Article

An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: Psychometric properties

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... It was adopted by Beck, Epstein, Brown and Steer (1988)and updated by Osman (2002) and used by the researchers to measure the severity of anxiety. It consists of 21-item scale such as numbness or tingling, feeling hot, wobbliness in the leg, nervous and dizzy or lightheaded, etc. ...
... -Tool one and two were developed by the researchers after extensive review of recent and relevant literature , tool three, four and five were adopted from (Mccaffery 1999, Beck 1988& Clavien et al 1992, respectively. ...
... BAI consists of 21 items and is used to measure anxiety levels in adults. For each item, one of the four anxiety levels should be selected on a Likert scale ranging from 0 to 3. BAI scoring was conducted as follows: no anxiety < 8, mild to moderate anxiety (8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15), moderate to severe anxiety (16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25), and severe anxiety (26-63) (14). The reliability and validity study of the Turkish version of all the scale was performed by Ulusoy et al. in 1998 (15). ...
... BAI consists of 21 items and is used to measure anxiety levels in adults. For each item, one of the four anxiety levels should be selected on a Likert scale ranging from 0 to 3. BAI scoring was conducted as follows: no anxiety < 8, mild to moderate anxiety (8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15), moderate to severe anxiety (16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25), and severe anxiety (26-63) (14). The reliability and validity study of the Turkish version of all the scale was performed by Ulusoy et al. in 1998 (15). ...
Article
Aim: Regular physical activity has been shown to have positive effects on general health, cognitive functions, and mental health. The vast majority of university students do not meet the physical activity recommendations of well-accepted guidelines. In this study, we aimed to determine the physical activity levels (PALs) of medical school students and the related factors. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional, observational survey study. The survey was conducted with an online Google survey tool. Five hundred and twenty-eight students who approved the voluntary consent form were included in the study. A questionnaire including sociodemographic data and questions about personal lifestyle were used. The physical activity levels of the participants were determined with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-short form (IPAQ-SF), depression and anxiety levels were determined with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), respectively. Results: The mean total IPAQ-SF scores of the participants were 1658±1793.91 METs. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between BDI scores and PALs (r=-0.102, p=0.019). The PALs of those who had active hobbies and those who participated in regular sports activities were statistically significantly higher (p
... Infant., Recife, 22 (4): 1015-1023 out-dez., 2022 evaluated at BAI, the following are observed: heat, tremor in the legs and hands, inability to relax, fear of the worst happening, dizziness, a beating heart faster, emotional instability, terrified or afraid, nervousness and weakness and vulnerability. 12 The classification of the indicative scores for anxiety is: minimal (0-10), mild (11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19), moderate (20-30) and high (31-63). 13 The application was carried out by two evaluators, where the evaluator filled out the questionnaires individually according to the response of each pregnant woman. ...
... Infant., Recife, 22 (4): 1015-1023 out-dez., 2022 evaluated at BAI, the following are observed: heat, tremor in the legs and hands, inability to relax, fear of the worst happening, dizziness, a beating heart faster, emotional instability, terrified or afraid, nervousness and weakness and vulnerability. 12 The classification of the indicative scores for anxiety is: minimal (0-10), mild (11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19), moderate (20-30) and high (31-63). 13 The application was carried out by two evaluators, where the evaluator filled out the questionnaires individually according to the response of each pregnant woman. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: to analyze the level of anxiety in high risk pregnant women admitted in the maternity ward of the Hospital Universitário Lauro Wanderley (HULW) of the Federal University of Paraíba. Methods: an observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study of quantitative character, with a sample composed of 100 pregnant women diagnosed as high risk interned at HULW. Data collection was performed using the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), used to assess the level of anxiety the patient is in and the existing symptoms. For the statistical analysis, the Mann Whitney, Kruskal Wallis and Spearman correlation tests were used, considering p<0.05. Results: it was observed that 68% of pregnant women have moderate to high anxiety, with heat, fear of the worst happening, faster heartbeat, emotional instability and nervousness listed as the most common symptoms. The presence of an anxious condition was independent of maternal age, marital status or parity, however the gestational trimester, history of abortions and length of hospital stay were identified as risk factors for anxiety. Conclusion: pregnant women with a high risk diagnosis hospitalized at HULW presented anxiety, thus identifying the need for a multiprofessional support network, such as family assistance.
... Various factor structures of BAI have been found. Beck et al. (14) and Hewitt and Norton (15) supported similar two-factor models corresponding to cognitive and somatic dimensions of anxiety. These factors showed good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. ...
... The single-factor model of the BAI identified in this study is different from most of the factor structures of the BAI found in the existing literature. Various two-factor, four-factor, and five-factor models have been reported (11,12,(14)(15)(16)(17). The Malaysian adult study on the Malay-BAI proposed a 3-factor structure (subjective anxiety, autonomic, and neurophysiology factors) (18). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background The Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) is a common tool for screening anxiety symptoms. In Malaysia, the Malay-version 21-item BAI has been previously validated in the Malaysian adult population. However, information regarding its reliability and validity among adolescents below 18 years old is still lacking. The objective of this study is to investigate the psychometric properties of the Malay-version BAI in this population. Methods The Malay versions of the BAI and the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS) were administered among a sample of lower secondary school students ( n = 329, age range: 13–14 years) in Selangor, Malaysia. Cronbach's alpha value for the internal consistency of the Malay-version BAI was determined. The correlation coefficient between the BAI score and DASS anxiety subscale score was calculated to examine convergent validity. The factor structure of the Malay-version BAI was identified by exploratory factor analysis (EFA) using principal axis factoring. Results The study included 329 respondents, who were predominantly female (58.7%) and Malay (79.9%). The mean Malay-version BAI score was 14.46 (SD = 12.39). The Malay-version BAI showed a high level of internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.948) and convergent validity with the DASS anxiety subscale score (r = 0.80, p < 0.001). The EFA suggested a one-factor solution, with the factor loading of all items on the single factor ranging between 0.48 and 0.81. Conclusion The Malay-version BAI demonstrated good psychometric properties. It can be a valid and reliable screening instrument for anxiety among Malaysian adolescents.
... Anxiety The severity of anxiety symptoms is assessed with the 21-item Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), which contains items about physical and physiological symptoms and cognitive aspects of anxiety during the previous seven days [67]. Each item is rated on a 4-point scale with a higher total score indicating a higher severity of anxiety symptoms. ...
... Each item is rated on a 4-point scale with a higher total score indicating a higher severity of anxiety symptoms. The BAI has good psychometric properties, with good convergent and discriminant validity, internal consistency and test-retest reliability [67]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common, recurrent mental disorder and a leading cause of disability worldwide . A large part of adult MDD patients report a history of childhood trauma (CT). Patients with MDD and CT are assumed to represent a clinically and neurobiologically distinct MDD subtype with an earlier onset, unfavorable disease course, stress systems’ dysregulations and brain alterations. Currently, there is no evidence-based treatment strategy for MDD that specifically targets CT. Given the central role of trauma in MDD patients with CT, trauma-focused therapy (TFT), adjunctive to treatment as usual (TAU), may be efficacious to alleviate depressive symptoms in this patient population. Methods The RESET-psychotherapy study is a 12-week, single-blind, randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of TFT in 158 adults with moderate to severe MDD, as a ‘stand-alone’ depression diagnosis or superimposed on a persistent depressive disorder (PDD), and CT. TFT (6–10 sessions of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing and/or imagery rescripting) + TAU is compared to TAU only. Assessments, including a wide range of psychological/psychiatric and biological characteristics, take place before randomization (T0), during treatment (T1), at post-treatment (T2) and at 6-month follow-up (T3). Pre-post treatment stress-related biomarkers in hair (cortisol) and blood (epigenetics and inflammation) will be assessed to better understand working mechanisms of TFT. A subgroup of 60 participants will undergo structural and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) assessments to determine pre-post treatment brain activity. The primary outcome is self-reported depression symptom severity at post-treatment, measured with the 30-item Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology – Self Report (IDS-SR). Discussion If adjunctive TFT efficaciously alleviates depressive symptoms in MDD patients with CT, this novel treatment strategy could pave the way for a more personalized and targeted MDD treatment. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, registered at 08–12-2021, number of identification: NCT05149352.
