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Effect of Nitrogen fixing bacteria on growth of potato tubers

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... of commercially available biostimulants, extracts, bacterial vaccines, EM (effective microorganisms) products, biofertilisers and conditioners which enhance soil humus and organic carbon, increase soil pH, improve plant resistance to diseases and other stress conditions, contribute to better nutrient uptake from the soil, and increase plant yields (Emitazi et. al., 2004;Boligłowa and Gleń, 2008;Sulewska et al., 2009;Piotrowska et al., 2012;Zarzecka et al., 2014). ...
... The most important characteristics of table potato consumptionrelated/organoleptic/sensory value include: raw tuber flesh darkening, after-cooking darkening, flavour and culinary type. In the study reported here, raw tuber flesh darkening, assessed 10 min after tubers were cut through, was significantly affected by cultivars and weather conditions in the study years (Tables 5,6). Satina darkened less than Tajfun, the darkening for both cultivars being low as it averaged 8.89 and 8.87, respectively, on a 1-9 scale. ...
... Darkening of raw flesh and cooked flesh of potato tubers after 10 min (scale[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9] ...
Article
A field experiment was carried out in 2008-2010 on soil of a very good rye complex. The soil reaction ranged from slightly acidic to acidic (pH in 1 n KCl was 4.81-5.91), and the soil was very suitable for potato cultivation. The experiment was arranged as a two-factorial split-plot design with three replicates. The trial included the following two factors: I – two edible potato cultivars (Satina and Tajfun), II – five UGmax application methods (1. control without UGmax, 2. UGmax applied prior to tuber planting at the rate of 1.0 dm³ ha⁻¹, 3. UGmax applied prior to tuber planting at the rate of 0.5 dm³ ha⁻¹ followed by two foliar applications at the rate of 0.25 dm³ ha⁻¹, 4. UGmax applied prior to tuber planting at the rate of 1.0 dm³ ha⁻¹ followed by two foliar applications at the rate of 0.5 dm³ ha⁻¹, 5. two foliar applications of UGmax at the rate of 0.5 dm³ ha⁻¹). Random tuber samples from 10 plants were collected in each plot, and used to conduct chemical analysis and assess tuber consumption-related characteristics. The soil conditioner UGmax beneficially affected tuber content of starch and vitamin C, and slightly enhanced after-cooking darkening compared with control tubers. Weather conditions in the study years significantly affected dry matter, starch, and vitamin C content as well as raw flesh darkening and after-cooking darkening of tubers. Under the weather conditions in 2010, when precipitation was abundant, the contents of the components studied were the lowest but raw flesh darkening and after-cooking darkening were more intense due to a higher accumulation of reducing sugars.
... The mechanism of microbial nitrogen and phosphorus metabolism has been proposed. [160] is provided in the reference list; however, this was not mentioned or cited in the manuscript. As a rule, all references given in the list of references should be cited in the main body. ...
... Please provide its citation in the body text. Ans: To be confirmedRemove [160] from reference list>>NCES ...
Chapter
With the latest advances in biology, genetics, soil science, breeding, engineering, and microbiology, environmental biotechnologists are better able to harness microbial communities to provide services to civil society. These services concern the treatment of contaminated waters and sewage, but also sediments, soil, air, and the detection of pollutants or pathogens. In this way, they can protect society from exposure to all types of pollutants or pathogens. Problems on the border of several natural sciences are presented. The results of observational studies together with references to the literature on the human environment, its protection, and its components are the result of the work of scientists representing many fields of science. Both natural, agricultural, engineering, and technical sciences, as well as health sciences, are represented here. This monograph reflects a unique composition of ideas guiding care for the condition of the natural environment and the welfare of the present and future generations, providing food, the effects of anthropogenization of the environment, as well as minimizing the impact of industry on the environment. This study is intended to encourage further efforts to develop human ecology and protect the natural environment.
... Potato protein has a high biological value; the highest one of all the plant proteins [42,43]. As one of the few plant proteins, it has a biological value corresponding to animal protein [44]. It is comparable with soybean protein and only slightly decreased in egg white [44][45][46][47]. ...
