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How much is too much? The influence of preschool centers on children’s social and cognitive development

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... The empirical evidence from developed countries shows a positive relationship between center-based care attendance for children under three and child cognitive outcomes. For example, US studies based on data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS) conclude that center-based care attendance for children between zero and four years of age is associated with positive cognitive performance in pre-reading and mathematics skills, compared to children in full-time home care (Coley, Votruba-Drzal, Miller, & Koury, 2013;Loeb, Bridges, Bassok, Fuller, & Rumberger, 2007). These studies support the buffering effect of center-based care for children from disadvantaged families on cognition. ...
... A diverse range of studies has accounted for heterogeneous results based on the socio-economic status of the child's household (Hansen & Hawkes, 2009;Loeb et al., 2007;Sammons et al., 2004;Sylva, Melhuish, Sammons, Siraj-Blatchford, & Taggart, 2010). According to these studies, high-quality early childcare programs have a greater positive impact for children from disadvantaged backgrounds (low income or mother's low education) compared to children from wealthier households (Burger, 2010;Crosnoe et al., 2010;Peisner-Feinberg et al., 2001). ...
... We conclude that center-based care attendance at two years old is positively associated with an increase in cognitive skills at the ages of 36 to 48 months. Hence, the findings regarding child cognitive development are consistent with the effects found in previous international studies (Felfe & Lalive, 2012;Loeb et al., 2007;Sammons et al., 2004). They are also consistent with other studies using data from Chile (Cortázar, 2015). ...
Article
There is little evidence regarding the benefits of early center-based care attendance (before three years old) for child development and most studies have focused on developed countries. Addressing this gap, this study examines the relationship between center-based care attendance during toddler years and children’s cognitive outcomes. Research Findings: Data used for this study came from the first and second wave of the Longitudinal Survey of Early Childhood (ELPI, 2010 and 2012). The nationally representative sample was 1,544 children aged 12 to 24 months in 2010, who received full-time home care during this period. Propensity score matching (PSM) and difference-in-differences techniques were used in the study. Compared to those in full-time home care, children who attended center-based care from the age of 24 months had higher cognitive scores in the endline (they were measured at some point between 36 and 48 months old). Children in center-based care scored higher on cognitive skills compared to children who were in full-time home care, according to the Child Development and Cognitive Evaluation Test (Test de Aprendizaje y Desarrollo Infantil, TADI) and the Battelle test (d = .21 p < .01 and d = .22 p < .01, respectively). However, we observed that children in low-income households benefited less from early center-based care attendance. Practice or Policy: These findings suggest that Chilean national policies supporting increased center-based care coverage in early years are a step in the right direction, but more work focused on helping disadvantaged children is needed.
... However, they also found that when preschool experience was controlled, the effects of age were not nearly as strong, indicating that age is not as influential for children who have had extensive preschool experiences. Other researchers have found that younger kindergarteners made progress similar to their older peers during the kindergarten year (Loeb et al., 2007;Mayer & Knutson, 1999;Morrison et al., 1997) and that any short-term deficits observed during the early school years tended to dissolve by the end of elementary school (Stipek & Byler, 2001). ...
... For example, beginning childcare at an earlier age has been shown to have a significant positive effect on readiness development of many children (Gullo & Burton, 1992;Howes, 1988). In addition, the positive impact of preschool on academic and social development is particularly strong for children of minority or low-income backgrounds (Connell & Prinz, 2002;Lee, Brooks-Gunn, Schnur, & Liaw, 1991;Loeb et al., 2007;Turney & Kao, 2009). However, a large scale study by the National Institute of Child Health and Development (NICHD) was conducted to examine the effects of childcare on a number of different developmental outcomes and found no relation between hours of childcare enrollment and cognitive or language skills (NICHD Early Child Care ResearchNetwork, 2000). ...
... Overall, the results of this study indicated that age, and gender (significantly, but slightly) and preschool experience (significantly and moderately) were related to Hispanic children's school readiness upon entry into kindergarten. Specifically, children who had some form of preschool experience were rated significantly higher in terms of their school readiness than children with no preschool experience, which is consistent with previous research examining similar populations of children (Connell & Prinz, 2002;Lee et al., 1991;Loeb et al., 2007;Turney & Kao, 2009). Also, similar to previous research findings, older children were, on average, more ready at kindergarten entry than their younger peers (Meisels, 1996;Shepard & Smith, 1986) and girls were slightly more ready than boys. ...
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This study examined the relations of age, preschool experience, and gender with children's school readiness levels at kindergarten entry. The sample included 5,512 children of predominantly Hispanic heritage and from families experiencing low socioeconomic circumstances. A series of between-subjects ANOVAs indicated that age (Eta sq .019 to .043), preschool experience (Eta sq .104 to .204), and gender (Eta sq .015 to .022) were significantly related to children's school readiness as measured by the Kindergarten Student Entrance Profile (KSEP). Logistic regression examined the unique contribution of these variables to predict students' academic achievement at the end of Grade 2 with a subsample of 980 students. The strongest achievement predictor was school readiness - the odds of students rated in the top 25% on the KSEP having proficient or advanced scores on the English Language Arts portion of the California Standards Test at the end of Grade 2 were 4.51 greater than the odds of students rated in the bottom 75% on the KSEP having proficient or advanced scores. Similar results were found for students' achievement in mathematics. The key findings of this study showed that formal preschool experiences play an important role in preparing children of Hispanic descent and who live in households experiencing low income for kindergarten entry. However, children's readiness at entry into kindergarten was more strongly related to later academic achievement than age at kindergarten entry and preschool experience.
... As another example, data from older experimental trials suggest that girls benefit more than boys from early childhood programs (Anderson, 2008), but a recent meta-analysis by Magnuson and colleagues (2016) effects across the socioeconomic distribution (e.g., Gormley et al., 2005;Loeb et al., 2007;) and only a handful of studies have considered the benefits of preschool for children with disabilities (Bloom & Weiland, 2015;Phillips & Meloy, 2012; Weiland, 2016). ...
... For example, quasi-experimental research on the short-term academic benefits of preschool programs in both Boston and Tulsa have found that for middle-class children preschool impacts were roughly 70-90% of the impact for lowerincome children (Gormley, Gayer, Phillips, & Dawson, 2005;. Similar conclusions have been drawn from other evaluations of programs in New Jersey (Lamy, Barnett, & Jung, 2005) and Georgia (Peisner,-Feinberg, Schaaf, LaForett, Hildebrandt, & Sideris, 2014) along with correlational studies using nationally representative samples (Loeb, Bridges, Bassok, Fuller & Rumberger, 2007). Thus, the evidence that does exist on the experiences of middle-class children indicates that although these children might benefit slightly less than lower-income children, they do benefit in the short-term from preschool enrollment, and do so quite substantially. ...
... As another example, data from older experimental trials suggest that girls benefit more than boys from early childhood programs (Anderson, 2008), but a recent meta-analysis by Magnuson and colleagues (2016) appears to indicate that the impacts of early childhood investments for measures of achievement and behavior do not vary as a function of child gender. Other studies have suggested conflicting support for heterogeneity in preschool effects across the socioeconomic distribution (e.g., Gormley et al., 2005;Loeb et al., 2007;) and only a handful of studies have considered the benefits of preschool for children with disabilities (Bloom & Weiland, 2015;Phillips & Meloy, 2012;Weiland, 2016). ...
Article
Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten Cohort of 1998 (n = 15,070), this study used propensity scores to examine the short- and long-term academic and psychosocial benefits of preschool education for a diverse sample of middle-class children. Compared with children who attended informal care at age 4, preschool attendees consistently performed better on achievement tests from age 5 through early adolescence, but exhibited less optimal psychosocial skills. These negative behavioral effects of preschool were concentrated among children who attended preschool for 20 or more hours per week, but otherwise, there was little evidence of heterogeneity as a function of program type or child- and family characteristics. The long-term academic advantages of preschool were, however, largely explained by their positive effects on academic skills early in formal schooling and there was evidence for convergence in children’s academic test scores, which was partially attributed to the differences in children’s social skills during the early elementary school years.
