ArticlePDF Available

Transformational leadership behavior, emotions, and outcomes: Health psychology perspective in the workplace

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

The purpose of this study is to empirically evaluate the transformational leadership styles, emotions, and organizational outcomes among different professionals in different sectors. The transformational leadership and emotions theories were utilized and tested in a sample of 128 leaders in Sweden. The main objectives of the study are (1) to determine which of the transformational leadership styles (TLS) are best at predicting effective outcomes (OUT) of extra effort by employees (EXE), leader effectiveness (EFE) and job satisfaction (SAT) and (2) to examine which TLS predict significant positive emotions (TEMO). Results of the study reveal that TLS and most of the outcome scales (SAT, EXE, SAT) are positively and significantly correlated. Charisma (C) and idealized influence (II) are not correlated with EFE. The results further supported that inspirational motivation leaders behavior could produce greater amounts of SAT (r = .54**), EXE (r = .41**). Individualized consideration (IC) also generates great SAT, r = .42. The study also found that only inspirational motivation (I) and intellectual stimulator leadership styles made a significance for TEMO such as being enthusiastic, hopeful, proud, happy, attentive, and inspiring with β = 26 and β = 17, respectively. Inspirational transformational leaders’ behavior and emotions are the most capable in increasing the organizational overall outcomes by boosting employees’ job satisfaction, additional effort, and effectiveness. Hence, these improve and enhance the mental and psychological health inside and outside the workplace.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Full Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at
https://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?journalCode=wjwb20
Journal of Workplace Behavioral Health
ISSN: 1555-5240 (Print) 1555-5259 (Online) Journal homepage: https://www.tandfonline.com/loi/wjwb20
Transformational leadership behavior, emotions,
and outcomes: Health psychology perspective in
the workplace
Mosad Zineldin
To cite this article: Mosad Zineldin (2017) Transformational leadership behavior, emotions, and
outcomes: Health psychology perspective in the workplace, Journal of Workplace Behavioral
Health, 32:1, 14-25, DOI: 10.1080/15555240.2016.1273782
To link to this article: https://doi.org/10.1080/15555240.2016.1273782
Published online: 10 Feb 2017.
Submit your article to this journal
Article views: 2542
View related articles
View Crossmark data
JOURNAL OF WORKPLACE BEHAVIORAL HEALTH
2017, VOL. 32, NO. 1, 14–25
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15555240.2016.1273782
Transformational leadership behavior, emotions, and
outcomes: Health psychology perspective in the
workplace
Mosad Zineldin
Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Linnaeus University – Växjö, Växjö, Sweden
ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study is to empirically evaluate the
transformational leadership styles, emotions, and organizational
outcomes among different professionals in different sectors.
The transformational leadership and emotions theories were
utilized and tested in a sample of 128 leaders in Sweden. The
main objectives of the study are (1) to determine which of the
transformational leadership styles (TLS) are best at predicting
effective outcomes (OUT) of extra effort by employees (EXE),
leader effectiveness (EFE) and job satisfaction (SAT) and (2) to
examine which TLS predict significant positive emotions
(TEMO). Results of the study reveal that TLS and most of the
outcome scales (SAT, EXE, SAT) are positively and significantly
correlated. Charisma (C) and idealized influence (II) are not
correlated with EFE. The results further supported that
inspirational motivation leaders behavior could produce greater
amounts of SAT (r = .54**), EXE (r = .41**). Individualized
consideration (IC) also generates great SAT, r = .42. The study
also found that only inspirational motivation (I) and intellectual
stimulator leadership styles made a significance for TEMO such
as being enthusiastic, hopeful, proud, happy, attentive, and
inspiring with β = 26 and β = 17, respectively. Inspirational
transformational leadersbehavior and emotions are the most
capable in increasing the organizational overall outcomes by
boosting employees job satisfaction, additional effort, and
effectiveness. Hence, these improve and enhance the mental
and psychological health inside and outside the workplace.
ARTICLE HISTORY
Received 21 May 2016
Revised 24 November 2016
Accepted 2 December 2016
KEYWORDS
Behavior; emotion;
psychology; style;
transformational leadership;
workplace
Introduction
Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, argues that behavior is
prompted by conscious and unconscious mental processes while emotions
are generally assumed in psychoanalytic theory to be an affect (Carr, 2001;
Freud, 1984). Several studies found that leadership behaviors and mismanage-
ment of leaders’ emotions at the workplace are associated with mental and
overall health problems and illnesses such as cancer and heart disease, stress,
and work burnout (e.g., Grandey, 2000; Gross & Levenson, 1997; Pennebaker,
CONTACT Mosad Zineldin mosad.zineldin@lnu.se Linnaeus University – Växjö, Universitetsplatsen1,
SE-35195 Växjö, Sweden.
© 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
1990). Inhibiting feelings and emotions increase autonomic nervous system
activity (ANS). ANS regulates bodily functions such as the heart rate, diges-
tion, and sexual arousal. Thus, long-term and constant inhibiting emotions
can cause intensified physiological activities which would exhaust the body
over time by overloading the cardiovascular and nervous systems as well as
weakens the immune system (Grandey, 2000; Gross & Levenson, 1997).
The importance and impact of leadership styles and emotions on work
organization performance and overall psychological health is recognized in
several studies (Ashkanasy, 2004; Krasikova, Green, & LeBreton, 2013;
Ramachandran, Jordan, Troth, & Lawrence, 2011; Schyns & Schilling, 2013;
Zineldin & Amsteus, 2014; Zineldin & Hytter, 2012). Zineldin and Amsteus
(2014) argue that managers who avoid people, their emotions, and reactions
or who leave damaged relationships in their path tend to be ineffective, at
best, and destructive or toxic at worst. In this study, leadership effectiveness
(EFE), his or her ability to motivate staff to devote extra effort (EXE), will
be used as indicators for organizations’ performance. The satisfaction of the
leader him- or herself in leading the organization as well as employees’ satis-
faction can also be considered indicators that could improve overall psycho-
logical health. There is a clear correlation between leadership behaviors, styles,
and the outcomes/performance at workplaces (Leymann, 1996; Shaio et al.,
2011; Sosik, Avolio, & Kahai, 1997; Zineldin & Amsteus, 2014).
