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When white men can't do math, necessary and sufficient factors in stereotype threat

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When white men can't do math, necessary and sufficient factors in stereotype threat

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... Notably, ST effects are not attributable to the development of a victim identity or withdrawal of effort (Steele & Aronson, 1995), internalized inferiority (Aronson, Lustina, Good, Keough, Steele & Brown, 1999), or pressure from being observed (Aronson & Steele, 1995;Aronson, et al. 1999). ST is also not an alternative to, or incompatible with, effects of group role socializationi.e., the cumulative effects of group-based differences in expectations and incentives associated with various domains or specific activities (Spencer, et al., 1999). ...
... Notably, ST effects are not attributable to the development of a victim identity or withdrawal of effort (Steele & Aronson, 1995), internalized inferiority (Aronson, Lustina, Good, Keough, Steele & Brown, 1999), or pressure from being observed (Aronson & Steele, 1995;Aronson, et al. 1999). ST is also not an alternative to, or incompatible with, effects of group role socializationi.e., the cumulative effects of group-based differences in expectations and incentives associated with various domains or specific activities (Spencer, et al., 1999). ...
... First, the stereotype must be relevant in that it is salient and applicable to the situation: e.g., exposing a woman who is about to take a math test to negative stereotypes about women in STEM fields would likely induce ST, while stereotypes about women's athletic abilities in the same situation would not. The stereotype may be either about one's own group (direct targeting), or about another group to which one compares unfavorably (indirect targeting; Aronson et al., 1999). Stereotypes pertaining to another group to which one compares favorably may result in Stereotype Lift (Walton & Cohen, 2003), while positive stereotypes about one's own group may cause Stereotype Susceptibility (Shih, Pittinsky & Ambady, 1999). ...
Article
Great progress has been made on both intra- and interpersonal coordination by recasting them as the product of distributed parts and processes, in terms closer to those of physics than psychology. However, insofar as coordination is an a posteriori product of competing and cooperating forces defined across an organism-environment system, the full breadth of forces present must be considered. This requires approaching the consequences of the organism’s embedding within higher-level social and cultural systems. Across three experiments, Stereotype Threat (ST) manipulations were used to affect the sociocultural context or meaning of coordination. These experiments were intended to address complementary issues in coordination and ST research. First, can ST affect the performance of a common rhythmic coordination task? Second, is it the case that ST impacts coordination through attentional processes? And third, does the effect of ST extend to interpersonal coordination, and if so, what potential social consequences exist? In Experiment 1, participants completed an intrapersonal bimanual rhythmic coordination task with either a Control or ST task frame. Experiment 2 was similar, but also featured a distractor task, the presence of which was manipulated within-subjects. In Experiment 3, participant dyads completed an interpersonal rhythmic coordination task. Dyads were composed of either two members who received the Control task frame (Control Dyads), or one member who received the Control task frame and one who received the ST task frame (Asymmetrical Dyads). In all three experiments, ST was shown to significantly affect performance on the coordination task: the ability of both individual participants and dyads to maintain a specified mode of coordination was diminished under ST. In Experiments 1 and 3, but not Experiment 2, ST also significantly decreased the stability of coordination. Participants who received the ST task frame reported significantly higher levels of stereotype activation in all three experiments. ST was shown to increase self-reported anxiety in Experiment 1, though this effect was not found in Experiments 2 or 3. Finally, Experiment 3 suggests that ST may affect interpersonal feelings of liking or comfort, and further that these factors are associated with task performance.
... Die erhöhte Vulnerabilität hoch identifizierter Gruppenmitglieder gegenüber Stereotype Threat konnte mittlerweile in einer Reihe von Studien nachgewiesen werden (z. B. Davis et al. 2006;Martiny et al. 2012;Schmader 2002;Wout et al. 2008 (Aronson 2002;Aronson et al. 1999;Cadinu et al. 2003;Keller 2007;Levy 1996;Leyens et al. 2000;Spencer et al. 1999;Stone et al. 1999). Wie bereits ausgeführt konnte wiederholt gezeigt werden, dass Menschen dann besonders anfällig für die negativen Effekte von Stereotypaktivierung sind, wenn sie eine Domäne besonders wertschätzen (z. ...
... Wie bereits ausgeführt konnte wiederholt gezeigt werden, dass Menschen dann besonders anfällig für die negativen Effekte von Stereotypaktivierung sind, wenn sie eine Domäne besonders wertschätzen (z. B. Aronson et al. 1999;Cadinu et al. 2003;Keller 2007;Levy 1996). So zeigte zum Beispiel eine der ersten Studien zu Stereotype Threat (Aronson et al. 1999), dass nur diejenigen Weißen, die sich hoch mit Mathematik identifizierten, einen Stereotype Threat-Effekt zeigten, wenn sie mit dem negativen Stereotype über die Fähigkeiten von Weißen im Vergleich zu AsiatÃinnen in Mathematik konfrontiert wurden. ...
... B. Aronson et al. 1999;Cadinu et al. 2003;Keller 2007;Levy 1996). So zeigte zum Beispiel eine der ersten Studien zu Stereotype Threat (Aronson et al. 1999), dass nur diejenigen Weißen, die sich hoch mit Mathematik identifizierten, einen Stereotype Threat-Effekt zeigten, wenn sie mit dem negativen Stereotype über die Fähigkeiten von Weißen im Vergleich zu AsiatÃinnen in Mathematik konfrontiert wurden. Dies bedeutet, dass negative Stereotype über die Leistungsfähigkeit bestimmter Migrant*innengruppen die in Deutschland weitverbreitet sind, vor allem denjenigen Schüler*innen mit Migrationshintergrund schaden können, die sich stark mit akademischen Leistungen und der Schule identifizieren. ...