... As one of the few plant proteins, it has a biological value corresponding to animal protein [44]. It is comparable with soybean protein and only slightly decreased in egg white [44][45][46][47]. Of the eight amino acids, people must ingest, seven are found in potato protein: leucine, lysine, isoleucine, and phenylalanine, threonine, methionine and valine [46,47]. ...
Article
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Potato protein is a valuable source of essential plant-derived amino acids, the composition of which is similar to that of chicken egg protein considering the amino acid reference. Many factors used in potato cultivation can modify its composition. The use of bio-fertilizers in potato growing offers a possibility of a better use of minerals from soil and organic sources and reducing the need for mineral fertilizers by activating minerals present in soil. The effect can be to improve not only the potato tuber yield but also the nutritional value. The aim of this study has been to determine the changes in the content of crude protein and the composition of amino acids in potato tubers, depending on the application of the bio-fertilizer (UGmax), organic fertilizers (pea as a catch crop, straw, and farmyard manure (FYM)) as well as mineral fertilization (100% and 50% of the reference rate). The application of bio-fertilizer significantly increased the content of essential and non-essential amino acids in potato tuber protein. With the half-decreased mineral fertilization rate, bio-fertilizer most effectively increased the content of tyrosine, methionine, asparagine in potato tuber protein in the treatments with FYM or with a catch crop as well as without organic fertilization.
... Results of these studies showed that in many cases grain, yield and N concentration in plants increased by inoculation with Azotobacter sp. (De Freitas, 2000;Kumar et al., 2001;Emtiazi et al., 2004). A. chroococcum is the most prevalent species found but other species described including A. agilis, A. vinelandii, A. beijerinckii, A. insignis, A. macrocytogenes and A. paspali (FAO, 1982). ...
Conference Paper
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In this research, 50 soil samples were collected from ecologically different provinces in 9 country in Turkey, for isolation of the indigenous Azotobacter chroococcum strains. Fifty-five like A. chroococcum strains were isolated on Ashby agar after incubated for 3 days at 30 ºC. The isolated strains were maintained on Ashby agar slopes and mycelial fragment in glycerol (25% v/v) at -25 ºC. The isolated 55 indigenous A.chroococcum strains were tested for nitrogen fixation capability into Ashby broth after 72 h at 30 ºC and three soil samples with different texture after 8 weeks. The highest N fixed 10 isolates and the type strain of the A. chroococcum Beijerinck 1901 were examined on the field and greenhouse conditions for determine efect of the plantal productivies. The selected indigenous A. chroococcum and the related type strains were also tested for ability to use sole carbon sources for energy and growth. The isolate strains identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Phylogenetic dendograms of 16S rRNA sequence analysis were made using the least-sequares, maximum-parsimony and neighbour-joining algorithms.
... What is also essential is an increased awareness of the consumer who is, to a large extent, interested in purchasing 'healthy' food, free from harmful compounds. The idea of the environmental protection and the consumer as such makes us search for new possibilities by introducing cultivation simplifications or the application of various kinds of biostimulants, resistance stimulants, bacterial vaccines, algae extracts, effective microorganisms agents or soil fertilizers (Yildirim et al., 2002;Emitazi et al., 2004;Vernieri et al., 2005;Trawczyński, 2007;Trawczyński and Bogdanowicz, 2007). Similarly, in the developing system of integrated potato cultivation, due to a decreased amount of FYM (the manure) which is a basic organic fertilizer, catch crops and straw or in the processing of organic waste (salmon sludge) can offer an alternative source of biomass (Teuber et al., 2007). ...
Article
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Nitrates naturally occur in plant-based food. Nitrates content in consumable plant organs is small and should not raise concern provided that the recommended fertilization and harvest terms of the original plants are observed. The aim was to determine the effect of the application of various organic matter of soil fertilizer and simplifications in growing potato(Solanum tuberosum L.) on the content of nitrates in the tubers of mid-early cultivar ‘Satina’ after harvest and after 6-mo of storage. Introducing cultivation simplification involves limiting mineral fertilization by 50% as well as chemical protection limitation. The soil fertilizer was used: 0.6 (autumn), 0.3 (spring), and 0.3 L ha-1 (during the vegetation period). The content of nitrates, was determined with the use of the ion-selective method (multi-purpose computer device CX-721, Elmetron). The lowest amount of nitrates was recorded in the tubers from the plots without the application of organic matter with a 50% rate of mineral fertilization with soil fertilizer (120.5 mg kg-1 FW). The use of varied organic matter resulted in a significant increase in the content of nitrates in tubers and the lowest effect on their accumulation was reported for straw. The soil fertilizer used significantly decreased the content of nitrates in tubers by 15% for 100% NPK and 10.4% for 50% NPK. After 6-mo storage, irrespective of the experiment factors, the content of nitrates decreased in the fertilization experiment by 26% and in the experiment with a limited protection – by 19.9%.
