (FAO 2018;Nowak et al. 2014). All the same, in urban centers with air quality problems, anatomical, morphological, physiological, and biochemical disturbances have been observed in urban forests and trees (Chan and Yao 2008;Gulia et al. 2015;Rendon et al. 2014;Uka et al. 2017). Particulate matter (PM) and other gases are among the atmospheric pollutants that can cause negative effects and Responsible Editor: Philippe Garrigues have a high potential of affecting urban forests and trees (Kumar Prajapati 2012;Rai 2016). ...
... Lastly, including relative water content in the equation accounts for cell capacity to maintain their integrity in the presence of atmospheric pollutants. The whole term of the equation, comprising the four biochemical parameters, is divided into 10 in order to obtain a manageable value, as shown in Equation 1 ( Singh et al. 1991;Uka et al. 2017), ...
... On the other hand, the lowest value of the parameter was recorded at LAYE zone in the Fraxinus uhdei species (1.66 mg g −1 ); at PJIC and UNNV zones, the lowest values corresponded to the Jacaranda mimosifolia species (1.33 and 1.11 mg g −1 , respectively); and at MANT zone, the lowest content of ascorbic acid was recorded for the Tabebuia chrysantha-rosea species (1.16 mg g −1 ). As regards total chlorophyll content (T), it has been indicated that trees sensitive to atmospheric pollution can have inhibited photosynthetic activity, resulting in chlorophyll depletion and carotenoids in their leaves (Rai 2016;Uka et al. 2017). The results obtained show that T values for the 54 trees range between 1.13 and 6.56 mg g −1 (see Table 6 and Fig. 8c). ...
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Full-text available
High atmospheric pollution levels in urban areas have become a global problem that threatens both human health and urban ecosystems. Trees that grow near areas with vehicular and industrial emissions can be highly affected, since they constitute the main barrier for emitted pollutants, with trees being either tolerant or sensitive to them. Different methodologies worldwide have been implemented to evaluate the tolerance and sensitivity of tree species to atmospheric pollutants. In this research, the air pollution tolerance index (APTI) and the anticipated performance index (API) are evaluated in order to determine both the degree of tolerance or sensitivity of trees to pollutants in the air and their performance in urban areas. To this end, six tree species found in four biomonitoring zones in the city of Medellín, Colombia, were selected: Mangifera indica, Tabebuia chrysantha-rosea, Erythrina fusca, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Fraxinus uhdei, and Spathodea campanulata. A total of 54 individual trees were evaluated by means of the APTI and API, and it was determined that the species with the highest tolerance (APTI≥16) and the best performance (81<API<90) was Mangifera indica, which highlights the importance of this species in urban areas with air quality problems. On the other hand, it was determined that the most sensitive species (APTI≤11) are Tabebuia chrysantha-rosea, Erythrina fusca, and Spathodea campanulata, while the species with poor performance (41<API<50) are Tabebuia chrysantha-rosea, Erythrina fusca, and Jacaranda mimosifolia. These values, therefore, can be used to classify which species can be planted as pollutant sinks and which as air quality bioindicators and thus highlight the importance of urban forests and trees for environmental management and planning in big cities with air quality problems.
... This oxidative stress promoted by the exposure to the pollutant gases may induce pollen oxidative defenses by promoting SOD enzymatic activity, which protects cells against oxygen toxicity by scavenging the superoxide radicals and promoting the free radical detoxification process [42], until a threshold level after which its activity is reduced. Several shreds of evidence show that SOD, as well as other enzymes, are involved in stress tolerance in plants exposed to air pollutants serving as primary defense to avoid cell injury [43,44] and pollen is not an exception being observed that NO2 has the greatest effect than O3. ...
... CuZn-SOD bands are also reported as major pollen allergens this meaning that the increase in the expression observed in our study may suggest an increase in pollen allergenic potency after daily exposure to air pollution [43]. ...
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The knowledge of pollen sensitivity and tolerance to stress factors such as air pollution is important for forest sustainability, ensuring the most efficient production with the highest benefits and lowest resource losses. This study intended to evaluate the influence of common air pollutants in four forest trees species, Betula pendula Roth, Corylus avellana L., Acer negundo L. and Quercus robur L., through a comparative analysis at the same experimental conditions. We aimed to investigate the effect that may occur in pollen fertility, protein content, oxidative stress and wall composition after exposure in vitro to ozone and nitrogen dioxide at concentration levels for vegetation protection in Europe. Our results suggest changes in pollen viability, protein content and differential sensitivity related to ROS synthesis, NADPH oxidase activity, as well as in wall composition. The results indicate that NO2 exposure affected more the pollen species studied mostly at the highest concentration exposure. As for ozone, there were less significant differences between samples; however, a different behavior occurs in O3 expositions, where the most influence happens at the legal limit for vegetation protection in Europe. Our study showed that significant pollen functions could be compromised even at common air pollutant’s concentrations.