... The HAMD is a clinician-rated measure of depressive symptoms, with higher scores indicating higher levels of depression; total scores were used in the analyses. At 3 years, measures of depressive symptoms were obtained using the 21-item self-reported Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) 27 as we did not have the resources to conduct in-person assessments at this time point. This multiplechoice self-report questionnaire is designed to assess the severity of depression, with higher scores indicating higher levels of depressive symptoms. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Prenatal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant exposure is associated with increased internalising and anxious behaviours in young children; whether this continues into early adolescence is unknown. Also, it is not well established whether it is the in utero exposure to SSRIs or the underlying maternal mood that contributes more to these associations. Aims: To examine associations between maternal depressive symptoms, prenatal SSRI antidepressant treatment and internalising and anxiety behaviours from childhood into pre-adolescence. Method: From a prospective longitudinal cohort, measures of maternal depressive symptoms and SSRI use and child outcomes (n = 191 births) were obtained from the second trimester to 12 years. Maternal reports of internalising and anxiety behaviours in children were obtained at 3, 6 and 12 years. Results: Multilevel mixed-effects models revealed that maternal depressed mood at the third trimester assessment, not prenatal SSRI exposure, was associated with longitudinal patterns of higher levels of internalising and anxiety behaviours across childhood from 3 to 12 years of age. At each age, hierarchical regressions showed that maternal mood at the third trimester, compared with current maternal depression or prenatal SSRI exposure, explained a greater proportion of the variance in internalising and anxiety behaviours. Conclusions: Even with prenatal SSRI treatment, maternal depressed mood during the third trimester still had an enduring effect as it was associated with increased levels of internalising and anxiety behaviours across childhood and into early adolescence. Importantly, we found no evidence of a 'main effect' association between prenatal SSRI exposure and internalising and anxiety behaviours in children.
... La ansiedad general fue evaluada mediante el Inventario de Ansiedad de Beck (BAI;Beck, Brown, Epstein & Steer, 1988). Esta escala explora los aspectos físicos relacionados con la ansiedad y facilita la discriminación entre ansiedad y depresión. ...
Article
En el presente artículo se describe el tratamiento y evolución de un paciente con fobia a la sangre que padecía de forma crónica este trastorno con un seguimiento de uno, tres y seis meses. Se utilizó una combinación de dos técnicas: 1) “exposición gradual” a la situación fóbica, y 2) “tensión aplicada” para aprender a controlar el síndrome vasovagal y prevenir el desmayo característico. La evaluación se realizó en el pre-tratamiento, pos-tratamiento y en los seguimientos de uno, tres y seis meses. El tratamiento constó de seis sesiones en un período de seis semanas, con una duración aproximada noventa minutos por sesión. Los objetivos del tratamiento se establecieron a partir de la hipótesis explicativa de la respuesta de ansiedad ante la sangre. La terapia se centró en enseñar al paciente a controlar la frecuencia cardiaca y a identificar los síntomas previos al desvanecimiento y se aplicó un programa multi-componente que combinaba la técnica de la tensión aplicada y estrategias cognitivo-conductuales para el control de la activación anticipatoria y el afrontamiento de la situación fóbica. Las técnicas utilizadas fueron auto-instrucciones, respiración profunda, la exposición en imaginación enriquecida, el afrontamiento simbólico y la exposición en vivo. Después del tratamiento, al mes, a los tres meses y a los seis meses de seguimiento, el paciente continuaba con su total recuperación; de hecho, en los resultados se observa una mejoría significativa a corto y largo plazo en todas las medidas realizadas. Por último, se discuten los resultados de la intervención, que confirman la eficacia del programa aplicado. Abstract: In this paper the treatment and evolution of a blood-phobia patient that suffered chronically this disorder is described, with a follow-up of one, three and six months. A combination of two techniques was used: 1) “gradual exposure” to phobic situation, and 2) “applied tension” to learn to control the vasovagal syncope and to prevent the characteristic fainting. The evaluation was made in the pre-treatment, post-treatment and along the follow-ups of one, three and six months. The treatment consisted of six sessions in a period of six weeks, with an approximate duration of ninety minutes per session. The main objective of the treatment programme was to train the patient to be able to suffer any kind of medical intervention implying punctures and/ or blood tests/injections or similar situations. The therapy was focused in teaching the patient to control the cardiac frequency and to identify the previous symptoms of fainting. A multi-component program, which combined the technique of the applied tension and cognitive-behavioral strategies for the control of the anticipatory activation and cope the phobic situation was applied. The techniques employed were self-instructions, deep breathing, the enriched exposition in imagination, symbolic coping and in vivo exposure. After the treatment process and at one month, at three months and six months follow ups, the patient showed a complete recovery; in fact, on the results, a significant improvement in short and long term is observed in all the measurements taken. Finally, the results of the intervention confirming the efficacy of the program applied are discussed.
... For this study, sample size was calculated in light of existing literature. 11 The calculated sample size was 240. ...
Article
Objective: To explore the psychosocial correlates of women under treatment for polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Different Clinics and Hospitals of Lahore and Gujranwala, from Aug 2019 to Nov 2020. Methodology: Single women seeking treatment for PCOS were included in the study. Derriford appearance scale and social interaction anxiety scale were used in this study. Results: A total of 180 women were included in the study. The result indicated significant positive correlation between appearance distress and social anxiety (r=0.41, p<0.001). Majority of women were visiting beauty parlors to evade facial hair and buying products to conceal their acne. Conclusion: Women diagnosed with PCOS reported to experience the appearance distress and anxiety specifically in social gatherings.
... Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI; Beck et al., 1988;Beck & Steer, 1990). The BAI is a 21-item self-report questionnaire for anxiety symptoms. ...
... To assess headache severity, disability due to headache, quality of life, insomnia, depression, and anxiety before and after implantation we used the following rating scales: Visual Analog Scale Score (VAS), Migraine Disability Assessment Scale (MIDAS), Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36), Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI II), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) [14][15][16][17][18][19]. The MIDAS has not been validated for secondary headaches. ...
Preprint
The introduction of ventricular shunts dramatically changed the outcome and quality of life of hydrocephalic patients. However, shunt surgery continues to be associated with numerous adverse events. Headache is one of the most common complications after shunt operation. It is often over a prolonged duration, the symptoms resemble migraine, and pain does not respond to medication. We propose invasive peripheral nerve stimulation as a possible solution in the treatment of patients suffering from chronic headache associated with shunted hydrocephalus. A young woman with daily holocephalic headache with diffuse pain exacerbated by lying down. Imaging revealed panventricular enlargement and possible stenosis of the aqueduct. When a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was placed, clinical symptoms resolved. Nevertheless, she gradually exacerbated after a second valve replacement due to wound infection. Imaging revealed decompressed ventricles and appropriate shunt placement. The diagnosis of chronic post-intracranial disorder headache was set. Therefore, occipital nerve stimulation was applied and considering that the patient had not a total response, bilateral parietal stimulation was added. Three months after the combined PNS she experienced total remission of headache. Combined PNS eases refractory headaches much more than occipital nerve stimulation alone and could be considered as a solution for shunted hydrocephalus associated headache.
