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A Global Compendium of Weeds. Third Edition.

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This publication is targeted at people who introduce, distribute, sell or grow plants, people who need to respond to reports of incursions or those who may generate the report. It should be used by farmers, pastoralists, home and hobbyist growers, production and retail nurseries, people involved with plants at any level of government and any and all volunteers who work with the environment and plants
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... Despite this, C. paniculatum is currently cited as invasive in the following countries: Singapore, Cuba, Hawaii, French Polynesia, Micronesia, Fiji, (Chen et al. 1994) Palau, New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, and Western Samoa (CAB 2020). Previous research has shown that the invasiveness of C. paniculatum is driven in part via its root proliferation ability (Chong et al 2009;Randall 2017;Pier 2020, Powo 2020, Oviedo and Gonzalez-Oliva 2015. Our current assessment of C. paniculatum as an alien species with (2000) type 3 and 7 colonizer categories. ...
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Clerodendrum paniculatum L, a known alien species discovered in Akure forest where it’s seen co-habiting with native plant mostly at the forest road edge of the study area. Its advent into the ecosystem was not known but its occurrence in the Strict Nature Reserve indicated early stages of invasion which called for early effective management control. The assessment of C. paniculatum was aimed at reporting the ecological characters and its impact on the current status of protected area in Nigeria. The species composition of the study areas was sampled and analyzed by establishing four sample plots of 400 m2 in each area. Data gathered were analyzed using diversity indices to estimate the Shannon-Wienner, species evenness, richness, relative density etc. to know the impact of the species on the two areas and multivariate clustering graph were also employed to explain the variations of the two area. 61 number of plant species of C. paniculatum were recorded only in Forest Plantation from the total of 432 plants, and 3 in Strict Nature Reserve from 396. C. paniculatum spatial distribution and dominance were more prevalent in Forest Plantation with the relative density of 14.1 than Strict Nature Reserve with, 0.75. This species of plant is relatively dominant in Forest Plantation which could be due to its tolerant capacity to light and spatial distribution. Moreover, high species diversity of the species undergrowth of Shannon-Wienner diversity index of 2.9 and species evenness of 0.48 was reported to be a contributing factor. This present result shows that C. paniculatum is still at the early stage in the study areas but the results show species abundance and the ecological impact on the study areas. Efforts to eradicate it in the protected areas is imminent to forest management by the way of mechanical uprooting and immediate road edge rehabilitation with native species.
... It has the ability to reproduce both sexually by seeds and vegetatively by corms, tubers, and root suckers, and it is also adapted to grow in a great variety of substrates and habitats ranging from full sun to deep shaded areas beneath the canopy of natural forests (Langeland et al., 2008;Manner, 2011). X. sagittifolium is included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012). This species can form mature plants from corms within 14-20 weeks. ...
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Tania or, Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott, native to northern South America and a fast-growing herb from the Liliopsid family Araceae, has been intentionally introduced in many regions of the globe as an alien species - to be used as a food crop and fodder. There it subsequently became invasive. Within India, the plant is already been reported from Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and erstwhile undivided district of Bardhaman in West Bengal. Here, some insights into existing nomenclature of the species, knowledge on food uses, potential pathway causes for invasion and needs for immediate application of necessary control measures are being discussed with the anticipation that this study may be helpful to policymakers for the management of this alien plant species before it becomes invasive in West Bengal, India and in the East Bardhaman district of West Bengal, in particular.
... Despite this, C. paniculatum is currently cited as invasive in the following countries: Singapore, Cuba, Hawaii, French Polynesia, Micronesia, Fiji, Palau, New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, and Western Samoa (CAB 2020). Previous research has shown that the invasiveness of C. paniculatum is driven in part via its root proliferation ability(Chong et al 2009, Randall 2017, Pier 2020, Powo 2020, Oviedo & Gonzalez-Oliva 2015. Our current assessment of C. paniculatum as a novel alien species with non-problematic impact (Williamson 1999) is similar to theDavis and Thompson (2000) type 3 and 7 colonizer categories. ...
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We record a novel introduction of Clerodendrum paniculatum in Africa. The novel species appears to have a negligible impact within the new environment. In this communication, we describe the novel alien species and the environment to which it has been introduced.
... We focus on Asteraceae and Fabaceae, i.e., the two largest families in terms of native and naturalized species in sub-Saharan Africa (Klopper et al. 2007) and worldwide . Along with Poaceae, they are the three families most represented among successful invaders (Randall 2017). The comparison of those two families is particularly interesting because they have contrasting biological traits (nitrogen fixator vs. non-fixator), dispersal strategies (Asteraceae are often wind-dispersed), and relations to humans, with Fabaceae being widely used in agroforestry and agriculture Binggeli 2011). ...
