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Lakes in Europe are subject to multiple anthropogenic pressures, such as eutrophication, habitat degradation and introduction of alien species, which are frequently inter-related. Therefore, effective assessment methods addressing multiple pressures are needed. In addition, these systems have to be harmonised (i.e. intercalibrated) to achieve common management objectives across Europe. Assessments of fish communities inform environmental policies on ecological conditions integrating the impacts of multiple pressures. However, the challenge is to ensure consistency in ecological assessments through time, across ecosystem types and across jurisdictional boundaries. To overcome the serious comparability issues between national assessment systems in Europe, a total anthropogenic pressure intensity (TAPI) index was developed as a weighted combination of the most common pressures in European lakes that is validated against 10 national fish-based water quality assessment systems using data from 556 lakes. Multi-pressure indices showed significantly higher correlations with fish indices than single-pressure indices. The best-performing index combines eutrophication, hydromorphological alterations and human use intensity of lakes. For specific lake types also biological pressures may constitute an important additional pressure. The best-performing index showed a strong correlation with eight national fish-based assessment systems. This index can be used in lake management for assessing total anthropogenic pressure on lake ecosystems and creates a benchmark for comparison of fish assessments independent of fish community composition, size structure and fishing-gear. We argue that fish-based multiple-pressure assessment tools should be seen as complementary to single-pressure tools offering the major advantage of integrating direct and indirect effects of multiple pressures over large scales of space and time.
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Response of sh communities to multiple pressures: Development of a
total anthropogenic pressure intensity index
Sandra Poikane
a,
, David Ritterbusch
b
, Christine Argillier
c
,WitoldBiałokoz
d
, Petr Blabolil
e,f
,JanBreine
g
,
Nicolaas G. Jaarsma
h
, Teet Krause
i
, Jan Kubečka
e
,TorbenL.Lauridsen
j
,PeeterNõges
i
,
Graeme Peirson
k
, Tomas Virbickas
l
a
European Commission Joint Research Centre, Directorate for Sustainable Resources, Water and Marine Resources Unit, I-21027 Ispra, VA, Italy
b
Institute of Inland Fisheries, Im Königswald 2, 14469 Potsdam-Sacrow, Germany
c
Irstea, UR RECOVER, 3275 Route de Cézanne CS 40061, 13182 Aix en Provence Cedex 5, France
d
Inland Fisheries Institute, Oczapowskiego 10-719, Olsztyn, Poland
e
Institute of Hydrobiology, Biology Centre of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Na Sádkách 7, 370 05 České Budějovice, Czech Republic
f
Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Branišovská 31, 370 05 České Budějovice, Czech Republic
g
Research Institute for Nature and Forest, Dwersbos 28, B-1630 Linkebeek, Belgium
h
Nico Jaarsma E&F, Klif 25, Den Hoorn, Texel, The Netherlands
i
Centre for Limnology, Institute of Agriculturaland Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 5, 51014 Tartu, Estonia
j
Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Vejlsøvej 25, 8600 Silkeborg, Denmark
k
Environment Agency, Kidderminster DY11 7RA, UK
l
Nature Research Centre, Akademijos 2, LT-08412 Vilnius-21, Lithuania
HIGHLIGHTS
Creating a common sh-based assess-
ment system for European lakes has
failed so far.
Fishes react in a holistic way to a broad
range of cumulative pressure impacts.
We created a combined pressure index
(TAPI) that reected sh ecological
quality.
TAPI includes eutrophication,
hydromorphological alterations and
lake-use intensity.
TAPI correlated well with 8 out of 10
national lake sh indices tested.
GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT
abstractarticle info
Article history:
Received 17 December 2016
Received in revised form 27 January 2017
Accepted 27 January 2017
Available online xxxx
Editor: D. Barcelo
Lakes in Europe are subject to multiple anthropogenic pressures, such as eutrophication, habitat degradation and
introduction of alien species, which are frequently inter-related. Therefore, effective assessment methods ad-
dressing multiple pressures are needed. In addition, these systems have to be harmonised (i.e. intercalibrated)
to achieve common management objectives across Europe.
Assessments of sh communities inform environmental policies on ecological conditions integrating the impacts
of multiple pressures. However, the challenge is to ensure consistency in ecologicalassessments through time,
across ecosystem types and across jurisdictional boundaries. To overcome the serious comparability issues be-
tween national assessment systems in Europe, a total anthropogenic pressure intensity (TAPI) index was
Science of the Total Environment xxx (2017) xxxxxx
Corresponding author.
E-mail address: sandra.poikane@jrc.ec.europa.eu (S. Poikane).
STOTEN-21924; No of Pages 10
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.01.211
0048-9697/© 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
Science of the Total Environment
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/scitotenv
Please cite this article as: Poikane, S., et al., Response of sh communities to multiple pressures: Development of a total anthropogenic pressure
intensity index, Sci Total Environ (2017), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.01.211
developed as a weighted combination of the most common pressures in European lakes that isvalidated against
10 national sh-based waterquality assessment systems using data from 556 lakes.
Multi-pressure indices showed signicantly higher correlations with sh indices than single-pressure indices.
The best-performing index combines eutrophication, hydromorphological alterations and human use intensity
of lakes. For specic lake types also biological pressures may constitute an important additional pressure. The
best-performing index showed a strong correlation with eight national sh-based assessment systems. This
index can be usedin lake management for assessing total anthropogenic pressure onlake ecosystems and creates
a benchmark for comparison of sh assessments independent of sh community composition,size structure and
shing-gear.
We argue that sh-based multiple-pressure assessment tools should be seen as complementary to single-pres-
sure tools offering the major advantage of integrating direct and indirect effects of multiple pressures over
large scales of space and time.
© 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Keywords:
Aquatic ecosystems
Bioassessment
Fish assemblages
Fish-based assessment system
Lakes
Multiple pressures
Pressure-response relationships
Water Framework Directive
1. Introduction
More than half of the surface waters in Europe are degraded due to
human activity, i.e., support less than goodecological status, and will
need mitigation and/or restoration measures to reach goodstatus.
The pressures reported to affect most surface waters are nutrient en-
richment, hydromorphological alterations, invasion of alien species
and chemical pollution (EEA, 2012). These pressures signicantly affect
the capacity of ecosystems to provide the services on whichhumans de-
pend (MEA, 2005). In the years to come, these impacts may be exacer-
bated by climate change which can counteract attempts to restore
water bodies, and prevent them from reaching goodstatus
(Jeppesen et al., 2012). Therefore, effective methods are needed to as-
sess, protect and help to restore the ecological integrity of inland and
coastal waters (Birk et al., 2012; Karr, 1991). In addition, these systems
have to be compared and harmonised (i.e. intercalibrated) to ensure
consistency in ecological assessments through time, across ecosystem
types, and across jurisdictional boundaries (Birk et al., 2013; Cao and
Hawkins, 2011; Poikane et al., 2014b).
It has been proven that sh are sensitive indicators of environmental
degradation (Fausch et al., 1990; Karr, 1981). Fish show predictable re-
actions to eutrophication (Blabolil et al., 2016; Jeppesen et al., 2000;
Lyche-Solheim et al., 2013; Mehner et al., 2005), habitat destruction
and fragmentation through hydromorphological modications (Sutela
et al., 2011), acidication (Hesthagen et al., 2008; Tammi et al., 2003)
and climate change (Jeppesen et al., 2012).
The rst sh-based ecological assessment methods were developed
for US rivers (Karr, 1981) and have later been adopted to lakes
(Whittier, 1999).
In Europe, the development of biological assessment systems has
been stimulated by the implementation of theWater Framework Direc-
tive (WFD; EC, 2000). The WFD obliges all member states of the Europe-
an Community to achieve a goodecological status of their surface
waters, and stipulates that goodor not goodshould be measured
with biological assessment systems. In addition, the goodstatus
boundaries should be harmonised via intercalibrationexercise (Birk
et al., 2013; Poikane et al., 2014b).
Therefore, several European countries including Belgium (Breine et
al., 2015), the Czech Republic and France (Blabolil et al., 2016; Launois
et al., 2011), Germany (Ritterbusch and Brämick, 2015), Lithuania
(Virbickas and Stakėnas, 2016) and Sweden (Holmgren et al., 2007)
have developed sh-based tools to assess ecological status. Several
cross-European studies have been carried out to develop common sh
metrics (Argillier et al., 2013) and intercalibrate (i.e. compare and har-
monise) sh-based assessment systems (Poikane et al., 2015).