Chapter
Frühere Forschung hat gezeigt, dass die Aktivierung negativer Stereotype leistungseinschränkende Effekte für betroffene Gruppenmitglieder haben kann (sogenannter Stereotype Threat-Effekt). Im vorliegenden Beitrag wird zunächst ein Überblick über diese Forschung gegeben, bei dem immer wieder Bezug auf die besondere Situation ethnischer Minderheiten in Deutschland genommen wird. Da negative Emotionen im Kontext von Stereotype Threat eine bedeutsame Rolle spielen können, werden in einem nächsten Schritt Ansätze zur Emotionsregulation in die Forschung zu Stereotype Threat integriert. Abschließend werden verschiedene Arten der Emotionsregulation dargestellt, die von Menschen mit Migrationshintergrund in Stereotype Threat-Situationen eingesetzt werden können.
... Die erhöhte Vulnerabilität hoch identifizierter Gruppenmitglieder gegenüber Stereotype Threat konnte mittlerweile in einer Reihe von Studien nachgewiesen werden (z. B. Davis et al. 2006;Martiny et al. 2012;Schmader 2002;Wout et al. 2008 (Aronson 2002;Aronson et al. 1999;Cadinu et al. 2003;Keller 2007;Levy 1996;Leyens et al. 2000;Spencer et al. 1999;Stone et al. 1999). Wie bereits ausgeführt konnte wiederholt gezeigt werden, dass Menschen dann besonders anfällig für die negativen Effekte von Stereotypaktivierung sind, wenn sie eine Domäne besonders wertschätzen (z. ...
... Wie bereits ausgeführt konnte wiederholt gezeigt werden, dass Menschen dann besonders anfällig für die negativen Effekte von Stereotypaktivierung sind, wenn sie eine Domäne besonders wertschätzen (z. B. Aronson et al. 1999;Cadinu et al. 2003;Keller 2007;Levy 1996). So zeigte zum Beispiel eine der ersten Studien zu Stereotype Threat (Aronson et al. 1999), dass nur diejenigen Weißen, die sich hoch mit Mathematik identifizierten, einen Stereotype Threat-Effekt zeigten, wenn sie mit dem negativen Stereotype über die Fähigkeiten von Weißen im Vergleich zu AsiatÃinnen in Mathematik konfrontiert wurden. ...
... B. Aronson et al. 1999;Cadinu et al. 2003;Keller 2007;Levy 1996). So zeigte zum Beispiel eine der ersten Studien zu Stereotype Threat (Aronson et al. 1999), dass nur diejenigen Weißen, die sich hoch mit Mathematik identifizierten, einen Stereotype Threat-Effekt zeigten, wenn sie mit dem negativen Stereotype über die Fähigkeiten von Weißen im Vergleich zu AsiatÃinnen in Mathematik konfrontiert wurden. Dies bedeutet, dass negative Stereotype über die Leistungsfähigkeit bestimmter Migrantengruppen, die in Deutschland weitverbreitet sind, vor allem denjenigen SchülerÃinnen mit Migrationshintergrund schaden können, die sich stark mit akademischen Leistungen und der Schule identifizieren. ...
... Importantly, a group need not be stigmatized in general in order for its members to be susceptible to stereotype threat effects. White American men perform worse on athletic tasks when reminded of the stereotype that African Americans have superior athletic ability (Stone et al., 1999) and perform worse on math tests when reminded of the "model minority" stereotype of Asian Americans in math (Aronson et al., 2001). Therefore, even dominant group members can experience stereotype threat, so long as a negative stereotype about their group relative to another group is activated. ...
... In Studies 3 and 4, identification with science was assessed as a moderator to further test whether reminders of the Christianity-science conflict narrative would induce feelings of stereotype threat or disengagement among Christians. Based on stereotype threat theory, strongly science-identified Christians should be more likely than weakly scienceidentified Christians to underperform in the incompatible condition (Aronson et al., 2001), whereas a disengagement explanation would predict lower performance among weakly identified Christians in the incompatible condition. Importantly, the performance tasks in each study were described as assessing scientific reasoning; previous research on negative stereotypes of Christians in science has found that describing an otherwise identical task as irrelevant to science (e.g., as assessing "intuitive thought") eliminates performance differences between Christians and non-Christians (Rios et al., 2015). ...
... Participants were told they would read an op-ed article from a major news source. Similar manipulations have been used in prior stereotype threat research (e.g., Aronson et al., 2001). In the compatible (incompatible) condition, the article was titled "AAAS Speaks Out on Perceived Compatibility (Incompatibility) Between Christianity and Science." ...
Article
Stereotypes of religion (particularly Christianity) as incompatible with science are widespread, and prior findings show that Christians perform worse than non-Christians on scientific reasoning tasks following reminders of such stereotypes. The present studies ( N = 1,456) examine whether these reminders elicit stereotype threat (i.e., fear of confirming negative societal stereotypes about one’s group), disengagement (i.e., distancing oneself from a domain perceived as incongruent with the values of one’s group), or both. In Studies 1 and 2, Christians demonstrated lower task performance and greater subjective feelings of stereotype threat (but did not spend less time on the task) relative to non-Christians when beliefs about Christianity–science incompatibility were chronic or made salient. Furthermore, the effects of incompatibility stereotypes on performance were most pronounced among Christians who identified strongly with science and hence worried most about confirming negative stereotypes (Studies 3–4). Implications for Christians’ responses to religion–science conflict narratives and participation in science are discussed.
