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The Pharmacological importance of Bellis perennis - A review

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Inter. J. of Phytotherapy / Vol 5 / Issue 2 / 2015 / 63-69.
~ 63 ~
e - ISSN - 2249-7722
Print ISSN - 2249-7730
International Journal of Phytotherapy
www.phytotherapyjournal.com
THE PHARMACOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF BELLIS PERENNIS -
A REVIEW
Ali Esmail Al-Snafi
Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Thiqar University, Nasiriyah, P O Box 42, Iraq.
INTRODUCTION
Bellis perennis (Asteraceae) contained many
secondary metabolites included saponins, triterpenes,
several anthocyanins, polyphenols, flavonoids and
polyacetylenes. The different parts of the plant exerted
many pharmacological activities including antimicrobial,
nervous system, dermatological, anti-inflammatory,
cytotoxic, antioxidant, hypolipidemic, antihemorrhagic,
hemolytic and many other effect.
Synonyms
Aster bellis E.H.L.Krause, Bellis alpina
Hegetschw., Bellis armenaBoiss., Belliscroatica Gand.,
Bellis hortensis Mill., Bellis hybrida Ten., Bellis
integrifolia DC., Bellis margaritifolia Huter, Bellis
perennis var. caulescens Rochebr., Bellis perennis f.
discoidea D.C.McClint., Bellis perennis var. fagetorum
Lac., Bellis perennis var. hybrida (Ten.) Fiori, Bellis
perennis subsp. hybrida (Ten.) Nyman, Bellis perennis
var. margaritifolia (Huter) Fiori, Bellis perennis var.
microcephala Boiss., Bellis perennis f. plena Sacc., Bellis
perennis f. pumila (Arv.-Touv. &Dupuy) Rouy, Bellis
perennis var. pusilla N.Terracc., Bellis perennis f.
rhodoglossa Sacc., Bellis perennis var. strobliana Bég.,
Bellis perennis var. subcaulescens Martrin-Donos, Bellis
perennis var. tubulosa F.J.Schultz, Bellis perennis f.
tubulosaA.Kern., Bellispumila Arv.-Touv. &Dupuy,
Bellis pusilla (N.Terracc.)Pignatti, Bellis validula Gand.,
and Erigeron perennis (L.) Sessé & Moc [1].
Nomenclature and Common names
There are several theories surrounding the Latin
name of Bellis, as some authors believe it wais derived
from the latin word (bellus) meaning pretty, whereas
others believe that it derives from the word (bello), which
is latin for (war), this association may be due to the
plant’s long standing reputation as a wound herb, as well
as the fact that it grew on most battlefields. This
association may perhaps partially explain the dichotomy
between the assorted deities the plant was associated with.
There was also the possibility that the name derives from
the myth of the water meadow nymph named Belidis,
who, being pursued by the lustful orchard god Vertumnus,
turned herself into a daisy in order to escape. The plant’s
name has also been associated with the Celtic sun God,
Corresponding Author:-Ali Esmail Al-Snafi Email: aboahmad61@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT
The literature reveals that the chemical constituents of Bellisperennis(Asteraceae) included saponins,
triterpenes, several anthocyanins, polyphenols, flavonoids and polyacetylenes. The different parts of the plant exerted
many pharmacological activities including antimicrobial, nervous system, dermatological, anti-inflammatory,
cytotoxic, antioxidant, hypolipidemic, antihemorrhagic, hemolytic and many other effect. This paper will highlight the
chemical constituents and the pharmacological effects of Bellis perennis.
Key words: Bellis perennis, Constituents, Pharmacology.
Inter. J. of Phytotherapy / Vol 5 / Issue 2 / 2015 / 63-69.
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Belenos. The name (daisy) derives from the Anglo Saxon
name for the plant, (daegeseage), which means (day’s
eye), meaning the plant’s tendency to only open during
sunlit hours [2].
