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Comparative international management (2nd edition).

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Abstract

The use of comparisons to explain, analyze and understand social and economic phenomena is recognized as a valuable social science tool. This textbook deals with the differences in management and organization between nations and their effects on multinational enterprises. In comparing management practice across the world, the authors cover themes such as national cultures, diversity and globalization. Students are guided through the key business disciplines, providing a broad introduction to the field and including truly global coverage. With student and instructor friendly resources such as chapter summaries, mini-case scenarios, larger case studies and power-point slides, this book is core reading for students of international business and international management.
... In order to analyze in a more detail, there are five questions to be answered throughout the essay based on Founded by Ludwig Erhard, ex-German finance minister, the father of Sozialen Marktwirtschaft (social market economy), this social market economy (SMC) or coordinated market economies ( Hall and Soskice, 2001) or the Rhine model ( Sorge et al., 2015) that is the other capitalism ( Albert, 1993)-included Germany, Austria, Scandinavia, Switzerland (industry-coordinated) and Japan (group-coordinated) ( ) [even there is a major difference in culture and business conduct between the German and the Japanese; see e.g. Koen, 2005;Sorge et al., 2015]is a market with co-determination as explained by Page (2011). ...
... In order to analyze in a more detail, there are five questions to be answered throughout the essay based on Founded by Ludwig Erhard, ex-German finance minister, the father of Sozialen Marktwirtschaft (social market economy), this social market economy (SMC) or coordinated market economies ( Hall and Soskice, 2001) or the Rhine model ( Sorge et al., 2015) that is the other capitalism ( Albert, 1993)-included Germany, Austria, Scandinavia, Switzerland (industry-coordinated) and Japan (group-coordinated) ( ) [even there is a major difference in culture and business conduct between the German and the Japanese; see e.g. Koen, 2005;Sorge et al., 2015]is a market with co-determination as explained by Page (2011). This model takes all the stakeholders into consideration ( Vitols, 2001). ...
... In term of own employees, the Germans treat their employees based on high trust, carrot incentives with rigid careers and regulated and internal labour markets because they have laws and regulations not to fire employees easily and a strong structure of stakeholder model that allows the employees be half of the power in the supervisory board alongside with the management ( Page, 2011;Sorge et al., 2015). They invest in employees with specific skills and vocational trainings because they see employees as assets of the company, rather than costs ( Albert, 1993;Sorge et al., 2015). ...
... Country-specific general and structural mechanisms of society (such as political and educational systems) influence the growth and distribution of knowledge [41]. National institutions impact patterns of innovation in a given country in two major ways [42]: First, the societal institutions which support industrial innovation vary substantially country by country. For example, in many countries, the procedures and practices of a nation's universities and governmental research institutes are shaped by the nation's historical development. ...
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While prior research has uncovered the impact of some national institutions on the general level of entrepreneurship in a country, there is still limited knowledge about the role of the institutional arrangements of a country on specific types of entrepreneurial activities, namely necessity versus opportunity entrepreneurship. To address this gap, we conduct a multilevel analysis using a sample of 10776 individuals from 55 diverse countries to examine how institutional factors (i.e., countries’ institutional profile and national innovation system) impact entrepreneur’s choice of pursuing a specific type of entrepreneurship. Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling, the findings indicate that neither institutional profile nor national innovation system (NIS) elements solely determine the choice between opportunity motivated entrepreneurship (OME) and necessity motivated entrepreneurship (NME); however, OME tends to be higher in instances when supportive institutional arrangements (regulatory, normative, and cognitive) toward entrepreneurship get coupled with national innovation system factors. The study contributes to a more nuanced understanding of embedded agency within the institutional logics perspective. It bridges the literature on individual and institutional antecedents of entrepreneurship. Further implications for theory and practice are discussed.