... These two definitions are often combined, as in most analyses of the NICHD ECCRN, which computes the average hours per week of care from the child's first month through the last preschool interview at 54 months (NICHD ECCRN, 2003a, 2006. A third dimension describes the number of different childcare arrangements and the amount of time spent in each setting (e.g., Loeb, Bridges, Bassok, Fuller, & Rumberger, 2007;Morrissey, 2008Morrissey, , 2009. ...
... In the SECCYD, children 15 and 24 months old in center care had slightly higher cognitive skills, but slightly lower social skills, compared to children in informal care settings. Similar positive associations of center care during the first 3 years with later cognitive skills have been reported in the United Kingdom (Sylva, Melhuish, Sammons, Siraj-Blatchford, & Taggart, 2012) and Sweden (Andersson, 1989), and with problem behaviors in the United States among children who had attended centers as infants or toddlers in the ECLS-Kindergarten Cohort (Loeb et al., 2007). A few studies of specialized ECE interventions, for example, Abecedarian, Early Head Start, and the Infant Health and Development Program, provide clear evidence that center-based care can be advantageous for infants and toddlers (Campbell & Ramey, 1994;Infant Health and Development Program, 1990). ...
... A large literature has examined the impact of publicly funded programs, typically center care, and those results are discussed in the final section of public policies. Analyses of the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) indicated that in the United States children with center care as a preschooler had higher cognitive and language skills (Magnuson, Meyers, Ruhm, & Waldfogel, 2004) and that greater exposure to center care (longer days or more months of center care) predicted higher reading and math scores (Loeb et al., 2007), although the magnitude of the average effect was modest. Entering center care between 2 and 3 years old was related to better outcomes in kindergarten, whereas starting center care at younger ages was negatively related to kindergarten outcomes such as language and social skills (Loeb et al., 2007). ...
... However, ECE effects tend to vary by the quality, quantity and type of ECE provided, as well as the characteristics of the children served. Specifically, higher quality ECE is associated with better cognitive, language, and early academic outcomes than lower quality care, but children who receive greater quantities of ECE (i.e., longer hours of care) often have more behavior problems (Belsky et al., 2007;Loeb, Bridges, Bassock, Fuller, & Rumberger, 2007;NICHD ECCRN, 2002, 2005Vandell, Belsky, Burchinal, Steinberg, & Vandergrift, 2010). Participation in center-based ECE has been linked to better cognitive and linguistic development and early academic achievement but also to more problematic child behavior (Belsky et al., 2007;NICHD ECCRN, 2002, 2005. ...
... Additionally, the cross-sectional nature of our analyses limit the ability to take advantage of the longitudinal structure of the NSCAW II dataset to explore how child welfare experiences and other variables influence patterns of center-based ECE participation over time. Further, we were unable to assess the specific type, amount, or quality of ECE center services utilized for CWS-involved children, all of which are factors that influence developmental outcomes for children in the general population (Belsky et al., 2007;Loeb et al., 2007;NICHD ECCRN, 2002, 2005Vandell et al., 2010). Despite these limitations, our study makes an important contribution to the field by being the first of its kind to use data from a nationally representative sample of young children in the U.S. CWS to measure the rate of center-based ECE participation for this population and to identify the types of CWS-supervised children who are most at-risk for not receiving center-based ECE services. ...
... In particular, research is needed to clarify whether ECE provided in home-based rather than center-based settings differs in its capacity to protect children from maltreatment and to support maltreated children's development. Given that center-based ECE has had some mixed results for children in the general population, including negative effects on externalizing behavior (Belsky et al., 2007;Loeb et al., 2007;NICHD ECCRN, 2002, 2005Vandell et al., 2010), additional inquiry is also needed to ascertain whether center-based ECE has a similarly negative effect on the behavior of children in the CWS. If not, it would helpful to understand why not. ...
Article
Research suggests that early care and education (ECE) services, particularly center-based ECE, may help prevent child maltreatment and also mitigate some of the negative developmental outcomes associated with child maltreatment. There is also preliminary evidence to suggest that ECE could reduce the likelihood that maltreatment allegations will be substantiated by child welfare authorities and/or result in children being placed in out-of-home care. However, little is known about rates of ECE participation among children receiving child welfare services, nor the factors that determine ECE participation for this population. Data from the first wave of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Wellbeing II, a nationally representative sample of children referred to the United States (U.S.) child welfare system (CWS) for suspected maltreatment, were used to measure the frequency with which 0–5 year olds participate in center-based ECE. Additionally, logistic regression analyses explored the effects of maltreatment type, substantiation, and children's living arrangements (i.e., with parents, relatives, or foster parents) on this outcome, controlling for a range of child and family covariates associated with ECE participation in the general population. Results indicate that less than a third of 0–5 year olds receiving child welfare services in the U.S. are participating in center-based ECE. Among the various categories of maltreatment type measured, being reported to the CWS for suspected physical abuse was associated with decreased odds of center-based ECE participation; however, other types of maltreatment, substantiation, and living arrangement were unrelated to center-based ECE participation. These findings suggest that, despite recent efforts by the U.S. federal government to promote ECE participation for CWS-supervised children, the vast majority of young children in the U.S. CWS are not receiving center-based ECE, and physically abused children are particularly disadvantaged when it comes to accessing these services.
... There have been calls in the literature for research to go beyond the examination of average program effects and instead examine how children from different backgrounds respond to different programs (Duncan & Magnuson, 2013). This is especially important considering that several studies have documented differential program effects according to children's race and ethnicity (Gormley et al., 2005;Loeb, Bridges, Bassok, Fuller, & Rumberger, 2007;Raikes, Vogel, & Love, 2013) and the fact that in Miami, Florida, the community of interest in the present study, over eight in ten children come from non-White homes (e.g., Black and/or Latino; Census, 2015). Thus, understanding the early school experiences and transitions for diverse groups of children is of growing policy interest. ...
... Although few studies have examined the outcomes of early education programs for Latinos, those that have are mixed. Some suggest that program effects are minimal for Latinos (Raikes et al., 2013) whereas others suggest that Latino children have the most to gain, almost two times as much as their Black peers (Loeb et al., 2007;Weiland & Yoshikawa, 2013) with Mexican-origin children benefiting the most (Gormley et al., 2005). In contrast, others find that Black children demonstrate stronger school readiness gains when enrolled in early childhood programs as compared with their Latino and non-Latino White peers (Bassok, 2010;Puma et al., 2010;Raikes et al., 2013). ...
... family childcare). Although the existing literature is ambiguous in terms of who benefits the most from preschool education, this lack of moderation is contrary to a number of studies that have documented greater benefits for different subgroups of children (Crosnoe, 2007;Gormley et al., 2005;Loeb et al., 2007;Weiland & Yoshikawa, 2013). Part of this difference may stem from the fact that our sample of children was all low-income, who are known to show greater gains from preschool education as compared with more affluent children (Magnuson et al., 2004;Weiland & Yoshikawa, 2013). ...
Article
Using data from the Miami School Readiness Project (MSRP), we examine the kindergarten readiness of five cohorts (2002–2007) of children from low-income, ethnically, and linguistically diverse families (n = 16,176) in Miami, Florida who experienced three types of publicly funded preschool programs the year before kindergarten: public school-based pre-K, center-based care, or family childcare. Black and Latino children in public school-based pre-K programs consistently demonstrated greater kindergarten readiness when compared with their classmates in center-based and family childcare, controlling for demographic variables and cognitive skills at preschool entry. In most cases, low-income children enrolled in center-based care also exhibited greater kindergarten skills than their classmates who had attended family childcare. Results were the same across ethnic and language groups. Thus, for all groups of children, those who attended public school-based pre-K began kindergarten with a stronger start than their classmates who attended center-based care and family childcare, and they continued to do better at the end of the kindergarten year.