... pH of plant samples at polluted site showed acidic in nature, which may be due to presence of sulfur and nitrogenous oxides in ambient air that increases acids in leaves (Swami et al., 2004). This change of the leaf pH also influences the stomatal sensitivity therefore; the higher sensitive plant exposed to SO 2 and NO 2 closes the stomata faster (Uka et al., 2017). Explanation of Uka, Hogarh, & Belford (2017) suggested that the leafextract pH was higher in sensitive plant than tolerant plants. ...
... This change of the leaf pH also influences the stomatal sensitivity therefore; the higher sensitive plant exposed to SO 2 and NO 2 closes the stomata faster (Uka et al., 2017). Explanation of Uka, Hogarh, & Belford (2017) suggested that the leafextract pH was higher in sensitive plant than tolerant plants. Further, Pasqualini et al. (2001), Conklin (2001), Escobedo et al. (2008) and Liu & Ding (2008) suggested that the high pH value in plant increases the conversion of hexose sugar to ascorbic acid and increases tolerance while, low leaf extract pH represented plant with good correlation with sensitivity to air pollution. ...
Article
Urban trees are now considered as an eco-sustainable tool used to monitoring and mitigate air pollution. An experimental study was carried out to investigate the dust removal efficacy of urban roadside trees of tropical region and impact of dust load on foliage physiology and micromorphology. Result of the study suggested Ficus virens as highest dust depositing tree followed by Ficus religiosa > Cassia fistula > Azadirachta indica. However, foliage traits dependent dust deposition was maximum in Azadirachta indica, followed by Ficus virens and Ficus religiosa and least dust deposition was found in Cassia fistula. Whereas, deposited dust caused negative impact on leaf area, biomass, pigments, and membrane permeability of selected trees species while, ascorbic acid content and stomatal index was increases in all selected roadside trees. The tolerance of plant against air pollution was identified with the help of air pollution tolerance index using pH, ascorbic acid, relative water content, and total chlorophyll. Experimental tree Ficus virens showed higher air pollution tolerance index followed by Ficus religiosa > Azadirachta indica, and >Cassia fistula. Study concluded Ficus virens as a multi benefiting tree for sustainable urban plantation planning owing to its high air pollution tolerance index and moderate dust capturing capacity.
... Air pollution is gradually becoming an alarming problem in developed and developing countries due to the rapid and unsustainable industrialization and urbanization [1]. With growing economy and improved lifestyle, the numbers of vehicles are also increasing at much faster pace as a result it contributed approximately 70% of total urban air pollution [2]. ...
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Background and aim: Air pollution has emerged as a serious global issues. Among anthropogenic sources, only mobile sources, i.e., vehicles contribute 70% of total air pollution as it emit higher amount of air pollutants into the ambient atmosphere, which create negative impact on air quality. To reduce such impact, environmentalists and policy makers have emphasized on the necessary of bio-monitoring of air pollution by using trees. Malda is famous for mango orchards which are abundant along NH-34 and SH-10. This district is home of 200 folk mango varieties of which Fazli, Aswina, Laxmanbhog, Langra, and Himsagar are predominant, hence these varieties have been selected for bio-monitoring. Methods: The present study was conducted alongside national and state highways, i.e., NH-34 and SH-10 within Malda district from January- December, 2016. Then, 24 hours monitoring of NO2, SO2, and PM10 was carried out. All the leaves samples were collected in triplicate for estimation of the Total chlorophyll (Tchl), Ascorbic Acid (ASC), Relative Water (RWC) content, and Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI). Results: The monthly average concentration of NO2 was highest (22.04 μg.m-3) during December and lowest (19.04 μg.m-3) during June 2016. SO2 concentration was maximum (4.38 μg.m-3) during October and minimum (2.00 μg.m-3) during June and August. 24 h monthly average concentration of PM10 was highest during January (124.43 μg.m-3) and surpassed the NAAQS (100 μg.m-3). The average ASC, Tchl content, and RWC was found to be maximum in Fazli. Leaf extract pH ranged from 4.93 ± 0.70 in Langra to 6.46 ± 0.33 in Himsagar. The APTI value of Fazli was found maximum (22.12 ± 0.26) and recognized as tolerant species. Conclusion: As per the APTI value, Fazli is found to be a tolerant species, and Aswina, Laxmanbhog, Langar, and Himsagar are sensitive species.