... Section II -BAI (Beck et al., 1988) is consists of 21 self-reported multiple-choice questions that is used in measuring anxiety levels among adolescents and young people of age 17 and above. The responses look at common anxiety symptoms that the participant subject had during online learning (numbness, sweating not as a result of heat, fear that the worst will happen, and others). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
The main purpose of this study is to describe and identify the general anxiety level and the influence of socio-demographic characteristics on anxiety among students during online learning because of the COVID-19 Pandemic. This is a quantitative non-experimental study. The instrument used in the study is the questionnaire Beck Anxiety Inventory. The results showed that during remote learning students experienced moderate anxiety levels. In addition, the results indicated that the variables of gender and educational profile had a significant impact on the anxiety levels experienced by students. In the light of study findings, we recommend the following: the need to conduct further systematic research on factors that influence the preparedness and performance of students during online learning; develop pilot studies on online learning that are not related to the pandemic context, structures of specialised training with regard to anxiety management techniques and the factors that encourage it. Keywords: Anxiety, distance learning, pandemic, socio-demographic variables, student.
... The Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) is a 21-item self-report questionnaire measuring symptoms of anxiety [14]. The BAI scores are classified as minimal anxiety (0 to 7), mild anxiety (8 to 15), moderate anxiety (16 to 25), and severe anxiety (30 to 63) [15]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Arthroplasty for the hip/knee and surgeries for hip fractures are increasing worldwide. The aims of this study were to investigate changes in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) after surgery with an early mobility education program, and to explore their associations with pain and anxiety. Pain intensity and anxiety were assessed with the visual analogue scale (VAS) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and HRQOL was assessed with the Short Form-36 (SF-36). The physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) and eight subscales of the SF-36 were calculated. At pre-operation, the patients suffered from moderate pain and mild anxiety, and their HRQOL scores were low (4.9, 7.8, 35.4, and 48.2 for the VAS, BAI, PCS, and MCS, respectively). The pain, anxiety, and HRQOL improved after surgery and had moderate to large effect sizes at 6-month follow-up (Glass’s delta = 1.23, 0.88, 0.81, and 0.67 for VAS, BAI, PCS, and MCS, respectively). Pain and anxiety were strongly correlated to HRQOL at each stage, with the maximum correlation (r = −0.34 to −0.93) reached at 6-month follow-up. The surgery effectively improves HRQOL, as the reduced pain and anxiety lead to better physical and mental HRQOL.
... Internal coefficient (alpha coefficient) was 0.92, that validity varies with the retesting method by 0.75 per week and its material correlation varies from 0.30 to 0.76. Various studies have been conducted to measure the psychometric properties of this tool (10). Also, in Iran, its reliability coefficient was reported in the range of 0.70 to 0.90 (11). ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of transcranial light therapy on depression sympto ms and quantitative electroencephalographic changes. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, six cases with depression were selected through convenient metho d and randomly divided into two experimental and control groups. Beck Depression Inventory and Quantitative Electroencephalographic Changes (QEEG) were performed in pretest and post-test. The treatment performed in 1 0 sessions (twice a week for 3 or 4 minutes). The forehead and F3 and F4 sites selected for stimulation. Data ana lyzed through descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney U test, Wilcoxon, T test, and SPSS software. Results: Delta wave amplitudes showed a significant difference between two groups in FP2 channel (P= 0.016). The results of Beck Depression Inventory showed a significant decrease in experimental group (P=0.03). Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, low-level light therapy can be considered as a promising treatment and an effective, affordable and low-cost method for depression disorder and cognitive function.
... The Turkish validity and reliability of the scale, developed by Beck et al. [24] were completed by Ulusoy et al. [25] The scale evaluates the frequency of symptoms related to anxiety experienced by the individual. It is a self-assessment scale consisting of 21 items and scored between 0 and 3. ...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND/AIM: The COVID-19 pandemic has created a long period of stress for people worldwide and has significantly affected sleep duration. The pandemic revealed new stress factors that are likely to affect sleep. Uncertainty is a factor that leads to anxiety and depression, which affects sleep. It should also be noted that reductions in sleep quality rather than sleep duration are associated with negative consequences on mental health. This study aims to investigate online that how this situation affected university students.
... BAI items are rated on a four-point scale: 0 (not at all) to 3 (severely). The English version of the BAI has an internal consistency of α = 0.92 (59). A study that used the Spanish version of the test including the Spanish general population obtained an alpha coefficient of 0.93 (60). ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Ataque de nervios (ADN) is a cultural syndrome prevalent in Puerto Ricans characterized as an episode of intense emotional upset due to overwhelming stress. Methods The Ataque de Nervios Questionnaire , developed at the Center for the Study and Treatment for Fear and Anxiety (CETMA), served as the diagnostic tool for this retrospective secondary data analysis. We evaluated three models regarding ADN’s function as a marker of (1) sociodemographic vulnerability, (2) health history risk, and (3) psychological vulnerability. This last model was subdivided to assess the scores of screening tests regarding anxiety (Anxiety Sensitivity Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), affect (Beck Depression Inventory, Emotional Dysregulation Scale, Positive and Negative Affective Schedule), personality (NEO Five-Factor Inventory), and trauma (considering the responses to the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and the Life Event Checklist). Results Our study sample had a total of 121 Puerto Rican adult patients from CETMA out of which 75% had ADN. We differentiated subjects according to their ADN status with t-tests and Mann-Whitney U tests and evaluated our models using logistic regressions. People with ADN showed more anxiety, depressive symptoms, emotional dysregulation, and negative affect than those without ADN. They also revealed lower positive affect and agreeableness. Highly extraverted but minimally agreeable personalities related to ADN. Living with a partner and being employed were risk factors for ADN. Having higher educational levels showed the strongest effect size: it greatly reduced the odds of an ataque . Discussion These characteristics suggest a distinct profile of ADN seen in employed, educated, adult Puerto Ricans living on the Island experiencing anxiety. Our study provides clinical tools to comprehend our patients’ ADN experience, enriching our practice as culturally competent health providers.
... 27 Although the gold standard assessment method would be psychiatrist-led clinical review, this is impractical in a neurologist-led botulinum toxin service. The Beck Anxiety Index (BAI) 28 and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) 29 are frequently used, but are not disease-specific. These brief screening tools are easily applied, short, and self-administered. ...
Article
Adult-onset idiopathic focal dystonia is the most common type of primary dystonia, and adult-onset idiopathic cervical dystonia (AOICD) is its most prevalent phenotype. AOICD is an autosomal-dominant disorder with markedly reduced penetrance; clinical expression is dependent on age, sex, and environmental exposure. Motor symptoms at presentation are poorly recognised by non-specialists, leading to long delays in diagnosis. Certain features of history and examination can help diagnose cervical dystonia. There is a relatively high prevalence of anxiety and/or depression, which adversely affects health-related quality of life. Recent studies indicate that patients with AOICD also have disordered social cognition, particularly affecting emotional sensory processing. AOICD can be treated reasonably effectively with botulinum toxin injections, given at 3-month intervals. Oral antidystonic medications are often trialled initially, but are largely ineffective. Comprehensive modern management of patients with AOICD requires recognition of presence of mood disorders, and actively treating the endogenous mood disorder with antidepressant therapy. Botulinum toxin injections alone, no matter how expertly given, will not provide optimal therapy and improved health-related quality of life without an holistic approach to patient management. Increasing evidence indicates that AOICD is a neurophysiological network disorder of GABAergic inhibition, causing a syndrome of dystonia, mood disturbance, and social cognitive dysfunction, with the superior colliculus playing a central role.