... Effects of child care in health, socio-emotional and cognitive domains have been studied, but findings diverge according to quantity, quality and type of child care, as well as child characteristics (Vandell et al. 2010). Previous studies have demonstrated that early language exposure predicts the size of children's vocabulary and verbal and literacy skills (Huttenlocher et al. 1991;Hurtado et al. 2008) and suggested that structured educational activities in centre-based child could advance language proficiency (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Early Child Care Research Network (NICHD ECCRN) 2000; Fantuzzo et al. 2005;Loeb et al. 2007). The current study investigates whether the amount of exposure to non-parental child care is associated with language development from infancy until 6 years of the child's age in a large, multi-ethnic longitudinal sample in the Netherlands. ...
... Many studies have demonstrated that early language exposure predicts the size of children's growing vocabulary and later verbal skills and literacy skills (Huttenlocher et al. 1991;Hurtado et al. 2008), and centre-based child care has been associated with more advanced language development (NICHD ECCRN 2000;Fantuzzo et al. 2005;Loeb et al. 2007;Abner et al. 2013). Moreover, peers can also affect development (Dunn 2004) by facilitating or necessitating greater language production. ...
Article
The effects of child care services on several domains of child development have been extensively investigated, but evidence regarding the effects of child care on language development remains inconclusive. Within a large-scale population-based study, we examined the longitudinal associations between non-parental child care and language development from 1 to 6 years (n = 5375). Results showed that more hours in non-parental child care were associated with better language abilities. However, more hours in care in the first year of life were associated with less language proficiency at ages 1 to 1.5. At later ages, this effect disappeared and language proficiency increased. Furthermore, children who spent more hours in centre-based care had better language scores than children in home-based care. Ethnicity, socio-economic status, gender or parity did not change these results. This large, multi-ethnic study demonstrates beneficial effects of non-parental child care, particularly centre-based care, on language proficiency later in childhood. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
... A table with the summary statistics of the variables used in the indices can also be found in Supplemental Appendix A3. 12 However, the literature is not consensual on the effects of preschool. There is recent literature (Carneiro and Heckman, 2003;Heckman and Cunha, 2007;Loeb et al., 2007) that relates preschool attendance with the development of noncognitive skills such as concentration, ability to work in groups, communication, etc. In addition, there are other Peer effects among Brazilian pupils 7 endogenous peer effects change in cases in which preschool may have a nontrivial contextual peer effect. ...
... g , the unobservable inputs shared by the members -such as the teacher's ability -from exogenous peer effects, captured in the reduced form as the effect induced by changes in E g ?X > ?. These two effects may not be distinguished from each other when the conditional independence assumption is violated, studies such as Loeb et al. (2007), Gramlich (1986), Barnett and Mass (2007), and Currie and Thomas (2000) that show that early childhood education can have long-term effects that include decreasing dropout rates in high school and increasing the student proficiency in elementary school. The impact of preschool on cognitive and noncognitive abilities indicates that students who attend preschool are more likely to work well in groups, communicate with their classmates and receive good grades. ...
Article
Using the identification strategy proposed by Graham and Hahn (2005), we estimate the magnitude of classmate effects on math scores using Brazilian data from 2005. In addition, we provide a detailed discussion about the identification of endogenous peer effects in the linear in means models. Our results show that both peer characteristics (exogenous peer effects) - like race, socioeconomic status and gender - and peer actions (endogenous peer effects) are important determinants of students’ outcomes in the fifth grade of elementary school. Our estimates of endogenous peer effects are about 0.008 of 1 SD of math test scores, which can be interpreted as evidence of a so-called ‘conformist’ individual behaviour, under which students face large costs to exert effort levels that are distant from what is believed to be the norm in the classroom. Those estimates of endogenous peer effects imply a social multiplier of about 1.67.
... La evidencia reciente sugiere que la rentabilidad social de la educación inicial es considerable porque el desarrollo cerebral se encuentra en su etapa más activa (Cascio, 2015;Ruhm y Waldfogel, 2011;Heckman 2000, Heckman et al., 2013Shonkoff y Phillips, 2000). Un mayor acceso a este nivel educativo permite reducir deficiencias cognitivas y en desarrollo socioemocional que pueden enfrentar poblaciones vulnerables (Yoshikawa et al., 2016) y que generan una preocupación creciente (Declaración Mundial sobre la Educación para todos en Jomtien 1990; y Metas Educativas 2021 de la Conferencia Iberoamericana de Educación en 2010) y se reconoce a esta etapa de la vida como una oportunidad adecuada para reducir inequidades. 1 Los efectos del preescolar pueden ser de corto plazo (Nores y Barnett, 2010;Berlinski et al., 2008;Cunha et al., 2006;Currie, 2001;Glewwe and Jacoby, 1995;Barnett y Escobar, 1987), o largo plazo (Magnuson et al., 2007a;Magnuson et al., 2007b;Loeb et al., 2007;Barnett y Lamy, 2006;Carneiro, y Ginja, 2014;Heckman y Masterov, 2007;Temple y Reynolds, 2007;Reynolds, 1995, Anderson et al., 2003Barnett, 1995Barnett, , 2008Currie, 2001;Nelson et al., 2003;UNESCO, 2011;Burchinal et al., 1997;Hazarika y Viren, 2013). ...
... El efecto proviene de asistir a preescolar y de su exposición (duración) al mismo. En este caso, la intensidad estaría medida por el número de años que el estudiante asiste a este ciclo educativo (ver resultados cognitivos en Loeb et al., 2007;Behrman et al., 2004;Skibbe et al., 2011;Barnett and Lamy, 2006) y efectos/resultados indirectos como trabajos mejor remunerados y, mayor tributación y menor carga para el sistema de justicia penal (Lynch, 2004). Domitrovich et al. (2017) reconocen que entre menor se ingresa al ciclo educativo, se obtienen mejores resultados porque hay mayor plasticidad neuronal y se interactúa frecuentemente con otros, pero aún a esta edad (3-4 años) ya se han evidenciado diferencias provenientes de entornos familiares. ...
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El documento estima el efecto en el mediano plazo de cursar diferentes niveles de educación preescolar sobre el rendimiento en una prueba estandarizada de matemáticas al final de educación media. Utilizando un modelo de variables instrumentales sobre una muestra de más de 150 mil estudiantes que auto-reportan su asistencia a preescolar en la prueba de Saber 11 para Colombia, se encuentra que el efecto de asistir al preescolar es significativo y directamente relacionado con el nivel de exposición a este nivel educativo. Aunque cursar un año de preescolar no hace diferencia, quienes cursan dos o tres años obtienen un puntaje mayor en matemáticas de 0.18 y 0.26 desviaciones estándar, respectivamente. Estos resultados sugieren que las políticas orientadas a incrementar el número de años de estudiantes en este nivel educativo pueden tener implicaciones de largo plazo.
... Childcare. Prior research indicates a link between childcare in the years leading up to kindergarten and social-emotional outcomes once in kindergarten, (Loeb, Bridges, Bassok, Fuller, & Rumberger, 2007;Magnuson, Ruhm, & Waldfogel, 2007;Yamauchi & Leigh, 2011). Therefore, we included the following commonly employed childcare control variables as indicators that described a student's care in the year prior to kindergarten: center-based care, head start, nonrelative care, and relative care (with parental care serving as the reference group). ...