... This definition implies that stereotypes consist of two parts; they link a group (e.g., East Africans) to specific traits and/or performance outcomes (e.g., good at running marathons) by generalizing across group members and neglecting individual differences. Stereotypes are prevalent in performance domains such as academics and sport, and research has demonstrated that negative performance-related stereotypes (e.g., women are not good at soccer) can hinder people's performance in achievement situations (Aronson et al., 1999;Beilock, Jellison, Rydell, McConnell, & Carr, 2006;Spencer, Steele, & Quinn, 1999;Stone, Lynch, Sjomeling, & Darley, 1999). This negative effect of stereotypes on group members' performance in achievement settings is called stereotype threat (ST). ...
... Numerous experimental studies have examined the effect of ST on performance in the cognitive domain (Aronson et al., 1999;Harrison et al., 2009;Schmader & Johns, 2003;Spencer et al., 1999;Steele, 1997;Stone, Harrison, & Mottley, 2012) and motor domain (Beilock et al., 2006;Chalabaev et al., 2013;Chalabaev, Sarrazin, Stone, & Cury, 2008;Heidrich & Chiviacowsky, 2015;Hermann & Vollmeyer, 2016;Hively & El-Alayli, 2014;Krendl, Gainsburg, & Ambady, 2012;Martiny et al., 2015;Stone et al., 1999;Stone & McWhinnie, 2008). Typically, in these studies, ST is activated by making participants in the experimental group aware of a stereotype related to their group membership. ...
... There exist many more examples of studies demonstrating harm to performance after the activation of a negative stereotype, both in the cognitive domain (Aronson et al., 1999;Schmader & Johns, 2003;Spencer et al., 1999;Steele, 1997) and motor domain (Beilock et al., 2006;Chalabaev et al., 2013;Heidrich & Chiviacowsky, 2015;Krendl et al., 2012). The sum of this evidence suggests that cues in a real-world sporting context, broadly defined, may activate negative stereotypes and contribute to underperformance of stereotyped group members. ...
Article
Stereotype threat (ST) theory holds that activation of a negative stereotype has a harmful effect on performance in cognitive and motor domains. This paper provides a literature review followed by recommendations for sport psychology practitioners. The review introduces the stereotypes that exist in sport, the effects of ST activation on performance, mechanisms thought to underlie the relationship between ST and performance, and phenomena in which stereotypes can lead to improved performance. Recommendations for practitioners include individual and organizational level approaches, with the former subdivided into interventions aimed at prevention or coping. The paper concludes with avenues for future research.
... According to the original conceptualisation of stereotype threat theory, in test situations members of negatively stereotyped groups can feel sufficient anxiety either they will be negatively stereotyped by others or that they will conform to that negative stereotype, that they do in fact underperform (Steele, 1997;Steele & Aronson, 1995 The underpinnings of stereotype threat theory are firstly, that individuals are motivated to sustain a self-image of competence or 'goodness' (Aronson et al., 1999), and secondly, that their identity is closely tied in with the identity of the group(s) to which they feel they belong (Haslam, Salvatore, Kessler & Reicher, 2008). Stereotype threat can occur therefore when individuals are put in a situation in which their ability to sustain this positive self-image is jeopardised by their awareness that, if they perform badly, they will be confirming a negative stereotype about their group (Aronson et al., 1999). ...
... According to the original conceptualisation of stereotype threat theory, in test situations members of negatively stereotyped groups can feel sufficient anxiety either they will be negatively stereotyped by others or that they will conform to that negative stereotype, that they do in fact underperform (Steele, 1997;Steele & Aronson, 1995 The underpinnings of stereotype threat theory are firstly, that individuals are motivated to sustain a self-image of competence or 'goodness' (Aronson et al., 1999), and secondly, that their identity is closely tied in with the identity of the group(s) to which they feel they belong (Haslam, Salvatore, Kessler & Reicher, 2008). Stereotype threat can occur therefore when individuals are put in a situation in which their ability to sustain this positive self-image is jeopardised by their awareness that, if they perform badly, they will be confirming a negative stereotype about their group (Aronson et al., 1999). In line with this idea, stereotype threat is hypothesised to be most problematic for people who identify strongly with the domain being testedso for example, in a maths test women to whom being good at maths is important will be most negatively affected by the stereotype that women are bad at maths. ...
... As mentioned in Chapter 6, many of the problems often blamed for ethnic minority underperformance are intractable: e.g. social deprivation (Aronson et al., 1999). It is not possible for medical schools to improve the childhood experiences of their entrants, and selecting students who do not come from deprived backgrounds is socially unacceptable and unfair (and of course there are Widening Participation programmes which aim to do the exact opposite, Cf. ...