Neuroscientists argue that the amygdala in the limbic system in the brain is
the source of our earliest emotions of fear and anger. Empathy is a complex
emotion. The real empathy is not just about knowing that other people feel
the same as one do; it’s about knowing that though they do not feel the same
way, they care anyway.
Bass (1985) developed the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ;
an instrument designed to quantitatively measure transformational and
transactional leadership styles and behaviours). According to Bass (1990),
Leithwood and Jantzi (2000), and Zineldin and Amsteus (2014) three leader-
ship style categories are identified. These are transformational, transactional,
and laissez faire. The focus of this study is on the transformational leadership
style, emotions, and outcomes. A short presentation about the types of the
transformational leadership style is presented below:
1. Charisma (C): Such leaders emphasize high standards for ethical and moral
behavior. They focus on dissemination of vision and sense of mission and
instill pride.
2. Idealized influence (II): They behave as ideal role models for their subordi-
nates. They avoid using power for personal interest or gain. Thus they are
highly admired and gain respect and trust. Their behavior is consistent
rather than arbitrary.
3. Inspiration (I) or inspirational motivation (IM): Such leaders define and
structure their and subordinates’ roles toward organizational goal
JOURNAL OF WORKPLACE BEHAVIORAL HEALTH 15
attainment. They communicate high expectations, use symbols to focus
efforts, and express important purposes in simple ways. They also are opti-
mistic and encourage others to understand and to be committed to the
visions and missions.
4. Intellectual stimulation (IS): The leaders are good listeners, give information
and express trust in their subordinates, respect their ideas and consider their
feelings, promote intelligence, rationality, and careful problem solving. They
also stay calm, relaxed, and hopeful when they make decisions.
5. Individualized consideration (IC): An IC leader gives personal attention
and treats subordinates individually to develop their competences. They
are functioning as coaches and advisors.
Bass (1985) argues the following about the transformational leadership:
Superior leadership performance—transformational leadership—occurs when
leaders broaden and elevate the interests of their employees, when they generate
awareness and acceptancee of the purposes and mission of the group, and when they
stir their employees to look beyond their own self-interest for the good of the group.
Transformational leaders achieve these results in one or more ways: They may be
charismatic to their followers and thus inspire them; they may meet the emotional
needs of each employee; and/or they may intellectually stimulate employees. (p. 121)
Some studies state that leaders are supposed to be rational and unemo-
tional. Problem-solving skills and strategic planning issues are considered
to be exclusively rational. Thus, according to such studies, high and powerful
positions in most organizations are ritually focused through strict ability of
emotional control. Other studies show that such rational theory is not justi-
fied because the most rational leader is subject to her or his own translational
values and principles that are sustained by her or his own personal emotions
because the mind itself is an integrated mixture of thinking and feeling
(Damasio, 1994; Lazanyi, 2009).
There are different definitions of emotion. The most simple definition is
that it is a “feeling” or an affective state of consciousness such as excitement,
love, satisfaction, pleasure, hate, fear, anger, joy, sorrow, fear, guilt,
depression, and so on. According to Lazanyi (2009):
emotions are divided into two broad categories. Negative and positive emotions.
Some negative emotions are driven by an underlying fear of the unknown or other
people’s actions, and a need to control or stop them to avoid being harmed. Positive
emotions are driven by an underlying desire for unity and enjoyment. Positive
emotions improve and enhance creativity, encourage helping behavior and
cooperation, and reduce aggression against either the organization or people. (p. 105)
Work organizations should have variety of tools, rules, and mechanisms to
regulate leadership styles and emotions. The main aim of such tools is to con-
trol and/or prevent emotions from arising in the first place while stressing on
the rationality and regulation of the emotions. The workplace emotional labor
16 M. ZINELDIN
rules and mechanisms include expectations that members of the organization
should be pleasant and helpful (Little, Kluemper, & Nelson, 2012). Leaders
should also express a minimum of hostility and negative emotions. Leaders’
jobs should also include positive emotions such as enthusiasm that motivates
staff to improve their performances and outcomes (Briner & Totterdell, 2002;
Lazanyi, 2009; Strazdins, 2002).
It is well known that moods can have a significant impact on performance
and outcomes (Jordan et al., 2006). Panic actions or reactions can intensify the
problems, though calm, supportive behavior of leaders can smoothly overcome
the problems and improve the outcomes. Vantieghem, Marcoen, Mairesse, and
Vandekerckhove (2016) found that emotion regulation mediates the relation-
ship between personality and sleep quality too. Thus, the emotions of leaders
have extreme influence on the organization outcomes (Lazanyi, 2009). Attridge
(2009) argues that highly engaged leaders and employees positively affect
organization outcomes. It can be concluded from past studies that there is a
interrelation between leadership style on leadership outcomes such as effective-
ness (EFE), staff job satisfaction (SAT), and staff willingness to exert extra
effort (EXE). On the other hand, there are very few studies linking leadership
styles, leadership emotions, and outcomes (Alloubani, Abdelhafiz, Bughalyun,
Edris, & Almukhtar, 2015; Bass & Avolio, 1994; Burke et al., 2006).
Objectives of the study
The objectives and hypotheses of this study are twofold, namely, to determine
if there is correlation and significance between TLS, OUT, and TEMO:
Hypothesis 1: There is interrelationship between each of the five transformational
style (TLS) and effective leadership outcomes (OUT)
Hypothesis 2: There is interrelationship transformational leadership style (TLS)
and total positive emotions (TEMO)
Method
Different questionnaires are used to identify and measure the relationship
between leadership style, emotions, and outcomes:
1. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) developed by Bass and
Avolio (2000) to measure transformational leadership styles and the
outcomes.
2. Positive and Negative Affect Schedule–Expanded Form (PANAS-X) ques-
tionnaire (Watson & Clark, 1994), where the study deals only with TEMO
to investigate the true and displayed positive emotions of the leaders.
The leaders’ styles and behavior represented in each item were measured
using 5-point Likert-type scale ranges from 0 (not at all) to 4 (frequently).