... Therefore, we included the following commonly employed childcare control variables as indicators that described a student's care in the year prior to kindergarten: center-based care, head start, nonrelative care, and relative care (with parental care serving as the reference group). We also included an indicator to denote whether the child has ever participated in any type of centerbased care as well as the number of nonparental weekly care hours to control for the fact that intensity of care might be linked to outcomes once in kindergarten (Loeb et al., 2007). ...
Article
Although numerous studies have examined if students of color benefit from having a teacher of the same race/ethnicity, all attention has been paid to students without disabilities. We examine whether the same benefits hold for students with disabilities (SWDs). Using a nationally representative data set of kindergartners, we explored whether SWDs of color had different academic and social–emotional outcomes when with a teacher of the same race/ethnicity. We compared students of color with and without disabilities in the same classroom with regard to a same-race teacher match. Unlike students without disabilities, we do not find evidence in the data set that SWDs of color benefit from a same-race teacher match in terms of achievement and social–emotional development. Implications with regard to educational equity are discussed.
... From various perspectives the relationship between parental employment and external childcare on the one hand and children"s wellbeing on the other hand has been studied (Hsin and Felfe 2014;Ruhm 2004). Results indicate a positive effect of early institutional childcare (kindergarten, qualified day-care mother) on children"s cognitive and linguistic development (Loeb et al. 2007; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Child Care Research Network 2000; Sylva et al. 2011) their social competencies (Barnes et al. 2009) and no significant association between first-year maternal employment and elevated levels of child behavior problems (Brooks-Gunn et al. 2010). In line, Lombardy and Cooley (2014) conclude that early employment poses no risks on the development of chil-dren"s cognitive skills. ...
... In line, Lombardy and Cooley (2014) conclude that early employment poses no risks on the development of chil-dren"s cognitive skills. Children from families with low and middle income as well as children from families with a migration background benefit the most from the early external childcare and therefore from the early parental employment (Loeb et al. 2007). From an economic perspective, Havnes and Mogstad (2011) report a positive effect of involvement in external childcare on education and labor participation in later life course as well as a lower risk of dependence on social assistance. ...
Article
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Based on the Generations and Gender Survey, this paper studies attitudes towards parental employment in 14 European countries - among them ten located in Central and Eastern Europe, - Australia and Japan. In a multivariate framework we examine how the acceptance of the employment of mothers of pre-school children differs across countries and to what extent there is a gender gap. Since the role of fathers in the process of socialization of their children has been underestimated and underinvestigated for a long time, we take the challenge of studying the attitude towards the acceptance of fathers? concentration on work. In multivariate analyses, attitudes towards the statement "A pre-school child suffers, if his/her mother works" are dichotomized in agreement versus an indifferent attitude or disagreement. The same approach is used for "Children often suffer because their fathers con - centrate too much on their work." Based on the estimated coefficients of logistic regressions, countries are ranked in high, medium and low level of agreement. The country-specific ranking in terms of traditional attitudes towards employment of mothers with pre-school children is in tune with the expectations derived from the Second Demographic Transition (SDT) theory, with the exception of Romania: Hungary, Georgia, Russia, Bulgaria, Poland are ranked as the most traditional countries; Lithuania, Australia, W. Germany, Romania, France, Austria, and Czech R. hold a middle position relative to the grand mean; Belgium, Japan, E. Germany, Estonia and Norway show the most liberal attitudes. We find a large diversity in the level of traditionalism among the Central and Eastern European countries. Variation in gender differences is substantial, differences being largest where SDT is at an advanced level. Regarding fathers? concentration on work, the majority presumes negative consequences for children, but the answering pattern shows no clear relation with advancement in the SDT.
... Both children's biological characteristics and personal attributes (e.g., gender, temperament, and genes) and family factors (e.g., family SES, parenting styles) may have a more substantial impact on young children's problem behaviors and consequently weaken the role of preschool education and its quality (Bocknek et al., 2009;Cole, 2003;Grolnick & Farkas, 2002;Ispa et al., 2004;Kim & Kochanska, 2012). Finally, many studies have reported associations between preschool education dosage (i.e., exposure) and children's behavior development (e.g., Loeb, Bridges, Bassok, Fuller, & Rumberger, 2007;NICHD Early Child Care Research Network, 2006;Torres et al., 2015). The dosage can be measured in many ways including the total number of days of attendance over years and the number of hours the child spends per day or week in ECE settings (Zaslow et al., 2010). ...
Article
Both family and school environments are considered important proximal microsystems for young children's social and behavioral development. Numerous studies have reported associations between child-caregiver interactions in both family and school and child outcomes. The benefits of quality child-caregiver interactions across home and classroom contexts to child development may be maximized when positive interactional experiences in the home and classrooms are mutually supportive. Recent research employed multilevel models to examine the association between maternal supportive parenting and preschool children's development of social skills and problem behaviors, as well as the cross-level moderating effects of teachers' emotional support. The study took place in Guangdong province, China. A total of 388 children (Mage = 4.07, SD = 0.41) from 59 preschool classrooms and their mothers participated in this study. Results indicated that higher supportive parenting was associated with children's gains in social skills and decreases in problem behaviors; teachers' emotional support strengthened the effects of supportive parenting on children's development of social skills, but not for their problem behaviors. These findings revealed the importance of both providing young children supportive parenting at home and quality teacher-child interactions in classrooms, as family and schools work together to optimize children's social development.
... Si tratta di un problema che riguarda tutte le fasce d'età, da quella prescolastica a quella scolastica. L'opportunità invece di fruire precocemente di un'offerta formativa di qualità costituisce uno dei maggiori fattori di promozione della readiness (Loeb et al., 2007 ), specie per i soggetti che hanno condizioni di vita ipostimolanti a casa (McCartney et al., 2007). In particolare, costituiscono elementi di qualità della didattica: la realizzazione di attività in piccolo gruppo , l'incoraggiamento verbale, la facilitazione nei confronti dell'acquisizione di nuove conoscenze e comportamenti, l'utilizzo frequente della narrazione e della lettura (Dickinson & Tabors, 2001) e uno stile relazionale accogliente e valorizzante dell'adulto (Tran & Weinraub, 2006). ...
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School Readiness and its Measurement: An Assessment Tool for Kindergarten Many international studies have focused on school readiness. It has, therefore, become urgent to evaluate the empirical evidence around this topic. It is a complex subject, initiating a wide debate and a variety of contributions. Studies have created a deeper vision of the concept and broadened the areas that need to be researched. Moreover, the environmental conditions contributing to the development of readiness have been analyzed in combination with the possible strategies to enhance it. This contribution carries out a critical analysis of these studies. This essay is particularly focused on the aspects of the measurement of readiness and offers a review of the main tests adopted internationally to measure it. It, finally, proposes an original tool to measure cognitive readiness, suitable for Italian schools, outlining its psychometric characteristics, based on a sample of 445 children. Such a test highlights the difficulties that significant percentages of children aged between 4 and 5 have; It also allows for the evaluation of the effects of the enhancement of readiness, in order to establish the most effective ones, based on the EBE perspective.
... Others have looked at the relationship between achievement and socioeconomic (SES) status. For example, after attending preschool, children from extremely poor families had the strongest gains in pre-reading and math (Loeb et al., 2005). There were also significant differences between the highest and lowest SES groups; children in the highest SES group had, on average, cognitive scores 60% higher than those for the lowest SES group (Lee & Burkham, 2002). ...