... Chlorophyll content of plants signifies its photosynthetic activity as well as the growth and development (Bojovic and Stojanovic, 2005) [3] . The trees keeping up their chlorophyll pigment even under stress condition were supposed to be tolerant against air pollution (Singh and Tuteja, 2011; Uka, 2017) [30,41] . Previous studies have illustrated that chlorophyll content in plant species varies with the pollution status of the area i.e. higher the pollution level in the form of vehicular exhausts, lower the chlorophyll content. ...
Article
Full-text available
Enhanced intensity of pollution in modern society has become a serious and aggravating global issue; thus air pollution is ranked in the top 10 causes of death in the world. Besides others technical solutions to abate air pollution, vegetation is increasingly recognized as an alternative ameliorative method by removing pollutants mainly through deposition, absorption, adsorption, and accumulation process, moreover they can clean air naturally by releasing oxygen to the atmosphere. In this study, seven common trees species in three different areas based on air quality status of Chiang Mai city were selected for evaluating air pollution tolerance index (APTI) by analyzing four important biochemical parameters, which are (ascorbic acid content, total chlorophyll content, leaf extract pH, and leaf relative water content). The anticipated performance index (API) of these trees species are calculated as well by considering their APTI value together with other socioeconomic and morphological characteristics. The results of the API index revealed an order of tolerance to be Mangifera indica L. (93.75%) as the best performer, Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub. (87.5%), and Ficus religiosa L. (87.5%) were proved to be excellent performers, whereas Lagestroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. (62.5 %), Alstonia scholaris (L.) R.Br. (62.5%), and Polyalthia longifolia sonn. (62.5%) were recognized as good, and lastly, Plumeria rubra L. (50 %) was suggested as poor species for urban plantation.
... Air pollution has become a threat to urban and peri-urban population worldwide (Uka et al. 2017). In general, air pollutants can adversely affect human and plant health , 2012 and global environment by changing the ambient air quality (Sarkar et al. 2012a,b;Rai 2013;Rai & Panda 2014). ...
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the responses of herbaceous plants in dust capturing potential (DCP) and leaf functional traits under ambient PM10 pollution alongside SH-10 in Malda district. The study was carried out during the post-monsoon and pre-monsoon of 2019 and assessed that the 24 h average concentration of PM10 was 88.6, 87.4 and 121.9 μg.m-3 during January, February and March, 2019, respectively and exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (100 μg.m3) only in March, 2019. The vegetation study revealed that the sequence of dominating species are Hemigraphis hirta (IVI - 38.4) followed by Croton bonplandianus (IVI - 8.4), Ageratum conyzoides (IVI - 8.1), Mikania micrantha (IVI - 7), Chrysopogon zizanioides (IVI - 5.9), Achyranthes aspera (IVI - 5.1), Pouzolzia zeylanica (IVI - 3.8), Euhorbia hirta (IVI - 3.6), Oxalis corniculata (IVI - 2.9), Centella asiatica (IVI - 2.6), Anisomeles indica (IVI - 2.3), Rumex dentatus (IVI - 2) and Chrozophora rottleri (IVI - 1.9) whereas the least dominating species are Argemone. mexicana (IVI - 0.5), Passiflora foetida (IVI - 0.7), Amaranthus viridis (IVI - 0.7) and Leucas aspera (IVI - 0.9).The study measures and compares the capabilities of these plants to accumulate and retain the PM. DCP of M. micrantha was highest (7 mg/cm2), and of A. aspera and O. corniculata lowest (0.03 mg/cm2). Here, leaf functional traits such as net water content (NWC) was maximum in M. micrantha and least in L. aspera. But, the highest value of leaf water per unit area (LWA) was observed in M. micrantha and lowest was exhibited in R. dentatus with increasing PM10 pollution. Leaf dry matter content (LDMC) was maximum in P. foetida and least value was observed in A. mexicana. Leaf mass per unit area (LMA) was highest in A. conyzoides and lowest in A. aspera. One-way-ANOVA results recorded distinct variation in the responses of herbaceous plant species, grown under ambient PM10 pollution. The study recommends M. micrantha, P. foetida, and A. conyzoides species for roadway greening and ecosystem conservation in Malda district and its similar type of climate.
... It can be expressed quantitatively, and the resulted value is considered as the measure of a plant's ability to fight against air pollution. Plants having higher APTI values are tolerant to air pollution and can be used as sinks to alleviate contamination while those of lower APTI values are sensitive to air pollution and can be used as biological indicators (Uka et al., 2017). Bio monitoring of air quality in terms of APTI is a simple, cost effective and a universal method. ...
... But changing in total closed stoma intensities were not found significant according to statistical analyses. Stomatal and epidermal cell size, lower recurrence, thickening of the cell wall, epicuticular wax deposition alterations and chlorosis are among the auxiliary alterations in leaves subjected to air pollution [13]. Pollutants can cause leaf injury, stomatal damage, premature senescence, decrease photosynthetic activity, disturb membrane permeability and ...