However, there are two still unresolved issues: (1) Intercalibration
of sh-based assessment syst ems (i.e. harmonisation of the results of bi-
ological assessment methods) among the member states; (2) Develop-
ing of pressure-response relationships which is a key for any ecological
assessment tool applied in river basin management (Birk et al., 2012;
Brucet et al., 2013b; Poikane et al., 2015). There are several reasons for
these difculties:
- Member states use very different sampling methods and their com-
bination: multi-mesh gillnets, electroshing, hydro-acoustics,
trawling, seine netting and fyke nets (e.g., Blabolil et al., 2016;
Breine et al., 2015). These differences hinder comparison of assess-
ment systems across boundaries (Benejam et al., 2012; Lepage et
al., 2016). Two approaches have been adopted for intercalibration:
direct comparison of classication outcomes applying each method
to a common dataset and indirect comparison where boundary
values of each assessment method is converted to common biologi-
cal metrics (Birk et al., 2013). Both these approaches have been
proven to be unsuitable for comparisons of sh assessment due to
a variety of sampling gears and protocols, as particular species and
dominant functional groups tend to be gear-specic(Chow-Fraser
et al., 2006);
- Fish communities in lakes are subjected to multiple pressures and,
being at the upper levels of the trophic cascade, integrate effects of
pressures acting at any level below. On the other hand, sh commu-
nities exert a homeostatic effect on lower trophic levels and thus can
contribute to delayed recovery in aquatic ecosystems after anthro-
pogenic pressures have been reduced (Jeppesen et al., 1991). This
means that simple relationships between single pressures and sh-
metrics may be lacking (e.g., Breine et al., 2015).
We hypothesize that because of the broad spectrum and holistic
character of sh sensitivity, the total anthropogenic pressure intensity
would show stronger and more consistent relationships with various
sh metrics throughout an ecoregion than any single pressure index.
A total anthropogenic pressure index could be used for developing pres-
sure-response relationships and for comparing and harmonising sh-
based assessment systems across an ecoregion independent of shcom-
munity composition, size structure and shing-gear. The principle of in-
tercalibration using a common pressure index is to translate the
incomparable national sh assessment results into a comparable com-
mon index. A similar approach was used to intercalibrate ecological
classication tools in transitional waters of the North East Atlantic
(Lepage et al., 2016).
Therefore, the purpose of this research is to develop a multiple pres-
sure index for lakes in the Central-Baltic ecoregion
1
which can be used
to characterize the total anthropogenic pressure on lake ecosystems, de-
velop pressure-response relationships and intercalibrate sh-based
assessment tools. Firstly, the sh-based lake assessment systems in dif-
ferent member states are briey reviewed focusing on the human pres-
sures addressed and metrics included. Next, the construction and
1
An ecological region for inland waters in Europe delineated for river basin manage-
ment purposes comprising the Baltic States, Benelux Countries, Poland, Germany,
Denmark, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, and part of France and the UK.
2S. Poikane et al. / Science of the Total Environment xxx (2017) xxxxxx
Please cite this article as: Poikane, S., et al., Response of sh communities to multiple pressures: Development of a total anthropogenic pressure
intensity index, Sci Total Environ (2017), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.01.211
performance of the total anthropogenic pressure index (TAPI) is de-
scribed and the paper is concluded with some thoughts about the use
of sh in the ecological assessment of lakes.
2. Material and methods
2.1. Dataset
Data was collected from 10 countries in the Central-Baltic ecoregion,
comprising in total 556 lakes (Table 1). The dataset included: (1) mor-
phological data: lake area and depth; (2) information on human im-
pacts (see Tables 2 & 3); (3) Ecological Quality Ratio (EQR) values of
the national lake assessment systems based on sh. Information was
compiled using monitoring data of national water agencies, scientic
projects or literature. Lakes were mostly (60%) polymictic and present-
ed a broad range of total phosphorus (TP) and chlorophyll-a(Chl-a)
concentrations. Except the Czech Republic and the Netherlands, which
include mostly heavily modied water bodies, other countries have
low level of shoreline alteration.
Lake depth has a signicant impact on lake response to pressures
(Mehner et al., 2005) therefore lakes were classied into polymictic,
stratied and deep stratied according to Ritterbusch et al. (2014).Be-
fore analysis, a thorough data screening was performed. Lakes judged
incomparable were excluded from the analysis (e.g.,saline lakes, rapidly
ushed lakes). Also, very small lakes (area b0.5 km
2
) were excluded
from the nalanalyses as species richnessand diversity is strongly relat-
ed to surface area of lakes, with critical threshold reported between 0.36
and 0.6 km
2
(Brucet et al., 2013a; Eckmann, 1995). Still, for France and
Belgium the analysis was repeated including all lakes, as excluding
small lakes left these countries with very small datasets.
2.2. Construction of the pressure index
Our approach followed well-accepted principles for the develop-
ment of common metrics (e.g., Breine et al., 2015; Hering et al., 2006,
2010; Lepage et al., 2016).
The pressure index construction consisted of 5 steps:
1. Identifying and selecting pressures affecting lake sh community.
Seven critical broad-spectrum pressures impacting sh community were
identied including eutrophication, acidication, hydromorphological
pressures, chemical pollution and contamination, shing and stocking,
non-native species, and direct lake use (Table 2).
2. Selecting metrics with available data for each pressure.
Each pressure was characterized by several indicators or proxies
(Table 2). These could describe both the cause and effect, for
instance, TP (cause) and Chl-a(effect), shoreline alterations (cause)
and habitat loss (effect).
3. Scoring of metrics.
Pressure variables were assessed on a ranked scale from 5 (no or neg-
ligible impact) to 1 (extreme impact) according to the severity of the
disturbance (Table 3). A complete list of the scoring criteria can be
found in Tables S2 and S3, Supporting information.
For eutrophication metrics type-specic thresholds were used for
polymictic, stratied and deep stratied lakes (Ritterbusch et al.,
2014). For quantitative eutrophication metrics (spring TP, summer
TP, Chl-a)ve alternative settings of class boundaries were applied
based on outputs from different studies (Carlson, 1977; LAWA, 2014;
Poikāne et al., 2010; Poikane et al., 2014a; Vollenweider and Kerekes,
1982). These criteria are provided in Annex 1, Supporting information.
4. Calculation of different versions of the TAPI index by selecting different
combinations of pressures and metrics, and modifying the weight for
eutrophication pressure (Table S4, Supporting information).
All TAPIs were calculated as EQR values between 0 (highpressure) and
1 (low pressure) according to the formula described in Hering et al.
(2006):
TAPIx ¼scorexminx
ðÞ=maxxminx
ðÞ;
where:
score
x
= metric result;
max
x
= upper anchor (maximum possible score);
min
x
= lower anchor (minimum possible score).
5. Evaluation of the performanceof differentversions of the TAPI index.
The basic criterion for selecting best-performing TAPI versions was a
sufciently strong correlation (Pearson R N0.6; P b0.05) of the TAPI
with all EQR's generated by sh-based assessment methods evaluat-
ed in this study (Hering et al., 2006).
2.3. Statistical methods
Statistical analyses were performed using the R software package (R
Core Team 2016).
A linear mixed effects model as implemented in library lme4 (Bates
et al., 2015) was used to analyze the effect of pressures (xed effect) on
strength of relationships using countries and TAPIs as crossed random
effects to account for possible correlations as each country and each
Table 1
Dataset usedin the TAPI construction. BE: Belgium; CZ: Czech Republic;DE: Germany; DK: Denmark; EE: Estonia; FR: France; LT: Lithuania; NL: the Netherlands; PL: Poland; UK: United
Kingdom. Poland participated with two datasets and methods: PL1: method LFI+, PL2: method LFI-CEN.
MS Number of lakes Annual mean
TP (μgL
1
)
Mean
Chl-a(μgL
1
)
Shore alteration
b
(mean)
Total Poly
a
Strat
a
Strat deep
a
Range Median Range Median
BE 44 44 ––151780 180 3471 22 4.3
CZ 23 4 10 9 9403 48 372 22 3.6
DE 95 51 30 14 13508 40 2288 9 4.1
DK 107 86 21 111091 89 2203 36 4.8
EE 48 32 16 12131 30 2121 10 4.1
FR 23 12 6 5 7213 20 1142 6 4.5
LT 90 39 37 14 7150 29 292 8 5.0
NL 28 23 5 15443 80 3106 24 2.7
PL1 32 13 10 9 4200 43 469 18 4.0
PL2 59 21 16 22 12466 50 1122 13 3.9
UK 7 7 ––7140 90 26175 50 4.9
Tot 556 332 151 73 44 17 4.4
a
Polymictic, stratied, stratied deep lake typology according to Ritterbusch et al. (2014).
b
Evaluation of shore alteration in scalefrom 1 (completely altered) to 5 (no alterations), see Table 3.