Common names
Arabic: Zahrat El rabee, Zahrat El lolo, Loloiah,
Shash El kadhi, Bakerat El hokool, Bless Moamer;
Chinese: Chu ju; English:Bruisewort, Bairnwort, Llygad y
Dydd (Eye of the Day Welsh), Flower Of Spring, Gowan,
Open Eye, Day’s Eye, Banwood, Banewort, Ewe-Gowan,
Little Star, Silver Pennies, Billy Button, Measure Of
Love, Herb Margaret, Bainswort, Bruisewort, Child’s
Flower, Field Daisy, Maudlinwort, Moon Daisy; French:
Pâquerette; German:Gänseblümchen, Maßliebchen;
Russian:margaritka; Spanish: Vellorita;
Swedish:Tusensköna[2-3].
Distribution
It is native to Europe and western Asia, and
introduced in north and south America [4-6].Now, it is
distributed in Africa: Morocco; Asia: Afghanistan,
Cyprus; Iran, Iraq, Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria,
Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Russian
Federation, China; Europe: Denmark, Ireland, Sweden,
United Kingdom, Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic,
Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia,
Switzerland, Belarus, Moldova, Russian Federation,
Ukraine, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria,
Croatia, Greece, Italy, Macedonia, Montenegro,
Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, France, Portugal, Spain,
Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; Australia; Australia, New
Zealand; North America: United states, Canada; South
America: Argentina and Chile [3].
Traditional use
The flowers and young leaves were used as a
vegetable. The plant was used traditionally as an
expectorant, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic,
vulnerary, antispasmodic, astringent, ophthalmic,
homeostatic. Bellis perennis was also used in the
treatment of common cold, stomachache, eye diseases,
eczema, skin boils, gastritis, enteritis, diarrhea, bleeding,
rheumatism, inflammation, and infections of the upper
respiratory tract [7-20]. In homeopathic therapy, It was
said that the plant acts upon the muscular fibers of the
blood-vessels and beneficial in muscular soreness,
lameness, venous congestion due to mechanical causes. It
was the first remedy in injuries to the deeper tissues and
injuries to nerves with intense soreness and intolerance of
cold bathing [21].
Description
Flower and Fruit: The flower heads are usually
found singly at the end of the sharply angular stem. The
flower is small to medium-sized and heterogamous. The
epicalyx is semispherical to bell-shaped. The sepals of the
epicalyx are more or less double-rowed. The receptacle is
conical and glabrous when bearing fruit. The l- to 2-
rowed female ray flowers are linguiform, white, pink,
purple or bluish and distinctly longer than the epicalyx.
The disc flowers are androgynous, tubular and 5-tipped.
The achenes are obovate, very flattened, ribless, and have
side veins. The flower has no pappus but may have short,
brittle bristles. Leaves, Stem and Root:Wild Daisy is a 10-
to 15-cm high perennial plant that has basal leaves in
rosettes or alternate leaves at the lower part of the stem;
its roots are short and cylindrical. The rosette leaves are
circular to spatulate or heart-shaped, dentate and
occasionally entire-margined with a single rib; they have
vertical hairs on both sides [22-23].
Part used: The medicinal part is the whole flowering
plant [23].
Chemical constituents
The literature reveals that the chemical
constituents of Bellis perennis(Asteraceae) included
triterpenoidsaponins, triterpenes, several anthocyanins,
flavonoids and polyacetylenes. The chemical
investigation of the essential oils from the aerial organs of
Bellis perennis showed that polyacetylenes were one of
the dominant class of compounds [28].However,Bellis
perennis contained triterpenesaponins (2.7%) [23]. Four
novel triterpenoidsaponins were isolated from the
underground parts of Bellis perennis. The structures were
elucidated as 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosides of 2 beta,3
beta,16 alpha-trihydroxyolean-12-ene-28-oic acid-28-
alpha-L- rhamnopyranosyl(1----2)-[beta-D-
glucopyranosyl(1----6)]-beta-D- glucopyranoside, 2
beta,3 beta,23-trihydroxyolean-12-ene-28-oic acid-28-O-
beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1----2)-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-
---6)]- beta-D-glucopyranoside and 2 beta,3 beta,23-
trihydroxyolean-12-ene-28-oic acid-28-O-alpha-L-
rhamnopyranosyl(1----2)-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1----6)
]- beta-D-glucopyranoside and as 3-O-alpha-L-
rhamnopyranosyl-2 beta,3 beta,23-trihydroxyolean-12-
ene-28-oic acid-28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1----2)-
[beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1----6)]- beta-D-glucopyranoside
[29].