... However, results of research on the effect of these preparations on the amount and quality of yield, and soil properties are not unanimous. Proponents of microbial preparations application prove their advantageous effect on crop yield and soil properties (Shah et al., 2001;Emitazi et al., 2004, Kumar et al., 2014, whereas the sceptics point to a low reliability of results because of a short period of investigations, their local range, and methodological errors of the conducted experiments (Priyadi et al., 2005;Còndor-Golec et al., 2007). ...
Article
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A three-year field experiment was conducted under conditions of Luvic Chernozem soil. Diversified nitrogen fertilization with 0, 60, 120, and 180 kg N ha(-1), and microbial preparations improving soil properties were applied to potatoes, cv. 'Satina', cultivation. N-NO3 concentration in the soil profile (0-0.9 m) in autumn after potato harvesting fluctuated from 28 kg N ha(-1) in the N-0 treatment to 70 kg N ha(-1) in the N-180 treatment, whereas N-NH4 content varied from 22 to 48 kg N ha(-1), respectively. The level of nitrogen fertilization also had a significant effect on the change in soil N-NO3 content during the autumn-winter period. The decrease in N-NO3 content in the N-0 treatments was 7% compared to 24% in the N-180 treatments. Application of microbial preparations to potato cultivation caused an increase in N-min content in soil after crop harvesting. However, after the autumn-winter period, a lower amount of N-NO3, compared to the control treatment, was found in the treatments where microbial preparations had been used.
... However, while applying simplifications in potato growing, the importance of FYM increases [1,3,6]. Agrotechnical practises progress, environmental and consumer protection as well as a decrease in the amount of FYM force the application of simplified potato farming systems with the use of biological agents [1,5,[7][8][9]. All the bioagents, although their composition differs, carry the same objective: to enhance physical, chemical and biological soil properties, which should be translated into the yield both in terms of quantity and quality. Such agents include soil fertilizers, e.g. ...
Article
The results of research come from two three factor field experiments performed over 2009-2011. The aim of paper was to determine the effect of the application of various organic matter, soil fertilizer and simplifications in potato growing on the total tuber yield, mid-early 'Satina N' cultivar. Besides after 6 months of storage quantitative losses were determined. Growing simplifications were introduced; limiting mineral fertilization by 50% as well as restrictions in chemical protection from agrophages. Mineral fertilizers were applied and the soil fertilizer was used at three rates. Potato yield was highest when grown exposed to the full plant protection after applying 100% of mineral fertilization on FYM and it amounted to 49.4 t ha(-1). The statistical analysis showed that the organic matter applied (except for straw) significantly increased the tuber yield both against 100% and 50% of NPK. Irrespective of the experimental factors, the soil fertilizer significantly increased the total tuber yield in the 'fertilization experiment' by 6.4% and limiting the protection from agrophages by 8.8%. The highest natural losses and total losses were reported after tuber storage in traditional farming, that is exposed to full NPK fertilization and full plant protection during cultivation and they accounted for 3.77% and 3.94%, respectively. The lowest losses were recorded for potatoes grown on straw an average of 3.49%. Having applied FYM and intercrop, the losses were higher and accounted for 3.68% and 3.72%, respectively. A 50% decrease in mineral fertilization and the application of soil fertilizer limited losses after tuber storage.
... The key element of agrotechnology affecting high yields of good quality is to provide plants with appropriate development conditions thanks to regulators available on the market that affect plant growth, including biostimulants [6] or bacterial vaccines [7]. These products containing bioactive molecules have a beneficial effect on plants and improve their capability to face adverse environmental conditions [8]. ...