3S. Poikane et al. / Science of the Total Environment xxx (2017) xxxxxx
Please cite this article as: Poikane, S., et al., Response of sh communities to multiple pressures: Development of a total anthropogenic pressure
intensity index, Sci Total Environ (2017), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.01.211
TAPI had multiple observations. Tukey HSD tests as implemented in li-
brary multcomp (Hothorn et al., 2008) were used as post hoc test to
compare pressure groups with each other if linear mixed effects
model showed signicant effect of pressure group.
3. Results
3.1. Member state sh-based lake assessment systems
Nearly all member statesin the Central-Balticregion have developed
sh-based lake assessment systems (Table 4). The randomized multi-
mesh gillnet sampling (CEN, 2005) was the most common sampling
method, however, not used in all member states. All member states
have addressed eutrophication as a majorhuman pressure in the region.
In many cases, additional pressures such as hydromorphological pres-
sures and human use intensity were tested.
All assessment systems are based on reference condition approach
where natural variability is taken into account using typology frame-
works. Therefore, all member states have developed lake type-specic
reference values; these described the value of an index to be expected
under undisturbed conditions. The most common approaches, mostly
used in a combination, include historical data, expert judgement and
near-natural sites, only few use modelling or palaeolimnological data.
Reference conditions correspond to the WFD normative denition of
highstatus where species composition and abundance is consistent
with undisturbed conditions.
All indices distinguished between ve classes of biological quality.
Various approaches were adopted to dene ecological boundaries,
Table 2
Anthropogenic pressures and indicators to build TAPI index.
Anthropogenic
pressure/indicators
Description of indicator
Eutrophication
Total phosphorus (spring) Mean value for MarchApril or while water body is not stratied
Total phosphorus (summer) Mean epilimnetic value for JuneSeptember (monthly sampling)
Chlorophyll-a(summer)
Land use intensity Percentage of non-natural land use in catchment
Trophic state class using TP Trophic classication based on total phosphorus
Trophic state class using trophic
index
Trophic classication based on index of eutrophication
Trophic state change The difference of the mean TP concentration between reference and current conditions
Acidication
Acidication level Assesses the level of human-induced acidication
Hydromorphological pressures
Shoreline modication Percentage of anthropogenic alterations of shore structure (beaches, footbridges, marinas, erosion
control structures etc.). The data are estimated with aerial photographs, e.g. Google Earth
Fragmentation Estimates the impact of human barriers on sh species migrating from/to the lake.
Loss of habitats Availability of habitats in undisturbed conditions is estimated and compared to the present number of habitats
Water level regulation Compares the present water level/uctuations with the pristine situation
Lake use
Lake use intensity Human-use intensity including shipping, boating, bathing etc.
Population density in the vicinity
of the lake
Refers to a catchment areaof human use, i.e. the range in which people come to the lake for recreation
Chemical pollution and contamination
Chemical pollution As dened by the criteria of the EC directive for environmental quality standards (2008/105/EC) Annex I
Visible pollution Assessment of the visible impairments of the sh community by urban discharge, industrial discharge and others
Litter Estimates the amount of litter at the shoreline - a proxy for both pollution and lake use intensity
Biological effects of pollution Estimates the intensity of effects of pollution on biota (not only sh). Examples are shifts in sex ratio,
lack of reproduction, reduced growth, infections or diseases.
Fishing and stocking
Fish removal Assesses the ecological effects of selective sh removal by commercial sheries and/or angling.
Stocking of native species Assesses the ecological effects of selective sh input by commercial sheries and/or angling
Non-native species
Alien sh species number The number of sh species present that would be absent in undisturbed conditions (both true aliens, i.e. non-native
in the corresponding region and translocated species, i.e. native in the region but not native in the water body)
Alien sh abundance Percentage of weight of non-native sh
Non-sh aliens Assesses the ecological impact of non-sh aliens
Table 3
Scoring criteria for TAPI metrics (for other metrics see Tables S2 and S3, Supporting information). P polymictic lakes, S stratied lakes, D deep stratied lakes with max depth N30 m.
TAPI metric 5 points least disturbed 4 points minor impact 3 points major impact 2 points strong impact 1 point extreme impact
Eutrophication
Chl-a(μgL
1
)b11 (P)
b6 (D, S)
1121 (P)
610 (D, S)
2152 (P)
1026 (D, S)
52215 (P)
26104 (D, S)
N215 (P)
N104 (D, S)
TP spring
TP summer (μgL
1
)
b32 (P)
b25 (D, S)
3245 (P)
2532 (D, S)
45100 (P)
3245 (D, S)
100200 (P)
45100 (D, S)
N200 (P)
N100 (D, S)
Hydromorphological
alterations and lake use
Shore modication 10% 1130% 3150% 5170% N70%
Habitat loss Natural/increased All habitats 13 habitats missing 46 habitats missing N6 habitats missing
Lake use intensity Low (bath, boat, sail) Intense (motorboat, ships, dive) Very intense
4S. Poikane et al. / Science of the Total Environment xxx (2017) xxxxxx
Please cite this article as: Poikane, S., et al., Response of sh communities to multiple pressures: Development of a total anthropogenic pressure
intensity index, Sci Total Environ (2017), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.01.211
ranging from simple division ofthe EQR scale to more ecologically based
approaches as shifts in shcommunities i.e. change from dominance of
phytophilic to eurytopic species related to disappearance of habitat for
spawning and of juvenile phytophilic sh.
Ten sh-based lake assessment methods were included in the study,
comprising 45 metrics in total (see Table 4, also Table S1, Supporting in-
formation). Composition metrics were most widely-used in lake assess-
ment (53%) followed by functional metrics (21%). Also abundance and
age structure metrics were used (10%), while richness and sensitivity
metrics were rarely used. The most frequently used composition met-
rics includes share of European perch Perca uviatilis,decreasingalong
degradation gradient (used by 7 systems) and common bream Abramis
brama (6), white bream Blicca bjoerkna,roachRutilus rutilus,ruffe
Gymnocephalus cernua (4) and pike-perch Sander lucioperca (3) increas-
ing along degradation gradient. Similarly, increase of share of
benthivorous (3) and omnivorous sh (2) were the most frequently
used functional metrics, and increase of Number per unit effort
(NPUE) and Weight per unit effort (WPUE) abundance metrics. The
synthesis gives a coherent picture on shifts in sh communities in
response to human pressures despite the different metrics used by the
member states (Table 4).
3.2. TAPI development and selection of best-performing models
Nearly all TAPI versionscorrelated signicantly to the majority of na-
tional lake sh indices of the member states, except for Belgium and
France (Table S5, Supporting information). Multi-pressure TAPI
indices showed signicantly stronger correlations (Tukey's multiple
comparison tests, P b0.0001) (R
mean
=0.670.70 ) in comparison to sin-
gle-pressure (eutrophication) indices (R
mean
=0.61).
Eutrophication indices showed moderately strong correlation with
national sh based assessment results in all countries, with the excep-
tion of Belgium (only six lakes with area N50 ha). Including
hydromorphology and direct lake-use signicantly improved the TAPI
performance for most member states (especially for Denmark, but not
France). More complex models involving more pressures did not show
signicantly better performance (Fig. 1,Table 6).
Table 4
Fish-based lake assessment systems, country abbreviations see Table 1. NPUE number per unit effort;WPUE weight per unit effort; %N percentage of total number; %W percentage of
total weight; SpN species number. - increase along impact gradient; - decrease along impact gradient.