From the saponin fraction, seven new
triterpenesaponins, perennisosides I, II, III, IV, V, VI, and
VII, were isolated together with four previously isolated
saponins, bellidioside A, asterbatanoside D ,
bernardioside B2, and bellissaponin BS6 [26].
Five new triterpene saponins perennisosides
VIII, IX, X, XI, and XII were isolated from the
methanol-eluated fraction of the methanolic extract from
the flowers of Bellis perennis [30]. In addition, six
acylated oleanane-type triterpene oligoglycosides,
perennisaponins A, B, C, D, E, and F, were isolated from
the flowers of Bellis perennis together with 14 saponins,
nine flavonoids, and two glycosides [14].
Inter. J. of Phytotherapy / Vol 5 / Issue 2 / 2015 / 63-69.
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The plant contained polyphenols and
flavonoids,the variations in total phenolic and flavonoid
contents of Bellis perennis flowers were studied. The
contents of flavonoids varied from 0.31 to 0.44 mg
quercetin equivalent/100 mg dry weight and from 1.37 to
2.20 mg pigenin-7-glucoside equivalent/100 mg dry
weight. Total phenolics ranged from 2.81 to 3.57 mg
gallic acid equivalent/100 mg dry weight. Contents of
phenolics and flavonoids as well as antioxidant activity of
daisy flowers vary to a relatively small extent during the
year and were not dependant on the time of collection.
Thus, the flowers possess comparable quality as to these
characteristics over the whole flowering season of Bellis
perennis [31-32]. The phenolic compounds of Bellis
perennis included flavonoids (quercetin, apigenin,
kaempferol, isorhamnetin, apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucoside,
apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide, apigenin-7-O-(6´´-E-
caffeoyl)-β-D-glucoside, apigenin-7-O-β-
Dmethylglucuronide, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-galactoside,
isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-(6´´-acetyl)-galactoside, and
kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucoside), anthocyanins (three
glucuronylated and malonylated cyanidin-3-glucosides),
phenolic acids (caffeic, ferulic, sinapic, p-coumaric, and
salicylic acids) and tannins [10,12, 33-37].
PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECTS
Antimicrobial effect
The antimicrobial effect of the aqueous and
ethanolic extracts of the aerial parts of Bellis perennis was
studied by in vitro method. Among the microorganisms
tested, the most susceptible strains were Staphylococcus
epidermidisMU 30 and Staphylococcus aureusMU 38.
The antibiofilm effect of the extracts was measured by
microplate biofilm method. Ethanolic extract of Bellis
perennisdid not inhibit biofilm formations of the tested
microorganisms, however the aqueous extract showed
limited anti-biofilm activity against P. aeruginosa ATCC
27853, P. fluorescens MU 181 and S.epidermidis MU 30
at 10 mg/ml concentration. Anti-Quorum Sensing (QS)
activity of extracts was determined using biosensor
bioassay with Chromobacteriumviolaceum CV026. The
concentration of 100 mg/ml of aqueous extract of Bellis
perennisshowed promising anti-QS activity on
ChromobacteriumviolaceumCV026 with zone of pigment
inhibition of 10mm. Inhibition of QS-regulated violacein
production in Chromobacteriumviolaceum ATCC 12472
and swarming motility in Pseudomonas aeruginosaPA01
were carried out using standard methods. Aqueous and
ethanol extracts of Bellis perennis inhibited swarming by
9.5% and 38.1%, respectively. The results suggest that
Bellis perennis could be an alternative source to explore
for useful contents in the fight against bacterial infections
[38]. Deca-4,6-diynoic acid and deca-4,6-diyne-1,10-dioic
acid showed antimicrobial activity, the two compounds
effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative
bacteria, respectively [28].