JOURNAL OF WORKPLACE BEHAVIORAL HEALTH 17
According to Lowe and Kroeck (1996), transformational leadership scales of
the MLQ are very reliable and significantly predicted work unit effectiveness
across the set of studies examined PANAS-X twice. The respondents were also
asked to score on a 5-point Likert-type scale the listed PANAS-X emotions
on how often and how intensely their overall emotions or feelings were
displaying regarding the main course of their daily leadership duties. The
operationalization of the criterion variable appeared as a powerful moderator.
The target group were 128 Swedish managers in different sectors with
different years of experience as leaders. A sequential snowball without
discrimination data collection strategy was used to obtain the data. The
collected questionnaires were transferred to IBM SPSS version 22.0 for
analysis. A p value of <.05 was considered significant. Table 1 show the
distribution of some demographic variables.
The study group consisted of 67 (52.3%) male participants and 61 (47.7%)
female participants. The age showed a varied distribution. The smallest age
group was the younger than age 30 group (2.3%) followed by the older than
age 60 group (10.9%) whereas the largest was the age group of 41 to 50 years
(47%) and 51 to 60 years (42%). Regarding the education variable, the fewest
groups were the elementary school, others, and postgraduate groups (4.7%,
7.0%, and 8.6%, respectively). The university graduates of the leaders were
the largest (49.2%) and the secondary school graduates (30.5%) followed. After
controlling for demographic factors, estimation was not materially changed.
Different tests were also run to analyze the instrument’s and tool’s suitability.
In general alpha values of .70 or higher are considered to be acceptable, with .60
being acceptable for new scales (Churchill, 1979; Zineldin & Amsteus, 2014).
The reliability test of our study showed a high Cronbach’s alpha (.79).
Factor analysis and reliability analyses were used. Factor analysis (Malhotra,
2007), using principal component analysis and varimax rotation with Kaiser
Table 1. Distribution of some demographic variables.
Frequency Percent
Gender
Male 67 52.3
Female 61 47.7
Age
Under 30 3 2.3
31–40 22 17.2
41–50 47 36.7
51–60 42 32.8
Older than 60 14 10.9
Educational level
Elementary school 6 4.7
Secondary school 39 30.5
University 63 49.2
Postgraduate 11 8.6
Other 9 7.0
18 M. ZINELDIN
Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy (KMO), was used to identify key
points emerging from the questionnaire. This revealed the major points where
the most important tool for the IS leader is to reexamine critical assumptions to
question whether they are appropriate and IC leader should encourage others’
willingness to try harder to achieve best performance and outcomes. KMO
value was over .78, exceeding the recommended value of .6 and the Bartlett’s
Test of Sphericity reached statistical significance supporting the factorability
of the correlation matrix. The components that have an eigenvalue of 1 or more
(initial eigenvalues) were identified to be two main components (3.98 and 1.03).
These two components explain a total of 55.63% of the variance.
Results and analysis
Descriptive statistics and reliability analysis
Descriptive statistical analysis and Cronbach’s coefficient alpha (α) were
utilized to test the reliability of the tools and measures used for the 128
respondent managers. As shown in Table 2, the different constructs reflected
acceptable and very good reliability levels. The results of computation
show that total positive emotion is .738 and the reliability for organizational
outcomes is highest for the ability of transformational leaders to create staff
job satisfaction at the organization (.72) and for motivating staff willingness
to exert extra effort is .77.
Table 2 shows also the mean and standard deviations for the five different
styles and behaviors of transformational leadership. The mean for the five
main behaviors ranged from 3.16 to 3.98. The results show that individual
consideration (IC) motivation dimension was the strongest contributor of
the Swedish transformational leadership styles with a mean of 3.98. This
was followed by intellectual stimulation with (IS) a mean of 3.97 and idealized
influence (II) and inspirational motivation (I) 3.58. Lastly charisma (C) had a
Table 2. Descriptive statistics analysis and Cronbach’s alpha.
TLS
scales
No. of
items Sample items M SD α
C 4 I instill pride in others for being associated with me 3.16 .48 .75
II 4 I talk about my most important values and beliefs 3.97 .43 .74
I 4 I talk optimistically about the future 3.58 .46 .70
IS 4 I re-examine critical assumptions to question whether they
are appropriate
3.97 .44 .72
IC 4 I treat others as individuals rather than just as a member of a group 3.98 .49 .71
EXE 3 I increase others’ willingness to try harder 3.89 .45 .70
EFE 4 I am effective in meeting organizational requirements 3.85 .47 .71
SAT 2 I use methods of leadership that are satisfying 3.96 .49 .72
TEMO 14 Engaged, optimistic, enthusiastic, proud 3.49 .26 .74
TLS ¼transformational leadership styles; C ¼charisma; I ¼inspirational motivation; II ¼idealized influence;
IS ¼intellectual stimulation; IC ¼individual consideration; EXE ¼extra effort; EFE ¼effectiveness;
SAT ¼satisfaction; TEMO ¼total emotions.
JOURNAL OF WORKPLACE BEHAVIORAL HEALTH 19
mean of 3.16. The table shows also number of items of each scale/construct
and an example of each item/measure. An independent-samples t test was
conducted to compare the TLS scores for males and females. The analysis
shows that there was no significant difference in scores for males and females.
For instance, the scores of C (charisma) for males was (M = 12.89, SD = 2.18)
and females (M = 12.40, SD = 1.66); t(121) = 1,43, p = .15 (two tailed).
Regarding the idealized influence (II) scale, the scores for males were
(M = 15.83, SD = 1.75) and for females were (M = 15.95, SD = 1.73);
t(125) = − .37, p = .71 (two tailed).
Correlations analysis
As shown in Table 3 Pearson’s product–moment correlation coefficient (r)
was used to measure the strength and direction of the relationship between
the variables.
The results show that TLS and outcomes (OUT) are positively correlated,
except outcomes of idealized influence (II). The strongest correlation was
between I and SAT, r = .54 followed by the correlation between IC and
SAT, r = .42. The correlation between I and EXE was also positive and strong
r = .40 but moderately correlated with EFE, r = .28. C has a significant positive
correlation to EXE, r = .35 and to SAT, r = .24. There was no significant
correlation between EFE and C or II.