MS Fishing gear Metrics included in the assessment system Reference
BE Fyke nets, electroshing %N invertivorous individuals,%N omnivorous individuals, %N specialized spawners , SpN of piscivorous
species, %W benthivorous species , tolerance value
Breine et al. (2015)
CZ Multi-mesh gillnets (electroshing,
hydroacoustics)
a
NPUE, WPUE , %N ruffe, %W bream, %W perch , %W rudd, %W Salmonidae , SpN of 0+ of six common
species
Blabolil et al. (2016)
DE Multi-mesh gillnets
(electroshing)
WPUE, %N bream, %N ruffe , %W bream, %W perch, %W pikeperch, %W ruffe , %W white bream,%W
benthic net species, %W benthivorous species , median individual weight of bream/perch/roach, SpN
obligatory species
Ritterbusch and
Brämick (2015)
DK Multi-mesh gillnets
(electroshing)
NPUE, %W bream + roach , %W piscivorous individuals, average individual weightSøndergaard et al.
(2013)
EE Multi-mesh gillnets (mini-fyke
nets, commercial gillnets)
NPUE, %N perch , %W non-piscivorous individuals, % gillnet panels that caught sh , Simpson diversity
index
FR Multi-mesh gillnets NPUE , WPUE, %N omnivorous individualsArgillier et al. (2013)
LT Multi-mesh gillnets %N perch , %W non-native and trans-located species, %W white bream , %W benthivorous species,%W
perch and stenothermic, average individual weight roach , SpN obligatory species
Virbickas and
Stakėnas (2016)
NL Trawling, seine netting,
electroshing
%W bream, %W (perch + roach)/eurytopic, %W low oxygen tolerant *, %W phytophilic speciesAltenburg et al.
(2012)
PL1 Fisheries statistics: seine, gillnet,
fyke nets
%W large bream, %W small bream , %W crucian carp, %W perch , %W pike, %W large roach,%W
pikeperch, %W tench , %W white bream, %W large bream in total bream , %W large roach in total roach
PL2 Multi-mesh gillnets %W bleak, %W bream , %W perch, %W pikeperch, %W roach , %W rudd, %W ruffe, %W tench ,%W white
bream
a
In brackets the sampling gear used for sampling but not for calculation of metrics.
Fig. 1. Box-plots of correlation coefcients between sh-basedlake assessment and TAPI indices including different pressures. The boxrepresents interquartile range, the horizontal line-
the medianR, the middle point - the mean R. a and b show similar groups according to Tukey'smultiple comparison tests (P b0.0001). Eutro - eutrophication,Hymo - hydromorphological
alterations and direct lake-use, Bio biological pressures, Pollution chemical pollution and contamination.
5S. Poikane et al. / Science of the Total Environment xxx (2017) xxxxxx
Please cite this article as: Poikane, S., et al., Response of sh communities to multiple pressures: Development of a total anthropogenic pressure
intensity index, Sci Total Environ (2017), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.01.211
The best-performing TAPI index in terms of correlation strength
(R
mean
= 0.724, P b0.001) consisted of mean scores of two pressure
modules: (1) eutrophication module, (2) hydromorphological and
lake-use module (Table 6). The nal TAPI showed highly signicant cor-
relation with eight assessment systems with R ranging from 0.630.84
(P b0.001). Linear regressions are shown in Fig. 2.
For Belgium, this analysis didnot reveal any signicant relationship,
mostly due to the small number of lakes with an area N50 ha (n = 9).
For all lakes of Belgium (median lake area: 10 ha; interquartile range:
334 ha), incorporation of biological pressures into the TAPI indices im-
proved the models' performance, comparing with versions with only
eutrophication or eutrophication and hydromorphological pressuresin-
cluded. The best-performing TAPI for Belgium consisted of mean scores
of three pressure modules: (1) eutrophication, (2) hydromorphological
and lake-use, and (3) biological pressures (Table 5).
The French system showed no or very weak relationship with multi-
pressure TAPI indices. However, it showed moderately strong correla-
tions with TAPI indices which included only eutrophication metrics
(R = 0.72 for lakes N50 ha, P b0.001, R = 0.46 for all lakes, P b0.05).
4. Discussion
Recent research has shown that the deterioration of sh communi-
ties is often caused by interwoven multiple pressures such as eutrophi-
cation, habitat loss, chemical pollution, sheries, and climate change
(Jeppesen et al., 2012). Impacts of these pressures are often synergisti-
cally or antagonistically interrelated (Folt et al., 1999), expressed at dif-
ferent spatial and temporal scales and characterized by various lag
periods. This makes the identication of a single, or even dominant fac-
tor responsible for the change difcult. Therefore, construction of single
pressure-response relationships has failed in many cases, necessitating
the development of multiple pressure models (e.g., Breine et al., 2015).
In the present paper we develop a total anthropogenic pressure
index (TAPI) as a weighted combination of most common pressures in
European lakes that is validated against 10 national sh based water
quality assessmentsystems. This index can be used in lake management
for assessing total anthropogenic pressure on lake ecosystems and
creates a benchmark to overcome serious comparability issues between
national assessment systems caused by methodological differences.
4.1. Response to multiple pressures
In line with a recent review (Nõges et al., 2016) our study showed
that sh performed better asan indicator of multiple rather than single
pressures. We found that the explanatory power of sh based assess-
ment systems increased from 37% to 52% when hydromorphological
alterations and direct lake-use were included in addition to eutrophica-
tion metrics. However, further adding of pressures did not increase the
explanatory power of the models (except for Belgium, where the lake
sample consists of small articial lakes).
This can be explained by high mobility and complex life history of
sh which exposes different life stagesto conditions pertaining in vari-
ous lake zones. Unlike phytoplankton or phytobenthos, sh do not re-
spond to nutrient enrichment directly. Exceptions might be ammonia
nitrogen which at high pH turns into toxic unionized ammonia that
may cause sh-kills (Camargo and Alonso, 2006) or nitrate enrichment
which can reduce the severity of an ectoparasitic sh infection
(Smallbone et al., 2016). Fish, however, do respond to eutrophication
induced changes such as modied food availability and changes in hab-
itat quality - hypolimnetic oxygen depletion, increased turbidity, and
loss of submerged plants. Also hydromorphological alteration and direct
lake-usedestroy or modify habitatcomplexity, resulting in various det-
rimental effects on sh community: (i) breeding of sh species that
spawn in shallow littoral waters is disturbed by habitat degradation;
(ii) sh production and speciesrichness decrease with habitat degrada-
tion, most likely due to the loss of submerged macrophytes and woody
debris that provide shelter against predation and wave-action, and offer
high abundance and diversity of prey organisms (Lewin et al., 2014;
Mehner et al., 2005).
Therefore, sh community composition reects habitat and food
availability and the effect of diverse pressures in the lake as a whole
this is an added value of sh as a biological indicator, compared to mac-
roinvertebrates, macrophytes and phytoplankton. Similar metric re-
sponses to multiple pressures were also found in European rivers
(Schinegger et al., 2013).
Fig. 2. Linear egressions between Member States sh classication method Ecological Quality Ratio (EQR) and the best performing TAPI index including eutrophication,
hydromorphological alterations and direct lake-use. Country abbreviations see Table 1.
6S. Poikane et al. / Science of the Total Environment xxx (2017) xxxxxx
Please cite this article as: Poikane, S., et al., Response of sh communities to multiple pressures: Development of a total anthropogenic pressure
intensity index, Sci Total Environ (2017), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.01.211
4.2. Pressures included in TAPI
The best performing TAPI version included eutrophication,
hydromorphological alterations and direct lake-use intensity. The re-
vealed importance of eutrophication is not surprising as (1) nutrient en-
richmentis still the predominant pressure responsible for the degraded
ecological status of lakes in Europe (EEA, 2012); (2) most assessment
systems explicitly address eutrophication by including taxonomic and/
or functional metrics based on their acknowledged sensitivity to the ef-
fects of eutrophication.
Large numbers of studies on European lake sh assemblages have
reported shifts in relative abundance of roach, bream, perch, ruffe and
other taxa along the eutrophication gradient (e.g., Mehner et al., 2005;
Tammi et al., 2003). The share of perch, bream, white bream, roach
and ruffe were the most frequently used metrics in the sh-based as-
sessment systems, followed by overall abundance (number or weight
per unit effort), abundance or number of predatory sh species, per-
centage of catch by weight of benthic and benthivorous species, and av-
erage or median individual weight of sh (each present in at least 3
methods). All these metrics have been identied as indicators of nutri-
ent enrichment (Appelberg et al., 2000; Breine et al., 2015,and
Virbickas and Stakėnas, 2016).
