Article

Fat grip resistance training improves driving performance in Division I male golfers

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Fat Grip (FG) training is implemented into strength and conditioning programs with the overall goal of increasing grip strength. Previous research assessing the effect of training with increased grip diameters compared to standard Olympic bar diameters has mainly been in acute settings. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine to effects FG training compared to normal diameter grip (CON) training during an eight week periodized resistance training (RT) program in Division I male golfers. Subjects (n = 10) were randomly assigned into two groups: the FG group (n = 5, scoring average: 75.4 ± 2.0) and CON group (n = 5, scoring average: 75.0 ± 0.5). Both groups participated in eight weeks of RT (3 days per week). The FG group completed every lift and repetition using FG, compared to the CON training group which used normal diameter bars. Pre- and post-training performance variables included swing speed, ball speed, driving distance, driving carry, maximum pullups to failure, right and left hand grip strength, and one-repetition max trap-bar deadlift. The FG group demonstrated significant increases (p < 0.05) in ball speed, carry, drive distance, and right hand grip strength following eight weeks of RT. In a population, such as low handicap Division I male golfers, FG training may allow for athletes to increase golf specific performance following eight weeks of periodized RT. Strength and conditioning coaches may utilize FG training over the course of a training program with athletes who require adequate grip strength to further elicit training adaptations.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... However, this limitation would be difficult to avoid as one of the well-accepted advantages to barbell training is increased muscular loading compared with dumbbells or bodyweight movements. It may have also been worthwhile to measure changes in grip strength from the 2 resistance training programs as grip strength has been found to increase CHS in skilled golfers (4,38). It is also important to point out that the strength testing variables of the PC, BS, and DL were only performed in training by the intervention group, and the CMJ was the only variable measured that was not directly trained by either group. ...
Article
Full-text available
Club head speed (CHS) is a major determinant of drive distance, a key component of golf performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the indirect effects of an eight-week strength and power program on CHS. Twelve (6 male, 6 female) NCAA Division II golfers (20.3±1.5 years) randomly assigned to an intervention or control group, underwent either a periodized strength and power program consisting of high-load barbell movements or a bodyweight and rotational movement focused resistance training program. Outcomes were CHS, countermovement jump (CMJ) height, and 1RM back squat (BS), power clean (PC), and deadlift (DL). Dependent t-tests were utilized to assess differences in outcome variables pre-to-post for each group, independent t-tests were utilized to assess differences between groups, and Pearson correlations were utilized to assess associations between CHS and outcome variables. On average, the intervention group experienced improvements in all outcome variables except peak CHS (p=0.60); the control group displayed no changes in any outcome variable except a decrease in average CHS (p=0.028). Compared to the control group, the intervention group experienced greater improvements in average CHS, BS, PC, and average and peak CMJ height (p<0.05). Additionally, CHS had large associations with PC (r=0.70, p=0.012), BS (r=0.64, p=0.025), DL (r=0.54, p=0.068) and CMJ (r=0.73, p=0.007). These results suggest improving muscular strength and power by increasing PC, BS, and CMJ is associated with increased CHS in collegiate golfers. Integrating a high-load, barbell-focused strength and power program may be beneficial for improving CHS and indirectly, golf performance.
Article
Full-text available
Ensuring internal validity is the key procedure when planning the study design. Numerous systematic reviews have demonstrated that considerations for internal validity do not receive adequate attention in the primary research in sport sciences. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to review methodological procedures in current literature where the effects of resistance training on strength, speed, and endurance performance in athletes were analyzed. A computer-based literature searches of SPORTDiscus, Scopus, Medline, and Web of Science was conducted. The internal validity of individual studies was assessed using the PEDro scale. Peer-reviewed studies were accepted only if they met all the following eligibility criteria: (a) healthy male and female athletes between the ages of 18-65 years; (b) training program based on resistance exercises; (c) training program lasted for at least 4 weeks or 12 training sessions, with at least two sessions per week; (d) the study reported maximum strength, speed, or endurance outcomes; and (e) systematic reviews, cohort studies, case-control studies, cross-sectional studies were excluded. Of the 6,516 articles identified, 133 studies were selected for rating by the PEDro scale. Sixty-eight percent of the included studies used random allocation to groups, but only one reported concealed allocation. Baseline data are presented in almost 69% of the studies. Thirty-eight percent of studies demonstrated adequate follow-up of participants. The plan to follow the intention-to-treat or stating that all participants received training intervention or control conditions as allocated were reported in only 1.5% of studies. The procedure of blinding of assessors was also satisfied in only 1.5% of the studies. The current study highlights the gaps in designing and reporting research in the field of strength and conditioning. Randomization, blinding of assessors, reporting of attrition, and intention-to-treat analysis should be more fully addressed to reduce threats to internal validity in primary research.