Total positive emotions (TEMO) has a significant positive correlation to
inspirational motivation (I) leader’s behavior, r = .36 followed by IS and IC,
r = .31 and r = .22, respectively. The correlation between the TEMO and II
is positively but very weak, r = .19. There was no significant correlation
between TEMO and C.
Table 3. Correlation between the study variables.
Correlations
C II I IS IC EXE EFE SAT TEMO
C 1
II .033 1
I .264** .172 1
IS .110 .197* .450** 1
IC .085 .278** .430** .298** 1
EXE .357** .200* .405** .396** .376** 1
EFE .013 .125 .280** .221* .307** .339** 1
SAT .248** .202* .540** .388** .420** .409** .597** 1
TEMO .071 .197* .363** .313** .228** .553** .476** .301** 1
TLS ¼transformational leadership styles; C ¼charisma; I ¼inspirational motivation; II ¼idealized influence;
IS ¼intellectual stimulation; IC ¼individual consideration; EXE ¼extra effort; EFE ¼effectiveness;
SAT ¼satisfaction; TEMO ¼total emotions.
*Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (two-tailed); **Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level
(two-tailed).
20 M. ZINELDIN
However, most independent variables (TLS) were correlated with a
significant = .00 at the level of .01 (two-tailed) with the dependent variables
OUT and TEMO.
Regression analysis
Hypothesis 1: Interrelationship between transformational style (TLS) and
organizational outcomes (OUT)
A multiple regression analysis was carried out to test the hypothesis, and
the results demonstrated that there is positive correlation between transfor-
mational leadership and organizational outcomes and between transforma-
tional leadership and emotions (p < 0.01).
As follows from Table 4, the regression models show that inspirational
motivation (I) generates the most significant outcome in relation to the
satisfaction (β = .35 and p < .0) followed by individual consideration (IC) with
extra efforts (β = .20 and p < .0). IS had weaker contributions and significance.
C had the best contribution to EXE (β = .28 and p < .0). II did not
contribute to the model. Hypothesis 1 is partly retained.
Hypothesis 2: Interrelationship between transformational leadership styles (TLS)
and organizational emotions (EMO)
Table 5 shows that only I and IS had significant contributions to the TEMO
with β value .26 for II and β = .17 for the IS which means that these factors
make strongest significant for the positive emotions such as being
enthusiastic, hopeful, proud, happy, attentive, and inspiring.
Hypothesis 2 is partly verified.
Table 4. Regression models for transformational leadership styles and outcomes scales.
Dependent variables EXE EFE SAT
Independent variable β p β p β p
C Charisma .28 .00
I Inspirational motivation .35 .00
IS Intellectual stimulation .23 .00 .15 .07
IC Individual consideration .21 .01 .21 .03 .20 .02
EXE ¼extra effort; EFE ¼effectiveness; SAT ¼satisfaction.
Table 5. Regression models for transformational leadership styles
and significant positive emotions (TEMO).
Dependent variable TEMO
Independent variable β p
I Inspirational motivation .26 .01
IS Intellectual stimulation .17 .07
TEMO ¼total emotions.
JOURNAL OF WORKPLACE BEHAVIORAL HEALTH 21
Discussion, conclusion, and implication
An effective and sound relationship between transformational leadership
styles and emotions is critical as leaders’ personality, styles, and emotions
could either hurt or improve organizational effectiveness and satisfaction,
hence employees’ health (Choudhary et al., 2013; Schwepker & Good, 2010;
Zineldin & Amsteus, 2014). It can affect the ANS activity (that regulates
bodily functions such as the heart rate, digestion, sexual arousal, as well as
the immune system (Grandey, 2000; Gross & Levenson, 1997).
This study had some unexpected results showing that there was no corre-
lation or significant contribution of the charisma leaders (C) and ideal influ-
ence (II) with effectiveness. These criteria emphasize high standards for
ethical and moral behavior and ideal models for the employees that
suppose, traditionally, to be the most effective leaders who have ability to
provide employees with satisfaction or encourage them to make extra effort
as other studies have shown (e.g., Alloubani et al., 2015; Barling, Slater, &
Kelloway, 2000; Bass, 1985; Zineldin & Amstues, 2014).
I was the best to produce SAT and EXE. IC was best for the EFE. On
the other hand, inspirational motivator (I) was the strongest contributor of
the Swedish transformational leadership styles followed by individual
consideration (IC) as a characteristic of the most effective leaders who provide
better job satisfaction that is often used as a proxy for employee good overall
health and well-being at work (Ashforth & Humphrey, 1993; Grandey, 2000).
Individual consideration (IC) leadership style had the most significant
influence on effectiveness.
Inspirational motivational (I) and intellectual stimulation I (IS) behaviors
were the only scales that contributed with β = .26 and β = .17 for the positive
emotions (TEMO) such as enthusiastic, hopeful, proud, happy, attentive, and
inspiration. According to Bass and his followers, different emotions are
inherent to different transformational leadership behaviors. Specifically,
enthusiasm, optimism, and excitement are to be displayed in the process of
inspirational motivation (Bass & Avolio, 2000).
One important conclusion is that inspirational transformational leaders’
behavior and emotions are needed because they are most able to increase
the organizational overall outcomes by boosts employees’ job satisfaction,
additional effort, and effectiveness. Hence, improve and enhance the mental
and psychological health.
Study limitations
Although the results of this study are consistent with theoretical propositions,
the cross-sectional nature of the research design of this study does not allow
22 M. ZINELDIN
for investigation of casual effects or a reversed relationship between depen-
dent and independent scales. In addition, all data is self-report that was
obtained by a self-report questionnaire. Future study and research may use
additional or complementing subjective reports with objective data collection.
Furthermore, this research used a snowball data collection strategy that could
involve sampling bias. Finally, though a primary intention and interest of this
research was psychological health, the study used only scale satisfaction as an
emotional state that can affect the psychological health. Thus, future research
may adopt a broader perspective of health. Despite these limitations, a large
and diverse sample was gathered for this study, and results were principally
in line with the research hypotheses.
References
Alloubani, A. M., Abdelhafiz, I. M., Bughalyun, Y., Edris, E. M., & Almukhtar, M. M. (2015).
Impact of leadership styles on leadership outcome (effectiveness, satisfaction and extra
effort) in the private healthcare sector in Jordan. European Scientific Journal, 2, 286–298.