Conference Paper
This thesis presents a series of quantitative and qualitative studies, conducted with UCL Medical School students, which aimed to answer the following research question “which factors influence the differential performance of ethnic minority and white medical students in undergraduate assessments?” The first study explored the reliability and magnitude of the ethnic gap in attainment in Years 1, 2 and 3 of UCL Medical School. Results showed that within Years the gap was reliable over time, and that it was greatest in Year 3. The second study used a questionnaire to examine whether demographic and psychological factors might mediate the statistical relationship between ethnic group and academic performance in Years 1 and 3. Results showed that whilst ethnic minority and white students did differ on a number of factors, this could not explain the entire ethnic gap in attainment. The third study used qualitative interview methods to explore how Year 3 medical students and clinical teachers perceived the factors affecting learning and teaching in the clinical environment, including ethnic group. Results showed that some clinical teachers and students held negative stereotypical views about Asian medical students. Three hypothesised mechanisms for how stereotyping might negatively affect Asian students’ performance in examinations were generated. The fourth study experimentally investigated the effects of a social intervention designed to minimise some of the hypothesised negative effects of stereotyping and narrow the ethnic gap in attainment. Results showed that the intervention did narrow the gap as predicted, but unexpectedly this was due to changed performance in the white rather than the ethnic minority group. These results are discussed in terms of the complexities of research involving ethnicity and the multi-factorial nature of the influences on learning at medical school.
... Stereotypes are ubiquitous in our society, detailing specific expectations evoked by gender, ethnicity, nationality, religion, or sexual orientation. Their effects on the stigmatized groups can be detrimental and the effects span such diverse fields as athletics or skilled performance 1-3 , as well as various cognitive abilities, such as mathematics or verbal skills [3][4][5][6] . ...
... Stereotypes are ubiquitous in our society, detailing specific expectations evoked by gender, ethnicity, nationality, religion, or sexual orientation. Their effects on the stigmatized groups can be detrimental and the effects span such diverse fields as athletics or skilled performance [1][2][3] , as well as various cognitive abilities, such as mathematics or verbal skills [3][4][5][6] . ...
Article
Full-text available
Stereotypes are abundant in everyday life – and whereas their influence on cognitive and motor performance is well documented, a causal role in pain processing is still elusive. Nevertheless, previous studies have implicated gender-related stereotype effects in pain perception as potential mediators partly accounting for sex effects on pain. An influence of stereotypes on pain seems indeed likely as pain measures have proven especially susceptible to expectancy effects such as placebo effects. However, so far empirical approaches to stereotype effects on pain are correlational rather than experimental. In this study, we aimed at documenting gender-related stereotypes on pain perception and processing by actively manipulating the participants’ awareness of common stereotypical expectations. We discovered that gender-related stereotypes can significantly modulate pain perception which was mirrored by activity levels in pain-associated brain areas.
... Stereotype threat research demonstrated that a concern that one's actions can be viewed through the lens of a negative stereotype may undermine performance in a negatively stereotyped domain (Steele and Aronson 1995). In support of the stereotype threat explanation, a large body of studies have demonstrated that the salience of negative stereotypes about one's identity group systematically impact performance on evaluative tasks in a given context (Appel and Kronberger 2012;Steele and Aronson 1995;Steele 1997;Aronson et al. 1999;Scherbaum et al. 2011). For example, experimental studies have shown that even though female and male students had similar performance on an intermediate level math test, in the case of more advanced problems, female students performed worse than their male counterparts (Gallagher et al. 2000;Kimball 1989). ...
... That is, when the stereotypical situations become salient, one may also fear to be a stereotypic member of the particular group (e.g., either in one's own eyes or in the eyes of others) with performance as the potential representation of one's own personal abilities (Shapiro et al. 2013). In many studies, stereotype threat is conceptualized either as a concern reflecting on group abilities, in which the stereotyped group's members feel more anxiety that they will prove the negative stereotype about their group (i.e., group-as-target stereotype threat; Aronson and Lustina et al. 1999). Consistent with that conceptualization, participants are told that their performance on a particular task will be evaluated as a measure of their group's capabilities (Cohen and Garcia 2005;Steele et al. 2002;Schmader and Johns 2003;Marx et al. 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
We examined if an adapted version of a brief social psychological intervention following a multi-threat framework can enhance the mental task performance of female college students under stereotype threat. In experiment 1, under self-as-target stereotype threat, as expected, students who were exposed to the self-affirmation intervention had the highest task performance. However, under group-as-target stereotype threat, we found similar performances of the students in both the self-affirmation and group-affirmation conditions compared to control condition. In experiment 2, we showed that the extent a female student is identified with her gender group moderates the effectiveness of the group-affirmation intervention. The current research encourages researchers to consider different understandings of self while instituting common stereotype threat interventions rather than taking a uniform approach.
... The term stereotype threat was first used by Steele (1997) to explain the social-psychological threat that individuals feel when they are performing specific tasks that may elicit a negative stereotype about the individuals' group membership. The threat can affect not only the group for which negative stereotypes could apply, but also individuals who strongly identify with the particular group (Aronson et al., 1999). According to Steele and Aronson (1995), when African American students were aware that their intellectual abilities were being tested and their race was made salient, their performance tended to decrease. ...