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Background and aims-This work provides the first pattern analysis of the alien flora of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (D.R. Congo), using Asteraceae and Fabaceae as a case study. Methods-Based on herbarium collections, existing databases, and literature data, a database of 38 alien species of Asteraceae and 79 alien species of Fabaceae has been assembled. Patterns in the introduction pathway, phylogeny, life form, morpho-functional traits, geographic origin, and occurrence in D.R. Congo are explored. Key results-America is the main source continent in both families, but Asia is also an important donor of Fabaceae. Taxonomic spectrum discrepancies between the alien and the native flora reflect the continent of origin. Sixty-six percent of alien Asteraceae have been accidentally introduced, most of which being annual weeds of disturbed soil. In contrast, 90% of alien Fabaceae have been deliberately introduced for forestry, agriculture, or environmental purposes, most of which being phanerophytes. Traits were compared between pairs of congeneric alien and native species. For Asteraceae, a sharp discrepancy was found in the life form spectrum (aliens: mostly therophytes; natives: phanerophytes). For Fabaceae, alien species had larger leaves and larger pods compared to their native congeners. The number of specimens in collections was positively correlated with the time since the date of first collection for both families. The Guineo-Congolian region has the highest number of alien Fabaceae, while alien Asteraceae are overrepresented in the Zambezian region. Conclusions-Contrasting patterns between alien Asteraceae and Fabaceae in the flora of D.R. Congo in terms of life forms, trait divergence compared to the native flora, and occurrence, reflect the divergent biological attributes and relations to humans of the two families. The striking discrepancies between the two families call for analyses of patterns of alien flora at family level and warn against global generalisations.
... A naturalised species is one that has the potential to be self-sustaining and exhibits population spreading without human assistance, but does not necessarily impact upon the environment. The capacity for a species to naturalise in foreign environments is a good indicator of its weed potential (Randall, 2017 ...
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Dryland oilseed crop traditionally used for food and textile dyes, SAFFLOWER is now mostly cultivated for oil production. This consensus document provides science-based key insights for the regulatory assessment of the environmental safety of safflower genetically-engineered varieties: taxonomy, centres of origin, cultivation, reproductive biology, genetics, hybridisation and introgression, and ecology. Annexes present the safflower common pests and pathogens, and current biotechnology developments. Novel varieties are developed for increased oleic acid content, production of bovine pro-chymosin enzyme, and glufosinate tolerance.
... Linear landforms, both natural and manmade, provide dispersal corridors for plant and animal species (Hulme et al., 2008). Facilitated dispersal may in fact be one of the main advantages of growing along roadsides; it is known that vehicle traffic can foster short-distance spread, lengthening the distance via passive dispersal (Randall, 2017;Taylor et al., 2012;von der Lippe and Kowarik, 2007). In our study the area of I. balfourii patches along roads increased with proximity to buildings, a finding which probably reflects the temporal pattern of its spread, starting with escapes from cultivation in gardens. ...
Article
Impatiens balfourii is an Asian ornamental plant introduced to Europe in the 20th century from the Himalayas. It is far less invasive than two congeneric species from the same area, I. glandulifera and I. parviflora. The factors responsible for its limited success are poorly known, though they may be related to low frost tolerance and low popularity as an ornamental plant. Maladaptive habitat preferences, a factor not studied to date, may also play an important role. The aim of this study was to determine those responsible factors and to examine the consequences of habitat selection by I. balfourii on the Swiss- Italian border, where the species is assumed to be invasive. After exhaustive mapping of its distribution and measurement of the plants’ performance parameters, we checked for signs of disease and pest attack on individual plants growing in different habitats, and analysed the local abiotic characteristics. The distribution pattern differed significantly between the two studied countries. There were four times as many Italian localities of I. balfourii and they were clearly concentrated along roadsides, whereas the few Swiss localities were scattered among other habitats. The level of leaf damage along roadsides was lower, suggesting higher release from natural enemies there, which, however, did not translate into investment in plant size or fecundity. Patch area along roadsides correlated positively with the presence of buildings and shading; the plant’s ability to spread decreased with elevation. These results confirm that invasion by this shade-tolerant species is driven by propagule pressure and that its dispersal ability is low; that may change with climate warming. Although roads provide suitable conditions and invasion corridors, and despite possibly higher propagule pressure on the Swiss side, in Switzerland the preference for this habitat is maladaptive for I. balfourii, due to intensive mowing, which seems to create an ecological trap.