Bellis perenni extract showed in vitro and in vivo
antifungal activity [39].Triterpenoid glycosides obtained
from Bellis perennis inhibited the growth of human-
pathogenic yeasts (Candida and Cryptococcus species).
The intensity of growth inhibition is influenced
particularly by the carbohydrate chains of the glycosides.
Monodesmosidic as well as bisdesmosidic glycosides of
polygalacic acid exert fungicidic effects [40].
Effect on nervous system
The effects of aqueous extract of flowers from
Bellis perennison anxiety-like behavior and memory in
Wistar rats were tested.Bellis perennis (20 and 60
mg/kg)administrated rats, spent more time at the center,
showed less mobility and velocity. In the elevated plus
maze, the high dose of Bellis perennis administrated rats
spent more time in the open arms, spent less time in the
closed arms, were less mobile, were slower and rotated
less frequently. In the Morris water maze, the high dose of
Bellis perennis administrated rats spent more of the time
to find the platform. In conclusion, Bellis perennis may
produce biphasic effects on both anxiety-like behaviour
and learning performance of the rats [7]. The effect of
Bellis perennis was investigated on viability of healthy
neuronal cell line. On treatment with 90% alcohol, the
cell viability was significantly decreased to 18% as
compared to the negative control (only media) which was
taken as 100%. The effect of alcohol was neutralized by
Bellis perennisat 2μl/ml, 4μl/ml and 8μl/ml. It
significantly increased the cell viability [41].
Effect on skin wound healing
Bellis perenniswas used as skin lightening drug
(BelidesTM, Bellis perennisflower extract). It affected the
metabolic pathways involved in melanin synthesis. It
inhibited tyrosinase, transcriptional control of tyrosinase
expression, reduced pro-melanogenic mediators
endothelin, and α MSH (melanin stimulating hormone),
as well as reducing melanosometransfere keratinocyte
[42]
The wound healing activity of Bellis perennis
flowers was evaluated in Wistar albino rats. Dried Bellis
perennis flowers were extracted with ethanol, then
fractioned with n-butanol and an ointment was prepared
from the n-butanol fraction. Six wounds were created for
each animal by using circular excision wound model. The
first two wounds were treated topically with HOTBp
(hydrophilic ointment treatment containing n-butanol
fraction). The second two wounds were control group and
not treated with anything. The third two wounds were
treated only with HOT (hydrophilic ointment treatment
without n-butanol fraction). Treatments were applied once
a day and lasted for 30 days. Wound samples were
excised on days 5th, 10th and 30th. The percentage of
wound healing was calculated by Walker's formula after
measurement of the wound area and the tissue samples
Inter. J. of Phytotherapy / Vol 5 / Issue 2 / 2015 / 63-69.
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were examined histopathologically. The percentages of
wound closure (HOTBp: 100%; HOT: 85% and control:
87%) and histopathological observations showed that
there were statistically significant differences between
HOTBp, HOT and control groups (p < 0.05) at 30th day.
The authors concluded that topically administered
ointment prepared from the n-butanol fraction of Bellis
perennisflowers has a wound healing potential without
scar formation in circular excision wound model in rats
[20].
Bellis perennisis the homeopath’s first choice
for deep tissue injury, it is also one of the top remedies for
joint and muscular soreness, deep tissue injuries and
sport occidents [43-44].
Antiinflammatory effect
In two placebo-controlled studies, Traumeel
injections, (which contains Bellis perennis)was used in
patients with hemarthrosis. It showed that Traumeel
injections improved joint and mobility, and decreased
intensity of pain and effusion [45-46].
Cytotoxic effect
Butanol extract of flowers of Bellis
perennisshowed antitumor activity when evaluated by
potato disc tumor induction bioassay ( 93% inhibition).