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Background: Early childhood is linked to school readiness and early school achievement. Through its Quality Rated (QR) program, which was designed to improve the quality of care in early childhood programs, the state of Georgia has been a trailblazer in funding universal preschool and in improving the quality of childcare programs. We have assessed differences in the availability of QR childcare programs in Georgia to learn if, in rural versus non-rural counties, there is a relationship between QR childcare programs and health-related outcomes. Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated county-level data to evaluate the relationship between QR childcare programs and social determinants of health. County-level data for Georgia were extracted from the Georgia Department of Early Care and Learning, County Health Rankings and Roadmaps, and the Georgia Juvenile Justice Data Clearinghouse. Results: Counties without QR childcare programs had child mortality rates 3.5 times higher than those for the state overall. Other differences in health-related outcomes included, but were not limited to, teen birth rates, low birth-weight babies, children in poverty, housing problems, and food insecurity. Conclusions: It is now appropriate to address the prevalence of health disparities in rural areas of Georgia and focus on some of the disparities through the QR early childhood programs and other state agencies. Empowering rural communities to address health disparities may be the most favorable path toward diminishing these inequalities.
... However, the incremental effect of attending a first year of preschool is generally greater in magnitude than that of a second year for children's short-and long-term outcomes (Arteaga, Humpage, Reynolds, & Temple, 2014;Reynolds et al., 2011;Tarullo, Xue, & Burchinal, 2013). In addition, some research indicates potentially adverse consequences of long hours of care on social and behavioral outcomes in conjunction with positive academic and achievement effects (Belsky et al., 2007;Datta Gupta & Simonsen, 2010;Loeb, Bridges, Bassok, Fuller, & Rumberger, 2007;Magnuson et al., 2007;Vandell et al., 2010). And, while intensive early learning interventions such as Abecedarian and Perry Preschool provided 2 to 5 years of program services and produced significant effects (Campbell et al., 2001;Schweinhart, 2005), other preschool programs produced substantial effects in only 1 year of services . ...
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As policymakers contemplate expanding preschool opportunities for low-income children, one possibility is to fund 2, rather than 1 year of Head Start for children at ages 3 and 4. Another option is to offer 1 year of Head Start followed by 1 year of pre-K. We ask which of these options is more effective. We use data from the Oklahoma pre-K study to examine these two “pathways” into kindergarten using regression discontinuity to estimate the effects of each age 4 program, and propensity score weighting to address selection. We find that children attending Head Start at age 3 develop stronger prereading skills in a high-quality pre-kindergarten at age 4 compared with attending Head Start at age 4. Pre-K and Head Start were not differentially linked to improvements in children’s prewriting skills or premath skills. This suggests that some impacts of early learning programs may be related to the sequencing of learning experiences to more academic programming.
... En segundo lugar, resultados de rigurosas evaluaciones en distintas partes del mundo han demostrado que los programas de educación inicial de calidad tienen efectos sobresalientes en el desarrollo inmediato y futuro de las personas (Anderson et al., 2003; Campbell, Ramey, Pungello, Sparling, & Miller-Jhonson, 2002; Gorey, 2001; Nores & Barnett, 2010). En particular, se destacan algunos programas emblemáticos en Estados Unidos focalizados en población vulnerable, como lo son Perry School, Abecedarian y Head Start, los cuales han sido objeto de múltiples y sofisticadas evaluaciones (Campbell et al., 2002; Loeb y Fuller, 2005; Nores et al., 2005). En general, se observa un impacto positivo para el individuo y la sociedad en el corto y largo plazos De lo anterior se desprende la corriente de investigación liderada por Heckman basada en un análisis costo beneficio de la inversión en ECPI. ...
... Children who follow the ECEP have better cognitive development than children who do not attend the ECEP. This is because children who attend ECEP have more academic benefits (Loeb et al. 2007). The results of research Hastuti et al. (2010) states that the duration of ECEP education has a significant positive effect on children's cognitive development. ...
Article
p>This research aimed to analyze the influence of maternal sensitivity on mother-child attachment, and mother-child attachment on cognitive development. This research was conducted at Kelurahan Empang and Tegallega, Kota Bogor. The samples consist of 100 mothers and their child that were selected by proportional random sampling. The results showed that mother’s education length and maternal sensitivity has positive significant correlation with mother-child attachment. In addition, mother’s education length and income per capita has positive significant correlation with cognitive development. However, family size has negative significant correlation with mother-child attachment and also cognitive development. Child cognitive development was influenced by participation in early childhood education and mother’s education length. This research found that child cognitive development was not influenced by mother-child attachment.</p
... The widespread use of child care in the United States (Blau & Currie, 2006) and the increasing use of child care in other countries (Yamazaki & Ito, 2009) have led parents, policy-makers, and researchers to examine the effects of early child care on child development outcomes. Most of these studies have focused on relatively short-term effects of child care, finding higher quality related to higher levels of cognitive and social skills (Burchinal et al., 2009;Côté, Borge, Geoffroy, Rutter, & Tremblay, 2007;Mashburn et al., 2008) and longer hours of child care associated with more problem behaviors (Belsky, 2001;Loeb, Bridges, Bassok, Fuller, & Rumberger, 2007;Nomaguchi, 2006). Reports from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) extended consideration of the effects of early child care quality and quantity to Grade 5 (Belsky et al., 2007) and then to age 15 years (Vandell et al., 2010). ...
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Longitudinal data are used to examine whether effects of early child care are amplified and/or attenuated by later parenting. Analyses tested these interactions using parenting as both a categorical and continuous variable to balance power and flexibility in testing moderation. The most consistent finding was that maternal sensitivity during adolescence accentuated the association between child care quality and adolescent academic-cognitive skills at age 15 years when maternal sensitivity during adolescence was high. This interaction was obtained in analyses with maternal sensitivity as both a categorical and continuous variable. Relations between early child care hours and adolescent behavioral outcomes also were moderated by maternal sensitivity, with longer child care hours predicting more impulsivity and externalizing at age 15 when maternal sensitivity during middle childhood, scored as a categorical variable, was low to moderate and when maternal sensitivity during adolescence, scored as a continuous variable, was lower. These findings suggest that some child care effects are moderated by subsequent parenting and that this moderation may take both linear and nonlinear forms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
... First, our sample included children on average a year older than the original study (4-6-year-olds instead of 3-5-year-olds) because public elementary programs in the implementation region begin with universal pre-Kindergarten at age 4. Although age did not moderate the intervention effects, other research has shown that early interventions benefit younger children more than older children (Gardner et al., 2010;Loeb et al., 2007). However, the PCMC-A intervention was specifically created to target 3-5-year-olds, and thus may not have been as appropriate or effective for children over the age of 5. ...
Article
Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with persistent academic achievement gaps, which necessitates evidence-based, scalable interventions to improve children’s outcomes. The present study reports results from a replication and extension of a family-based training program previously found to improve cognitive development in lower-SES preschoolers. One hundred and one primarily low-SES families with 107 children aged 4–7 years were randomly assigned to the intervention or passive control group. Intent-to-treat regression models revealed that children whose families were assigned to the intervention group did not exhibit significant benefit on composite measures of nonverbal IQ, executive functioning, or language skills, though post-hoc analyses suggested marginal improvement on the fluid reasoning subcomponent of nonverbal IQ. Treatment-on-treated models revealed a significant positive effect of intervention attendance on fluid reasoning and a negative effect on vocabulary. We discuss potential causes for the non-replication, including differences in the sample composition, size, and assessment choices. Results suggest the need to more broadly assess scalable interventions with varying populations and ensure appropriate cultural and geographical adaptations to achieve maximum benefits for children from diverse backgrounds.
... Children from low-income backgrounds are almost a year behind at school entry in academic and language skills (Denton Flanagan & McPhee, 2009;Halle et al., 2009)-factors that publicly funded pre-K programs were designed to counteract. And although pre-K experience can benefit children from all family backgrounds, evidence also shows that children from low-income households benefit more (Bassok, 2010;Gormley, Gayer, Phillips, & Dawson, 2005;Loeb, Bridges, Bassok, Fuller, & Rumberger, 2007;Magnuson, Ruhm, & Waldfogel, 2007;. This apparent benefit of pre-K is not confined to state-run programs but was also detected in Head Start (Bloom & Weiland, 2015). ...
