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Ethnobotanical Profiling of Commonly Utilized Plants for Hypertension and Diabetes in the Province of Laguna, Philippines

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The prevalence of hypertension and diabetes is on a steady upsurge worldwide and it has been identified as top ten leading causes of mortality in the Philippines. Plants have been prepared and evaluated for their potential as good antihypertensive and hypoglycemic drugs and provide clues for the development of new and better oral drugs for hypertension and diabetes. Descriptive method of research and purposive sampling technique were used to identify and determine the plants utilized by the people of the province of Laguna for the treatment of the two diseases. The findings of the study revealed that soursop is mostly utilized for the treatment of both hypertension and diabetes. Results also disclosed that screwpine, mangosteen, salamander tree and lemon grass besides soursop are mostly utilized for the treatment of hypertension. Further, it entails that bitter gourd, horseradish, and snakeroot are mostly utilized for the treatment of diabetes. Leaves are mostly utilized for medicinal consumption and are prepared by decoction in the form of tea that is drunk one to three times a day.
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International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
ISSN (Online): 2319-7064
Index Copernicus Value (2013): 6.14 | Impact Factor (2015): 6.391
Volume 5 Issue 9, September 2016
www.ijsr.net
Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY
Ethnobotanical Profiling of Commonly Utilized
Plants for Hypertension and Diabetes in the
Province of Laguna, Philippines
Rainer R. Fiscal1, Aimee Concepcion C. Chavez2
1, 2Laguna State Polytechnic University, Siniloan, Laguna, Philippines
Abstract: The prevalence of hypertension and diabetes is on a steady upsurge worldwide and it has been identified as top ten leading
causes of mortality in the Philippines. Plants have been prepared and evaluated for their potential as goo d antihypertensive and
hypoglycemic drugs and provide clues for the development of new and better oral drugs for hypertension and diabetes. Descriptive
method of research and purposive sampling technique were used to identify and determine the plants utilized by the people of the
province of Laguna for the treatment of the two diseases. The findings of the study revealed that soursop is mostly utilized for the
treatment of both hypertension and diabetes. Results also disclosed that screwpine, mangosteen, salamander tree and lemon grass
besides soursop are mostly utilized for the treatment of hypertension. Further, it entails that bitter gourd, horseradish, and snakeroot
are mostly utilized for the treatment of diabetes. Leaves are mostly utilized for medicinal consumption and are prepa red by decoction in
the form of tea that is drunk one to three times a day.
Keywords: diabetes, ethnobotanical profiling, hypertension
1. Introduction
The prevalence of hypertension and diabetes is on a steady
upsurge worldwide and it has been identified as top ten
leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Around the globe
it is estimated that hypertension causes 51% deaths due to
stroke and 45% due to heart disease. Twenty five percent of
Filipino adults 21 years old above have hypertension or high
blood pressure [1]. Hypertension affects patients with
diabetes [2]. There were about 415 million people in the
world have diabetes and the prevalence of diabetes in
Filipino adults 20 years old above was about 6.1% [3].
The treatment of different diseases using plant began long
time ago [4]. Plants have been used both in the prevention
and cure of different human diseases [5]. It is estimated that
60% of the world’s population rely on traditional health care
system derived from medicinal plants [6] and more than 70%
of the third world’s population depends on traditional
medicinal system or alternative systems of medicine [7]. In
the Philippines, many patients use medicinal plants as
treatment for many ailments and serious diseases like
hypertension and diabetes, for several reasons such as
cultural and economic. This study aims to document
important plants of the Philippines specifically in the
province of Laguna, which are commonly utilized by the
people of the community for the treatment of hypertension
and diabetes. It examined the frequency and manner of how
plants are prepared for consumption.
2. Materials and Method
2.1 Study Area
The study was carried out in Laguna. Laguna is a province in
the Philippines located in the CALABARZON region in
Luzon. It has an area of 1, 824 km2.
2.2 Ethnobotanical Survey
An interview guide was developed and the questions were
focused on the names of the most commonly utilized plants,
the part of the plant used, the method of preparation, the way
of administration, and the dosage.
2.3 Study Population
A total of 378 patients coming from different municipalities
were included in the study. The study population included
patients with hypertension and diabetes of both sexes and age
ranges from 30 to 95 years old.