Article
PURPOSE:There are various variables such as exercise posture, exercise intensity, number of repetitions, and rest time of training for muscle strength development, and these variables are intended to stimulate muscle activity. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of muscle activation according to grip thickness in pull-up exercise.METHODS: Eleven healthy men were randomly crossover design assigned to pull-up exercise (concentric: 1-s, eccentric: 1-s, 2-s/repetition) to failure. Surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded from the forearm flexors/extensors, biceps brachii, trapezius middle/lower and latissimus dorsi for muscle activation. Using the resulting EMG data, which were filtered of electromyogram artifacts, we calculated the root mean squares (RMS).RESULTS: Dependent-sample t-test produced a result, muscle activity in forearm flexors (p<.01), biceps brachii (p<.01), trapezius middle (p<.01), trapezius lower (p<.01) and latissimus dorsi (p<.05) were significantly increased at thick grip compared to normal grip in pull-up exercise.CONCLUSIONS:This study suggested that the thicker the grip, the higher the muscle activation. Using a grip thickness as one of the variables for training programs is considered as a method to stimulate muscle activity.
Article
Full-text available
As physical fitness has become more of a central component of competitive golf it is important to have an understanding of the relationship between anthropometric and physical performance on actual golf performance. Thus the purpose of this investigation was to determine the relationship between measures of anthropometrics and physical performance to golf swing performance. Methods: Fourteen Division I collegiate golfers performed a battery of tests including the vertical jump, grip strength, rotational medicine ball toss, and sit and reach test in addition to anthropometric measure measurements. Golf specific variables included clubhead speed (CHS), ball velocity (BV) and carry distance (CD) using the participants own driver. Pearson product moment correlations were used to assess the level of relationship between all variables. Results: Statistically significant large positive relationships were found between grip strength and all golf specific variables. Height also showed large significant positive relationship with both CHS and BV. Conclusions: The association between anthropometrics and physical performance and golf specific variables appear to be limited in a group of collegiate male golfers, outside of grip strength. This does not mean however that physical fitness is irrelevant to golf performance but caution should be taken in assuming increase in physical performance will have a direct impact on the golf specific variables.
Article
There is a growing body of literature on strength and conditioning (S&C) interventions for golfers of various skill levels. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of S&C interventions on measures of golf performance (clubhead speed, ball speed, distance, etc.). Three databases (PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science) were searched and twenty-five studies identified that evaluated the effects of a S&C intervention on at least one golf performance measure compared to a control or comparison group. Most studies used combinations of strength training, plyometrics, stretching or core exercise, with many finding a benefit. Though it varied across studies and outcomes, average increases in clubhead speed, ball speed and distance measures were 4–6.4% when significant findings were synthesized. Four studies also found significant changes to golf swing kinematics, while three others found positive effects on measures of accuracy or consistency. Future research should compare different S&C interventions, explore the role of training status, skill level and intervention duration on the effects of S&C interventions, and report individual responses in addition to group data. Further, research should continue to evaluate effects on swing kinematics, accuracy and direct golf performance measures (e.g., handicap index).
Article
Full-text available
Strength gains have been attributed to neural adaptations such as alterations in recruitment, rate coding, synchronization of motor units, reflex potentiation, co-contraction of antagonists, and synergistic muscle activity. Although most training studies show increases in EMG, a few have shown increase in strength with no apparent changes in neural drive. This may highlight the importance of motor control and the reorganization of supraspinal inputs. High intensity concentric and eccentric contractions with arousal and imagery techniques merit further study in promoting optimal neural adaptations. Specificity of training mode, type of contraction, and angle and velocity have been documented. Most velocity specificity studies have emphasized movement rather than contraction speed, which may be the predominant factor. The high rate of force development achieved with ballistic contractions should serve as a template for power training. The extent of muscle hypertrophy is dependent upon protein degradation and synthesis, which may be enhanced through high intensity, high volume eccentric and concentric contractions. (C) 1995 National Strength and Conditioning Association
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an 18-week strength training program on variables related to low-handicap golfers' performance. Ten right-handed male golfers, reporting a handicap of 5 or less, were randomly divided into two groups: the control group (CG) (N = 5, age: 23.9 ± 6.7 years) and the treatment group (TG) (N = 5, age: 24.2 ± 5.4 years). CG players followed the standard physical conditioning program for golf, which was partially modified for the TG. The TG participated in an 18-week strength training program divided into three parts: maximal strength training including weightlifting exercises (2 days a week for 6 weeks), explosive strength training with combined weights and plyometric exercises (2 days a week for 6 weeks), and golf-specific strength training, including swings with a weighted club and accelerated swings with an acceleration tubing system (3 days a week for 6 weeks). Body mass, body fat, muscle mass, jumping ability, isometric grip strength, maximal strength (RM), ball speed, and golf club mean acceleration were measured on five separate occasions. The TG demonstrated significant increases (p < 0.05) in maximal and explosive strength after 6 weeks of training and in driving performance after 12 weeks. These improvements remained unaltered during the 6-week golf-specific training period and even during a 5-week detraining period. It may be concluded that an 18-week strength training program can improve maximal and explosive strength and these increases can be transferred to driving performance; however, golfers need time to transfer the gains.