The active constituent is a saponin [3-O-α-
rhamnopyranosylpolygalacic acid 28-O--
rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-β- Xylopyranosyl(1→4)-α-
rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-- arabinofuranosyl -(1→3)-4-
O-acetyl-β-fucopyranoside](47). Antitumor activities of
different fractions of Bellis perennisflowers at different
concentrations were evaluated using potato Disc tumor
induction bioassay. The most active fraction showed 99%
tumor inhibition at 3000 mg/l [48].
Antioxidant effect
Antioxidant [1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl
(DPPH) radical scavenging, reducing activity and total
antioxidant activity of the plant materials were studied.
The aqueous extracts of the aerial parts showed higher
DPPH scavenging activity (85.8% at 102.5 microg/ml)
than the methanol extract. Reducing power was also
observed for both tested extracts, where the formation of
linoleic acid peroxides was more for the aqueous extract
than the methanol extract of the aerial parts [49].
The antioxidant capacity of the aqueous and
ethanolic extracts of the aerial parts of Bellis perennis was
also determined by the ferric thiocyanate (FTC) and the
1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical
scavenging assays. Extracts showed weak radical
scavenging activity with the DPPH method. IC50 values
were found as 37.85 mg/ml for ethanolic extract and
96.98 mg/ml for aqueous extract, respectively. Results
obtained from FTC assay showed 16.98% inhibition for
ethanolic extract and 58.14% inhibition for aqueous
extract compared with BHT (63.36% inhibition) and
ascorbic acid (77.67% inhibition) [38].
Apigenin-7-O-ghicopyranoside (ApG), a
flavonoid isolated from the flowers of Bellis perennis L.,
showed strong in vitro antioxidant potential, because of
the capacity of removal of hydroxyl radicals and nitric
oxide, and also prevented the formation of thiobarbituric
acid-reactive substances. These parameters were inhibited
at the highest concentration of ApG at rates of 77.7%,
72% and 73.4%, respectively, its inhibitory effect on
acetyl cholinesterase, suggesting potential use in the
treatment of neurodegenerative diseases [37].
The antioxidant activity of Bellis perennis
flowers was determined by a 1,1-diphenyl-2-
picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. The
antioxidant activity expressed as IC50 values varied from
66.03 to 89.27 µg/ml; it is about 50, 30, 20, and 10 times
lower as compared with quercetin, ascorbic acid,
Trolox®, and butylhydroxytoluene, respectively, and
about five times higher in comparison with apigenin-7-
glucoside. There is a significant correlation between
antioxidant activity and total phenolics. No correlation
between total flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity
was observed [32].
Hypolipidemic effect
The methanolic extract and its saponin fraction
(methanol-eluted fraction) of the flowers of Bellis
perennis were found to suppress serum triglyceride
elevation in olive oil-treated mice. Among these saponins,
perennisosides I and II showed inhibitory effects on
serum triglyceride elevation at doses of 25-50 mg/kg
orally [26]. As a result of hypolipidemic effect of saponin
constituents isolated from the flowers of Bellis perennis,
it also can be utilize as preventive drug in ischemic
diseases and as an anti-obese remedy [50].
Antihemorrhagic and hemolytic effect
The effect of Bellis perennis on postpartum
blood loss was studied by double blind, placebo-
controlled, randomized, clinical trial. At 72h postpartum,
mean Hb levels remained similar after treatment with
homeopathic remedies (12.7 versus 12.4) as compared to
a significant decrease in Hb levels in the placebo group
(12.7 versus 11.6; p<0.05), in spite of less favorable
initial characteristics of the treatment group. The mean
difference in Hb levels at 72h postpartum was -0.29 (95%
CI -1.09; 0.52) in the treatment group and -1.18 (95% CI -
1.82; -0.54) in the placebo group (p<0.05) [51].Bellis
perennis showed haemolytic activity. It has been found
that the haemolytic activity of the drug changes in
dependence on the time of collection of capitula during
the year; it is lowest in March, then it increases, reaching
the maximum in summer months (June, July and August),
and then it decreases again [52].