... Stereotype threat and social identity Steele and Aronson (1995) discovered that stereotype threat can affect any group for which negative stereotypes might apply; moreover, individuals whose social identity is made salient in comparison with a more favorable group were more likely to suffer (Aronson et al., 1999). For example, when white men were told their performance on a math task would be compared with the performance of Asian men, the white men's performance became lower (Smith and White, 2002). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose One of the goals of various European Union (EU) organizations (i.e. Roma and non-Roma nonprofits) is the integration of Roma into the educational system. A challenge for the educational systems of EU countries, therefore, is to determine how to support the academic performance of Roma. Understanding the positive and negative factors related to Roma’s academic performance and achievement is an important first step in increasing academic success among this minority group. Design/methodology/approach A quantitative experimental design was used both online and face-to-face to examine whether stereotype threat had an influence on the academic performance of Roma in Slovakia and second, whether such threat was moderated by social identification and academic self-efficacy. Findings The results showed that stereotype threat does influence Roma in Slovakia and there were direct effects of social identity and academic self-efficacy on academic performance of the face-to-face participants. Originality/value Consistent with stereotype threat theory, to the best of authors’ knowledge, this research is the first to show that a stereotype threat did harm the academic performance of the face-to-face Roma sampled. Further, although many studies have examined stereotype threat effects on academic performance, little is known regarding whether social identification and academic self-efficacy have an influence on such threats. The results of the study show that social identification and academic self-efficacy had a significant direct influence on academic performance.
... Research on stereotype threat examines the experience of being in a situation where one risks being judged negatively due to a commonly held devaluing stereotype that exists about one's group [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8] . The primary hypothesis of stereotype threat research is that when one is in a situation in which a negative stereotype exists about one's group, then the concern with being judged or of self-fulfilling the stereotype interferes with one's performance. ...
... Stereotype threat can be experienced even if one does not believe the stereotype or worry that the stereotype could be true about oneself. A person can have high self-confidence and still suffer from the effects of stereotype threat; indeed, past research indicates that stereotype threat effects are largest among the best students who are most identified with the subject matter 3,7 . ...
... Dies bezeichnet das Ausmaß zu welchem eine Person einer bestimmten Domäne Wert beimisst. Je wichtiger einer Person eine Domäne ist, desto stärker wirkt sich die Rückmeldung in dieser Domäne auf ihr Selbstkonzept aus (Aronson, 2002;Aronson et al., 1999;Cadinu et al., 2003;Keller, 2007;Levy, 1996;Leyens, Désert, Croizet & Darcis, 2000;Spencer et al., 1999;Stone et al., 1999). Martiny, Roth und Deaux (2010) ist es in einem vollständig kontrollierten experimentellen Setting gelungen, die kausale Wirkung der Identifikation mit der Domäne im Kontext von Stereotype Threat empirisch zu belegen. ...
... Wie bereits ausgeführt konnte aber wiederholt gezeigt werden, dass Menschen dann besonders anfällig für die negativen Effekte von Stereotypaktivierung sind, wenn sie eine Domäne besonders wertschätzen (z. B. Aronson et al., 1999;Cadinu et al., 2003;Keller, 2007;Levy, 1996). So untersuchten zum Beispiel Good, Aronson und Harder (2008) Studentinnen, die im Hauptfach Mathematik in Harvard studierten. ...
Book
Aktuelle theoretische Ansätze zur Erklärung und Förderung herausragender Leistungen von Individuen messen der Qualität und Quantität von Lernprozessen großes Gewicht bei. Sie rücken die Motivation und die Selbstregulation der Lernenden dabei stärker ins Blickfeld als bisher. Der vorliegende Band bündelt Forschung, die diese Perspektive auf hervorragende Leistungen einnimmt. Insgesamt 14 Beiträge stellen neuere konzeptuelle Entwicklungen vor, geben einen Überblick über den aktuellen Forschungsstand und berichten bislang unveröffentlichte Forschungsergebnisse.
... Dweck and colleagues defined another motivational construct that can affect motivation and learning, i.e, theories of intelligence (or intelligence mindset) [53][54][55][56][57]. Theories of intelligence involve views about the nature of intelligence-an "entity theory" in which intelligence is viewed as a fixed trait that one is born with or an "incremental theory" in which intelligence is viewed as malleable and can be shaped by the environment. ...
... It was found that girls who attributed intelligence to effort and learning had math grades comparable to those of their male classmates and superior to girls who viewed intelligence as a fixed trait [54]. Research has also shown that individuals targeted by ability stereotypes (e.g., underrepresented students in STEM courses) tend to show similar characteristics of individuals who believe that intelligence is fixed-they tend to choose easier, success-assuring tasks when their abilities are subject to scrutiny or if their ethnicity or gender is made more salient [55], experience anxiety when the tasks are evaluative and challenging [56], and devalue ability domains in which they have performed poorly [57]. Additional research has also shown that girls who viewed math ability as a trait (had a fixed view of intelligence) and also experienced stereotype threat (that girls are not good at math) had decreased motivation and interest in pursuing math careers [53]. ...
Preprint
The lack of diversity and the under-performance of underrepresented students in STEM courses have been the focus of researchers in the last decade. In particular, many hypotheses have been put forth for the reasons for the under-representation and under-performance of women in physics. Here, we present a framework for helping all students learn in science courses that takes into account four factors: 1) characteristics of instruction and learning tools, 2) implementation of instruction and learning tools, 3) student characteristics, and 4) students' environments. While there has been much research on factor 1 (characteristics of instruction and learning tools), there has been less focus on factor 2 (students' characteristics, and in particular, motivational factors). Here, we focus on the baseline motivational characteristics of introductory physics students obtained from survey data to inform factor 2 of the framework. A longitudinal analysis of students' motivational characteristics in two-semester introductory physics courses was performed by administering pre- and post-surveys that evaluated students' self-efficacy, grit, fascination with physics, value associated with physics, intelligence mindset, and physics epistemology. Female students reported lower self-efficacy, fascination and value, and had a more "fixed" view of intelligence in the context of physics compared to male students. Grit was the only factor on which female students reported averages that were equal to or higher than male students throughout introductory physics courses. These gender differences can at least partly be attributed to the societal stereotypes and biases about who belongs in physics and can excel in it. The findings inform the framework and have implications for the development and implementation of effective pedagogies and learning tools to help all students learn.