... All three weed species form dense, ground-covering mats of vegetation, and all can be associated with reduced indigenous abundance and species diversity in New Zealand lowland forests (McAlpine et al. 2015). Tradescantia is naturalised or invasive in at least 25 other countries around the world, and plectranthus and climbing asparagus are also invasive in Australia (Randall 2012). For further details of sites and weed species see McAlpine et al. (2015). ...
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Globally, lowland forests have been depleted, fragmented, and degraded by land clearance and conversion by humans. Many remnants are also invaded by non-native plants and mammals, which can exacerbate biodiversity loss and impede ecosystem recovery. We examined the effects of non-native ground cover weeds and mammals on the seedling recruitment of native woody plants in lowland forests in northern New Zealand by following establishment over 2 years at sites experiencing different levels of weed cover, with or without supplemental seed addition, and with or without mammal exclusion. In general, native seedling recruitment was highest where seeds had been added and mammals excluded. Native seedling recruitment was negatively correlated with weed cover at sites invaded by Asparagus scandens or Tradescantia fluminensis, but only where seeds had been added. These results suggest that attempts to facilitate native seedling recruitment by sowing native seeds will be most successful where ground cover weeds and introduced mammals are low in abundance. Seedling recruitment was highest for Piper excelsum, Myrsine australis and Melicytus ramiflorus, so these species could be good options for lowland-forest restoration projects where ground cover weeds are present.
Article
For the effective control of an invasive species, gathering as much information as possible on its ecology, establishment and persistence in the affected communities is of utmost importance. We aimed to review the current distribution and characteristics of Sporobolus cryptandrus (sand dropseed), an invasive C4 grass species of North American origin recently discovered in Hungary. We aimed to provide information on (i) its current distribution paying special attention to its invasion in Eurasia; (ii) the characteristics of the invaded habitats in Central Europe; (iii) seed bank formation and germination characteristics, crucial factors in early establishment; and (iv) the effects of its increasing cover on vegetation composition. Finally, we aimed to (v) point out further research directions that could enable us to understand the invasion success of this potential invasive species. Field surveys uncovered large stands of the species in Central and Eastern Hungary with most of the locations in the former, especially in the Kiskunság region. The species invaded disturbed stands of dry and open sand grasslands, closed dune slack grasslands and it also penetrates natural open sand grasslands from neighbouring disturbed habitats. Increasing cover of Sporobolus cryptandrus was associated with a decline in species richness and abundance of subordinate species both in the vegetation and seed banks, but a low density of Sporobolus cryptandrus can even have a weak positive effect on these characteristics. Viable seeds of Sporobolus were detected from all soil layers (2.5 cm layers measured from the surface to 10 cm in depth), which indicates that the species is able to form a persistent seed bank (1,114 to 3,077 seeds/m² with increasing scores towards higher abundance of the species in vegetation). Germination of Sporobolus cryptandrus was negatively affected by both litter cover and 1 cm deep soil burial. To sum up, Sporobolus cryptandrus can be considered as a transformer invasive species, whose spread forms a high risk for dry sand and steppe grasslands in Eurasia. We can conclude that for the effective suppression of the species it is necessary: (i) to clarify the origin of the detected populations; (ii) to assess its competitive ability including its potential allelopathic effects; (iii) to assess its seed bank formation potential in habitats with different abiotic conditions; and (iv) to assess the possibility of its suppression by natural enemies and management techniques such as mowing or livestock grazing.
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Hydrocleys nymphoides (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Buchenau (Alismataceae) is a stoloniferous emergent/floating perennial aquatic plant native to the Neotropics. In Australia it is naturalised in Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and the territory Norfolk Island. The earliest non-cultivated collection in New South Wales was made in November 1957 from Castle Hill in Sydney, and although it involved an infestation in several farm dams it was not considered an established naturalised species in that state. Since then it was reported occurring in a dam at Murwillumbah in 1993 and from 2009 naturalised records have been collected from the Murray River at South Albury, near Coffs Harbour on the north coast, and on the Hacking River at Audley in the Royal National Park, south of Sydney. H. nymphoides, commonly called Water Poppy, is grown as an ornamental and has the potential to escape further as an invasive weed, particularly in disturbed wetlands and waterways. A description with images of H. nymphoides, and notes on distribution and genome size are provided.
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