Article
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In modern agriculture, preparations qualified as biostimulants are used alongside pesticides. They influence the development of plants and enable a yield-forming effect. An important feature of these preparations is that they are safe for the environment. They can be treated as substitutes for plant protection agents, which is especially important in the era of implementation of the European Green Deal, ordering the reduction of chemicalization of agriculture. The purpose of this paper was to compare the production and economic results of five methods of plantation care in Solanum tuberosum cultivation: on the first object (control), mechanical cultivation was used, and on the second, object the herbicide Avatar 293 ZC (1.5 dm3·ha−1), on object three, the herbicide Avatar 293 ZC (1.5 dm3·ha−1) and the biostimulant PlonoStart (2.0 dm3·ha−1), on object four, the herbicide Avatar 293 ZC (1.5 dm3·ha−1) and biostimulant Aminoplant (1.5 dm3·ha−1), and on object five, the herbicide Avatar 293 ZC (1.5 dm3·ha−1) and biostimulant Agro-Sorb Folium (4.0 dm3·ha−1). The research was conducted from 2018 to 2020 at the Agricultural Experimental Station in Zawady, central-eastern Poland. The results were analyzed, on average, for two Polish edible potato cultivars (Malaga and Oberon), and three years of study (2018–2020) were taken into consideration. The experiment was established as a two-factor experiment in three replicates on light soil in a spit-plot arrangement. A beneficial effect of herbicides and biostimulants on the yield and profitability of edible potato production was observed. An average increase of 33.2% in marketable yield was obtained. The gross margin increased by an average of 49.3%. The highest total yield, as compared to the control object, was obtained from object 5, where the herbicide Avatar 293 ZC with biostimulant Agro-Sorb Folium was applied, such as the greatest economic effect was achieved also in object no. 5. Application of this biostimulant was most beneficial.
... In our study we found that manganese content in potato tubers ranged from 20.47 to 22.67 mg·kg -1 in dry mass (tab. [3][4], which is consistent with the findings of Ciećko and Wyszkowski [2000]. The concentration of this component in the tubers was not significantly varied by the experimental factors. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of the soil fertilizer UGmax on zinc, copper and manganese contents in potato tubers. A three - year field experiment was carried out on soil which belonged to a very good rye complex. The experiment was established according to randomized split-plot method, in three replications. The following factors were examined: factor I: edible potato varieties (Satina and Typhoon), and factor II: doses and timing of UGmax application. As a result of conducted research, significantly smaller copper content in potato tubers was found, after usage of the soil preparation UGmax, in comparison with a control object, while zinc and manganese content continued to show only a downward trend. The influence of weather conditions and potato varieties on the copper cumulation in the dry mass of potato tuber was proved. An important influence of the factors of the experiment on the uptake of researched macroelements with the potato tuber yield was also shown.
... Results of these studies showed that in many cases grain, yield and N concentration in plants increased by inoculation with Azotobacter sp. (De Freitas, 2000;Kumar et al., 2001a, b;Emtiazi et al., 2004). A. chroococcum is the most prevalent species found but other species described including A. agilis, A. vinelandii, A. beijerinckii, A. insignis, A. macrocytogenes and A. paspali (FAO, 1982). ...
Article
This study explored the effectiveness of non-indigenous and indigenous Azotobacter chroococcum strains on yield response and N concentrations of spring wheat cultivation under greenhouse and field conditions in Merzifon, Turkey. The non-indigenous, A. chroococcum strain Beijerinck 1901 (DSMZ 2286), was tested in the study. Ten indigenous strains of A. chroococcum were isolated from various sources in Northern Anatolia, Turkey. Seeds of wheat (Triticum aestivum) were inoculated with 11 bacterial strains of A. chroococcum; Beijerinck 1901, RK33, RK34, RK38, RK39, RK40, RK41, RK46, RK48, RK49 and RK50. Plants were harvested for 83 days in pots and 106 days in plots after sowing. Research result showed that all A. chroococcum strains had positive effect on the yield and N concentrations of wheat. Also, indigenous strain A. chroococcum RK49 had the highest effects on yield and increased the production of grain yield by 84% in field experiment and by in 95% pot experiment compared to control treatment without A. chroococcum inoculation. Based on the research results, it was suggested that the use of indigenous A. chroococcum strains might be suitable when producing and using bio-fertilizer.