... The BAI is a brief somatic symptoms-focused screening tool that was specifically developed as a measure to discriminate between anxiety and depression [37]. Each BAI item is rated on a 4-point Likert scale ranging from 0 (not at all) to 3 (severe ["I could barely stand it"]) [38]. The total BAI score ranges from 0 to 63, where a higher score indicates a higher the level of anxiety. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Neuropsychiatric disturbances are common manifestations of dementia disorders and are associated with caregiver burden and affiliate stigma. The present study investigated affiliate stigma and caregiver burden as mediators for the association between neuropsychiatric symptoms of people with dementia (PWD) and caregiver mental health such as depression and anxiety. Methods A cross-sectional survey study was carried out with 261 dyads of PWD and informal caregivers from the outpatient department of a general hospital in Taiwan. The survey included the Caregiver Burden Inventory (CBI), the Affiliate Stigma Scale (ASS), the Taiwanese Depression Questionnaire (TPQ), and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Mediation models were tested using the Hayes’ PROCESS macro (Model 4 for parallel mediation model; Model 6 for sequentially mediation model). Results Caregiver burden, affiliate stigma, caregiver depression, and caregiver anxiety were significantly associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms. After controlling for several potentially confounding variables, it was found that PWD’s neuropsychiatric symptoms, caregiver burden and affiliate stigma significantly explained 52.34% of the variance in caregiver depression and 37.72% of the variance in caregiver anxiety. The parallel mediation model indicated a significantly indirect path from PWD’s neuropsychiatric symptoms to caregiver mental health through caregiver burden and affiliate stigma, while the direct effect was not significant. Moreover, there was a directional association between caregiver burden and affiliate stigma in the sequential mediation model. Conclusions These findings show that it is imperative to improve caregivers’ perception of those with dementia to reduce internalized stigma and to improve caregivers’ mental health. Implementation of affiliate stigma assessment in clinical practice would allow distinctions to be made between the impact of affiliate stigma and the consequences of caregiver burden to help inform appropriate intervention.
... The scale was development by Beck et al., (1988). It is a 21-item scale which are evaluated along a 4-point Likert format ranging from 3 = it severely, it bothered me a lot to 0 = not at all. ...
Article
Full-text available
Aggressive driving behaviour has been identified as one of the causes of carnage in our roads. Studies have attributed the death of 1.25 million people to aggressive driving behaviour. This study, therefore, investigated the influence of dispositional factors (anger proneness, anxiety and life satisfaction) on aggressive and pro-social driving behaviour among corporate drivers in Ibadan. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted. Ten corporate organizations were purposively selected while convenience sampling method was used to select 199 drivers with age ranging from 30-52 years. Data were collected using Gracia's Anger Proneness Scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Pro-social and Aggressive Driving Inventory. Data were analyzed using t-test of independent sample to test the hypotheses at a 0.05 level of significance. The results showed that anger proneness [t (197) = 4.497; p <0.05], anxiety [t (197) =5.18; p <.05] and life satisfaction [t (197) = 2.13; p <.05] significantly influenced aggressive driving behaviour. Also, anger proneness [t (197) = 3.64; p < .05) and anxiety [t (197) =3.28; p <.05] significantly influenced pro-social driving behaviour. However, life satisfaction [t (197) = 1.76; p >.05] did not significantly influenced pro-social driving behaviour among the corporate drivers in Ibadan. The study concluded that anger proneness, anxiety and life satisfaction are excellent predictors of driving behaviour among corporate drivers in Ibadan. The study recommended putting in place a robust personality screening system to determine before employment those drivers that have aggressive personality traits identified in this study.
... Values 30 to 63 demonstrate serious uneasiness, with higher scores recommending higher levels of nervousness. As indicated by before review, the BAI has great test-retest unwavering quality (r =.75; Beck et al., 2001) and solid interior consistency (Coefficient Alpha =.92). The BAI has exhibited legitimacy as an instrument for estimating tension among college undergraduates and postgraduates. ...
Article
Full-text available
While there are more subtle functional contrasts between current cell phones and exemplary PCs, one distinction is still there: cells are almost consistently with you and allow you to interface with different administrations and organizations at practically anytime and any place. Present-day young people, who are oftentimes alluded to be “advanced locals” or “Homo Zappiens” because of their ability to all the while interacting with different enlightening channels, are being depicted as evolving. All in all, advanced youngsters are multitaskers. Undergraduates and postgraduates are supposedly the quickest adopters of wireless innovation, as per the reports taken in Indonesian Colleges and Universities. Moreover, new information recommends that incessant utilization of mobile phones might adversely affect youngsters’ well-being and conduct. In this way, utilizing an enormous example of undergraduate and postgraduate students in Indonesia (N = 298) and messaging (N = 298), we investigated the impacts of mobile phone use overall (N = 298) and messaging (N = 298). It was anticipated that nervousness and Scholastic Execution (GPA) would go about as go-between in the relationship. Two distinct way models showed that the messaging and mobile phone use models fit the information well in general. Thusly, GPA was well associated with SWL while tension was antagonistically connected with SWL. PDA use and messaging were adversely connected with GPA and emphatically connected with uneasiness. These outcomes add to the conversation around the utilization of phones by undergraduates and postgraduates and how this utilization might adversely affect learning, emotional wellness, and abstract prosperity or joy.
... These mothers have shown symptoms of depression and 9,10 negative feelings which can lead to divorce. A number of psychological measures have been developed such as Beck Depression Inventory, Beck [11][12][13] Anxiety Scale, and Social Support Scale. Self reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) was used to address psychiatric issues of parents and their social 14,15 aspects. ...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to evaluate symptoms of depression and anxiety as well as changes in spontaneous neuronal activity in college students studying abroad during the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We examined functional brain changes using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF), and regional homogeneity (ReHo) in overseas students with enforced isolation due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, emotional assessments were administered to determine the severity of depression and anxiety. The questionnaire results showed that anxiety and depressive symptoms differed between overseas students (i.e., those attending an overseas college virtually) and local students (i.e., those attending a local college in person). The fMRI data revealed higher ALFF values in the bilateral superior medial frontal gyrus, bilateral pre-central gyrus, left insula, and left superior temporal gyrus as well as lower ALFF values in the bilateral paracentral lobule (supplementary motor area) in overseas students. Moreover, ReHo analysis also revealed significant differences between overseas students and local students. Compared with local students, overseas students showed significantly increased ReHo in the right inferior frontal and superior temporal gyri and decreased ReHo in the bilateral paracentral lobule, bilateral superior medial frontal gyrus (supplementary motor area), and bilateral pre-central gyrus. In addition, in overseas students, altered ReHo in the cluster including the left superior and medial frontal gyri, pre-central gyrus, and paracentral lobule was significantly positively correlated with Self-Rating Depression Scale scores. Thus, spontaneous brain activity in overseas students changed during the COVID-19 pandemic. This change in brain function might be related to depression and anxiety symptoms. These results suggest that mental health services are needed to decrease the risk of anxiety and depression among college students studying abroad during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Article
Full-text available
Background Theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation has demonstrated promising effectiveness as treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. However, the effect of accelerated theta-burst stimulation (TBS) in comorbid with PTSD and depression remains unknown. Case presentation We report a case of a 25-year-old woman with PTSD and depression whose symptoms markedly improved after continuous TBS of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and intermittent TBS (iTBS) over the left DLPFC, and then with 20 min break before the 2nd iTBS session. Conclusions Accelerated TBS over the bilateral DLPFC may improve severe PTSD and depression. Accelerated TBS may have more improvement of depression symptoms than PTSD symptoms. Further trials are warranted to investigate the effect and safety for patients with complicated PTSD and depression.