Article
Combined V-wave and Hoffmann (H) reflex measurements were performed during maximal muscle contraction to examine the neural adaptation mechanisms induced by resistance training. The H-reflex can be used to assess the excitability of spinal alpha-motoneurons, while also reflecting transmission efficiency (i.e., presynaptic inhibition) in Ia afferent synapses. Furthermore, the V-wave reflects the overall magnitude of efferent motor output from the alpha-motoneuron pool because of activation from descending central pathways. Fourteen male subjects participated in 14 wk of resistance training that involved heavy weight-lifting exercises for the muscles of the leg. Evoked V-wave, H-reflex, and maximal M-wave (M(max)) responses were recorded before and after training in the soleus muscle during maximal isometric ramp contractions. Maximal isometric, concentric, and eccentric muscle strength was measured by use of isokinetic dynamometry. V-wave amplitude increased approximately 50% with training (P < 0.01) from 3.19 +/- 0.43 to 4.86 +/- 0.43 mV, or from 0.308 +/- 0.048 to 0.478 +/- 0.034 when expressed relative to M(max) (+/- SE). H-reflex amplitude increased approximately 20% (P < 0.05) from 5.37 +/- 0.41 to 6.24 +/- 0.49 mV, or from 0.514 +/- 0.032 to 0.609 +/- 0.025 when normalized to M(max). In contrast, resting H-reflex amplitude remained unchanged with training (0.503 +/- 0.059 vs. 0.499 +/- 0.063). Likewise, no change occurred in M(max) (10.78 +/- 0.86 vs. 10.21 +/- 0.66 mV). Maximal muscle strength increased 23-30% (P < 0.05). In conclusion, increases in evoked V-wave and H-reflex responses were observed during maximal muscle contraction after resistance training. Collectively, the present data suggest that the increase in motoneuronal output induced by resistance training may comprise both supraspinal and spinal adaptation mechanisms (i.e., increased central motor drive, elevated motoneuron excitability, reduced presynaptic inhibition).
Article
AAGAARD, P. Training-induced changes in neural functions. Exerc. Sport Sci. Rev., Vol. 31, No. 2, pp. 61–67, 2003. Adaptive changes can occur in the nervous system in response to training. Electromyography studies have indicated adaptation mechanisms that may contribute to an increased efferent neuronal outflow with training, including increases in maximal firing frequency, increased excitability and decreased presynaptic inhibition of spinal motor neurons, and downregulation of inhibitory pathways.
249 Determination of the swing technique characteristics and performance outcome 250 relationship in golf driving for low handicap female golfers
  • J R Blackwell
  • K W Kornatz
  • E M Heath
  • Brown
  • Sj
  • A M Nevill
  • Monk
  • Sa
  • Otto
  • Sr
  • W S Selbie
  • E S Cleak
  • M J Eston
  • R G Doan
  • B K Newton
  • R U Kwon
  • Y H Kraemer
  • W J Drury
  • D G Faggiono
  • H Stuempfle
  • K J Edgren
  • C S Radwin
  • R G Irwin
  • C B Fletcher
  • I M Hartwell
  • M Grant
  • K A Habes
  • D J Steward
  • Ll
Blackwell, JR, Kornatz, KW, and Heath, EM. Effect of grip span on maximal grip force 246 and fatigue of flexor digitorium superficialis. Appl Ergon 30: 401-405, 1999. 247 248 6. Brown, SJ, Nevill, AM, Monk, SA, Otto, SR, Selbie, WS, and Wallace, ES. 249 Determination of the swing technique characteristics and performance outcome 250 relationship in golf driving for low handicap female golfers. J Sports Sci 29: 1483-1491, 251 2011. 252 253 7. Channel, S. The fat bar. Natl Strength and Cond Assoc 12: 26-27, 1990. 254 255 8. Cleak, MJ, and Eston, RG. Muscle soreness, swelling, stiffness and strength loss after 256 intense eccentric exercise. Bri J Sports Med 26: 267-272, 1992. 257 258 9. Doan, BK, Newton, RU, Kwon, YH, and Kraemer, WJ. Effects of physical conditioning 259 on intercollegiate golfer performance. J Strength Cond Res 20: 62-72, 2006. 260 261 10. Drury, DG, Faggiono, H, and Stuempfle, KJ. An investigation of the tri-bar gripping 262 system on isometric muscular endurance. J Strength Cond Res 18: 782-786, 2001. 263 264 11. Edgren, CS, Radwin, RG, and Irwin, CB. Grip force vectors for varying handle diameters 265 and hand sizes. Hum Factors 46: 244-251, 2004. 266 267 12. Fletcher, IM, and Hartwell, M. Effect of an 8-week combined weights and plyometrics 268 training program on golf drive performance. J Strength Cond Res 18: 59-62, 2004. 269 270 13. Grant, KA, Habes, DJ, and Steward, LL. An analysis of handle design for reducing 271 manual effort: the influence of grip diameter. Int J Indust Ergon 10: 199-206, 1992. 272 273