... De même, l'effet de menace du stéréotype ne requiert, ni une longue histoire de stigmatisation, ni une intériorisation des stéréotypes. Dans les travaux d'Aronson, Lustina, Good et Keough [13], des étudiants américains d'origine caucasienne, sélectionnés pour leur haut niveau en mathématiques, produisaient de moins bonnes performances à un test standardisé de mathématiques lorsqu'ils étaient conduits à croire que leur performance serait comparée à celle d'étudiants asiatiques. Autrement dit, la simple connaissance d'un stéréotype à l'encontre de son groupe d'appartenance (ici l'idée d'une supériorité des Asiatiques sur les Occidentaux en mathématiques) suffit pour générer un effet de menace du stéréotype. ...
... Autrement dit, la simple connaissance d'un stéréotype à l'encontre de son groupe d'appartenance (ici l'idée d'une supériorité des Asiatiques sur les Occidentaux en mathématiques) suffit pour générer un effet de menace du stéréotype. La menace est même encore plus importante chez les individus les plus performants et les plus fortement identifiés au domaine de compétence ciblé par le stéréotype, et ce, justement parce qu'ils ont le plus à perdre en cas de mauvaises performances [6,13]. ...
... In their seminal work, Steele and Aronson showed that Afro-Americans who were instructed that a test was diagnostic of their verbal abilities solved fewer verbal items of Graduate Record Examination (GRE) than Afro-American students in the control condition in which the test was described as non-diagnostic for verbal abilities. Further research presented diverse and rich evidence from experimental studies on different groups showing that stereotype threat has a significant impact on performance in different domains, e.g., women on math tests (Schmader, 2002), white men when their math abilities are compared to Asian men ( Aronson et al., 1999), the elderly on memory tasks (Levy, 1996) (for review see: Schmader et al., 2008). In sum, stereotype threat can negatively affect performance in diverse domains and it is perceived to be responsible for a substantial part of White vs. Latino gap, White vs. Black gap, and gender gap ( Walton et al., 2013). ...
... However, to establish a cause- effect relationship, a temporal sequence between two variables is needed, which is only possible to test in longitudinal studies. Fourth, only one moderator, namely gender identification, was included in the study, while stereotype threat literature posits several others, e.g., domain identification ( Aronson et al., 1999;Keller, 2007), the level of achievement ( Régner et al., 2016), stereotype endorsement ( Schmader et al., 2004) or test anxiety ( Tempel and Neumann, 2014). As Steele and Aronson (1995) stated, the knowledge about this type of variables is not only important for defining vulnerability to stereotype threat but also for the exploration of differences in the mechanism of this phenomenon in different subgroups such as high identifiers with the domain, or with their own group. ...
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Stereotype threat affects performance in many different groups across many different domains. Despite a large body of experimental research on situational stereotype threat, little attention has been paid to the consequences of repeated experience of stereotype threat. Using structural equation modeling on data from a representative sample of girls from secondary schools, the current research examined the relations of chronic stereotype threat with mathematical achievement, and effectiveness of working memory functions. Moving beyond past theory, this study examined a new mechanism by which chronic stereotype threat decreases school achievement – namely intellectual helplessness. We assumed that repeated experience of stereotype threat works as intellectual helplessness training. After the phase of cognitive mobilization, cognitive exhaustion appears, because the individual has no gain from intense cognitive effort. Corroborating previous research on acute stereotype threat, we demonstrated that chronic stereotype threat is negatively associated with mathematical achievement. Additionally, it was also associated with lower effectiveness of working memory functions, which seems to show depletion of working memory as an effect of chronic stereotype threat. The results also demonstrated that both mediational paths from chronic stereotype threat to mathematical achievement: through working memory depletion and through intellectual helplessness were significant but only for girls that were highly identified with their gender group. In sum, we extended a well-established model of acute stereotype threat to its chronic version and suggested a new mechanism of chronic stereotype threat, which involves intellectual helplessness. Implications for stereotype threat theory and educational practice are discussed.
... African-American and female students' academic performance was undermined by the prospect of fulfilling stereotypes or by the fear of being judged based on stereotypes regarding their academic capabilities, respectively. Since its origin, the theory has explained educational performance gaps for many identity groups under many performance circumstances: African-American elementary students' academic performance (Wasserberg, 2014), the academic performance of students of low socio-economic status (Croizet & Claire, 1998), women performing mathematical tasks (Cadinu, Maass, Rosabianca, & Kiesner, 2005), and White male students when their math abilities are framed as inferior to Asian students' abilities (Aronson et al., 1999). Importantly, none of these examples of performance gaps represent inherent differences in these groups capabilities, but rather are the results of a systemic element of the cultural environment activated by cues in the environment. ...