Article
Background: Bilateral pallidal deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been broadly accepted as a feasible surgical procedure for treating various forms of dystonia, but its effects on motor function, neuropsychological status, and mood in patients with Meige syndrome have rarely been examined. Objective: To evaluate the effects of bilateral globus pallidus internus DBS (GPi-DBS) on the motor performance, quality of life, neuropsychological status, and mood of patients with primary Meige syndrome. Methods: Between January 2015 and April 2019, the database of 35 patients with Meige syndrome who underwent bilateral GPi-DBS in our institution was retrospectively reviewed. The severity of dystonia, health-related quality of life, cognitive function, and mood were assessed using standardized and validated rating scales at baseline. Repeat assessment of the same domains was performed at 1 year and 3 years after neurostimulation in a similar manner. Results: One year and 3 years after bilateral GPi-DBS, Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale movement scores were improved by 65% and 72% and Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale disability scores were improved by 49% and 57%, respectively. The significant improvement in health-related quality of life observed at 1 year was sustained at 3 years. Relative to baseline and to the 1-year assessment, cognitive functions and mood remained stable after 3 years of neurostimulation. No deaths or life-threatening events were reported over the study period. Conclusion: Bilateral GPi-DBS is a safe and effective approach for medically refractory Meige syndrome that can improve motor function and quality of life without cognitive and mood side effects.
Article
Asian family caregivers of older adults with dementia have stressful caregiving situations over long periods; they must become resilient to recover from adversity. A conceptual definition of resilience specific to Asian family caregivers is important for understanding their caregiving phenomena and the relationships with mental health and psychological well-being. The purpose of this concept analysis was to define resilience in family caregivers of Asian older adults with dementia using Walker and Avant's method. The findings of the analysis will guide future research about the modifiable factors that will prevent negative health outcomes in this population of caregivers.
Article
Background: Cervical dystonia (CD) has a high prevalence of anxiety and depression. The relationship between motor severity, mood symptoms and QoL is unclear and how to adequately assess these is also unknown. Instruments like the BAI, BDI and HADS are often used but items within these relating to somatic symptoms might influence the results. Methods: Patients with idiopathic cervical dystonia (CD) were included. The BAI, BDI, HADS, CIDP58 and TWSTRS2- severity score were used for assessment of motor, mood and QoL symptoms. Pearson’s correlations between motor and non-motor symptom scores were assessed. The psychometric properties of the psychiatric tools were measured and principal component analysis performed after identifying items that could correspond to somatic symptoms. Results: 201 participants were included. 42% of participants had either significant depression or anxiety symptoms or both when measured by BAI and BDI and 51% of patients met criteria on HADS. HADS-A and HADS-D, BAI and BDI were poorly correlated with TWSTRS2-S. The HADS-A and HADS-D both showed strong correlation with the sleep subdomain of CDIP58. Psychometric and principal component analysis on 149/201 participants did not reveal factor loadings consistent with the a priori somatic groupings. However mean scores were higher for somatic items. Conclusion: A good score on the CDIP58, a commonly used tool, does not indicate mild disease severity or minimal mood symptoms. Minimal motor symptoms, similarly, also does not imply a positive QoL. Clinicians should be mindful on ideal methods for performing a holistic assessment of CD patients. This likely warrants a combination of motor, QoL and mood assessment tools.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to reveal the effect of connective tissue manipulation (CTM) on long-term pain severity, fatigue, sleep quality, premenstrual symptom severity, general health status, anxiety, and depression in women with primary dysmenorrhea (PD). Thirty-five women with PD were divided into two groups. CTM was applied to the participants in each group on the days when they were not on menstruation between two menstrual cycles for the group 1 (n=18) and between three menstrual cycles for the group 2 (n=17). Intensity of menstrual pain, the sleep quality, and fatigue status of the participants during dysmenorrhea were evaluated by the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Depressive symptoms and anxiety were evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), respectively. Also, the Premenstrual Syndrome Scale (PMSS) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) were used to investigate the severity of premenstrual symptoms and mental health status during menstrual period. A significant decrease in the pain severity and fatigue of the participants was observed in both group 1 and group 2 after treatment, after 3rd, and 6th month follow-up (p=0.001). Also, this decrease lasted for 12th month follow-up after treatment in group 2 (p=0.0001). There was no statistically significant improvement in sleep quality within each group (p>0.05). Moreover, none of the parameters were significantly different between two groups (p>0.05). We can suggest that 2-cycle CTM treatment should be preferred in clinical settings to obtain long-lasting effects for decreasing pain, fatigue, and premenstrual symptoms in women with PD. NCT04509934. Registration date: 8 November 2020
Article
Background Previous research from our group found that recent depressive symptoms were associated with 3-year change in carotid intima-media thickness (CA-IMT), a biomarker of cardiovascular disease risk, in an initially healthy sample of older adults. Trait measures of anxiety, anger, and hostility did not predict 3-year CA-IMT progression in that report. Purpose The current study sought to reexamine these associations at a 6-year follow-up point. Methods Two-hundred seventy-eight participants (151 males, mean age = 60.68 years) from the original sample completed an additional IMT reading 6 years following the initial baseline assessment. Results Though not significant at 3-years, trait-anger emerged as a predictor of IMT progression at the 6-year point. When examined in separate regression models, both depression and trait-anger (but not anxiety or hostility) predicted 6-year IMT change (b = .017, p = .002; b = .029, p = .01, respectively). When examined concurrently, both depression and anger were independently associated with 6-year IMT progression (b = .016, p = .010, b = .028, p = .022, respectively). Exploratory analyses suggest that the relative contributions of anger and depression may differ for males and females. Conclusions The use of sequential follow-ups is relatively unique in this literature, and our results suggest a need for further research on the timing and duration of psychosocial risk exposures in early stages of cardiovascular disease.