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Other pharmacological effects
The methanolic-eluted fraction of the methanolic
extract from the flowers of Bellis perennis was found to
inhibit gastric emptying in olive oil-loaded mice at a dose
of 200 mg/kg, orally [30]. The plant also acts as an
astringent, reduces mucous production, and also has anti-
inflammatory and fever-reducing effects, possibly due to
the triterpenesaponin content [23].
Contraindications and adverse effects
No health hazards or side effects are known in
conjunction with the proper administration of designated
therapeutic dosages [23].
Dosage
The drug is used topically as an extract, in teas
and in poultices of pressed leaves for the treatment of skin
diseases. A decoction can be used for wound poultices.
An infusion is prepared by adding 2 teaspoonfuls of plant
to 2 cups of water, then allowing it to draw for 20
minutes. The daily dose of the infusion is 2 to 4 cups per
day. A decoction is made from the green leaves [23].
CONCLUSION
The paper reviewed Bellis perennis as promising
medicinal plant with wide range of pharmacological
activities which could be utilized in several medical
applications because of its effectiveness and safety.
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... Among these saponins, perennisosides I and II showed inhibitory effects on serum triglyceride elevation at doses of 25-50 mg/kg orally. As a result of hypolipidemic effect of saponin constituents isolated from the flowers of Bellis perennis, it also can be utilize as preventive drug in ischemic diseases and as an anti-obese remedy (67)(68)(69) . ...
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... Bauhinia variegate possessed anticancer effect against Dalton's ascitic lymphomas, skin papilloma, human epithelial larynx cancer, human breast cancer (HBL-100) cells and N-nitrosodiethylamine induced experimental liver tumor in rats (91)(92)(93)(94)(95) . Bellis perennis showed cytotoxicity in potato disc tumor induction bioassay (96)(97)(98) . Betula alba possessed anticancer effects against neuroblastoma, rabdomyosarcoma-medulloblastoma, glioma, thyroid, breast, lung, colon carcinoma, leukemia, multiple myeloma, ovarian carcinoma, cervical carcinoma, glioblastoma multiforme, A431 (skin epidermoid carcinoma), A2780 (ovarian carcinoma), HeLa (cervix adenocarcinoma) and MCF7 (breast adenocarcinoma), liver metastatic murine colon 26-L5 carcinoma cells, WI-38 fibroblast cells, VA-13 malignant tumor cells and K562 tumor cell line (99)(100)(101)(102)(103)(104) . ...
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... Apigenin-7-O-ghicopyranoside (ApG), a flavonoid isolated from the flowers of Bellis perennis L., showed strong in vitro antioxidant potential, because of the capacity of removal of hydroxyl radicals and nitric oxide, and also prevented the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. These parameters were inhibited at the highest concentration of ApG at rates of 77.7%, 72% and 73.4%, respectively, in addition ,its inhibitory effect on acetyl cholinesterase, suggesting potential use in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases (9)(10) . ...
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... The effect of alcohol was neutralized by Bellis perennis at 2μl/ml, 4μl/ml and 8μl/ml. It significantly increased the cell viability [4][5]. ...
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... Specifically, this review aims to review the phytochemical constituents of different Asteraceae plant extracts affecting coagulation and platelet inhibition. [14] MATERIALS AND METHODS Figure 1 above shows the detailed flow diagram guideline to be followed by the researchers in gathering data for the review. This is the system used to collect unbiased data by comprehensively searching to find all relevant studies. ...