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Despite a narrowing trend over the past forty years, the racial academic performance gap between non-Asian-American minority students and European-American students remains an overarching issue in K-12 schooling according to the Stanford Center for Education Policy Analysis (2017). Du Bois’s (1903) theory of double consciousness is implicated in the performance gap phenomenon. Though not explicitly connected, Steele and Aronson’s 1995 study revealed stereotype threat (STT) to be an empirical explanation of the negative impact of double consciousness. Steele et al.’s study revealed a psycho-social contributor to the racial academic performance gap, STT. STT is characterized by performance suppression caused by the fear of fulfilling a negative stereotype or the fear of being judged based on a negative stereotype attributed to one’s social identity group. The activation of this phenomenon is related to identity threatening cues, a systemic issue laden in the academic environment (Purdie-Vaughns, Steele, Davies, Ditlmann, & Crosby, 2008). To date, over 300 studies have been conducted on STT according to a meta-analysis conducted by Pennington, Heim, Levy, and Larkin (2016). Though certain experimental studies featuring mentoring as a vehicle for shifting stereotype narratives have yielded useful practices for STT reduction (Good et al., 2003), qualitative design, which is seldomly employed in the STT field, may produce an understanding of the phenomenon that is not possible through a deductive approach (Ezzy, 2002; van Kaam, 1966). The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore African-American adolescent student perceptions of the impact that mentoring has on their schooling experiences while under STT conditions. The findings of this study demonstrated that African-American adolescents perceived mentoring to positively impact their schooling experiences and helped them to cope with STT activating cues in the environment. The participants discussed structural aspects of the relationships, personality attributes of the mentor, and specific mentor guidance. Participants also discussed a documented STT intervention that fell outside of the parameters of their mentoring relationships that positively impacted their schooling experiences and abilities to cope with STT cues – affirmations (Cohen, Garcia, Apfel, & Master, 2006; Walton et al., 2012). Recommendations for practice and future research are presented.
... • Test difficulty -at the limit of participants' ability • Domain identification -participants must be invested in the domain • Stereotype salience -participants must be aware of the stereotype (Aronson et al., 1999) Stereotype threat has been investigated in motor-coordination and sports settings in a number of studies, using tasks ranging from golf putting to basketball shooting (e.g., see Beilock et al., 2006). Given that sport is still considered a male domain (Clément-Guillotin, Chalabaev & Fontayne, 2011), it is unsurprising that the predominant stereotyped group being studied is females (e.g., Beilock & McConnell, 2004). ...
... Neither of these two personal characteristics emerged as a relevant moderator. Although stigma consciousness or stigma experiences may increase adults' (Brown & Pinel, 2003) and children's (McKown & Strambler, 2009) susceptibility to stereotype threat, these findings are in line with the general tenet that stereotype-induced performance deficits may occur even in the absence of any other aggravating factor (Aronson et al., 1999). Similarly, gender, age, and (contrary to our expectations) task difficulty did not moderate the explored relation, possibly because weight stigma equally affects boys and girls during middle childhood and may impair performance even on tasks demanding relatively low cognitive control. ...
Article
The high prevalence of childhood obesity has drawn increasing attention to the neurocognitive impairments associated with excess weight, and evidence has accumulated of a progressive decline in working memory at increasing levels of children's Body Mass Index (BMI). However, obesity is also a highly stigmatizing condition, and pervasive societal stereotypes depict individuals with obesity as less intelligent than those with average weight. For this reason, we investigated whether stereotype threat (i.e., the fear of confirming a negative stereotype attached to one's social groups) contributes to working memory impairments in children with excess weight. By applying a consolidated paradigm in stereotype threat research, primary school-age children (N = 176) performed a computerized working memory task that was alternatively labeled as diagnostic (i.e., stereotype-threatening) or nondiagnostic (i.e., non-stereotype-threatening) of their intellectual ability. Results confirmed that working memory decreased at increasing levels of BMI in the stereotype-threatening condition, whereas the relation between body weight and working memory was null when task diagnosticity was removed. This effect was not further moderated by children's direct experiences of weight-based stigmatization or by their personal endorsement of the obesity stereotype about intelligence. These findings suggest that vulnerability to weight-related stereotype threat emerges early in life and may contribute to working memory deficits in children with obesity.
... For example, Latinas 3 and women 4 can be affected by it 5 as well as white males taking math vis-àvis Asian students. 6 Stereotype threat can be a constant companion for minority students in majority institutions. It is a source of stress which affects how they deal with faculty, staff, students, and librarians. ...
... • Test difficulty -at the limit of participants' ability • Domain identification -participants must be invested in the domain • Stereotype salience -participants must be aware of the stereotype (Aronson et al., 1999) Stereotype threat has been investigated in motor-coordination and sports settings in a number of studies, using tasks ranging from golf putting to basketball shooting (e.g., see Beilock et al., 2006). Given that sport is still considered a male domain (Clément-Guillotin, Chalabaev & Fontayne, 2011), it is unsurprising that the predominant stereotyped group being studied is females (e.g., Beilock & McConnell, 2004). ...
... • la pertinence du stéréotype : les participants doivent être conscients du stéréotype (Aronson et al., 1999). ...
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Dans le présent article, nous proposons une approche de l’enseignement qui se veut moins prescriptive que les approches habituelles. Notre démarche didactique se divise en trois étapes progressives et complémentaires. La première encourage l’enfant à explorer l’environnement d’apprentissage et à découvrir ses habiletés motrices ; la deuxième constitue une phase intermédiaire, durant laquelle l’enfant se familiarise avec différentes façons de se comporter et de frapper la balle ; la dernière aide chaque enfant à découvrir naturellement les mouvements et les frappes qui lui conviennent le mieux. Mots clés : acquisition, enseignement non prescriptif, pédagogie non linéaire
... Instead men's lower performance seems to reflect a more general concern about devaluation and unfair treatment of their group. This finding fuels the idea that the experience of threat is not contingent on having a stigmatized identity (Aronson et al., 1999). Group members who are usually advantaged and valued in the society can also experience the deleterious effect of being devalued and disadvantaged in a specific setting. ...