Ashforth, B. E., & Humphrey, R. H. (1993). Emotional labor in service roles: The influence of
identity. Academy of Management Review, 18(1), 88–115. doi:10.5465/amr.1993.3997508
Ashkanasy, N. M. (2004). Emotion and performance. Human Performance, 17(2), 137–144.
Attridge, M. (2009). Measuring and managing employee work engagement: A review of the
research and business literature. Journal of Workplace Behavioral Health, 24, 383–398.
doi:10.1080/15555240903188398
Barling, J., Slater, F., & Kelloway, E. K. (2000). Transformational leadership and emotional
intelligence: An exploratory study. Journal of Leadership and Organization Development,
21(1), 157–161. doi:10.1108/01437730010325040
Bass, B. M (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York, NY: Free Press.
Bass, B. M. (1990). From transactional to transformational leadership: Learning to share the
vision. Organizational Dynamics, 18, 19–31. doi:10.1016/0090-2616(90)90061-s
Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1994). Improving organizational effectiveness through transforma-
tional leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (2000). The multifactor leadership questionnaire (2nd ed.). Redwood
City, CA: Mind Garden.
Briner, R. B., & Totterdell, P. (2002). The experience, expression and management of
emotion at work. In P. Warr (Ed.), Psychology at work (pp. 229–252). London, England:
Penguin.
Burke, C. S., Stagl, K. C., Klein, C., Goodwin, G. F., Salas, E., & Halpin, S. M. (2006). What
types of leadership behaviors are functional in teams? A meta-analysis. Leadership
Quarterly, 17, 288–307. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2006.02.007
Carr, A. (2001). Understanding emotion and emotionality in a process of change. Journal of
Organizational Change Management, 14(5), 421–436. doi:10.1108/eum0000000005873
Choudhary, A. I., Akhtar, S. A., & Zaheer, A. (2013). Impact of transformational and servant
leadership on organizational performance: A comparative analysis. Journal of Business
Ethics, 116(2), pp.433–440.
Churchill, G. A. (1979). A paradigm for developing better measures of marketing constructs.
Journal of Marketing Research, 16(2), 64–73. doi:10.2307/3150876
Damasio, A. (1994). Descartes’ error: Emotion, reason and the human brain. New York, NY:
Avon Books.
JOURNAL OF WORKPLACE BEHAVIORAL HEALTH 23
Freud, S. (1984). “The unconscious”, on metapsychology: The theory of psychoanalysis.
Harmondsworth, UK: Pelican.
Grandey, A. A. (2000). Emotion regulation in the workplace: A new way to conceptualize
emotional labor. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5(1), 95–110. doi:10.1037//
1076-8998.5.1.95
Gross, J. J., & Levenson, R. V. V. (1997). Hiding feelings: The acute effects of inhibiting
negative and positive emotion. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106(1), 95–103.
doi:10.1037//0021-843x.106.1.95
Jordan, P. J., Lawrence, S. A., & Troth, A. C. (2006). The impact of negative mood on team
performance. Journal of Management & Organization, 12(2), 131–145. doi:10.5172/
jmo.2006.12.2.131
Krasikova, D. V., Green, S. G., & LeBreton, J. M. (2013). Destructive leadership: A theoretical
review, integration, and future research agenda. Journal of Management, 39(5), 1308–1338.
Lazanyi, K. (2009). The role of leaders’ emotions applied studies in agribusiness and
commerce. AgEcon Search, 3(3-4), 103–108.
Leithwood, K., & Jantzi, D. (2000). The effects of transformational leadership on organiza-
tional conditions and student engagement with school. Journal of Educational Administra-
tion, 38(2), 112–129. doi:10.1108/09578230010320064
Leymann, H. (1996). The content and development of mobbing at work. European Journal of
Work and Organizational Psychology, 5(2), 165–184. doi:10.1080/13594329608414853
Little, L. M., Kluemper, D., & Nelson, D. L. (2012). Development and validation of the
Interpersonal Emotion Management Scale. Journal of Occupational and Organizational
Psychology, 85, 407–420. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8325.2011.02042.x
Lowe, K. B., & Kroeck, K. G. (1996). Effectiveness correlates of transformational and transac-
tional leadership: A meta-analytic review of the MLQ literature. Leadership Quarterly, 7(3),
385–425. doi:10.1016/s1048-9843(96)90027–2
Malhotra, N. K. (2007). Marketing research: An applied orientation. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Prentice Hall.
Pennebaker, J. (1990). Opening up: The healing power of confiding in others. New York, NY:
Morrow.
Ramachandran, Y., Jordan, P. J., Troth, A. C., & Lawrence, S. A. (2011). Emotional intelli-
gence, emotional labour and organisational citizenship behaviour in service environments.
International Journal of Work Organisation and Emotion, 4(2), 136–157. doi:10.1504/
ijwoe.2011.044594
Schein, E. H. (1970). Organizational psychology. NJ: Prentice Hall.
Schwepker, C. H., & Good, D. J. (2010). Transformational leadership and its impact on
sales force moral judgment. Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 30(4),
299–318.
Schyns, B., & Schilling, J. (2013). How bad are the effects of bad leaders? A meta-analysis of
destructive leadership and its outcomes. Leadership Quarterly, 24(1), 138–158. doi:10.1016/
j.leaqua.2012.09.001
Sosik, J. J., Avolio, B. J., & Kahai, S. S. (1997). Effects of leadership style and anonymity on
group potency and effectiveness in a group decision support system environment. Journal
of Applied Psychology, 82, 89–103. doi:10.1037//0021-9010.82.1.89
Strazdins, L. (2002). Emotional work and emotional contagion. In N. M. Ashkanasy W. J.
Zerbe & C. E. J. Härtel (Eds.), Managing emotions in the workplace, (pp. 111–134).
New York, NY: M.E. Sharpe.
Vantieghem, I., Marcoen, N., Mairesse, O., & Vandekerckhove, M. (2016). Emotion regulation
mediates the relationship between personality and sleep quality. Psychology & Health, 31,
1064–1079. doi:10.1080/08870446.2016.1171866
24 M. ZINELDIN
Watson, D., & Clark, L. (1984). Negative affectivity: The disposition to experience aversive
emotional states. Psychological Bulletin, 96(3), 465–490.
Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1994). The PANAS-X: Manual for the Positive and Negative Affect
Schedule-Expanded Form. Ames: The University of Iowa.
Zineldin, M., & Amsteus, M. (2014). Negativity hurts your style? A study of leaders’ negative
emotions and their leadership style. International Journal of Work Organisation and
Emotion, 6(4), 327–337. doi:10.1504/ijwoe.2014.068033
Zineldin, M., & Hytter, A. (2012). Leaders’ negative emotions and leadership styles influencing
subordinates’ well-being. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 23,
748–758. doi:10.1080/09585192.2011.606114
JOURNAL OF WORKPLACE BEHAVIORAL HEALTH 25
... Positively, it has been reported that an increase in team cohesion can reduce burnout (Pacewicz et al. 2020) and increase life satisfaction (Chen et al. 2015). In relation to this, transformational leadership, with its positively oriented style, is an important research topic in fields such as business, health, and sports (Stenling and Tafvelin 2014;Walsh et al. 2014;Zineldin 2017). ...
... Empirical support for relationships among transformational leadership, team cohesion, and psychological health has been documented in several studies (Walsh et al. 2014;Zineldin 2017;Choi and Matz-Costa 2018). This research, however, is outside the field of sports and related to groups such as adults and the elderly. ...
... The positive effects of transformational leadership and team cohesion on psychological health have also been revealed in various fields such as work and health (Walsh et al. 2014;Zineldin 2017;Choi and Matz-Costa 2018). In addition, in parallel with the current study, it has been reported that the improvement in psychological health may have positive reflections on the increase in performance (Yildirim and Koruç 2021). ...
Article
The present study examined the associations of transformational leadership behaviors and team cohesion with the psychological health (life satisfaction, positive and negative affect, and burnout) of athletes and the mediating role of basic psychological needs. The sample consisted of 252 (boys) players aged between 13 and 15. The model data fit was also verified. The results demonstrated that the transformational leadership behaviors of coaches were indirectly related to athletes’ psychological health. Team cohesion was related to athletes’ psychological health both directly and indirectly. Basic psychological needs were a significant mediating variable in these relationships. Transformational leadership and team cohesion have important implications for the healthy development of young people.
... Therefore, they are highly praised and gain respect and trust. Their behavior is cohesive rather than arbitrary [11]. Among the things that leaders gain from credibility is that they consider the needs of their followers more than their own. ...
... They express high expectations, use symbols to focus efforts, and articulate important goals in simple ways. They are also optimistic and encourage others to understand and commit to their views and missions [11]. The leader encourages employees to believe in the goal and its achievability through effort. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of transformational leadership dimensions on organizational effectiveness with respect to the mediating role of organizational culture. Methodology: The statistical population of this research is Iranian knowledge-based companies, which at the time of collecting research data, their number is 4551 companies. Data collection method was based on three questionnaires: MLQ leadership styles, Hofstede organizational culture and Parsons organizational effectiveness. The analysis of research data was done through structural equation modeling and using Smart PLS software in two parts: measurement model and structural model. The sampling method used in this study is stratified random sampling method and the sample studied in this study using Cochran's formula, 354 companies were obtained, of which 354 questionnaires were distributed online among these companies and 175 The completed questionnaire was collected for analysis. Findings: The findings of the present study show that the effect of ideal influence and motivational motivation variables on organizational culture and also the effect of organizational culture on organizational effectiveness is positive and significant and also organizational culture mediates the relationship between transformational leadership and organizational effectiveness. Originality/Value: Given that traditional methods of management and leadership, in today's changing and dynamic conditions, lack the necessary effectiveness, so a change in the leadership style of managers and the use of transformational leadership is necessary to achieve organizational effectiveness.
... They communicate high expectations, use symbols to focus efforts, and express important purposes in simple ways. These leaders are also optimistic and encourage others to understand and to be committed to the visions and missions (Densten, 2002;Zineldin, 2017). This image-based motivation should be used frequently to encourage their followers to encourage extra effort from followers (Densten, 2002). ...
... Leaders using intellectual stimulation are good listeners, give information and express trust in their subordinates, respect their ideas and consider their feelings, promote intelligence, rationality, and careful problem solving. They also stay calm, relaxed and hopeful when they make decisions (Zineldin, 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the moderating effects of the levels of the team leaders' use of various transformational leadership behaviors on the relationship between the level of team cohesion and the level of individual extra effort. Using data from small, fast-forming, short-duration team contexts, the results revealed that the level of the team leaders' use of inspirational motivation behaviors moderated the relationship between level of team cohesion and the level of individual extra effort.
... Transformational leaders have a strong sense of self-efficacy, an optimistic work attitude, and the ability to face a complex work environment. Studies have found that transformational leaders significantly positively impact organizational emotional capability (Zineldin, 2017). Based on the above theoretical basis, the third and fourth hypotheses are proposed in this paper: H3: The impact of managers' psychological capital on organizational emotional capability. ...
Article
Full-text available
Theoretical researchers of manager psychology have excellent potential to extend its research framework to more enterprise application areas, such as innovation, performance, and safety in production. Research in these areas has also been increasing in the past 10 years. Psychological capital is composed of four aspects: self-efficacy, hope, optimism, and tenacity. It plays an essential role in stimulating organizational growth and improving organizational performance. In safety management work, managers, as the core members of the organization, have a relationship between their psychological capital and employees’ safety performance. Nevertheless, the closeness of the relationship between psychological capital and employee safety performance has not been fully demonstrated by academic circles. Based on positive psychology theory, this paper conducts a questionnaire survey of 157 managers and 314 employees related to safety work in manufacturing enterprises. From the new perspective of organizational emotional capability, this paper investigates the complex and extensive social-psychological role in organizations and combs, analyzes, and integrates relevant psychological research to construct the influence mechanism of managers’ psychological capital and employee safety performance. Finally, the three important issues found based on data analysis were: (1) Managers’ psychological capital has a significant positive impact both on employee safety performance and organizational emotional capability; (2) Organizational emotional capability has a significant positive impact on employee safety performance; (3) organizational emotional capability plays a partial mediating role in the relationship between managers’ psychological capital and employee safety performance.