... The foliar application of Nitrogen effect on all indicators, because its important role, where Nitrogen is the major constituent of all amino acids in proteins and lipids that considers as structural compounds of the chloroplast [Basela and Mahadeen, (2008)] showed that the rapid cycle and good growth rate for Potato plant requires a high level of nitrogen. This disagrees with Mayer et al. (2008) who showed that microorganisms did not significantly affect potato yielding, whereas Emitiazi et al. (2004) showed the importance of microbial inoculants and its effect on tubers evolution in most of the potato cultivars studied. Gao et al. (2014) explained that the tuber yield determined by tuber initiation of Potato and its growth, which mainly depends on stolon growth, and are affected by several factors including applying Nitrogen fertilizer. ...
Article
An experiment was conducted in a private field in Al-Najaf province Alhaidariya area, to study the influences of foliar spray of Nitrogen in growth parameters and yield of potato product cv (Bellini) and soil application with Azotobacter chroococcum during spring season 2014. Three concentrations of Nitrogen (0, 150, 300 mg.L-1) and three levels of Azotobacter (0, 5, 10 kg.ha-1) were used. The experiment was adopted as a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates. Means were compared by Duncan Multiple Range test at the level of probability of 0.05. The interaction between soil application of biofertelizer at 10g.ha-1 level and spraying with 150 mg.L-1 nitrogen showed the superiority in plant length (91.08) cm.plant-1 , total vegetative dry weight (80.49)g.plant-1 , total leaf area (1429) cm 2 .plant-1 , total yield per unit area (36.77) tone.h-1 , carbohydrates content (2.83 %). While the interaction between adding bio-fertilizer at 10 g.ha-1 level and spraying with Nitrogen at the concentrate of 300 mg.L-1 was superior in specific density (1.065) and starch content of tubers (12.23)% compared with control treatment which gave the least values.
... Microorganisms provide the cycle of plant nutrients by reducing the need for chemical fertilization as far as possible, therefore, their importance in agriculture is great. For this reason, microorganisms are used as microbial fertilizers in agriculture due to their beneficial effects on development (İsmailçelebioğlu, 1969;Emtiazi et al., 2004). Microorganisms that promote plant growth, as well nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubility, promote plant growth through the synthesis of herbal hormones and vitamins, inhibiting ethylene synthesis, increasing nutrient intake and resistance to stress conditions, and decomposition of soil organic matter (Naruala et al., 2000;Saravanan et al., 2008). ...
... The foliar application of Nitrogen effect on all indicators, because its important role, where Nitrogen is the major constituent of all amino acids in proteins and lipids that considers as structural compounds of the chloroplast [Basela and Mahadeen, (2008)] showed that the rapid cycle and good growth rate for Potato plant requires a high level of nitrogen. This disagrees with Mayer et al. (2008) who showed that microorganisms did not significantly affect potato yielding, whereas Emitiazi et al. (2004) showed the importance of microbial inoculants and its effect on tubers evolution in most of the potato cultivars studied. Gao et al. (2014) explained that the tuber yield determined by tuber initiation of Potato and its growth, which mainly depends on stolon growth, and are affected by several factors including applying Nitrogen fertilizer. ...
Article
Full-text available
An experiment was conducted in a private field in Al-Najaf province Alhaidariya area, to study the influences of foliar spray of Nitrogen in growth parameters and yield of potato product cv (Bellini) and soil application with Azotobacter chroococcum during spring season 2014. Three concentrations of Nitrogen (0, 150, 300 mg.L-1) and three levels of Azotobacter (0, 5, 10 kg.ha-1) were used. The experiment was adopted as a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates. Means were compared by Duncan Multiple Range test at the level of probability of 0.05. The interaction between soil application of biofertelizer at 10g.ha-1 level and spraying with 150 mg.L-1 nitrogen showed the superiority in plant length (91.08) cm.plant-1 , total vegetative dry weight (80.49)g.plant-1 , total leaf area (1429) cm 2 .plant-1 , total yield per unit area (36.77) tone.h-1 , carbohydrates content (2.83 %). While the interaction between adding bio-fertilizer at 10 g.ha-1 level and spraying with Nitrogen at the concentrate of 300 mg.L-1 was superior in specific density (1.065) and starch content of tubers (12.23)% compared with control treatment which gave the least values.
