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Third National Communication of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Submitted to UNFCCC)

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The Third National Communication (TNC) has been prepared by the Designated National Authority (DNA) in partnership with the General Authority of Meteorology and Environmental Protection (GAMEP), the environmental agency of the Kingdom, Ministry of Energy, Industry and Mineral Resources (MEIMR) and in cooperation and coordination with the relevant ministries, organizations and academic and research institutions. The report is comprised of ten chapters namely National Circumstances; GHG Inventory; Steps to Mitigation and renewable energy; Economic Diversification, Development and Transfer of Technology; Analysis of Socioeconomic Impacts of Annex 1 Response Measures; Climate Change Scenarios; Vulnerability Assessment and Adaptation Measures covering Water Resources; Desertification; Health; Agriculture and Food Security. Renewable energy, technology transfer, health, agriculture and food security issues have been included in this report for the first time.
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... The end of century changes is in the range 4-4.5 °C under . This is in agreement with the findings of Alsarhan et al. (2016). Figure 7 shows the spatial distribution of changes in precipitation under the RCP4.5 scenario, for mid-century and end of the century (2071-2100). ...
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... Moreover, fossil fuel utilization also produces emissions that can contribute harm towards the health at the human population level as well as the environmental concerns. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia reported its emissions of 2 , 4 , and 2 from road transportation based from fossil fuel in 2000 are approximately 56 million tons, 10.42 thousand tons, and 0.47 thousand tons, respectively [6]. In 2010, the estimated emissions of 2 , 4 , and 2 are approximately 98.12 million tons, 18.19 thousand tons, and 0.83 thousand tons, respectively. ...
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Chapter
Introduction This chapter examines what is known about the effects of climate change on human health and, briefly, the more direct impacts of climate-altering pollutants (CAPs; see Glossary) on health. We review diseases and other aspects of poor health that are sensitive to weather and climate. We examine the factors that influence the susceptibility of populations and individuals to ill health due to variations in weather and climate, and describe steps that may be taken to reduce the impacts of climate change on human health. The chapter also includes a section on health "co-benefits." Co-benefits are positive effects on human health that arise from interventions to reduce emissions of those CAPs that warm the planet or vice versa. This is a scientific assessment based on best available evidence according to the judgment of the authors. We searched the English-language literature up to August 2013, focusing primarily on publications since 2007. We drew primarily (but not exclusively) on peer-reviewed journals. Literature was identified using a published protocol (Hosking and Campbell-Lendrum, 2012) and other approaches, including extensive consultation with technical experts in the field. We examined recent substantial reviews (e.g., Gosling et al., 2009; Bassil and Cole, 2010; Hajat et al., 2010; Huang et al., 2011; McMichael, 2013b; Stanke et al., 2013) to check for any omissions of important work. In selecting citations for the chapter, we gave priority to publications that were recent (since AR4), comprehensive, added significant new findings to the literature, and included areas or population groups that have not previously been well described or were judged to be particularly policy relevant in other respects. We begin with an outline of measures of human health, the major driving forces that act on health worldwide, recent trends in health status, and health projections for the remainder of the 21st century. 11.1.1. Present State of Global Health The Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) pointed to dramatic improvement in life expectancy in most parts of the world in the 20th century, and this trend has continued through the first decade of the 21st century (Wang et al., 2012).
Chapter
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