The relevance of hydromorphological alterations and direct lake-use
is more disputable. Indeed, several studies fail to show clear sh re-
sponse to these impacts. For instance, Mehner et al. (2005) demonstrat-
ed that shoreline alterations and human use intensity had a negligible
effect on sh communities. Brucet et al. (2013a) did not nd any effect
of hydromorphological pressures on sh diversity in lakes. Neverthe-
less, many studies do conrm these relationships (Breine et al., 2015;
Launois et al., 2011; Lewin et al., 2014; Scheuerell and Schindler,
2004; Sutela et al., 2011), ecological rationale for these impacts is
well-established (Ostendorp et al., 2004) andthe reasons for not nding
the impacts are mostly linked to insufcient data quality and quantity
(Mehner et al., 2005).
On the other hand, pressures such as acidication, chemical pollu-
tion and contamination, shing and stocking and the presence of non-
native species were not retained in the nal TAPI as adding these pres-
sures did not improve the TAPI's performance (with exception of Bel-
gian small lakes, see further). Firstly, levels of chemical pollution and
acidication in the lakes were generally low. Secondly, it is difcult to
conclude whether shing/stocking pressures and alien species genuine-
ly have a low impact on sh communities, or that the sh metrics used
in member states' systemsdo not reect these pressures. In addition, we
suspect some heterogeneity in the assessment of stocking and shing
intensity and/or impact. In France, for example, sh communities in
lakes are often manipulated (Argillier et al., 2002). However, it is very
difcult to know exactly the management practices in different lakes,
and the shing intensity upon different species.
4.3. French assessment system addressing eutrophication only
Nine out of ten existing national sh indices correlated signicantly
with the multi-pressure indices. However, the French system showed a
relationship with eutrophication-only indices. A number of reasons can
be suggested as to why this might be so: (1) the French assessment sys-
tem includes only three metrics (NPUE, WPUE, abundance of omnivo-
rous sh) that are mostly related to lake productivity (Argillier et al.,
2013); (2) the French dataset is relatively small (n = 24) and the shore-
line alteration and lake-use arenegligible (only onelake with signicant
shore modication and one - with signicant lake-use intensity). It re-
mains to be seen how well this assessment system is able to account
for other anthropogenic pressures. For this, more data on hydrology,
habitat alterations and sh communities are needed (Argillier et al.,
2013).
4.4. Belgian system best performing model includes also biological
pressures
Belgian dataset consists of small and strongly degraded lakes with
huge impacts of aliens (Belpaire et al., 2000). Therefore, the best rela-
tionships were achieved when all lakes were analyzed (including also
small lakes) and biological pressures were included in the TAPI index.
This shows that biological pressures, mostly negligible for large lakes,
may be of importance for small degraded lakes. Overall, there is no con-
sensus on the role of alien species in general, the presence of alien spe-
cies as perceived as a negative factor (Belpaire et al., 2000; Karr, 1981),
while Breine et al. (2015) argue that some of alien sh species are
naturalised (e.g., common carp) whilst others (pike-perch) are
Table 5
Selectionof best-performing TAPI index (analysis including lakes N50 ha). Indexes after Rmeanshow similar groups according to Tukey'smultiple comparison tests (P b0.0001). The best
performing model marked in bold.
Pressure(-s) R
mean
of all models in the
pressure group
R
mean
of the best-performing model in the
pressure group
Number of
systems
Notes
Eutro 0.61 (A) 0.610 9 Signicantly lower performance comparing to
multi-pressure models0.670 8
Eutro + Hymo 0.67 (B) 0.724 8 Simplest model with best performance
Eutro + Hymo + Bio 0.69 (B) 0.721 8 More complex models do not show improvement
of performanceEutro + Hymo + Bio +
Pollution
0.70 (B) 0.710 8
Table 6
Pressures, metrics and calculation approaches used in TAPI construction (example of calculation in Annex 2, Supporting information), country abbreviations see Table 1.
Pressure module Metrics included Approach
TAPI-EH
Sum of mean scores for each
pressure module
Eutrophication Chl-a,TP
spring
,TP
summer
Best performing model for CZ, DE, DK, EE, LT, NL,
PL, lakes N50 haHydromorphological pressures and
lake use intensity
Shore modication, habitat loss, lake-use
intensity
TAPI-EHB
Eutrophication Chl-a,TP
spring
,TP
summer
, TP-trophic state,
non-native land use
Best performing model for BE, lake area
0.689 ha
Hydromorphological pressures and
lake use intensity
Shore modication, habitat loss, lake-use
intensity
Biological pressures Fish removal, sh input, alien sh abundance
7S. Poikane et al. / Science of the Total Environment xxx (2017) xxxxxx
Please cite this article as: Poikane, S., et al., Response of sh communities to multiple pressures: Development of a total anthropogenic pressure
intensity index, Sci Total Environ (2017), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.01.211
indicators for goodwater qualitydue to their high oxygen demand. De-
pending on the preferred food source and spawning behaviour, either
coexistence or interspecic competition can occur between native and
alien species (Verhelst et al., 2016). In addition alien species can become
an important food source for many native species (Crane et al., 2015).
Also, there is no agreement how alien species have to be included in
ecological assessment across Europe. This is because not all introduced
shes become established, and the fraction of those that do often have
little appreciable effects on their new ecosystems, while others
exert signicant ecological, evolutionary, and economic impacts
(Cucherousset and Olden, 2011). An experiment of Kornis et al.
(2014) provided evidence that invasive species effects may diminish
at high densities, possibly due to increased intraspecic interactions.
So far, only the Lithuanian system for lakes includes explicit metric re-
lated to non-native species (Virbickas and Stakėnas, 2016).The majority
of countries do not take alien species explicitly into account, assuming
that signicant pressure by alien species will be detected by other
sh-based metrics (e.g., Breine et al., 2015). However, this is not always
the case, as high-impact invasive alien species have been observed in
water bodies classied as high (near-pristine) status (Vandekerkhove
et al., 2013). This calls for a development of common understanding
on the impacts of alien species and their inclusion in the ecological
assessment.
4.5. Role of sh community in ecological assessment
European freshwaters are affected by a complex of pressures,
resulting from discharges from diffuse and point sources, habitat alter-
ation, water abstraction, overshing and climate change (EEA, 2012).
Dening the biotic integrity may be the best way to assess the total ef-
fects of these pressures on aquatic environments. As Karr (1991) has
stated: An ideal indicator would be sensitive to all stresses placed on
biological system by human society. However, the reality is different:
most of the 62 intercalibrated lake assessment methods address single
pressures, largely eutrophication, with only few methods addressing
acidication, hydromorphological alterations, or multiple pressures
(Poikane et al., 2015).
The broad spectrum of niche diversity among shes covering differ-
ent trophic levels of the aquatic food-chain from non-predatory
planktivorous and benthivorous species to top predators and different
types of habitats from littoral to benthic and pelagic habitats, makes
shes very susceptible to multi-pressure situations. We propose that
high sensitivity of sh to a broad spectrum of pressures could provide
both generic tools for detecting complex multiple pressures as well as
more tailor madeapproaches for targeting specic pressure
combinations.
We argue that both single-pressure and multiple-pressure tools
have places in the lake management tool-kit (Table 7). Fish-based mul-
tiple-pressure assessment tools offer the major advantage of integrating
both the direct and indirect effects of multiple pressures over large
scales of space and time should be seen as complementary to other bio-
logical communities(Carvalho et al., 2013; Poikaneet al., 2016)andbio-
markers (Colin et al., 2016) for detection of early signs of ecosystem
disturbance.
5. Conclusions
Fish communities react in a holistic way to a broad range of cumula-
tive pressure impacts. Several European countries have developed sh-
based lake assessment tools, however, their comparability is a major
problem due to a variety of sampling gears and methodologies used.
To overcome these issues, we constructed a combined pressure index,
TAPI, which correlated well with changes in sh community structure
thought to reect anthropogenic degradation. TAPIincludes eutrophica-
tion, hydromorphological alterations and lake-use intensity and shows
strong correlation with 8 out of 10 national lake sh indices tested.
Therefore, TAPI provides an estimation of the pressure intensity which
is comparable throughout the wide geographic range of the Central Bal-
tic Intercalibration Group. The TAPI index could represent a useful tool
for assessing environmental quality, as well as for developing pressure
response relationships and intercalibrating sh-based assessment
tools.