Article
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During 2011–2014 the effects of fertigation and storage on certain quality attributes of potato tubers (Courage variety) and their extracted starches were assessed. The effect of those factors on the FFQ was also evaluated. When processed, potato tubers are exposed to high temperatures (frying) and this can cause unfavorable physico-chemical changes in the starch quality. The highest content of AM and Ptot in starch, as well as the starch lightest in color, were obtained from the tubers of potatoes irrigated and fertigated with a soil fertilizer. The use of a soil fertilizer increased the Ptot content in starch and the share of starch grains in the desired fractions (20–40 µm). All experimental factors had an unfavorable effect on starch pasting temperature and a positive effect on the DM and starch contents in the tubers of the studied cultivar. A highly significant positive effect, i.e., a decreased water content after defrosting, was recorded after irrigation with fertigation. The most favorable FFQ was found immediately after the harvest of potatoes grown with the application of all the factors, while the process of storage decreased FFQ by 4.3%.
Article
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The effect of nitrogen fertilization and microbial preparations on yielding and development of potato tuber yield components were assessed in field experiments conducted under soil conditions of Luvic Chernozem. The factors of the experiment were nitrogen fertilization levels: 0, 60, 120 and 180 kg N/ha and the following preparations: BactoFil B10, effective microorganisms and UGmax soil fertilizer. Nitrogen fertilization caused a significant increase in marketable yield of potato tubers. Yield increments on individual fertilizer treatments ranged from 66% to 140%. An evident effect of this factor was also visible regarding the yield components values. Increase in the number of main stems per 1 m2 under the influence of growing nitrogen doses occurred from the fertilization level 120 kg N/ha, whereas the number of tubers per 1 stem increased only to the level of 60 kg N/ha. Each nitrogen dose applied within the range to 180 kg N/ha caused a marked increase in an average tuber weight. Conducted investigations demonstrated an unfavourable effect of microbial preparations on the marketable crop yield of tubers and formation of yield components. On the objects where microbial preparations were applied, the marketable yield was lower by 1.5 to 2.3 t/ha than in the control. Analysis of linear regression revealed occurrence of significant dependencies between the total tuber yield and the values of individual yield components. The relationships were the most visible for an average tuber weight formation as evidenced by the value of coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.983).
Article
Full-text available
The effect of nitrogen fertilization and microbial preparations on yielding and development of potato tuber yield components were assessed in field experiments conducted under soil conditions of Luvic Chernozem. The factors of the experiment were nitrogen fertilization levels: 0, 60, 120 and 180 kg N/ha and the following preparations: BactoFil B10, effective microorganisms and UG(max) soil fertilizer. Nitrogen fertilization caused a significant increase in marketable yield of potato tubers. Yield increments on individual fertilizer treatments ranged from 66% to 140%. An evident effect of this factor was also visible regarding the yield components values. Increase in the number of main stems per 1 m(2) under the influence of growing nitrogen doses occurred from the fertilization level 120 kg N/ha, whereas the number of tubers per 1 stem increased only to the level of 60 kg N/ha. Each nitrogen dose applied within the range to 180 kg N/ha caused a marked increase in an average tuber weight. Conducted investigations demonstrated an unfavourable effect of microbial preparations on the marketable crop yield of tubers and formation of yield components. On the objects where microbial preparations were applied, the marketable yield was lower by 1.5 to 2.3 t/ha than in the control. Analysis of linear regression revealed occurrence of significant dependencies between the total tuber yield and the values of individual yield components. The relationships were the most visible for an average tuber weight formation as evidenced by the value of coefficient of determination (R-2 = 0.983).
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The aim of the study was to determine the effect of biostimulators on the yield of three edible potato varieties. The field experiment was carried out in a split-plot design with three replicates. The examined factors were: I – three varieties of edible potato: Honorata, Jelly, Tajfun, and II – five ways of using biostimulators: control (without biostimulators), Kelpak SL® biostimulator, Titanit®, GreenOk®, BrunatneBio Złoto®. The biostimulators used in the experiment caused an increase of yields (on average by 1,6 t ha –1 ) in comparison to the control plot. With unfavourable weather conditions, unfavourable for the yielding of potatoes, after the application of the biostimulators a higher yield was obtained, by 1.2 t ha –1 , than in favourable weather conditions. The biostimulator BrunatneBio Złoto caused a significant increase in the yield and had an effect on the structure of potato tuber yield in comparison to the control treatment. The varieties grown differed in terms of the level of yields. Variety Jelly produced the highest yield (an average of 51.05 t ha –1 ) and was characterised by a higher share of large tubers in the total yield of tubers than varieties Tajfun and Honorata. The highest yields and percentage share of large bulbs were obtained in weather conditions of 2017, and in other years yields were lower, on average by 1.1-1.2 t ha –1 .