... As the large literature on the varieties of capitalism and the related varieties of business systems (Crouch & Streeck, 1997;Whitley, 2009;Hall & Soskice, 2001;Amable, 2003;Crouch, 2005;Morgan et al, 2005;Hancke, 2009;Morgan & Whitley, 2012;Clift, 2014;Farkas, 2016) has emphasized, although some degree of convergence has occurred in some areas of corporate governance, there is strong evidence of persistent divergence in other areas of governance. This point has been widely recognized by comparative corporate lawyers (McCahery et al., 2002;Milhaupt, 2003;Gordon & Roe, 2004;Siems, 2008;Fleckner & Hopt, 2012;Magnier, 2017) and has become an essential part of the conversation among corporate governance, human resource management, global value chains and international political economy scholars (Van den Berghe, 2002; Clarke, 2004;Lane & Probert, 2009;Rasheed & Yoshikawa, 2012;Noorderhaven et al., 2015;Nölke & May, 2018). Whether they are explained by path dependence, institutional complementarities or political economy considerations, national differences, especially in the immediate post-Covid context, are likely to remain and potentially strengthen. ...
... As the large literature on the varieties of capitalism and the related varieties of business systems (Amable, 2003;Clift, 2014;Crouch, 2005;Crouch and Streeck, 1997;Farkas, 2016;Hall and Soskice, 2001;Hancke, 2009;Morgan et al., 2005;Morgan and Whitley, 2012;Whitley, 1999) has emphasized, although some degree of convergence has occurred in some areas of corporate governance, there is strong evidence of persistent divergence in other areas of governance. This point has been widely recognized by comparative corporate lawyers (Fleckner and Hopt, 2012; Gordon and Roe, 2004;McCahery et al., 2002;Magnier, 2017;Milhaupt, 2003;Siems, 2008) and has become an essential part of the conversation among corporate governance, human resource management, global value chains and international political economy scholars (Clarke, 2004;Lane and Probert, 2009;N€ olke and May, 2018;Noorderhaven et al., 2015;Rasheed and Yoshikawa, 2012;Van den Berghe, 2002;Wood and Brewster, 2016). Whether they are explained by path dependence, institutional complementarities or political economy considerations, national differences, especially in the immediate post-Covid context, are likely to remain and potentially strengthen. ...
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This Special Issue revisits the classic question of comparative corporate governance research, namely whether national corporate governance systems are converging. More specifically, it focuses on several 'convergence vectors' which comprise the political, legal, economic and social arrangements that influence or drive the international trajectories of governance systems toward a common denominator. Taken together, the contributors to this Special Issue invite us to think critically about the functional explanations commonly mobilized in favour of convergence and consider instead the convergence debate from a broader and more interdisciplinary point of view.
... Although the macroeconomic trends were favorable in the Czech Republic in 2010, the concept of real estate agent as an intermediate party was literally unknown and still has very limited acceptance in 2017. Since the opening of first outlet in the country in 2010, the company has not opened any other outlet in the Czech Republic.The first and most univocal observation of the study is about the path of internationalization of companies, which, in all cases, started with geographically and culturally close markets, in line with theory advocated in the literature (see, e.g.,Hoffman & Preble (1995),Johanson & Wiedersheim-Paul (1975),Sorge, Noorderhaven, & Koen (2015),Verbeke (2013), etc). AsHoffman & Preble (1995) point out, close-proximity expansion (1) minimizes the adaptations needed and thus helps to preserve the core concept of the franchise; (2) evidence suggests that franchises operating in culturally similar markets are more likely to succeed than those where the cultures are dissimilar. ...
Article
The Indian economy on an upward surge for the past decade has shown steady and sustained growth even when most economies were cash strapped and suffering from depression. Much of this growth is attributed to the inflow of FDI into India by way of cross-border mergers & acquisitions activity and the unprecedented increase in both the scale and volume of cross-border mergers & acquisitions in India and the business environment, which has been favourable to such trade. Cross-border M&As in India as a business activity is fraught with many legal complexities and issues.
