Author's Preface Foreword Alastair S. Gunn Introduction Environmental Philosophy of Buddhism Buddhist Ethics Moral Dilemmas, Moral Weakness and Deception Buddhist Environmental Ethics Ecological Sensibility and Pedagogy Green Economics and Buddhist Economics Putting the Threads Together References Index
Opening a Mountain is a translation with a commentary of 60 koan cases that feature an important supernatural or ritual element selected from a variety of the major and minor Zen Buddhist koan collections compiled in Sung China and Kamakura Japan. The koan is a brief, enigmatic anecdote or dialog between two contesting parties that defines the heart. The book demonstrates that the main theme underlying much of the koan literature deals with how Zen masters opened or transformed mountains. The transforming of spiritual forces that had been closing off the mountains into manifestations of sacred space in Zen was referred to as kuai‐shan in Chinese (or kaizan in Japanese). The mountains harbored spirits, demons, and bodhisattvas, as well as hermits, recluses, ascetics, and other irregular practitioners, and were opened using the symbols and rituals of spiritual purification. In contrast with conventional interpretations that view koans as psychological exercises with a purely iconoclastic intention, the approach here highlights the rich component of mythological and marvelous elements that pervade this genre of literature in a way that complements, rather than contradicts, the demythological or iconoclastic perspective. This approach to interpreting Zen literature is distinctive and innovative in several respects. Opening a Mountain includes the selection of koan cases emphasizing supernatural symbols, such as mountains, animals, and other natural imagery, based on a scholarly standard of translation and citation of source materials. The main topics include “Surveying Mountain Landscapes,” “Contesting with Irregular Rivals,” “Encountering Supernatural Forces,” “Wielding Symbols of Authority,” and “Giving Life and Controlling Death as Confessional Experiences.”
Most anthropological and sociological studies of Buddhism have concentrated on village and rural Buddhism. This is a systematic anthropological study of monastic organization and monk-layman interaction in a purely urban context in the countries where Theravada Buddhism is practised, namely, Burma, Cambodia, Ceylon, Laos and Thailand. The material presented is based on fieldwork carried out in Ayutthaya, Central Thailand. Dr Bunnag describes and analyses the socio-economic and ritual relations existing between the monk and the lay community, and she demonstrates the way in which the role of the monk is used by some men, wittingly or otherwise, as a social stepping-stone, in that for the son of a farmer a period in the monkhood can provide the education and contacts necessary to facilitate his assimilation into the urban lay community at a social and economic level which would otherwise have been impossible. Finally, Dr Bunnag places the material presented in a broader theoretical context by reviewing it in relation to anthropological discussions concerning the nature of Thai society as a whole.
In this book, Mark Blum offers a critical look at the thought and impact of the late thirteenth‐century Buddhist historian Gyōnen (1240–1321) and the emergent Pure Land school of Buddhism founded by Hōnen (1133–1212). Blum also provides a clear and fully annotated translation of Gyōnen's Jōdo Hōmon Genrushō, the first history of Pure Land Buddhism, and his only known surviving Pure Land text. Part I of the study, Gyōnen and Kamakura Pure Land Buddhism, largely concerns Gyōnen himself. One of his most lasting impacts was as fashioner of a view of Buddhist history that Japanese society was to find quite persuasive for the next 600 years, and it is the author's thesis that he should be regarded as the first proper Buddhist historian in Japan and that the Genrushō should be seen as an important expression of his historical perspective. The Genrushō is both a philosophical inquiry into the historical nature of orthodox Pure Land doctrine and a remarkable record of people of religious impact in this tradition who actively led lineage ‘branches’ of the Jōdo school (Jōdoshū) during the Kamakura period. Part II, The Origins and Development of the Pure Land Teaching, presents a full translation, the first in any modern language (including Japanese) of the Genrushō itself. Detailed annotation is provided in notes to the numerous people, texts, monasteries, geographical locations, and doctrinal concepts named in the text. Part III is a facsimile of the xylograph edition upon which the translation is based. There are three appendices: Appendix A is a concordance to the translation; Appendix B looks at Gyōnen's personal Pure Land beliefs; and Appendix C provides a list of Gyōnen's known extant works. There are two bibliographies for the book, one of primary and the other of secondary sources, and also a select glossary.
This book is the first to engage Zen Buddhism philosophically on crucial issues from a perspective that is informed by the traditions of western philosophy and religion. It focuses on one renowned Zen master, Huang Po, whose recorded sayings exemplify the spirit of the 'golden age' of Zen in medieval China, and on the transmission of these writings to the West. The author makes a bold attempt to articulate a post-romantic understanding of Zen applicable to contemporary world culture. While deeply sympathetic to the Zen tradition, he raises serious questions about the kinds of claims that can be made on its behalf.