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Air pollution in the urban area is a major concern globally, which causes generally by natural or anthropogenic effects. Increased traffic activities cause an increase in the amount of exhaust harmful gases such as CO2 (carbon dioxide), HC (hydrocar-bons), and NO (nitrogen oxides) release to the environment ; which are responsible for both increases and decreases in rates of photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, responsible for vegetation injury, which lead to decrease crop yield. Considering these important aspects, the present study was un-dertaken to determine the effects of air pollution caused by exhaust emissions of harmful gases on plants. For this purpose, stoma intensities, proline, total soluble sugar and amino acid contents and some heavy metal accumulations were recorded on Eucalyptus camuldensis which were located in different distances (i.e., 0, 10, 30, 50, 70, 90 and 110 meters) from the highway of two cities namely Adana and Tarsus of Turkey. Data on opened stoma intensities, proline content and heavy metal concentrations (such as Zn, Fe, Pb, and Cd) were shown a statistically meaningful decreasing trend when distances from the highway were increased. It was also seen as meaningful increasing on total soluble sugar and amino acid contents. It was also recorded the concentration of soluble sugar and proline in polluted leaves of Eucalyptus camuldensis were significantly increased as compared to plants grown under control condition, indicating that the activation of protective mechanism in plants under air pollution, and the plant may act physiological adjustments to compensate for that air pollution stress.
Article
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) originate as a natural byproduct in standard metabolism of oxygen activities. The principal sites of ROS generation in the cell are apoplast, mitochondria, chloroplasts, and peroxisomes. These ROS can induce cellular injuries by proteins oxidation, lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage, which finally may result in plant cellular death. Under regular circumstances, there is a steadiness between generation and elimination of ROS, but this balance is hampered by different biotic and abiotic stress factors such as exposure to heavy metals, high and low-light conditions, pathogens, insects and temperature extremes, resulting in a high generation of ROS which should be counteracted by the antioxidant machinery in cells. The antioxidant system of defense is composed by two groups: (i) Enzymatic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), general peroxidases (PRX) (e.g. guaiacol peroxidase GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR); (ii) Non-enzymatic antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (AA), reduced glutathione (GSH), α-tocopherol, carotenoids, plastoquinone/ubiquinone and flavonoids. These two groups of metabolites and enzymes work together with the main aim of ROS scavenging, but also in determining plant signaling, immune response, and plant growth and development. Finally, the molecular genetics of ROS genes and related metabolic pathways are briefly outlined, including gene isoforms, cellular localization, The Botanical Review https://doi.org/10.1007/s12229-020-09231-1 Author's personal copy detection methods used and interactions amongst them. This information is crucial in better understanding and designing procedures for plants´stress tolerance; leading to a better management of agricultural plants under challenging and changing climatic conditions and food security.
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The resistivity and susceptibility level of tree species to air pollution within avenue's of Urban Bangalore has been evaluated on the basis of Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) value. Four parameters namely Leaf extract pH, Total Chlorophyll Content, Relative Water Content of Leaf and Ascorbic Acid content were determined and APTI was computed. The tree species with higher APTI values like Polyalthia longifolia, Albizia saman, Azadiracta indica, Pongamia pinnata, Swietenia mahogany, Michelia champaca, Millingtonia hortensis and Tamarindus indica are tolerant to air pollutants and can be used as an effectively indicators and pollution scavengers. The tree species having higher APTI value can be given priority for plantation program in newly urbanized areas and avenue's of Urban Bangalore; so as to reduce the stress of motorists at traffic junctions, effect of air pollution and make the environment clean for healthy life.
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Plants are only which help in reduce air pollution. In plants leaves play a vital role in absorbing gases and some particulate matter. Therefore, vegetation acts as the natural cleanser of pollution in atmosphere. According to their degree of tolerance and sensitivity towards several air pollutants, plants have been classified in the present study. The entire results obtained from the study concluded that different plant species respond differently to air pollution. Tree species (Ziziphus mauritiana, 5.621), shrub species (Calliandra haematocephala, 4.591) and herb species (Chenopodium album, 8.409) are highly tolerant plant species with high Air Pollution Tolerance Index and which are very important in landscaping of city. According to the Air Pollution Tolerance Index values, shrubs may be sensitive but trees or herbs may be tolerant to a given pollutant. Selection of plant species for urban green belt development, evaluation of Anticipated Performance Index was studied. Tree species (Eucalypytus oblique) and shrub species (Bougainvillea glabra) are accepted to perform well for the development of “Green belt” in University Campus on the basis of API values. Plant species Hamelia patens, among the shrubs and Chenopodium album among the herbs can effectively be used for the air pollution amelioration purposes in University Campus Rohtak.