Abbreviations
BE Belgium
Chl-achlorophyll-a
CZ Czech Republic
DE Germany
DK Denmark
EE Estonia
EQR Ecological Quality Ratio
FR France
LT Lithuania
NL the Netherlands
NPUE number per unit effort
PL Poland
PL1 method LFI+
PL2 method LFI-CEN
TAPI total anthropogenic pressure index
TP total phosphorus
UK United Kingdom
WFD Water Framework Directive
WPUE weight per unit effort
Acknowledgements
The work of D.R. was funded by the German federal countries' pro-
gram of nancing Water, Soil and Waste. J.B. was nancial supported
by the Flemish Environment Agency. The Czech participants were
Table 7
Comparison of single-pressure assessment tools vs multi-pressure assessment tools examples.
Pressure and pressure indicator Biological community Advantages Disadvantages
Single-pressure tools
Eutrophication (TP) Phytoplankton (Carvalho et
al., 2013)Quantifying relationships between specic
pressures and biological response; Setting
robust targets for the management of
freshwaters, e.g., nutrient targets for limiting
Cyanobacteria blooms
Often degraded to a biological proxy of total
phosphorus; Lacking understanding of
multiple pressures interactions
Acidication (pH or ANC) Benthic invertebrates
(McFarland et al., 2010)
Hydromorphological alterations (water
regulation amplitude)
Macrophytes
(Mjelde et al., 2013)
Multiple-pressure tools
Multiple pressures including eutrophication,
morphological degradation and lake-use
(TAPI)
Fish assessment systems
(this paper)
Integrating direct and indirect impacts of
multiple pressures
Direct derivation of management targets
and restoration measures may be difcult
8S. Poikane et al. / Science of the Total Environment xxx (2017) xxxxxx
Please cite this article as: Poikane, S., et al., Response of sh communities to multiple pressures: Development of a total anthropogenic pressure
intensity index, Sci Total Environ (2017), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.01.211
supported by project CEKOPOT (CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0204), co-nanced
by the European Social Fund and the state budget of the Czech Republic,
and by the Czech Science Foundation (15-01625S). The work of N.J. was
funded by the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment.
The work of T.K. and P.N. was supported by institutional research
funding IUT21-02 of the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research
and by MARS project (Managing Aquatic ecosystems and water Re-
sources under multiple Stress) funded by the European Union under
the 7th Framework Programme, Theme 6 (Environment including Cli-
mate Change), contract no. 603378.
Appendix A. Supplementary data
Supplementary data to this article can be found online at http://dx.
doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.01.211.
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intensity index, Sci Total Environ (2017), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.01.211
... Many developing countries have experienced unprecedented economic growth decoupled from resource conservation under complex environmental loadings. Human development could be represented as a total anthropogenic pressure (Poikane et al. 2017), and many scholars also developed their indices proposed in their papers, i.e., environmental pressure index (Gómez-Navarro et al. 2009); total anthropogenic pressure intensity index (Poikane et al. 2017), and human sustainable development index (in a positive way) (Bravo 2014) to measure an intensity index for urban development planning. For example, urban sprawl puts pressure on land and natural resources, resulting in undesirable outcomes with development pressure. ...
... Many developing countries have experienced unprecedented economic growth decoupled from resource conservation under complex environmental loadings. Human development could be represented as a total anthropogenic pressure (Poikane et al. 2017), and many scholars also developed their indices proposed in their papers, i.e., environmental pressure index (Gómez-Navarro et al. 2009); total anthropogenic pressure intensity index (Poikane et al. 2017), and human sustainable development index (in a positive way) (Bravo 2014) to measure an intensity index for urban development planning. For example, urban sprawl puts pressure on land and natural resources, resulting in undesirable outcomes with development pressure. ...
Chapter
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In the first chapter, we discussed the definition of environmental education. In Chap. 2 , we discuss environmental education based on the pragmatic view of environmental protection. This view is that the interpretation of the living environment is complicated, but because the process of human reasoning it is finite in nature. Our actions should be rooted in our past history, philosophy, and experience in environmental protection that may allow improvement of our physicalenvironment. The essential part of this process is the ability to recognize the components of our ecosystems that can be managed and when adaptation is the only option or survival.
... Many developing countries have experienced unprecedented economic growth decoupled from resource conservation under complex environmental loadings. Human development could be represented as a total anthropogenic pressure (Poikane et al. 2017), and many scholars also developed their indices proposed in their papers, i.e., environmental pressure index (Gómez-Navarro et al. 2009); total anthropogenic pressure intensity index (Poikane et al. 2017), and human sustainable development index (in a positive way) (Bravo 2014) to measure an intensity index for urban development planning. For example, urban sprawl puts pressure on land and natural resources, resulting in undesirable outcomes with development pressure. ...
... Many developing countries have experienced unprecedented economic growth decoupled from resource conservation under complex environmental loadings. Human development could be represented as a total anthropogenic pressure (Poikane et al. 2017), and many scholars also developed their indices proposed in their papers, i.e., environmental pressure index (Gómez-Navarro et al. 2009); total anthropogenic pressure intensity index (Poikane et al. 2017), and human sustainable development index (in a positive way) (Bravo 2014) to measure an intensity index for urban development planning. For example, urban sprawl puts pressure on land and natural resources, resulting in undesirable outcomes with development pressure. ...
Chapter
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The concept of education is changing and that of the environment is also becoming different. Is environmental education: (1) a type of education to improve the environment; (2) education to improve the environment of education; or (3) a type of education to improve the education of people? In this chapter we focus on the ontology of the environment. In epistemology, we try to understand the nature and identity of the world around us and what environmental education is about. The purpose of environmental education is to cultivate citizens that: (1) have a working knowledge of environmental systems; (2) have concerns about environmental problems; and (3) have the capabilities to solve and actively participate in implementing solutions. Environmental problems must be solved through a root cause process, and environmental educators need to change the public’smind on environmental issues using realistic and attainable education targets to establish environmentally friendly behaviors. Through outdoor, classroom, and nature-centered education programs, our goal is to establish important curriculumgoals and novellearning methods for environmental education. Our goal is to have stakeholders consider environmental issues with open minds, understand the needs of other stakeholders, take a leadership role recognizing the existing and emerging environmental issues, and internalize them into specific environmental protective action plans.
... Many developing countries have experienced unprecedented economic growth decoupled from resource conservation under complex environmental loadings. Human development could be represented as a total anthropogenic pressure (Poikane et al. 2017), and many scholars also developed their indices proposed in their papers, i.e., environmental pressure index (Gómez-Navarro et al. 2009); total anthropogenic pressure intensity index (Poikane et al. 2017), and human sustainable development index (in a positive way) (Bravo 2014) to measure an intensity index for urban development planning. For example, urban sprawl puts pressure on land and natural resources, resulting in undesirable outcomes with development pressure. ...
... Many developing countries have experienced unprecedented economic growth decoupled from resource conservation under complex environmental loadings. Human development could be represented as a total anthropogenic pressure (Poikane et al. 2017), and many scholars also developed their indices proposed in their papers, i.e., environmental pressure index (Gómez-Navarro et al. 2009); total anthropogenic pressure intensity index (Poikane et al. 2017), and human sustainable development index (in a positive way) (Bravo 2014) to measure an intensity index for urban development planning. For example, urban sprawl puts pressure on land and natural resources, resulting in undesirable outcomes with development pressure. ...
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Environmental Education (EE) promotes the complex interrelationships between humanculture and ecosystems. Due to the political nature of environmental decision-making, the field of Environmental Education faces many disputes. For example: What is the correct definition and purpose of environmental education? Should the curriculum include environmental values and ethics, as well as ecological and economicconcepts and skills? What is the role of student environmental action in correcting environmental problems? What is the appropriate role for teachers in developing curricula on environmental education? At what age students should understand environmental issues? What types of Environmental Education should urban, suburban, and rural youth receive? What technology can be used to slow ecological damage? Among these problems, Outdoor Education and Environmental Education also face the problems mentioned above. Due to the political factors of human environmental decision-making, Outdoor Education and Environmental Education have been in an undefined state. Educators continually devise better ways to expand the definition of outdoor education to improve the philosophy and practical work of outdoor education. Outdoor education includes eartheducation, bio-regional education, expeditionlearning and expansion training, ecologicaleducation, natural awareness, naturalexperience, local-based teaching and education, and the use of environmental materials as learning to integrate the localenvironment.