... Further, they are divided into two broad categories, positive emotions and negative emotions (Laz anyi, 2009). Positive emotions enhance creativity, encourage helping behavior and reduce aggression against the organization or other people, while negative emotions increase disrespectful/deviant behaviors and decrease creativity (Zineldin, 2017). Leadership styles have a significant relationship with employees' emotions at work (Herman et al., 2018). ...
Article
Purpose This study, based on social exchange theory, aims to explore the association between appreciative leadership and employees' helping behaviors by investigating the mediation role of emotional reactions (pride, anxiety), and choosing organizational trust as a boundary condition between appreciative leadership and helping behaviors. Design/methodology/approach A total sample of 285 reliable questionnaires were collected in three time lags from employees working in the Pakistani education and banking sectors. PROCESS macro using SPSS and AMOS are employed for data analyses of the proposed model. Findings The findings reveal that appreciative leadership has positive impacts on employees' helping behaviors and emotional reactions (pride, anxiety) mediate the relationship of appreciative leadership and employees' helping behaviors. In addition, the results show that high organizational trust strengthens the positive relationship between appreciative leadership and employees' helping behaviors. Practical implications This research has provided empirical proof between the relationship of appreciative leadership and helping behaviors and the findings are of great significance for managers, employees, and organizations. The study proposes that leaders should have appreciative behavior while treating their subordinates. Moreover, it is revealed that the role of organizational trust should be given more attention and importance because it is a factor moderating the employees' helping behaviors. Originality/value The present study, among the first empirical efforts investigating the relationship between appreciative leadership and helping behaviors, organizational trust as a moderator, enriches the existing academic literature of and provides worthy insight into the research on appreciative leadership and helping behaviors.
... Examining this association between espoused and enacted PSC is important, as it will help us understand how the organizational context/espoused PSC influences espoused managerial quality in managers' dealings with subordinates through their own psychological health (i.e., burnout). Previous studies have mainly focused on evaluating the impact of leadership style on employees' psychological health outcomes (Arnold, 2017;Jo et al., 2020;Zineldin, 2017). Instead, our study focuses on more distal causes of mental health by looking at the mental health of line managers and what affects it. ...
Article
Full-text available
In various countries, national standards exist to reduce the financial burden of occupational health, create healthier workplaces, and promote well-being. In Quebec specifically, the Healthy Enterprise standard comprises different areas of intervention, including management practices relating to psychosocial risks. Managers play an important role in employees’ exposure to psychosocial constraints (low decision latitude, low social support, high job demands, or low rewards). However, little is known about what goes into their decision to adopt managerial practices that are conducive to their employees’ health (managerial quality). This prospective study was conducted in three organizations involved in a certification process to become a Healthy Enterprise. The surveyed participants included a sample of managers (N = 105). Using MPlus, we conducted path analyses to evaluate the mediating role line managers’ burnout plays between the psychosocial safety climate (PSC) and managerial quality. The results indicated that PSC at T1 (Time 1) was associated with burnout at T1. PSC at T1 was also indirectly associated with lower managerial quality at T2 (Time 2). Understanding the impact of line managers’ burnout on enacted managerial quality is important given their effect on followers’ health. Keywords: Psychosocial safety climate; burnout; managerial quality; psychosocial risks; Healthy Enterprise Standard.
... But when leaders display consideration behavior, showing that they care about a follower's wellbeing in the workplace, this concern prompts improved workplace outcomes (Kock et al., 2018). Extensive studies relate that consideration behavior and positive outcomes can be seen in, among many others, servant leadership and followers' emotional well-being (Bakar & McCann, 2015), authentic leadership and followers' well-being and emotional support (Baron & Parent, 2015), transformational leadership and positive emotions (Zineldin, 2017), and ethical leadership and well-being and helping (Kalshoven & Boon, 2012). ...
Article
This study investigates the impact of mindful and empathetic leadership on resilience and turnover intention, with self-regulation as a mediating variable. A quantitative survey was administered to 188 nurses dealing with COVID-19’s patients in Indonesia. Data were analyzed using Process v3.5 Andrew F. Hayes in SPSS. This study revealed that mindful leadership reduces turnover intention, and empathetic leadership increases resilience, while mindful leadership does not increase resilience, and empathetic leadership does not lessen turnover intention. We also conclude that self-regulation mediates the relationship between mindful leadership/empathetic leadership and turnover intention/resilience. Despite being limited to the Indonesian context, this research offers several contributions from both theoretical and practical perspectives. First, this research established the importance of mindful and empathetic leadership to promote resilience and reduce the turnover intention of nurses in the time of crisis. Second, we confirmed self-regulation as the mediating variable for those relationships. Practically, we suggest that having empathetic and mindful leaders is effective in supporting nurses to deal with COVID-19 patients.
... The interpersonal relationship between transformational leaders and followers influences followers' attitudes and behaviors (Campbell, 2018). The idealized influence behaviors of transformational leaders are perceived by followers as role model behaviors (Zineldin, 2017) and influence the behaviors of followers. Through inspirational motivation, transformational leaders motivate followers by creating a positive and inspiring vision of the future (Phaneuf et al., 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Leaders of nonprofit organizations in the United States must build workforce capabilities to meet increasing demands for services. This single-case study explored strategies nonprofit leaders used to build workforce capability to address increasing service demands. The conceptual lens for this study was the full-range leadership theory. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with senior executives of a single nonprofit organization located in the Midwestern region of the United States, which included internal organizational and workforce performance data, strategy plans, annual reports internal and external financial documents, and publicly available information. Four major themes related to building workforce capacity emerged from a thematic analysis of the data: (1) an emphasis on employee development, (2) the expansion of technology systems, (3) a concentration on developing a culture of autonomy and trust, and (4) the introduction of processes and measurements. The findings from this study might contribute to positive social change by providing nonprofit leaders with strategies and data to support a deeper understanding of how to effectively build workforce capability to address increasing service demands.
... Transformational leadership leads to an increase in organizational commitment, intellectual stimulation and inspiration within the workplace (Tafvelin, 2013). Zineldin (2017) believes that emotions attained by having a transformational leader create more enthusiasm, happiness, and a sense of pride in the workplace leading to greater job satisfaction. By supporting a teacher's intellectual development through infusing excitement and enthusiasm, a transformational leader is able to increase job satisfaction (Celik, 2003). ...