Article
Full-text available
a ، ‫ییالق‬ ‫شهنی‬ ‫منیجه‬ b ‫یخچالی‬ ‫حاجی‬ ‫علیرضا‬ ، c a ‫کارشناسی‬ ‫اهواز.‬ ‫چمران،‬ ‫شهید‬ ‫دانشگاه‬ ‫تربیتی،‬ ‫روانشناسی‬ ‫ارشد‬ b ‫اهواز.‬ ‫چمران،‬ ‫شهید‬ ‫دانشگاه‬ ‫روانشناسی،‬ ‫گروه‬ ‫استاد‬ c ‫اهواز.‬ ‫چمران،‬ ‫شهید‬ ‫دانشگاه‬ ‫روانشناسی،‬ ‫گروه‬ ‫دانشیار‬ ‫مسئول:‬ ‫نویسنده‬ ‫تلفن:‬ ‫ملکی،‬ ‫مینا‬ 09034385448 ، ‫الکترونیک‬ ‫پست‬ : miina.maleki@gmail.com ‫چکیده‬ : ‫تکنیک‬ ‫تأثیر‬ ‫بررسی‬ ‫هدف‬ ‫با‬ ‫حاضر‬ ‫پژوهش‬ ‫مؤلفه‬ ‫بر‬ ‫هیجان‬ ‫آزادسازی‬ ‫های‬ ‫امتحان‬ ‫(اضطراب‬ ‫مدرسه‬ ‫اضطراب‬ ‫های‬ ‫واکنش‬ ‫وجود،‬ ‫ابراز‬ ‫از‬ ‫ترس‬ ، ‫های‬ ‫به‬ ‫اعتماد‬ ‫فقدان‬ ‫و‬ ‫فیزیولوژیکی‬ ‫نفس‬) ‫دانش‬ ‫تمام‬ ‫را‬ ‫آن‬ ‫آماری‬ ‫جامعه‬ ‫و‬ ‫بوده‬ ‫آزمایشی‬ ‫پژوهش‬ ‫شد.‬ ‫انجام‬ ‫شهر‬ ‫اول‬ ‫متوسطه‬ ‫دوره‬ ‫اول‬ ‫پایه‬ ‫مضطرب‬ ‫دختر‬ ‫آموزان‬ ‫دانش‬ ‫بک،‬ ‫اضطراب‬ ‫سیاهه‬ ‫توزیع‬ ‫از‬ ‫پس‬ ‫بود.‬ ‫فیلیپس‬ ‫مدرسه‬ ‫اضطراب‬ ‫مقیاس‬ ‫و‬ ‫بک‬ ‫اضطراب‬ ‫سیاهه‬ ‫استفاده،‬ ‫مورد‬ ‫ابزارهای‬ ‫دادند.‬ ‫تشکیل‬ ‫اهواز‬ ‫که‬ ‫آموزانی‬ ‫به‬ ‫ورود‬ ‫مالک‬ ‫در‬ ‫تصادفی‬ ‫صورت‬ ‫به‬ ‫و‬ ‫شده‬ ‫انتخاب‬ ‫داشتند‬ ‫را‬ ‫پژوهش‬ 2 ‫گروه‬ 15 ‫تکنیک‬ ‫آموزش‬ ‫از‬ ‫پیش‬ ‫شدند.‬ ‫گمارده‬ ‫نفره‬ ‫دو‬ ‫هر‬ ‫از‬ ‫هیجان‬ ‫آزادسازی‬ ‫های‬ ‫پیش‬ ‫گواه‬ ‫و‬ ‫آزمایشی‬ ‫گروه‬ ‫آزمایشی‬ ‫گروه‬ ‫سپس‬ ‫شد.‬ ‫گرفته‬ ‫آزمون‬ 10 ‫تکنیک‬ ‫جلسه‬ ‫د‬ ‫را‬ ‫هیجان‬ ‫آزادسازی‬ ‫های‬ ‫از‬ ‫نهایت‬ ‫در‬ ‫کردند.‬ ‫ریافت‬ ‫و‬ ‫آزمایشی‬ ‫گروه‬ ‫گواه‬ ‫پس‬ ‫واکنش‬ ‫وجود،‬ ‫ابراز‬ ‫از‬ ‫ترس‬ ‫امتحان،‬ ‫اضطراب‬ ‫گواه‬ ‫گروه‬ ‫به‬ ‫نسبت‬ ‫آزمایشی‬ ‫گروه‬ ‫داد‬ ‫نشان‬ ‫نتایج‬ ‫آمد.‬ ‫عمل‬ ‫به‬ ‫آزمون‬ ‫اعتماد‬ ‫فقدان‬ ‫و‬ ‫فیزیولوژیکی‬ ‫های‬ ‫به‬ ‫داشتند.‬ ‫کمتری‬ ‫نفس‬ ‫کلیدی:‬ ‫کلمات‬ ‫اضطراب‬ ‫هیجان،‬ ‫آزادسازی‬ ‫وجود‬ ‫ابراز‬ ، 1. ‫مقدمه‬ ‫می‬ ‫آغاز‬ ‫بلوغ‬ ‫با‬ ‫نوجوانی‬ ‫دوره‬ ‫مسئولیت‬ ‫با‬ ‫و‬ ‫شود‬ ‫می‬ ‫انتها‬ ‫به‬ ‫بزرگسالی‬ ‫های‬ ‫رسد‬ [ 1 .] ‫شایع‬ ‫از‬ ‫می‬ ‫رخ‬ ‫نوجوانان‬ ‫برای‬ ‫دوره‬ ‫این‬ ‫در‬ ‫که‬ ‫مسائلی‬ ‫ترین‬ ‫است‬ ‫اضطراب‬ ‫دهد،‬ [ 2 .] ‫موقعیت‬ ‫نظر‬ ‫از‬ ‫دوره‬ ‫این‬ ‫در‬ ‫نوجوانان‬ ‫تنش‬ ‫تحصیلی،‬ ‫شغلی،‬ ‫های‬ ‫می‬ ‫مضطرب‬ ‫و‬ ‫گرفته‬ ‫قرار‬ ‫فشار‬ ‫تحت‬ ‫دیگر‬ ‫عدیده‬ ‫مشکالت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ها‬ ‫شوند‬ [ 3 .] ‫همچون‬ ‫عواملی‬ ‫چالش‬ ‫رقابت‬ ‫مدارس،‬ ‫تنوع‬ ‫و‬ ‫ها‬ ‫حساسیت‬ ‫و‬ ‫شدید‬ ‫های‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اختالل‬ ‫قبیل‬ ‫از‬ ‫مشکالتی‬ ‫که‬ ‫است‬ ‫نوجوانان‬ ‫و‬ ‫کودکان‬ ‫آموزش‬ ‫به‬ ‫نسبت‬ ‫جامعه‬ ‫و‬ ‫خانواده‬ ‫مدرسه‬ ‫ضطراب
Article
Background: Teachers are a category at high risk for co-occurring mental diseases. Objectives: The purpose was to assess well-being of schoolteachers and psychological effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Method: Data were collected in April 2021, during the partial re-opening of public schools in Italy, from 838 schoolteachers who complete a battery of psychological tests on a multimedia platform. Results: In females, school closure increases anxiety (BAI, p < 0.001), depression (BDI-II, p < 0.05), stress-related insomnia (FIRST, p < 0.001), and perceived stress (PSS, p < 0.05). In males, on the contrary, rises perceived health (p < 0.001) and vitality (p < 0.001), also in terms of total score (PWBI p < 0.05). In addition, having a family member with COVID in the past month increased anxiety (BAI, p < 0.05), reduced perceived physical health (PWBI, p < 0.05) and vitality (PWBI, p < 0.05). Conclusion: The main results of this pilot study showed that female teachers had a worse well-being perception with respect to men, in terms of health and vitality and an increase in negative emotional reactivity, that impaired when a family member was affected by COVID. The results emphasize the need to invest in prevention and wellness promotion programs in this professional category.
Article
Background Postmenopausal sexual function presupposes the integration of hormonal, neural, and vascular interactions and is subject to optimal crosstalk among psychological, interpersonal, cultural, and environmental factors. Sense of coherence (SOC) reflects a person’s ability to cope with stressors and may influence the occurrence of menopausal symptoms and sexual dysfunction. Aim To investigate the association of severity of climacteric symptoms, cardiometabolic risk factors, and SOC with sexual function in postmenopausal women. Methods Overall 281 sexually active postmenopausal women without significant psychopathology or cardiovascular disease attending the Menopause Unit of Aretaieion Hospital were evaluated by the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), Greene Climacteric Scale, Beck Depression Scale, and Sense of Coherence Scale. Hormonal and biochemical parameters and cardiometabolic risk factors were evaluated. FSFI scores <26.5 were considered pathologic. Outcomes Total and subdomain scores of sexual response were determined. Results Pathologic FSFI scores were found in 79.7% of the sample. Linear models of multivariable regression analysis showed that FSFI scores were associated with (1) Beck scores (b = −0.200; 95% CI, −0.472 to −0.073, P = .001), vasomotor symptom severity (b = −0.324; 95% CI, −0.985 to 0.051; P < .001), and age and (2) SOC (b = 0.150, 95% CI, 0.036-0.331; P = .008), vasomotor symptom severity (b = −0.361; 95% CI, −0.743 to 0.245; P < .001), and age. Both models were adjusted for menopausal age, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, type of menopause, and menopausal hormone therapy intake. SOC was associated with Beck depression scores (β = −0.487, P < .001; Greene Climacteric Scale total scores, β = −0.199, P < .001). FSFI score <26.5 vs >26.5 was associated with SOC (odds ratio, 0.982; 95% CI, 0.563 to 1.947; P = .006) and moderate to severe vasomotor symptom severity (odds ratio, 2.476; 95% CI, 1.478 to 3.120; P = .009) independent of age, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, menopausal hormone therapy intake, type of menopause, or Beck depression classification. Clinical Implications The results indicate the importance of psychometric assessment of postmenopausal women when presenting with scores of low sexual function. The severity of vasomotor symptoms should also be addressed in any case. Strengths and Limitations This is the first study investigating the relationship between SOC and sexuality in menopause in a carefully selected homogenous population. Limitations included the cross-sectional design and the fact that sexual distress was not assessed. Conclusions Pathologic FSFI scores were highly prevalent in this sample of postmenopausal women. FSFI is associated positively with age and severity of vasomotor symptoms and negatively with SOC.