Article
The present study examined differences in school readiness skills in the fall of kindergarten between pre-K attendees and non-attenders (n = 2581) among children in a large, diverse county. Also considered was the extent to which skills associated with pre-K enrollment varied as a function of children’s background characteristics and features of their pre-K program. Results revealed pre-K attenders demonstrated better academic and executive function skills in the first months of kindergarten than non-attenders; no consistent differences were detected for teachers’ reports of children’s socioemotional adjustment. Differences in academic skills and self-regulation associated with attendance in pre-K were largest for dual language learners and children from the lowest-income families. Children enrolled in private pre-K programs demonstrated less optimal socioemotional skills at kindergarten entry.
... Earlier literature has compared various child-care arrangements, including centres, preschools, licensed homes, or individual caregivers, to determine which might hold the most promise for improving cognitive and social-behavioural outcomes(Blau & Currie, 2006;Drange & Havnes, 2015;S. Loeb et al., 2007). ...
Thesis
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Important gaps in knowledge remain when investigating the links between family characteristics and human capital investments along the life-cycle. Human capital formation (i.e. skills development) is problematic amongst low-income populations given the risk factors they are exposed to, such as poverty, malnutrition, non-stimulating home environments, and/or mistaken beliefs about returns to investments. Throughout three empirical chapters, this dissertation sheds light on the role of family characteristics and factors influencing two key human capital investments among deprived population in two developing economies: the choice of childcare and time allocation. Chapter 2 examines childcare choices exploiting the experimental design of a scalable early childhood intervention in Colombia. Chapter 3 investigates the role of children’s time use to produce one cognitive skill and two psychosocial skills; and the trade-offs of child work among alternative activities. Chapter 4 examines the relationship of birth order with time use and parental educational aspirations. The investigations in chapters 3 and 4 employ longitudinal data from Young Lives and focus on Peru. Furthermore, the analyses centres in three less documented life-stages within the human capital literature, childhood (ages 6-9), early adolescence (ages 10-14) and transition to adolescence (age 15). Findings in chapter 2 indicate that the stimulation treatment led to an increase up to 4.6 percentages points in informal childcare relative to maternal care. I also find evidence of increases in maternal play time investments. Chapter 3 results show that time inputs effects are marginal for both types of skills, although daily time in educational activities is crucial for verbal development, specifically time spent studying and at school. Finally, in chapter 4, I find that being the second born sibling in two-child families has a significant and negative effect on child work; nonetheless, parents are equally likely to aspire for the highest level of education for both children.
... The NICHD Early Child Care Research Network (2006) found that children who spent more time in ECE had more positive interactions with their peers at 54 months, while Xue et al. (2016) found a negative effect of absence from school on children's academic outcomes, but no effect on children's social skills. Furthermore, there are reports of a linear relation between dosage and behavior, with children's problematic behaviors increasing with dosage (e.g., Loeb, Bridges, Bassok, Fuller, & Rumberger, 2007;Torres et al., 2015), but there are also reports of behavior benefits, such as decreases in both internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, resulting from increased ECE dosage (Votruba-Drzal et al., 2004). Despite the contradictory results, available evidence suggests ECE quality may work as a buffer for dosage undesirable effects (McCartney et al., 2010), while dosage can strengthen the positive effects of high-quality ECE (Votruba-Drzal et al., 2004). ...
Article
Multiple studies have reported associations between early childhood education (ECE) quality and dosage and children’s social and behavior development, with some suggesting that this association may be stronger for specific groups of children. In this study, we examined the association between classroom quality and children’s social skills and problem behaviors, as reported by ECE teachers, as well as the moderating effects of ECE dosage and children’s disability status. Participants were 222 children (Mage = 63.75, SD = 7.77), including 180 typically developing (90 boys) and 42 children with disabilities (29 boys), from 44 inclusive classrooms in the Metropolitan Area of Lisbon, Portugal. Our results indicated that children’s social skills and behavior problems were not directly associated with observed classroom quality domains. However, lower classroom organization predicted lower social skills and higher externalizing behavior at higher number of months with the lead teacher; and instructional support predicted increased social skills for children with disabilities. Days absent from school predicted lower social skills. Overall, our results suggest that diverse types of dosage influence teacher’s reports of social and behavioral outcomes in different ways.
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Research Findings: This meta-analysis examined 29 (quasi-)experimental studies that involved low-income children ages 3 to 5 who might be subject to risks of academic failure and other negative outcomes. Compared to the controls, children who learned with social-emotional learning (SEL) curricula demonstrated significantly improved social-emotional competence, with an effect size or standardized mean difference of 0.241 (95% confidence interval [0.194, 0.287]). However, the use of other curricula that lacked an intensive focus on SEL yielded nonsignificant effects on the social-emotional competence of lowincome children. Type of curriculum, fidelity of curriculum implementation, and duration of intervention were found to moderate the educational effects. Practice or Policy: The findings of this meta-analysis contribute to the growing body of empirical evidence on the positive effects of early SEL curricula and explain how curricula can produce social-emotional benefits for low-income children in their early years.
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Topic Preschool programs Introduction and Subject There are several small-scale randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies in the United States documenting the benefits of curriculum-led experimental preschool programs and "pre-kindergarten" education for long-term educational, occupational and social outcomes for disadvantaged children. 1 In addition a larger-scale quasi-experimental study 2 in Chicago found similar benefits up to age 28 of sustained, publicly-funded early education to subsequent education, socio-economic status, health and crime for a disadvantaged population. Such programs are cost-effective with disadvantaged groups, at risk for poor outcomes, in that the savings outweigh any costs. 3 Besides benefits for disadvantaged groups, there is strong evidence that preschool education, whether or not a specialized program or routine provision, is beneficial for the general population. Studies of population-representative samples in the U.S. find benefits for school readiness of prekindergarten experiences, 4,5 with greater if preschool started between 2 and 3 years of age. 6 Similar evidence also occurs outside the U.S. 7,8 and effects are long-term (e.g., preschool prior to compulsory education at age 5 in a population sample was associated with increased qualifications, employment and earnings up to age 33). 9 In France, preschool (école maternelle) is a universal, free, education program with access from age 3. During the 1960s and 1970s large-scale expansion in France led to the enrollment of 3-year-olds increasing from 35% to 90% and of 4-year-olds from 60% to 100%. Based on state-collected data of representative samples there were sizable and persistent effects indicating that preschool helps children succeed in school and obtain higher wages in the labor market. Preschool also appeared to reduce socioeconomic inequalities as children from less advantaged backgrounds benefitted more than the more advantaged. 10 Likewise in Switzerland the impact of preschool expansion was associated with improved intergenerational educational mobility with children from disadvantaged backgrounds benefiting most. 11 Further evidence comes from the expansion of preschool education for 3 to 6 year olds in Norway during the 1970s, where examining differential implementation of preschool by municipalities and population education and employment data, it was found that preschool participation
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Family structure change can disrupt the settings of children's daily lives. Most scholarship focuses on disruption in the home environment. Moving beyond the home, this study explores the association between changes in family structure and changes in several dimensions of early child care. With longitudinal data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n = 1,298), first-difference models reveal that family structure transitions are associated with changes in the type and quantity of early care as well as the number of care arrangements used, especially during the latter part of infancy. Given prior evidence linking these child care dimensions to behavioral and cognitive outcomes, these results suggest a policy-relevant mechanism by which family change may create inequalities among children.