... Many developing countries have experienced unprecedented economic growth decoupled from resource conservation under complex environmental loadings. Human development could be represented as a total anthropogenic pressure (Poikane et al. 2017), and many scholars also developed their indices proposed in their papers, i.e., environmental pressure index (Gómez-Navarro et al. 2009); total anthropogenic pressure intensity index (Poikane et al. 2017), and human sustainable development index (in a positive way) (Bravo 2014) to measure an intensity index for urban development planning. For example, urban sprawl puts pressure on land and natural resources, resulting in undesirable outcomes with development pressure. ...
... Many developing countries have experienced unprecedented economic growth decoupled from resource conservation under complex environmental loadings. Human development could be represented as a total anthropogenic pressure (Poikane et al. 2017), and many scholars also developed their indices proposed in their papers, i.e., environmental pressure index (Gómez-Navarro et al. 2009); total anthropogenic pressure intensity index (Poikane et al. 2017), and human sustainable development index (in a positive way) (Bravo 2014) to measure an intensity index for urban development planning. For example, urban sprawl puts pressure on land and natural resources, resulting in undesirable outcomes with development pressure. ...
Chapter
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Research methods are the sum of knowledge, plans, strategies, tools, steps, and processes. In this chapter, we seek to understand the “research” nature of Environmental Education (EE), define the scope of research through a systematic investigation process by gathering and understanding past facts and discovering new facts through practical investigations, experiments, and verification methods to increase or modify the contemporary know-how in our environment. After exploring the history of EE, entering quantitative research on EE and qualitative research on EE, we use this chapter to improve the level of thinking of EE theory, using the learning methods of Benjamin S. Bloom, Harold R. Hungerford, and the emotionallearning theory of ABC. We aim to understand the value of post-environmental learning, strengthen our transcendental cognition of animate and inanimate objects by looking at these aspects objectively and have a more general and mature view of the biotic and abioticprocesses that shape the world around us.
... Many developing countries have experienced unprecedented economic growth decoupled from resource conservation under complex environmental loadings. Human development could be represented as a total anthropogenic pressure (Poikane et al. 2017), and many scholars also developed their indices proposed in their papers, i.e., environmental pressure index (Gómez-Navarro et al. 2009); total anthropogenic pressure intensity index (Poikane et al. 2017), and human sustainable development index (in a positive way) (Bravo 2014) to measure an intensity index for urban development planning. For example, urban sprawl puts pressure on land and natural resources, resulting in undesirable outcomes with development pressure. ...
... Many developing countries have experienced unprecedented economic growth decoupled from resource conservation under complex environmental loadings. Human development could be represented as a total anthropogenic pressure (Poikane et al. 2017), and many scholars also developed their indices proposed in their papers, i.e., environmental pressure index (Gómez-Navarro et al. 2009); total anthropogenic pressure intensity index (Poikane et al. 2017), and human sustainable development index (in a positive way) (Bravo 2014) to measure an intensity index for urban development planning. For example, urban sprawl puts pressure on land and natural resources, resulting in undesirable outcomes with development pressure. ...
Chapter
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Environmental literacy is an abstract concept and a subjective imagination. We see that this chapter discusses environmental educationlearningmotivations, awareness and sensitivity, values and attitudes, mobilization skills, mobilization experience, environmental behavior, and aesthetic literacy in the cultivation of literacy. The above connotations of environmental literacy all need to construct the inherent goodness of human beings. We particularly hope that environmental literacy can be externalized to achieve changes in human-friendly environmental behavior. In other words, if the environmental literacy of the entire population can be strengthened, we can work together to form environmental cohesion, cultivate modern socialcitizens, generate environmental collectiveconsciousness and awareness, and then based on the eternalbelief in naturaldecision-making and environmental protection. This could promote a comfortable space and a clean home for sustainable development. Therefore, from the process that human beings can perceive and understand the environment, we have experienced the awareness of environmental changes. We need to improve environmental literacy to form the transformation of the collectivehumanconsciousnessstructure, so as to be aware of the externalenvironment, that is the learning process. If, literacy is the overall effect of a learning process, then our final collectiveenvironmental consciousness will change from thought to proper behavior. These changes will affect the stage tasks of sustainable development. Then, based on empathy and awareness of all things, we should realize the sense of responsibility and eternal value as human beings, protect nature, and accept the challenges of future environmental changes.
... Many developing countries have experienced unprecedented economic growth decoupled from resource conservation under complex environmental loadings. Human development could be represented as a total anthropogenic pressure (Poikane et al. 2017), and many scholars also developed their indices proposed in their papers, i.e., environmental pressure index (Gómez-Navarro et al. 2009); total anthropogenic pressure intensity index (Poikane et al. 2017), and human sustainable development index (in a positive way) (Bravo 2014) to measure an intensity index for urban development planning. For example, urban sprawl puts pressure on land and natural resources, resulting in undesirable outcomes with development pressure. ...
... Many developing countries have experienced unprecedented economic growth decoupled from resource conservation under complex environmental loadings. Human development could be represented as a total anthropogenic pressure (Poikane et al. 2017), and many scholars also developed their indices proposed in their papers, i.e., environmental pressure index (Gómez-Navarro et al. 2009); total anthropogenic pressure intensity index (Poikane et al. 2017), and human sustainable development index (in a positive way) (Bravo 2014) to measure an intensity index for urban development planning. For example, urban sprawl puts pressure on land and natural resources, resulting in undesirable outcomes with development pressure. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The framework of environmental ethics is built, challenging the way we view or interpret environmental education through the eyes of different stakeholders. In this chapter we consider aspects of land and ecological ethics as well as pedagogy as they relate to environmental ethics to form modelling. We classify that environmental ethics are “anthropocentrism,” or the human-centeredapproach; “biocentrism,” or the life-centered approach; and “ecocentrism,” or the ecosystem-centered approach. Environmental paradigms are explored, which include the theories and practices regarding to environmental ethics, new environmental, ecological and behavioral paradigms, and paradigm shifts. Regarding to our choices from environmental values and concerns, we may use a model to detect our problem-solving approach to identify environmental problems we face and, find our practical needs and implement solutions toward sustainability.
... Many developing countries have experienced unprecedented economic growth decoupled from resource conservation under complex environmental loadings. Human development could be represented as a total anthropogenic pressure (Poikane et al. 2017), and many scholars also developed their indices proposed in their papers, i.e., environmental pressure index (Gómez-Navarro et al. 2009); total anthropogenic pressure intensity index (Poikane et al. 2017), and human sustainable development index (in a positive way) (Bravo 2014) to measure an intensity index for urban development planning. For example, urban sprawl puts pressure on land and natural resources, resulting in undesirable outcomes with development pressure. ...
... Many developing countries have experienced unprecedented economic growth decoupled from resource conservation under complex environmental loadings. Human development could be represented as a total anthropogenic pressure (Poikane et al. 2017), and many scholars also developed their indices proposed in their papers, i.e., environmental pressure index (Gómez-Navarro et al. 2009); total anthropogenic pressure intensity index (Poikane et al. 2017), and human sustainable development index (in a positive way) (Bravo 2014) to measure an intensity index for urban development planning. For example, urban sprawl puts pressure on land and natural resources, resulting in undesirable outcomes with development pressure. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Environmental learning is an act of communication. Whether it is self-directed learning, learning through teachers or professors, or learning through an online platform, all need a learningmedium and content. Therefore, environmental learning and communication in this chapter refer to how individuals, institutions, socialgroups, and cultural communities produce, share, accept, understand, and properly use the environmental information, and then utilize the relationship between humansociety and the environment through using environmental communication. In the interaction of the social network of humansociety, from interpersonal communication to virtual communities, modern humans need to participate in environmental decision-making to understand the problems that occur in the world’s environment through environmental media reports. Therefore, this chapter could be focused on “learning as process” and, see how to learn from theorized fields of studies. We may encourage that you may learn from spoken, written, audio-visual, image, and information exchanges through carriers such as learningfields, learning plans, learning mode, information transmission, and communication media. It is hoped that environmental learning and communication, through creation, adopt diverse communication methods and platforms to establish the correct environmental information pipeline.
... Many developing countries have experienced unprecedented economic growth decoupled from resource conservation under complex environmental loadings. Human development could be represented as a total anthropogenic pressure (Poikane et al. 2017), and many scholars also developed their indices proposed in their papers, i.e., environmental pressure index (Gómez-Navarro et al. 2009); total anthropogenic pressure intensity index (Poikane et al. 2017), and human sustainable development index (in a positive way) (Bravo 2014) to measure an intensity index for urban development planning. For example, urban sprawl puts pressure on land and natural resources, resulting in undesirable outcomes with development pressure. ...