This book is a translation and study of the Vajrasamadhi-Sutra and an examination of its broad implications for the development of East Asian Buddhism. The Vajrasamadhi-Sutra was traditionally assumed to have been translated from Sanskrit, but some modern scholars, principally in Japan, have proposed that it is instead an indigenous Chinese composition. In contrast to both of these views, Robert Buswell maintains it was written in Korea around A.D. 685 by a Korean adept affiliated with the East Mountain school of the nascent Chinese Ch’an tradition. He thus considers it to be the oldest work of Korean Ch’an (or Son, which in Japan became known as the Zen school), and the second-oldest work of the sinitic Ch’an tradition as a whole. Buswell makes his case for the scripture’s dating, authorship, and provenance by placing the sutra in the context of Buddhist doctrinal writings and early Ch’an literature in China and Korea. This approach leads him to an extensive analysis of the origins of Ch’an ideology in both countries and of the principal trends in the sinicization of Buddhism. Buddhism has typically been studied in terms of independent national traditions, but Buswell maintains that the history of religion in China, Korea, and Japan should be treated as a whole. Originally published in. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
1: Preliminaries.- 1.1 The central issues.- 1.2 The contributions of previous scholars.- 1.2.1 Satis Chandra Vidy?bh??a?a.- 1.2.2 Th. Stcherbatsky.- 1.2.3 Satkari Mookerjee.- 1.2.4 Erich Frauwallner.- 1.2.5 Kitagawa Hidenori, Hattori Masaaki and Katsura Shoryu.- 1.2.6 Radhika Herzberger.- 1.3 The argument of this book.- Notes.- 2: Rational Skepticism in Pre-Di?n?gan Buddhism.- 2.1 The foundation of skepticism in the Nik?yas.- 2.1.1 The Sutta Nip?ta.- 2.1.2 D?gha Nik?ya: The Brahmaj?la sutta.- 2.1.3 A?guttara Nik?ya: The Kesaputtas.- 2.1.4 Summary of how opinions are regarded in the Nik?yas.- 2.2 The influence of N?g?rjuna.- 2.2.1 M?lamadhyamakak?ik?.- 2.2.2 Vigrahavy?vartan?.- Notes.- 3: Nominalism in Pre-Di?n?gan Buddhism.- 3.1 The ?gama literature and Milindapanha.- 3.1.1 Natural class in the Nik?yas.- 3.1.2 Personal identity in the P?li Canon.- 3.1.3 Personal identity in the Milindapanha.- 3.2 Nominalism in N?g?rjuna.- 3.3 Nominalism in Vasubandhu.- 3.3.1 Vasubandhu's theory of two truths.- 3.3.2 Vasubandhu's phenomenalism.- Notes.- 4: Di?n?ga's Theory of Knowledge.- 4.1 Hetucakranir?aya.- 4.2 The Pram??asamuccaya.- 4.2.1 Sensation in the Pram??asamuccaya.- 126.96.36.199 Awareness's awareness of itself.- 4.2.2 Inference in the Pram??asamuccaya.- 188.8.131.52 The subject matter of inference.- 184.108.40.206 Three characteristics of legitimate evidence.- 220.127.116.11 On errancy and pervasion.- 4.3 The skepticism implicit in Di?n?ga's epistemology.- Notes.- 5: Di?n?ga's nominalism.- 5.1 The ?lambanapar?k??.- 5.2 The context of the discussion of nominalism in the Pram??asamuccaya.- 5.2.1 Scripture as a form of inferential sign.- 5.2.2 Fallibility in inference and scripture.- 5.2.3 The question of uni versais.- 5.2.4 Any?poha as a substitute for universals.- 5.2.5 The nature of information conveyed by language.- 5.2.6 The meaning of individual words.- 5.2.7 Particulars as instantiations of universals.- 5.2.8 Absurdities in the view that universals exist outside thought.- 5.2.9 The contrariety of expressions.- 5.2.10 The meaning of a sentence.- 5.2.11 The sentence as the primary linguistic symbol.- Notes.- Translations Introduction to translation.- The history of the Pram??asamuccaya in Tibet.- 6: Pram??asamuccaya II "On reasoning".- 6.1 Inference differentiated from sensation.- 6.2 The three characteristics of legitimate evidence.- 6.3 Property-bearer as the subject of inference.- 6.4 On restricted and errant properties.- 6.5 Non-symmetry of restriction and pervasion.- Notes.- 7: Pram??asamuccaya V: On the nature of signs in language.- 7.1 On the question of what verbal symbols make known.- 7.2 On the relationships between symbols that express preclusion.- 7.3 On the unreality of universals outside thought.- 7.4 On the question of what linguistic symbols preclude.- Notes.- 8: Conclusions.- Appendix A: Glossary of Sanskrit Terms.- Appendix B: Tibetan-Sanskrit Lexicon.- Selected Bibliography.- Subject and Author Index.