Article
Full-text available
Study objectives Novel information is rapidly learned when it is compatible with previous knowledge. This “schema” effect, initially described for declarative memories, was recently extended to the motor memory domain. Importantly, this beneficial effect was only observed 24 hours–but not immediately–following motor schema acquisition. Given the established role of sleep in memory consolidation, we hypothesized that sleep following the initial learning of a schema is necessary for the subsequent rapid integration of novel motor information. Methods Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of diurnal and nocturnal sleep on schema-mediated motor sequence memory consolidation. In Experiment 1, participants first learned an 8-element motor sequence through repeated practice (Session 1). They were then afforded a 90-minute nap opportunity (N = 25) or remained awake (N = 25) before learning a second motor sequence (Session 2) which was highly compatible with that learned prior to the sleep/wake interval. Experiment 2 was similar; however, Sessions 1 and 2 were separated by a 12-hour interval that included nocturnal sleep (N = 28) or only wakefulness (N = 29). Results For both experiments, we found no group differences in motor sequence performance (reaction time and accuracy) following the sleep/wake interval. Furthermore, in Experiment 1, we found no correlation between sleep features (non-REM sleep duration, spindle and slow wave activity) and post-sleep behavioral performance. Conclusions The results of this research suggest that integration of novel motor information into a cognitive-motor schema does not specifically benefit from post-learning sleep.
Article
Full-text available
Spindles are often temporally coupled to slow waves (SW). These SW-spindle complexes have been implicated in memory consolidation that involves transfer of information from the hippocampus to the neocortex. However, spindles and SW, which are characteristic of NREM sleep, can occur as part of this complex, or in isolation. It is not clear whether dissociable parts of the brain are recruited when coupled to SW vs. when spindles or SW occur in isolation. Here, we tested differences in cerebral activation time-locked to uncoupled spindles, uncoupled SW and coupled SW-spindle complexes using simultaneous EEG-fMRI. Consistent with the “active system model,” we hypothesized that brain activations time-locked to coupled SW-spindles would preferentially occur in brain areas known to be critical for sleep-dependent memory consolidation. Our results show that coupled spindles and uncoupled spindles recruit distinct parts of the brain. Specifically, we found that hippocampal activation during sleep is not uniquely related to spindles. Rather, this process is primarily driven by SWs and SW-spindle coupling. In addition, we show that SW-spindle coupling is critical in the activation of the putamen. Importantly, SW-spindle coupling specifically recruited frontal areas in comparison to uncoupled spindles, which may be critical for the hippocampal-neocortical dialogue that preferentially occurs during sleep.
Article
Full-text available
Oppression refers to systemic discrimination where the injustice targets or disproportionately impacts specific groups of people. The Trauma Symptoms of Discrimination Scale (TSDS) is a self-report measure designed to assess the traumatizing impact of discrimination broadly by measuring anxiety-related symptoms of trauma due to discriminatory experiences. This may include symptoms arising from racism, homophobia, sexism, poverty, or other forms of marginalization. Almost all studies of the TSDS have examined its use in marginalized ethnoracial groups, primarily African Americans. This paper will extend prior work to help us better understand racial trauma across groups by reporting and comparing TSDS mean scores across ethnoracial identities in a diverse national sample (n = 923). It also explores trauma with other marginalized identities and demographic dimensions, including gender, sexual minority/LGBQ status, education, and income. The relationship of TSDS scores to clinical psychopathologies are examined, including stress, depression, anxiety, and PTSD. We also examine the unique risks associated with intersectionality, and how having multiple marginalized identities may increase traumatization. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Background Currently, information about the psychometric properties of the Resilience Measurement Scale (RESI-M) in family caregivers of children with cancer according to item response theory (IRT) is not available; this information could complement and confirm the findings available from classical test theory (CTT). The objective of this study was to test the five-factor structure of the RESI-M using a full information confirmatory multidimensional IRT graded response model and to estimate the multidimensional item-level parameters of discrimination (MDISC) and difficulty (MDIFF) from the RESI-M scale to investigate its construct validity and level of measurement error. Methods An observational study was carried out, which included a sample of 633 primary caregivers of children with cancer, who were recruited through nonprobabilistic sampling. The caregivers responded to a battery of tests that included a sociodemographic variables questionnaire, the RESI-M, and measures of depression, quality of life, anxiety, and caregiver burden to explore convergent and divergent validity. Results The main findings confirmed a five-factor structure of the RESI-M scale, with RMSEA = 0.078 (95% CI: 0.075, 0.080), TLI = 0.90, and CFI = 0.91. The estimation of the MDISC and MDIFF parameters indicated different values for each item, showing that all the items contribute differentially to the measurement of the dimensions of resilience. Conclusion That regardless of the measurement approach (IRT or CTT), the five-factor model of the RESI-M is valid at the theoretical, empirical, and methodological levels.
Article
Objective/background Cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) substantially reduces total wake time (TWT) by the end of treatment. In contrast, total sleep time (TST) does not increase above baseline levels for most patients following 4–8 sessions of treatment. In the 6–12 months following CBT-I, without any further intervention, up to 64% of participants substantially increase their TST (by ≥ 30 minutes). The current study investigated which baseline characteristics are associated with increases in TST after CBT-I. Patients/methods Data were analysed from a randomised controlled trial assessing acute and maintenance CBT-I (N = 80). Linear mixed models were conducted to assess the effect of baseline characteristics on changes in TST up to 24 months after CBT-I. Baseline characteristics included age, sex, marital status, sleep continuity (derived from sleep diaries and polysomnography studies), and mental health and quality of life questionnaires. Results At baseline, self-reported sleep latency, wake after sleep onset, early morning awakenings, TWT, TST, and sleep efficiency were associated with the greatest changes in TST (p < .03 for interactions), such that patients who reported more wake/less sleep at baseline also reported the largest increases in TST. No other baseline variables were associated with changes in TST after CBT-I, including age, sex, and polysomnography-derived sleep continuity (p > .07 for interactions). Conclusions Patients with more severe self-reported sleep difficulties and lower sleep duration at baseline showed greater improvements in TST after CBT-I. Whether more patients could increase their TST, within the context of acute treatment or following treatment, warrants investigation.
Article
Apathy is a common non-motor symptom of Parkinson disease (PD) that can affect the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients and caregivers. This study aimed to investigate the clinical determinants of apathy and its impact on HRQoL in patients with early PD. We enrolled 324 patients with early PD with modified Hoehn-Yahr stages 1 to 3 and a disease duration ≤5 years. Demographic information was obtained, and motor and non-motor symptoms were evaluated with relevant scales. Apathy was present in 110 of 324 (33.9%) patients. Compared with patients with non-apathetic PD, those with apathetic PD had significantly higher modified Hoehn-Yahr stage, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-II (UPDRS-II) score, Non-Motor Symptoms Scale (NMSS) total score, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score, and Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-8 (PDQ-8) score. Clinical variables independently associated with the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) score were NMSS domain 3 score and BDI score. The univariate regression analysis revealed that the PDQ-8 score was significantly associated with age; disease duration; formal education duration; and UPDRS-III, UPDRS-II, NMSS total, Mini-Mental Status Examination, BDI, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and AES scores. Independent predictors of the PDQ-8 score in the multivariate regression analysis were UPDRS-III, UPDRS-II, NMSS total, NMSS domain 3, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and AES scores. In the present study, apathy was an independent predictor of HRQoL in patients with early PD. Therefore, identifying and managing apathy could help improve HRQoL in patients with early PD.