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This paper investigates the effects of public child care availability in Italy in mothers’ working status and children’s scholastic achievements. We use a newly available dataset containing individual standardized test scores of pupils attending the second grade of primary school in 2009–2010 in conjunction with data on public child care availability. Our estimates indicate a positive and significant effects of child care availability on both mothers’ working status and children’s Language test scores. We find that a percentage change in public child care coverage increases mothers’ probability to work by 1.3 percentage points and children’s Language test scores by 0.85 percent of one standard deviation; we do not find any effect on Math test scores. Moreover, the impact of a percentage change in public child care on mothers’ employment and children’s Language test scores is greater in provinces where child care availability is more limited.
Article
This study explored whether the relationships between specific features of child care quality and externalizing and internalizing behaviors in 24-month-old children are moderated by gender and temperament. Questionnaires were used to record children’s gender and measure their temperament. Child care quality was observed with the Échelles d’observation de la qualité éducative (Educative Quality Observation Scale), an observation scale series based on the local specificities of the educational program mandated for Quebec’s child care service. Externalizing and internalizing behaviors of each child were measured with the Child Behavior Checklist 2/3. Results confirm the moderation hypothesis of child gender and temperament in the relationship between child care quality and child behaviors for externalizing behaviors only; internalizing behaviors were predicted by child temperament and child care quality individually. The discussion stresses the significance of high levels of child care quality in order to ensure lower rates of externalizing behaviors among girls and temperamentally difficult children, as well as lower rates of internalizing behaviors among all children. These findings have practical implications in support of individualized educational practices under certain circumstances. Finally, the study provides empirical support for an ecological perspective in the study of the influence of child care quality on child outcomes.
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In this document we identify a set of indicators at departmental and municipal level (as far as available information permits) with a perspective on childhood. These indicators permit the analysis of the well-being of children and the compliance with their rights in different areas: health, education, nutrition, decent dwelling, and the exposure to early risks such as child labor and maternity. The construction of indicators at municipal level which reflect well-being and/or compliance with children's rights offers an opportunity to obtain a complete picture of the situation regarding childhood in one department, and constitutes an extremely important tool in the design of public policy and the focus on spending. The indicators for Valle del Cauca presented here reflect geographical inequalities in the provision of, and access to, basic social facilities; here there is evidence of great disparity among towns compared with the departmental average and the city of Cali. The greatest differences are concentrated in some towns in the north of Valle and Buenaventura. All of this lays down important challenges in public policy, and invites debate, analysis and of the visualization of the living conditions of children in Valle del Cauca.
Article
This study is the first to test whether receipt of a federal child care subsidy is associated with children of immigrants' school readiness skills. Using nationally representative data (n ≈ 2,900), this study estimates the associations between subsidy receipt at age 4 and kindergarten cognitive and social outcomes, for children of immigrant versus native-born parents. Among children of immigrants, subsidized center-based care (vs. subsidized and unsubsidized home-based care) was positively linked with reading. Among children of native-born parents, those in subsidized center care displayed poorer math skills than those in unsubsidized centers, and more externalizing problems than those in unsubsidized home-based care.
Article
The objective of this study was to examine how quantity, type, and quality of care interact in predicting externalizing and internalizing behaviors of 36-month-old children attending Quebec’s educational child care from their first years of life. To do so, the authors examined two hypothesized models: (1) a mediation model where quantity, type, and structural quality of care influences children’s behaviors through process quality and (2) a moderation model where process quality interacts with quantity, type, and structural quality of care in influencing children’s behaviors. The results of this study were consistent with the moderation model. They suggest conditions under which several features of process quality are associated with a lower occurrence of externalizing and internalizing behaviors during an important period of behavioral development and before school entry.
Article
Program administrators and policy makers have placed a priority on expanding access to inclusive, center-based early care and education (ECE) for low-income children with special needs, a “doubly vulnerable” population characterized by academic and social-emotional achievement gaps at kindergarten entry. Yet, no research has documented the effects of center-based settings on doubly vulnerable children’s early development, either relative to other ECE settings (e.g., home-based care) or relative to each other (e.g., Head Start, public preK). The current study utilizes national data and estimates difference-in-differences models to assess the effects of these ECE setting comparisons on changes in doubly vulnerable children’s academic and social-emotional outcomes evident at kindergarten entry. Results suggest that center-based ECE is more beneficial than parental care for language and literacy, and more beneficial than home-based care for prosocial behaviors. There were few differences among center-based ECE types: At trend level, Head Start was linked with better approaches to learning and prosocial skills relative to public preK.
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Investment in childhood is fundamental to healthy child development and positive long-term effects. This paper aims to analyze the impact of early education on child development, measured through: Ages and Stages Questionnaires - Third Edition (ASQ-3). The results are not homogenous for the studied population, and effects are not found when the total sample is considered. A negative and significant effect on gross motor skills was found for children under 40 months. For children over 40 months, the effect of early education on socioindividual tests and problem-solving tests is positive and significant. Early education policies are fundamental to contributing to the improvement child development. JEL classification: I31, I39, I10.
Chapter
Health and Education in Early Childhood presents conceptual issues, research findings, and program and policy implications in promoting well-being in health and education in the first five years of life. Leading researchers in the multidisciplinary fields of early learning and human capital formation explore the themes of the integration of health and education in promoting young children's well-being; the timing of influences on child development; and the focus on multiple levels of strategies to promote healthy early development. Through this, a unique framework is provided to better understand how early childhood health and education predictors and interventions contribute to well-being at individual, family community, and societal levels and to policy development. Key topics addressed in the chapters include nutritional status, parenting, cognitive development and school readiness, conduct problems and antisocial behavior, obesity, and well-being in later childhood and adulthood.
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Social development is a balanced collection of social skills and adaptive behaviors that enable a person to interact with others with desirable interactions, to react positively, and to avoid behaviors that have negative consequences. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of problem-solving skills training on social development of pre-native students. The research method was quasi-experimental with a preliminary and final test design with control group. The statistical population of this study was all children aged 6-5 years old in Rasht, in the academic year of 1995-96. The sample consisted of 2300 people, 82 of them were selected by multistage cluster random sampling method. The instrument of this study was the Social Inclusion Scheme of Wien (1953). The results of independent t-test showed that there is a significant difference between the pretest and post-test scores of the experimental group in the rate of social development of children. In other words, problem-solving education causes their social development. Also, the results indicate that there is no significant difference between the social development scores, girls and boys, and the problem-solving method has had a significant effect on both sexes in the experimental group.
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The analysis of child development has become extremely important in recent years because of the influence it has throughout people’s life cycle. This paper aims to provide evidence on the situation of early childhood in Uruguay by analyzing its characteristics and determinants. In order to carry out this study, a characterization of early childhood is conducted and different econometric models are applied to evaluate the determinants of child development. For this purpose, the ASQ-3 and CBCL tests collected by the National Child Develop­ment and Health Survey are used. In general terms, the characteristics of chil­dren and socioeconomic characteristics of households, variables referring to mothers during pregnancy and to newborns, and child-rearing practices have a positive effect on development. Early childhood policies are fundamental to contributing to adequate child development.
Article
Institutionalized childcare for children under the age of three has come into the focus of public and political debates in Germany in recent years. However, there is a lack of scientific research regarding the potential of institutional childcare to enhance children’s skill development. Using data from the project “Preschool Education and Educational Careers among Migrant Children” collected in 2007, our study examines the relationship between early childcare attendance and the cognitive abilities and language skills of children in Germany, specifically focusing on ethnic differences. There is no correlation between the time spent in childcare before the age of three and the general cognitive abilities of native German children or children from immigrant families. However, for the latter we find a positive relationship between the duration of early childcare and German vocabulary if children come from a multilingual family. Our findings indicate that early institutionalized childcare is indeed suited to reduce early ethnic educational inequality.