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The results of the study were based on field experience conducted in the years 2014–2016, at the Experimental Station of Asssesment Plant Variety in Uhnin (51°34’ N, 23°02’ E), on a slightly acidic of soil. The experiment was performed using the randomized block method, split-plot, in triplicate. The first order factor was potato cultivars (Vineta and Satina) and the second order factor was six variants crop (A) variant - using fungicides to combating of late blight of potato (B), (C,) (D), (E) variants with effective microorganisms and herbal extracts, and (F) variant - without the use of fungicides, effective microorganisms and herbal extracts, as a control object. Organic and mineral fertilization under potato was on a constant level (20 t∙ha-1 white mustard on plowhing and 90 kg N, 39.3 kg P, 112.0 kg K∙ha-1). The experiment was carried out in accordance with the Central Crop Research Center (COBORU) methodology used to study the economic value of cultivars (WGO). Crop variant with used prior to the planting on the tubers of EmFarmaTM aqueous solution with the tansy and yarrow extracts and the application of EmFarma PlusTM and Ema5TM, every 7 days, starting from phase 19 to phase 91 on the BBCH scale during potato vegetation, contributed to a significant reduction on the yield, relative to the control object, without treatments. Other technologies using microbiological preparations proved to be homogeneous in terms of crop yields and did not differ significantly from the control, without any treatment. The higher potential yield turned out to be an average early cultivar Satina than the early cultivar Vineta. The response of the cultivars to the applied post-treatment and protective treatments was different. The Vineta cultivar has responded on the decline in total and commercial yields on the tubers of crop variant with use prior to the planting of aqueous solutions of EmFarmaTM with tansy and yarrow extract and 8 x applications of preparations of EmFarma PlusTM and Ema5TM.
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Ciągłe i nadmierne stosowanie chemicznych nawozów i pestycydów powoduje zagrożenia ekologiczne i zdrowotne, a także pogarsza stan fizykochemicz-ny gleby, powodując spadek plonów. W takich okolicznościach źródła organiczne odgrywają ważną rolę w poprawie żyzności gleby i produktywności upraw. Mikroorganizmy metabolizują materię organiczną, gromadząc substancje próchnicze, które prowadzą do mineralizacji związków organicznych, dzięki czemu wprowadzają w powtórny obieg pierwiastki niezbędne w produkcji roślinnej.
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Do badań wykorzystano próbki bulw z doświadczenia polowego, przeprowadzonego w Polsce (51°08′N, 22°29′E) w latach 2014–2016. Eksperyment został założony w układzie zależnym, split-plot, w trzech powtórzeniach, gdzie czynnikami pierwszego rzędu były zabiegi przedsadzeniowe: a) zastosowanie sonifikacji sadzeniaków przez 6 minut; b) zastosowanie sonifikacji sadzeniaków przez 12 minut, c) obiekt kontrolny, bez sonifikacji; czynnik drugiego rzędu stanowiło 14 odmian ziemniaka. Bulwy ziemniaków przed sadzeniem poddano sonifikacji zanurzeniowej przy użyciu urządzenia ultradźwiękowego, wannowego. Kąpiel ultradźwiękowa bulw ziemniaka była przeprowadzana w łaźni ultradźwiękowej o częstotliwości 32 kHz, moc akustyczna wynosiła 200 W. Sonifikacja odbywała się w środowisku wodnym w temperaturze 18ºC przez 6 i 12 minut. Sonifikacja sadzeniaków nie wpłynęła znacząco na liczbę kiełkujących kiełków ani na sumę kiełków na bulwach, ale ograniczyła masę kiełków i skróciła okres kiełkowania bulw. Najbardziej skuteczną metodą przerwania spoczynku bulw była sonifikacja z 12-minutową ekspozycją.
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