2.4 Data Analyses
Participants were asked to present the plants utilized for the
treatment of hypertension and diabetes. The species
presented by the participants were collected and
taxonomically identified.
3. Results and Discussion
The study revealed that 15 plant species are frequently used
for the treatment of hypertension and diabetes in the Province
of Laguna, Philippines.Five plant species are frequently used
by the respondents for the treatment of both diseases (Table 1
and 2). In this study soursop was the commonly used plants
for the treatment of hypertension and bitter gourd for
diabetes. Information from the literature revealed that
ampalaya or Momordica charantia are used also in different
countries for the treatment of diabetes (Ayyanar et al., [8];
Shanmugam et al., [9]; Talha et al., [10]; Tsabang et al.,
[11]). Other plants that are also used in the study for the
treatment of diabetes are makabuhay or Tinospora cordifolia
(Azam et al., [12]) and duhat or Syzygium cumini (Rout et al.,
[13]).
Paper ID: ART20161424
DOI: 10.21275/ART20161424
152
International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
ISSN (Online): 2319-7064
Index Copernicus Value (2013): 6.14 | Impact Factor (2015): 6.391
Volume 5 Issue 9, September 2016
www.ijsr.net
Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY
Table 1: Plants commonly utilized for hypertension in the
province of Laguna
Common Name
Scientific Name
English Name
Guyabano
Annona muricata
Soursop
Pandan
Pandanus amaryllifolius
Screwpine
Mangosteen
Garcinia mangostana
Mangosteen
Bignay
Antidesma bunius
Salamander tree
Tanglad
Andropogon citrates
Lemon grass
Kalamansi
Citrofortunella microcarpa
Calamansi
Okra
Hibiscus esculentis
Lady fingers
Pinya
Ananas comosus
Pineapple
Malunggay
Moringa oleifera
Horse-radish tree
Banaba
Lagerstroemia speciosa
Que
en’s flower
Table 2: Plants commonly utilized for diabetes in the
province of Laguna
Common Name
Scientific Name
Ampalaya
Momordica charantia
Malunggay
Moringa oleifera
Guyabano
Annona muricata
Serpentina
Rauwolfia serpentina
Bignay
Antidesma bunius
Makabuhay
Tinospora cordifolia
Banaba
Lagerstroemia speciosa
Queen’s flower
Duhat
Syzygium cumini
Mangosteen
Garcinia mangostana
Chico
Achras zapota
The leaves were reported to be the most utilized part of the
plants. The result of the study is similar to the reports of
Amel [14]; Azam et al. [12]; Olajuyigbe and Afolayan [15].
The commonest method of plant preparation was decoction
similar to the report of Rachid [16]. This is made by boiling
plant materials in water. Application or administration of the
herbal remedies was generally drinking in the form of tea or
juice, usually on daily basis similar to the report of Erasto et
al. [17](Table 3 and 4).
Table 3: Parts Used, Preparation, Administration and
Dosage of Plants in Treating Hypertension
Name of
Plant Parts Used Preparation Administration Dosage
Guyabano
Leaves
Decoction
Tea
3/D
Pandan
Leaves
Decoction
Tea
2/D
Mangosteen
Fruit
Decoction
Tea
2/D
Bignay
Leaves
Decoction
Tea
2/D
Tanglad
Leaves
Decoction
Tea
2/D
Calamansi
Fruit
Extraction
Juice
3/D
Okra
Fruit
Decoction
Tea
2/D
Pinya
Fruit
Fresh
Eaten raw
3/D
Malunggay
Leaves
Decoction
Powder
Tea
Tea
2/D
1/D
Banaba
Leaves
Decoction
Tea
2/D
*3/D-three time a day; 2/D-two time a day; 1/D-once a day
Table 4: Parts Used, Preparation, Administration and
Dosage of Plants in Treating Diabetes
Name of Plant
Parts
Used
Preparation Administration Dosage
Ampalaya
Leaves
Fruit
Decoction
Cooking
Tea
Viand
3/D
1/D
Malunggay
Leaves
Decoction
Tea
3/D
Guyabano
Leaves
Decoction
Tea
3/D
Serpentina
Leaves
Decoction
Tea
2/D
Bignay
Leaves
Decoction
Tea
2/D
Makabuhay
Leaves
Decoction
Tea
2/D
Banaba
Leaves
Decoction
Tea
2/D
Duhat
Leaves
Decoction
Tea
1/D
Mangosteen
Fruit
Decoction
Tea
1/D
Chico
Leaves
Decoction
Tea
1/D
*3/D-three time a day; 2/D-two time a day; 1/D-once a day
4. Conclusion and Recommendation
The study of ethnobotanical profiling of plants as therapeutic
agents is importance in addressing health problems. In this
study the most commonly utilized plant for the treatment of
diabetes was soursop and bitter gourd for hypertension.