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The operation of the central nervous system (CNS) has been a mystery until recently when its structures are being linked to activity and/or pathologies. The drugs that influence the CNS were seen as spiritual manipulators, and often times they were used to invite the spirit into the human body. Researches have proven that these myths are unfounded and have provided explanations for the observed effect of the agents on the brain and human behavior. Most of the agents used to influence the brain in prescience ages were derived from plants. These actions of plant-related substances were termed as mystical. Science has unraveled the causes of the actions of plants on the CNS. The substances in plants that influence the brain are the biomolecules it contained. This chapter examines these biomolecules and their effects and mechanism of action. The biomolecules could produce stimulant, depressive, antidepressant, cognitive, toxic, and dependence effect on the brain. Substances like caffeine, cocaine, tobacco, ergot, opioids, etc., have been well studied to obtain an explanation for their effects on the brain and behavior. This review also revealed that biomolecules that influence the CNS does so by: acting as an agonist or antagonist at receptor sites, releasing neurotransmitters, inhibiting enzymes that are involved in neurotransmitter physiology, altering intracellular enzyme or protein levels, altering ion level in the brain, interacting with gamma aminobutyric acid receptors at different sites, or acting as precursor/false precursor for the synthesis of neurotransmitters. These effects could be beneficial or harmful to the human body. Some may result in the amelioration of disease or cure of CNS disease conditions. The beneficial effects of herbal biomolecules are indeed enormous and have contributed to the advancement of CNS science and the quantity of life of human race.
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Human skin, the outer covering of the body, is the largest organ in the body. It also constitutes the first line of defense. Skin disease is a common ailment and it affects all ages from the neonate to the elderly and cause harm in number of ways. The skin diseases can be categorized into nine common types: rashes, viral infections, bacterial infections, fungal infections, parasitic infections, pigmentation disorders, tumors and cancers, trauma and Other conditions such as wrinkles, rosacea, spider veins and varicose veins which cannot be neatly categorized. Several medicinal plants possessed a wide range of dermatological effects included antibacterial(1-3), antifungal(4-5), antiviral(6-7) , antiparasitic(8-9), anticancer(10-12), hair growthpromoting activity, wound and burn healing effects, for the treatment of eczema, acne, vitiligo, and psoriasis, as skin lightening, as skin protection therapy and to slow down skin aging(13-14), these included:
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The effects of aqueous extract of flowers from Bellis perennis on anxiety-like behavior and memory in Wistar rats were tested. Vehicle 20 and 60 mg kg -1 B. perennis groups were performed and the animals were tested by open field and elevated plus maze tests for anxiety-like behaviour and Morris water maze test for spatial memory. In the open field, the high dose of B. perennis administrated rats spent more time at the center, showed less mobility and velocity. In the elevated plus maze, the high dose of B. perennis administrated rats spent more time in the open arms, spent less time in the closed arms, were less mobile, were slower and rotated less frequently. In the Morris water maze, the high dose of B. perennis administrated rats spent more of the time to find the platform. In conclusion, B. perennis may produce biphasic effects on both anxiety-like behaviour and learning performance of the rats.
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Known for their ease of use, artful presentation of scientific information, and evidence-based approach, James Duke's comprehensive handbooks are the cornerstone in the library of almost every alternative and complementary medicine practitioner and ethnobotanist. Using the successful format of these bestselling handbooks, Duke's Handbook of Medicinal Plants of the Bible covers 150 herbs that scholars speculate, based on citations, were used in Biblical times.
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The English daisy, Bellis perennis L., is a widespread lawn weed and a bane to those who favor daisy-free lawns and golf courses. The genetic name Bellis , a designation used by Pliny, means “pretty”; perennis means “through the years,” “continuing,” or “perennial” (Gledhill 1985; Mabberley 1989). While pretty, the English daisy is a persistent weed that spreads by short stolons (Tutin et al. 1976). It is a member of the cosmopolitan family Compositae, which encompasses 1,100 genera and 25,000 species (Heywood 1993). The genus Bellis comprises about 15 European and Mediterranean species. Some of them are medicinal and some are cultivated ornamentals, especially forms of B. perennis . The signature of this species is a flower head that Closes at night and in wet weather (Tutin et al. 1976).
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One of the chromatographic fractions of an extract from Bellis Perennis has been analyzed using NMR. The major component of the fraction has been identified to be a novel triterpenoid saponin: 3- O -α-rhamnopyranosyl polygalacic acid 28- O -{α-rhamnopyranosyl (1→3)-β-xylopyranosyl(1→4)α-rhamnopyranosyl( 1→2)-[α-arabinofuranosyl(1→3)-4- O -acetyl-β-fucopyranoside]}.