Article
Full-text available
Background: The diagnosis of the minor neurocognitive diseases in the clinical course of dementia before the clinical symptoms’ appearance is the holy grail of neuropsychological research. The aim of this study is to extend the R4Alz battery by designing and performing extra episodic memory tasks, as well as extra cognitive control tasks, towards enhancing the R4Alz discriminant validity. Methods: The study comprised 80 people: a) 20 Healthy adults (HC), b) 29 people with Subjective Cognitive Decline (SCD), and c) 31 people with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). The groups dif-fered regarding age and educational level. Results: Updating, inhibition, attention switching, and cognitive flexibility tasks discriminated SCD from HC (p ≤ .003). Updating, switching, cognitive flexibility and episodic memory tasks discriminated SCD from MCI (p ≤ .001). All the R4Alz-R’s tasks discriminated HC from MCI (p≤0.001). The R4alz-R was free of age and educational level ef-fects. The battery discriminated perfectly SCD from HC and HC from MCI (100% sensitivity - 95% specificity and 100% sensitivity - 90% specificity respectively), whilst discriminated excellently SCD from MCI (90.3% sensitivity - 82.8% specificity). Conclusion: SCD seems to be stage of neu-rodegeneration since it can be objectively evaluated via the R4Alz-R battery, which seems to be a useful tool for early diagnosis.
Article
Objective Obesity and injury are major inter-related public health challenges. The objective of this study was to explore the perceptions of injury in people with severe obesity. Methods A cross-sectional design was employed to capture injury perception and lifestyle habits via questionnaires. Weight (kg) and height (m) were measured by clinicians for patients attending a weight loss group program. Univariate, chi-square, ANOVA and ordinal regression analyses were undertaken. Results There were 292 participants (67.1% female), mean age 49.3 years and Body Mass Index 47.2 kg/m² (range 30.7–91.9 kg/m²). Concern about having an injury was found in 83%, and 74.2% thought that weight would increase the likelihood of injury. A greater concern of being injured at baseline was associated with less weight loss at eight weeks (F=3.567; p=0.03). Depression, anxiety and sleepiness score were higher in those who reported greater ‘Concern about having an injury’. Conclusions People with obesity fear injury and falling, which limits their willingness to exercise. Anxiety symptoms appear to exacerbate this connection. Implications for public health In individuals with obesity, anxiety, sleepiness and depression are associated with a fear of being injured. Addressing fear and reducing anxiety may decrease barriers to participating in physical activity.
Article
Full-text available
Background In China, some patients avoid seeking medical care and are highly sensitive to subsequent medical care because of fear of possible hospitalization after a diagnosis has been established. Early identification of fear of hospitalization is essential for clinical staff to develop targeted education and interventions. However, there are currently no tools to assess outpatients’ fear of hospitalization in mainland China. This study aimed to translate the Fear of Hospitalization (FH) scale into Chinese and verify its reliability and validity in outpatients. Methods Through convenience sampling, 664 outpatients who required hospitalization were recruited from two cities in Liaoning Province, China. The reliability of the translated scale was measured by internal consistency, split-half reliability, and test–retest reliability. The validity of the translated scale was evaluated by expert consultation, exploratory factor analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis. Data were analyzed using SPSS 25.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, United States) and AMOS 23.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, United States). Results The Cronbach’s α value of the Chinese version of the FH scale was 0.849, and the Cronbach’s α value of the dimensions ranged from 0.857 to 0.902. The test–retest reliability value of 0.868 shows good temporal stability. The split-half reliability value of 0.910 indicates a high degree of measuring the same content. The content validity index of the scale (S-CVI) was 0.924, indicating a good level of content validity. The 3-factor structure supported by eigenvalues, total variance explained, and scree plot was obtained using exploratory factor analysis. In addition, all recommended fit indicators were within the acceptable range by confirmatory factor analysis. Conclusion The Chinese version of the FH scale is valid and reliable in outpatients. The developed three-factor structured scale will help identify outpatients with a high fear of hospitalization and can inform the development of educational intervention plans for care managers, physicians, and nurses. In addition, it helps clinicians and nurses take action to reduce this fear of hospitalization in patients and prevent avoidance of using health care services due to fear of hospitalization.
Article
Full-text available
Nursing students are reported to have moderate to high test anxiety, leading to reduced academic performance, poor self-esteem, and failure to complete the program and practice nursing. This review aims to examine the interventions for test anxiety reduction in nursing students. Following the PRISMA guidelines, peer-reviewed experimental studies published in English between 2016 and 2021 from four databases, EBSCOhost, PubMed, Science Direct, and Scopus, were systematically searched. The findings were presented in tabular and narrative form. Among the 722 studies retrieved, 14 selected studies were critically appraised, guided by the Joanna Briggs checklist for Randomized Controlled Trials and the checklist for Quasi-Experimental Studies, resulting in 11 studies for inclusion in the systematic review. Test anxiety was assessed by different scales. Aromatherapy hand massage, aromatherapy using a diffuser in combination with music therapy, confidence training for test relaxation, coping program, music therapy, emotional freedom technique, animal-assisted intervention, and guided imagery were all found to be effective in reducing test anxiety. In conclusion, while numerous interventions to reduce test anxiety in nursing students were found to be effective, the quality of the studies investigating these interventions was varied with generally small sample sizes and limited follow-up. Future research should be conducted, and the same interventions should be carried out using a larger sample size to strengthen the body of evidence.
Article
Emotional difficulties, adjustment difficulties, anxiety disorder, paranoid reactions and depression are among the common psychiatric disorders in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Type D personality is characterized by social inhibition and negative affectivity. Individuals with Type D personality have difficulty in coping with chronic diseases. The aim of our study was to determine type D personality and psychiatric symptoms in patients with COPD. A patient group was formed with 44 people hospitalized with COPD in the Chest Diseases service and a control group was formed with 44 healthy people. A sociodemographic data form, the Beck Depression Inventory, State and Trait Anxiety Inventory, Somatosensory Amplification Scale, Type D Personality Scale, and BODE (Body mass index, Obstruction, Dyspnea, Exercise capacity) index, were used to. According to the results of our study, state and trait anxiety, depression and D-type personality, exaggeration of bodily sensations scale scores were statistically significantly higher in the patient group compared to the control group. Moreover, a high score on the somatosensory amplification scale and having a type D personality were correlated with the BODE index score. These results suggest that it is important for patients with COPD to be examined by a psychiatrist..
Article
Full-text available
Objective Relevant research focusing on young adults with Unipolar Depression (UD) and Bipolar Depression (BD) is limited. The current research aims to investigate childhood trauma and personality traits in young adults with UD and BD. Methods Two hundred and thirty-five patients in a first depressive episode (diagnosed UD and BD), 16–25 years old, were recruited from Second Xiangya Hospital. And 79 healthy controls (HC) were recruited from the community to form the comparison group. Patients' childhood trauma was measured by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and personality was measured by Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI). The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare depression, anxiety, CTQ, and EPI scores between the HC ( n = 79), UD ( n = 131), and BD ( n = 104) groups. Factors independently associated with mood disorders and BD were determined using binary logistic regression analyses. Results Compared with HC, mood disorders had more severe anxiety and depression symptoms, and higher CTQ. Emotional abuse (OR = 1.47; 95% CI = 1.08–2.01), emotional neglect (OR = 1.24; 95% CI = 1.05–1.46), and neuroticism (OR = 1.25; 95% CI = 1.16–1.35) were associated with significantly increased odds of mood disorders. Whereas, higher extraversion scores were a protective factor for mood disorders. Compared with UD, BD had more severe anxiety symptoms, and higher CTQ, than extraversion and neuroticism personality scores. Anxiety (OR = 1.06; 95% CI = 1.02–1.08) and extraversion (OR = 1.05; 95% CI = 1.03–1.09) were associated with significantly increased odds of BD. Conclusion Interventions to prevent childhood trauma may improve young adults' mental health. Using childhood trauma and personality to anticipate BD and UD creates more accurate treatment for young adults with first depression.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.