Drinking decocted leaves once up to three times a day are the
most commonly method of preparation, administration, and
dosage. These ethnobotanical data may provide a base to
start the search for their potential as good antihypertensive
and hypoglycemic drugs and provide clues for the
development of new and better oral drugs for hypertension
and diabetes.
References
[1] World Health Organization, Philippines (2014). Focus
on High Blood Pressure.
[2] Canadian Diabetes Association Clinical Practice
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[6] Modak, M., Dixit, P., Londhe, J., Ghaskadbi, S., and
Devasagayam, T. P. (2007). Indian herbs and herbal
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[7] Azazieh, H., Saad, B., Cooper, E., and Said, O. (2010).
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[8] Ayyanar, M., Sankarasivaraman, K., and Ignacimuthu,
S. (2008). Traditional herbal medicines used for the
treatment of diabetes among two major tribal groups in
South Tamil Nadu, India. Ethnobotanical Leaflets, 12,
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Paper ID: ART20161424
DOI: 10.21275/ART20161424
153
International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
ISSN (Online): 2319-7064
Index Copernicus Value (2013): 6.14 | Impact Factor (2015): 6.391
Volume 5 Issue 9, September 2016
www.ijsr.net
Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY
[9] Shanmugam, S., Manikandan, K., and Rajendran, K.
(2009). Ethnomedicinal survey of medicinal plants used
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villagers of Sivagangai District, Tamilnadu.
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[12] Azam, N. K., Mannan, A., and Ahmed, N. (2014).
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[14] Amel, B. (2013). Traditional treatment of high blood
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[15] Olajuyigbe, O. O. and Afolayan, A. J. (2012).
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Author Profile
Rainer R. Fiscal received the B.S. degree in
Education major in General Science from University of
Rizal System in 2003 and M.A. in Teaching Science
and Technology from Laguna State Polytechnic
University in 2014. He is now with LSPU as College Instructor.
Aimee Concepcion C. Chavez received the B.S.
degree in Chemical Engineering from Saint Louis
University in 2001 and M.A. in Teaching Science and
Technology from Laguna State Polytechnic University
in 2012. She is now with LSPU as College Instructor.
Paper ID: ART20161424
DOI: 10.21275/ART20161424
154
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Tea is one of the most consumed beverages around the world and commonly produced from Camellia sinensis. This study developed and analyzed the physicochemical qualities of tea from serpentina (Rauwolfiaserpentina) leaves. Further, the developed tea with the best sensory evaluation was tested in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetusauretus) to determine its potency. Utilizing the experimental research design, the study revealed that sun-dried white tea obtained the highest water total dissolved solids (TDS) value parts per million (ppm) with 381.00 mg/L and the freeze-dried white tea acquired the highest water conductivity with 769.00 mcS/cm. The highest scores for the color, taste, aftertaste, bitterness, and astringency were obtained from freeze-dried yellow tea and for the aroma, it was obtained from sun-dried yellow tea. The potency revealed that after 12 hours the blood glucose level of hamsters fall from 16.30 mmol/L to 8.20 mmol/L and after 24 hours the blood glucose level fall from 10.53 mmol/L to 5.63 mmol/L. The chemical properties like TDS value ppm and electrical conductivity were affected by tea processing but not by the drying methods. The physical properties such as aroma, color, taste, aftertaste, bitterness, and astringency were not affected by the tea processing and drying methods. The levels of blood glucose after the treatment of serpentina tea from different concentrations significantly affected by the time since after 12 and 24 hours the blood glucose levels of the Syrian hamsters were lowered.
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