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RESUMO Buscou-se investigar o impacto da creche na interação mãe-criança e no desenvolvimento infantil nos dois primeiros anos de vida da criança. Participaram 44 crianças (M= 6,4 meses; DP= 1,6) e suas mães (M= 34,1 anos; DP= 5,2), divididas em dois grupos: Grupo Creche (21 crianças que frequentavam a creche) e Grupo Não Creche (23 que não frequentavam). Avaliou-se o desenvolvimento aos 6, 12 e 18 meses da criança e a interação mãe-criança aos 12 e 18 meses. Os resultados revelaram que a frequência à creche não interferiu na qualidade da interação mãe-criança e não diferenciou os grupos quanto ao desenvolvimento infantil (cognitivo, linguagem, socioemocional), indicando que famílias de classes média e alta e creches com qualidade suficiente podem se igualar em seus eventuais benefícios.
Article
Literature reviews have concluded that extensive time in early child care is associated with frequent externalizing behavior problems in children. In this article, we address three domains of validity in the work underlying these conclusions: internal, external, and incidence validity. Regarding internal validity, most studies rely on covariate-adjusted correlations, an approach that is especially vulnerable to selection bias. In studies using more rigorous approaches to reduce selection bias, results are mixed and often inconsistent with the hypothesis that a high quantity of child care causes externalizing problems. Regarding external validity, the field has relied too heavily on U.S. samples. We call for more international replications to allow for sociopolitical variations. Regarding incidence validity, study designs have the widest relevance when structured to address the opportunities and constraints families face today. We suggest researchers ask questions about child-care quantity that maximize validity in these three domains.
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Numerous studies have pointed to the importance of early childhood education and care (ECEC) for the development of children’s cognitive skills and their preparation for school, with the ECEC effect generally being stronger for the children coming from the families of lower socioeconomic status (SES). Empirical analyses of social inequalities in access to education and school achievement in Croatia have been primarily focussed on the later stages of schooling, while the ECEC area remains unexplored. The aim of this paper was to establish patterns of association between ECEC attendance and the cognitive achievements of children aged 10 and 15 in Croatia. More specifically, using the data collected for Croatia within the several waves of the PISA and TIMSS studies (2009–2015), we examined whether there was a link between ECEC attendance and subsequent level of cognitive skills in mathematics, reading and natural sciences (general positive contribution), and whether this effect differed with respect to parents’ SES (compensatory effect). The analysis did not support the compensatory effect hypothesis, but in most cases a certain general contribution of long-term ECEC attendance to the cognitive achievements of pupils was found (ranging from one-fifth to one-tenth of the span of a single “level of proficiency” in TIMSS and PISA tests) which cannot be explained by parents’ education or profession, migration background, household composition or local environment features. Observed within the context of the Croatian ECEC system and huge inequalities found in the frequency and duration of children’s ECEC attendance in regards to parents’ SES, the paper additionally points to the mechanism of effective maintenance of education inequalities in Croatia, which may be reduced by further expansion of the ECEC system.
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Because the value of preschool child care is under intensive debate among both policy-makers and society in general, this paper analyzes the relation between preschool care and the well-being of children and adolescents in Germany. It specifically examines differences in outcomes based on child socioeconomic background by focusing on the heterogeneous effects for migrant children. Our findings, based on data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey of Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), suggest that children who have experienced child care have a slightly lower well-being overall. For migrant children, however, the outcomes indicate a positive relation. These results remain robust after controlling for selection into child care on observables and using an instrumental variable approach to address potential endogeneity.
Article
Causal inference analyses often use existing observational data, which in many cases has some clustering of individuals. In this paper, we discuss propensity score weighting methods in a multilevel setting where within clusters individuals share unmeasured confounders that are related to treatment assignment and the potential outcomes. We focus in particular on settings where models with fixed cluster effects are either not feasible or not useful due to the presence of a large number of small clusters. We found, both through numerical experiments and theoretical derivations, that a strategy of grouping clusters with similar treatment prevalence and estimating propensity scores within such cluster groups is effective in reducing bias from unmeasured cluster‐level covariates under mild conditions on the outcome model. We apply our proposed method in evaluating the effectiveness of centre‐based pre‐school programme participation on children’s achievement at kindergarten, using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten data.
Chapter
Institutions of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) – also known as preschools – became a highly regarded instrument for employment, family, population and social policy in European countries. ECEC are formal, institutionalized opportunities for children from birth until the start of the school and they are the first elements in the educational system. The participation of families in ECEC should support the work-life balance, especially from women, and should promote gender equality (European Council 2002: 47).
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The objective of this article is to investigate the effects of preschool participation on learning achievement and to estimate the optimal duration of preschool participation needed for pupils to perform their best in mathematics at the Grade 6 level in Uganda. The sample consisted of 2649 Grade 6 pupils, attending 82 schools across two rural districts of Iganga and Mayuge in Uganda. Understanding the relationship between duration of preschool participation and pupils’ future learning achievement is important to policies on preschool education in Uganda. Results from multilevel analyses show that preschool participation has positive impact on mathematics achievement of Grade 6 pupils. Results further showed that the positive impact of preschool on achievement seemed to level out after 2 years of preschool participation—meaning that 2 years was the optimal duration of preschool participation that was most helpful in boosting achievement. The implications of the finding to preschool education policy and practices are discussed. Link: http://rdcu.be/sJTY
Book
An Interdisciplinary Approach to Early Childhood Education and Care explores early childhood education and care in Australia from a variety of perspectives, highlighting the complexity of working within the field and the need for a truly interdisciplinary approach. It argues that only a holistic understanding of each perspective will allow a clear future for early childhood education within Australia, and that all government parties should provide better outcomes around policy and provision to ensure the support and development of the sector. Chapters offer insights into how children and families are positioned in educational reform by examining current government policy, as well as individual and collective initiatives. Key paradigms considered include positivist, behavioural, developmental, economic, sociocultural, and postmodern models. Garvis and Manning identify challenges to the field and propose improvements needed to develop an interdisciplinary approach to help close the disadvantage gap on educational outcomes. With recommendations aimed at stakeholders within different disciplines, it is hoped that this book will encourage significant improvements to early childhood education and care within Australia. Providing important insights into the landscape of early childhood education and care, this book will promote new ways of thinking of policy and provision development for the future. As such, it will be of interest to researchers, academics, and postgraduate students in the fields of early years education, education policy and politics, and sociology of education, as well as those studying childcare alongside economics, criminology and sociology. © 2017 Susanne Garvis and Matthew Manning. All rights reserved.
Book
Challenging perspectives that often characterize Latinos as 'at-risk,' this book takes an 'asset' approach, highlighting the favorable linguistic, cognitive, education, and cultural assets Latino children bring to educational settings. An Asset-Based Approach to Latino Education in the United States addresses the increasingly important challenge and opportunity of educating the linguistic and cultural diversity of the growing population of Latino students. The book confronts the educational debate regarding effective instructional practices for Latinos, bilingual education, immigration, and assimilation.
Article
The present study aimed at investigating the relations between the amount of child care experienced in the first three years of life and socioemotional development of children at age 4 indicated by problem behaviors and peer competence. Using the longitudinal data of the Panel Study of Korean Children(PSKC), the information of 1,699 children were analyzed. The results indicated that any child care experience, hours in child care, full-time child care and early entry to child care were significantly related to children`s externalizing behavior problem and play disruption at age 4. Some significant relations were detected between child care experience and better peer competence as well. Interestingly, the patterns of relations were different for boys and girls. Being in child care, a greater amount of child care and early entry to child care tended to be related to externalizing problem behaviors of boys and whereas they were more related to peer competence of girls indicated by play interaction, play disruption and play disconnection. Child care hours at age 3 were relative stronger predictors of children`s development compared to those at age 1 or at age 2. The findings imply that the amount of child care during the first 3 years of life does not have strong harmful effects on preschoolers` socioemotional development and that there are differences in the effects of child care on boys and girls.
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