Thesis
To determine if a teacher’s understanding of school finance impacts their overall job satisfaction, this study used a mixed methods approach to investigate a Michigan metropolitan school district’s teacher’s understanding of school finance and their overall job satisfaction. The study utilized an initial survey to determine the level of job satisfaction of the staff. This was then followed by qualitative interviews that established the knowledge base of each respondent. Data collected showed that kindergarten through twelfth-grade teachers who express low job satisfaction also exhibited a poor grasp of school finance. Conversely, the staff who demonstrated high job satisfaction within the survey also showed a higher level of understanding of school finance. As funding for schools continue to change, the study’s findings reveal the importance of educating and including teaching staff in financial decisions within the district.
Article
Full-text available
Employee psychological well-being is a central concern for hospitality establishments as it impacts talent retention. This empirical research explores the relationship between transformational leadership and employee psychological well-being. This relationship is tested through a mediation model where transformational leadership is proposed to explain the effect on the psychological well-being of hospitality employees (hedonic and eudaemonic well-being) through the affective mediators thriving at work and employees’ amplification of pleasant emotions and employee engagement. The cross-sectional data came from 133 5-star hotel employees in the Netherlands. Analysing the responses showed that eudaemonic well-being had to be split into four new variables: growing and giving, liveliness, self-esteem and managing oneself. Furthermore, thriving at work and employee engagement fully mediated between transformational leadership and hedonic well-being, thriving at work fully mediated between transformational leadership and growing and giving, while thriving at work and employees’ amplification of pleasant emotions fully mediated between transformational leadership and self-esteem. A direct relationship was found between transformational leadership and managing oneself. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed in detail.
Article
Full-text available
Emotional labor is the display of expected emotions by service agents during service encounters. It is performed through surface acting, deep acting, or the expression of genuine emotion. Emotional labor may facilitate task effectiveness and self-expression, but it also may prime customer expectations that cannot be met and may trigger emotive dissonance and self-alienation. However, following social identity theory, we argue that some effects of emotional labor are moderated by one's social and personal identities and that emotional labor stimulates pressures for the person to identify with the service role. Research implications for the micro, meso, and macro levels of organizations are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Despite a long history of interest in personality as well as in the mechanisms that regulate sleep, the relationship between personality and sleep is not yet well understood. The purpose of this study was to explore how personality affects sleep. Design: The present cross-sectional study, based on a sample of 1291 participants (M Age = 31.16 year, SD = 12.77), investigates the impact of personality styles, assessed by the Personality Adjectives Checklist (PACL; Strack, 1987), on subjective sleep quality, as well as the possible mediation of this relationship by dispositional emotion regulation styles. Results: The dispositional use of suppression was a quite consistent predictor of poor subjective sleep quality for individuals scoring high on Confident, Cooperative, or Introversive personality traits, but low on Respectful personality traits. Although a positive relationship between reappraisal and subjective sleep quality was found, there was only little evidence for a relationship between the assessed personality styles and the use of cognitive reappraisal. Conclusion: The present results indicate that in the evaluation of subjective sleep, the impact of personality and emotion regulation processes, such as emotion suppression, should be taken into account.
Article
Full-text available
It can be concluded from past studies that the grounds for day to day exchanges amid leaders and workers are based on leadership styles, and work procedures are assisted and boosted by them. Purpose: To investigate the nature and importance of leadership styles and behaviours of head nurse managers is the purpose of this research; its purpose also includes their influence on diverse organizational outcomes that are part of leader’s efficiency and job satisfaction of workers, together with their readiness to give more input to their work. Methodology: 24 participants were head nurse managers out of the total sample of 96; rest of the sample comprised of juniors. There were 45 things that were a part of The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ, Form 5-X) employed in this study to recognize and determine the important leadership styles together with their results. Findings: The transformational leadership style was discovered to be the most frequently employed style by the outcome of this research. The results also disclosed that amid the overall score of transformational leadership (TRL) and independent variables there was a positive correlation (r= 0.661**, 0.585** and 0.504** for leader effectiveness, staff job satisfaction, and extra effort, respectively). Conclusion: The quality of nursing services is greatly increased when there is an improvement in the development of transformational leadership that in turn boosts nurses’ satisfaction and additional efforts.
Article
Full-text available
There is increasing recognition regarding the role of emotions in predicting the performance of workers. In particular, there has been extensive interest regarding the constructs of Emotional Intelligence and Emotional Labour in the promotion of more productive worker behaviour. Research focusing on emotions in the workplace has typically been conducted within western settings. In this study, we examine the impact of Emotional Intelligence (EI) on Emotional Labour (EL) and Organisational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB) in the Malaysian service industry. Data were collected from 131 front desk employees across four resorts within a Malaysian hotel chain. In line with expectations, analyses revealed that EL partially mediated the relationship between EI and OCB. Implications for theory and practice in non-western settings are discussed.
Book
The content of this 3rd edition marketing research textbook is practical and up to date and is based on an applied and managerially focused approach. Australian an New Zealand research and examples have been thoroughly intergrated into every chapter. <br /
Article
The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between leaders' negative emotions and leadership styles. Faculty members at a Swedish university between 1995 and 2007 were surveyed. Members who had worked at the same institution the entire period provided a total of 48 assessments regarding the styles and emotions of their leaders (deans). The results show that some negative emotions and leadership styles are related. For an organisation to perform well (e.g., in terms of work environment), leaders should consider managing their emotions.
Article
Sales research often notes the critical role of sales managers in providing interface between the firm and the salesperson while cultivating sales performance in highly competitive marketplaces. In such a stressful environment, reports of unethical behaviors (results, causes, effects, etc.) continue to plague the profession. In this context, the purpose of this study was to examine the role of a chiefly unexplored quality of sales managers, transformational leadership, and its affect on the moral judgment of the sales force. In a study of 345 business-to-business salespeople, it was found that transformational leadership has an indirect effect on moral judgment as well as direct effects on supervisory capability orientation and the trust of the salesperson in the manager. Managerial and research implications are also offered as part of the paper.