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The centrality of communication in international business (IB) is undeniable; yet our understanding of the phenomenon is partially constrained by a cross-cultural comparative focus as opposed to intercultural, process-oriented research designs that capture the dynamic nature of communicative interactions. Our brief review of studies at the intersection of culture and communication in the context of global work interactions reveals the dominant research trends that guided IB scholarship to date in this domain. We propose eight shifts in perspective to advance the field’s theorizing and create avenues for further research.
Article
Seventy percent of Americans identify as middle class, but one in three middle‐income households do not earn enough to support their family at the most basic level, and four in five do not earn enough to afford a sustainable budget. This incongruity explains the increasing frustration of many workers. Yet official government measures do not capture this reality, and as a result, policy makers continue to create economic policies that perpetuate the structural mismatch between wages and costs. This Viewpoint essay addresses these shortcomings. After reviewing alternatives to the federal poverty level, it argues that the most realistic and accurate floor to the middle class is the ALICE (Asset Limited, Income Constrained, Employed) Household Survival Budget. The essay then turns to policies that help realign wages and cost of living and presents initiatives that are being implemented in states across the country. Four policy areas would enable more workers to support their families and fulfill the promise of being middle class in America: meaningful work with stable and sufficient wages, upskilling and digital retooling, fiscal cushion for periods of financial instability, and affordable credit.
Chapter
The socioeconomic and political history of Germany is marked by forces working towards both international openness and provincial governance marked by corporatism. Coping with a succession of catastrophic events led to a unique combination of the capacity for the standardized management of large-scale problems with the case and situation specific solving of ?problems. A profession and occupation specific regulation of work and human resources led to a reluctance to accept general management ideas. Business and management institutions have become geared to the prevalence of medium-sized industrial enterprises, with technically demanding products and an orientation towards international markets, organized and run to resemble “well-oiled machines”. The institutional patterns of capitalism are marked by more long-term orientation and a lesser importance of stock markets. In management culture, this shows in the propensity to prepare for contingencies and uncertainty, in cohesive work forces with an emphasis on direct and sober interaction.
Conference Paper
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The paper is focused on the strategies to motivating technical staff in Nigeria. Nigeria is an emerging economy with various challenges imposed by globalisation and climatic change agents. Strategies adopted and their efficacy in motivating technical staff are expected to result in better appreciating and handling of environmental/climatic changes, satisfaction and improved productivity of the staff. The study investigated the peculiar characteristics of technical staff, the effects of monetary rewards on the technical staff, the effects of ‘private practice’ and non-provision of work on technical staff. A sample of 110 technical staff was selected. The findings indicate that junior technical staff (artisans and foremen) preferred monetary rewards, while senior technical staff (technical officer cadre) preferred non-monetary rewards. More of the technical staff preferred provision of work and ‘private practice’ as motivational strategies/tools. It is concluded that a technical staff who is provided with work and who is allowed ‘private practice’ is more likely to be committed to his/her job and would avoid strike. It is recommended that technical staff should be given time of their own to engage in ‘private practice’ and should always be provided with job to avoid loss of skill.
Article
Full-text available
This paper is focused on the strategies to motivating technical staff in Nigeria. Nigeria is an emerging economy with various challenges imposed by globalisation and climatic change agents. Strategies adopted and their efficacy in motivating technical staff are expected to result in better appreciating and handling of environmental/climatic changes, satisfaction and improved productivity of the staff. The study investigated the peculiar characteristics of technical staff, the effects of monetary rewards on the technical staff, the effects of 'private practice' and non-provision of work on technical staff. A sample of 110 technical staff was selected. The findings indicate that junior technical staff (artisans and foremen) preferred monetary rewards, while senior technical staff (technical officer cadre) preferred non-monetary rewards. More of the technical staff preferred provision of work and 'private practice' as motivational strategies/tools. It is concluded that a technical staff who is provided with work and who is allowed 'private practice' is more likely to be committed to his/her job and would avoid strike. It is recommended that technical staff should be given time of their own to engage in 'private practice' and should always be provided with job to avoid loss of skill.
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