... Many developing countries have experienced unprecedented economic growth decoupled from resource conservation under complex environmental loadings. Human development could be represented as a total anthropogenic pressure (Poikane et al. 2017), and many scholars also developed their indices proposed in their papers, i.e., environmental pressure index (Gómez-Navarro et al. 2009); total anthropogenic pressure intensity index (Poikane et al. 2017), and human sustainable development index (in a positive way) (Bravo 2014) to measure an intensity index for urban development planning. For example, urban sprawl puts pressure on land and natural resources, resulting in undesirable outcomes with development pressure. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
We explore environmental cognition, personality traits, social norms, environmental stress, and the healing environment. Cognition is the learning process of identifying the light, sound, smell, and feel of the space around us and then forming concepts of what we sense and then create visual images in our minds of what we are perceiving. This then allows us to respond appropriately to stimuli and what we believe to be true. Therefore, we review the cognitive theory of environmental learning and then move to an exploration of the social theory associated with environmental learning and our understanding of nature. The use of different epistemological methods gradually unlocks the influencing factors of environmental behaviors, such as personality traits and social norms with the objective of explaining socialbehavior. Finally, by understanding environmental stress, it becomes apparent that humanity needs redemption and healing through the power of nature, including nourishment of phytoncide, vitamin D, and the exposure to of outdoorenvironments such as forests and oceans to reduce stress. This then helps restore our physical and mental health and strengthens our thinking and decision-making processes.
... Aquatic environments suffer many anthropic impacts (e.g., invasion of alien species, habitat destruction and fragmentation caused by hydromorphological modifications, eutrophication, climate change, fish overexploitation) that generate multiple pressures on the biota and on the environment as a whole (Poikane et al. 2017). The effects of environmental stressors can result in imbalance in ecosystem services of aquatic environments, such as habitat loss, species decline, drop in water level, and degradation of water quality (Bellwood et al. 2003;Hanna et al. 2018;Vári et al. 2021), challenging the stability and integrity of aquatic ecosystems (Fausch et al. 1990;Karr and Chu 1999). ...
Article
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Fisheries is an important activity in the Amazon basin and potentially has a high impact on ichthyofauna. With the aim of achieving sustainability in fisheries of target species, protected areas were established within a fisheries management framework known as the Amazon Lakes Management System (ALMS). With the aim to evaluate the effect of ALMS on fish assemblages as a whole, we compared floodplain lakes with different levels of fish management in the lower Solimões River, in the Brazilian Amazon, developing an index of biotic integrity, named ALMS-IBI. We sampled fish in three lake categories: protected (PR), managed (MN), and commercially fished (CM). The ALMS-IBI was developed by selecting and testing fish assemblage metrics based on samplings carried out in 2017 and 2018, using gillnets with different mesh sizes. We captured 4565 fish of 113 species and seven trophic categories. The final index is composed of seven metrics related to species richness, trophic structure, and fish abundance, and characterized the fish assemblage in the PR and MN lakes as acceptable, and in the CM lakes as poor. Our results indicate that the ALMS-IBI can be an efficient method to monitor the whole fish assemblage in Amazonian floodplain lakes, and can be used as a complementary tool in the ALMS to assess environmental sustainability.
... Underwater soundscapes can influence the composition of a diverse array of aquatic communities and are important for aquatic organisms that rely on hearing for orientation, prey detection, predator avoidance, social interactions, and other behavioral responses (Cotter 2008;Fay 2009;Bruintjes and Radford 2013;Mensinger et al. 2016;Rountree et al. 2018). However, underwater soundscapes are increasingly subjected to anthropogenic sounds Pratchett et al. 2011;Radford et al. 2014;Arthington et al. 2016;Poikane et al. 2017;Popper and Hawkins 2019;Rountree et al. 2020). Motorized watercraft, nearshore construction, seismic testing, and urbanization have led to an increase in background sound and can have detrimental effects on aquatic organisms (Popper et al. 2005;Kuehne et al. 2013;Putland and Mensinger 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
Freshwater lake soundscapes yield crucial information regarding biological, geological, and anthropogenic activity, yet is a relatively unexplored area of study. These soundscapes are particularly important to aquatic life that may use sound to navigate, find food, avoid predators, and communicate. Further research is required to understand how aquatic species, such as native fishes, are impacted by increased anthropogenic interference. Many wilderness lakes restrict the use of motorized boats and equipment, providing an opportunity to compare fish behavior in the presence and absence of anthropogenic sound. Underwater videos and passive acoustic monitoring were used to evaluate fish behavior under different soundscapes in the upper Midwest United States: John Lake (nonmotorized, Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, MN), Rush Lake (nonmotorized, Huron Mountain Club, MI), and Caribou Lake (motorized, Duluth, MN). Intermittent short and long anthropogenic sound playback experiments showed behavioral changes in bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus, centrarchids), bluntnose minnows (Pimephales notatus, cyprinids), mimic shiners (Notropis volucellus, cyprinids), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens, percids). Overall, cyprinids in wilderness lakes were the most responsive to boat sound 36–52 dB above ambient sound levels, with bluegills in the public lake more likely to remain in the area during longer duration sound stimuli. Taken together, these results indicate that behavioral responses are species specific and depend on environmental variables such as anthropogenic exposure and fishing pressure.
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Man's activities have had profound, and usually negative, influences on freshwater fishes from the smallest streams to the largest rivers. Some negative effects are due to contaminants, while others are associated with changes in watershed hydrology, habitat modifications, and alteration of energy sources upon which the aquatic biota depends. Regrettably, past efforts to evaluate effects of man's activities on fishes have attempted to use water quality as a surrogate for more comprehensive biotic assessment. A more refined biotic assessment program is required for effective protection of freshwater fish resources. An assessment system proposed here uses a series of fish community attributes related to species composition and ecological structure to evaluate the quality of an aquatic biota. In preliminary trials this system accurately reflected the status of fish communities and the environment supporting them.
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Excessive fertilisation is one of the most pernicious forms of global change resulting in eutrophication. It has major implications for disease control and the conservation of biodiversity. Yet, the direct link between nutrient enrichment and disease remains largely unexplored. Here, we present the first experimental evidence that chronic nitrate enrichment decreases severity and induces protection against an infectious disease. Specifically, this study shows that nitrate concentrations ranging between 50 and 250 mg NO3-/l reduce Gyrodactylus turnbulli infection intensity in two populations of Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata, and that the highest nitrate concentration can even clean the parasites from the fish. This added to the fact that host nitrate pre-exposure altered the fish epidermal structure and reduced parasite intensity, suggests that nitrate protected the host against the disease. Nitrate treatments also caused fish mortality. As we used ecologically-relevant nitrate concentrations, and guppies are top-consumers widely used for mosquito bio-control in tropical and often nutrient-enriched waters, our results can have major ecological and social implications. In conclusion, this study advocates reducing nitrate level including the legislative threshold to protect the aquatic biota, even though this may control an ectoparasitic disease.
Article
A simple procedure to harmonise and intercalibrate eight national methods classifying the ecological status using fish in transitional waters of the North East Atlantic is described. These methods were initially intercalibrated and a new method recently developed was added to this exercise. A common human pressure index pre-classified the status of each water body in an independent way. Ecological class boundaries values were established according to the level of anthropogenic pressure using regression analyses. A simulated dataset was used to assess the level of agreement between the fish classification methods. Fleiss' multi-rater kappa analysis indicated that boundary harmonisation was achieved; all classifications fell within one class of each other and class agreement between methods exceeded 70%. The use of a pressure index to establish boundary thresholds provides a practical method of defining and harmonizing the quality classes associated with human pressures, as required by the European Water Framework Directive.
Article
A simple procedure to harmonise and intercalibrate eight national methods classifying the ecological status using fish in transitional waters of the North East Atlantic is described. These methods were initially intercalibrated and a new method recently developed was added to this exercise. A common human pressure index pre-classified the status of each water body in an independent way. Ecological class boundaries values were established according to the level of anthropogenic pressure using regression analyses. A simulated dataset was used to assess the level of agreement between the fish classification methods. Fleiss' multi-rater kappa analysis indicated that boundary harmonisation was achieved; all classifications fell within one class of each other and class agreement between methods exceeded 70%. The use of a pressure index to establish boundary thresholds provides a practical method of defining and harmonizing the quality classes associated with human pressures, as required by the European Water Framework Directive.