... • Test difficulty -at the limit of participants' ability • Domain identification -participants must be invested in the domain • Stereotype salience -participants must be aware of the stereotype (Aronson et al., 1999) Stereotype threat has been investigated in motor-coordination and sports settings in a number of studies, using tasks ranging from golf putting to basketball shooting (e.g., see Beilock et al., 2006). Given that sport is still considered a male domain (Clément-Guillotin, Chalabaev & Fontayne, 2011), it is unsurprising that the predominant stereotyped group being studied is females (e.g., Beilock & McConnell, 2004). ...
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This article presents a less prescriptive approach to the teaching. Our didactic proposal is divided into 3 complementary and progressive stages. The first one encourages the child to explore the learning environment and to discover their motor capabilities; the second is an intermediate phase with greater practice variety in which the child experiences different ways of acting and hitting; the last one aims for each child to discover their own preferred movements and strokes in a natural way. Key words: acquisition, non-prescriptive teaching, non-linear pedagogy
... Stereotype threat has been typically framed as a phenomenon affecting currently underrepresented groups, particularly in the United States where many of these studies took place, and especially women and African Americans. In reality, stereotype threat affects anyone from white males [16], Asian Americans [495], European Americans [510], men on a test of social sensitivity [306], French students [109], older Americans [232], etc. Merely the physical presence of other people of the same or different social category evokes or suppresses stereotype threat [252]. Stereotype threat appears to occur more strongly when the individual identifies strongly with the stereotyped group. ...
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With the current proliferation of educational games, MOOCs, and with the pervasive use of virtual identities such as avatars in systems ranging from online forums to virtual reality simulations, it is increasingly important to understand the impacts of avatars. Over two years, I led an initiative in MIT's Imagination, Computation, and Expression (ICE) Laboratory conducting experiments involving > 10,000 participants to understand the impacts of virtual identities on users in virtual environments. Using a computer science learning platform and game of our own creation as an experimental setting, we have been studying the impacts of avatar use on users' performance and engagement in computer science learning environments. This is a topic of increasing importance in human-computer interaction [69, 130, 132, 310, 452, 549]. While a great deal of work focuses on procedural thinking and problem solving, we argue that attending to learners' identities and their engagement to be equally important. We systematically explored the impacts of different avatar types on users, beginning with distinctions between anthropomorphic vs. non-anthropomorphic avatars, user likeness vs. non-likeness avatars, and other conditions informed by insights from the learning sciences and sociology. Our studies have revealed that avatars can support, or harm, performance and engagement. Several notable trends are: 1) simple abstract avatars (such as geometric shapes) are especially effective when the player is experiencing failure, e.g., while debugging, 2) likeness avatars (avatars in a user's likeness) are not always effective, 3) role model avatars (in particular scientist avatars) are often effective, and 4) successful likeness avatars that are a user's likeness when doing well and otherwise abstract are effective. We describe our studies leading to these findings and end with a follow-up study.
... Despite this, admission standards at some institutions may be hesitant to adopt new protocols for recruitment. This is important because there is a wealth of literature describing the negative impact of stereotype threat on African American's academic achievement (Aronson et al., 1998;Sackett, Haridson, & Cullen, 2004;Steele, 1999;Steele & Aronson, 1995); however, common predictors of college achievement still typically place a significant amount of focus on the more easily quantifiable academic benchmarks of success (Junco, 2015). ...
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Resilience is a key component in the success equation for many students attending a historically Black college or university (HBCU). Although traditional indicators of prior academic achievement are often used to predict persistence to degree completion, there is growing support for including latent non-cognitive characteristics into this model. The current study surveyed third-year African American HBCU students using the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale to gauge their existing resilience. Results indicated that the instrument was appropriate for use with this cohort, who displayed slightly higher than average resilience compared to the general population, which could have been due to the respondent’s already persisting to their junior year. More research is needed to address the relationship between resilience and other sociodemographic, environmental, and institutional factors that may impact HBCU students’ prior to, and across the entire range of their college career.
... Despite this important distinction, the two phenomena probably work together, since activating a positive in-group stereotype generally triggers a negative out-group stereotype (e.g., if "men are good at math," then "women are bad at math"). For example, it has been shown that the math performance of male participants increased when their male identity was made salient (McGlone & Aronson, 2006) but decreased when their "White" identity was made salient (compared to Asian people, who are reputed to excel in math) (Aronson et al., 1999). It has been proposed that the beneficial impacts of both stereotype lift and stereotype boost on performance result from (downward) comparison (Shih et al., 2012). ...
Article
Objective: Some studies have shown that diagnosis threat (DT) could negatively impact the cognitive performance of undergraduate students who had sustained a mild traumatic brain injury. This study was designed to examine DT in people with acquired brain injury (ABI). As a second goal, we investigated the effect of stereotype lift as a way to overcome DT's harmful impact. The purpose of this study was also to examine the mechanisms mediating stereotype effects. Method: People with ABI and control participants were assigned to one of three conditions: DT, cognitive-neutral (in which the cognitive status of participants with ABI and the cognitive characteristics of the tasks were deemphasized), and stereotype lift (in which a downward comparison was made with another neurological group). Participants then completed neuropsychological tasks. Negative emotions, intrusive thoughts, task expectancy, and self-efficacy were assessed for mediation analyses. Results: Instructions impacted the performance of people with ABI, but not control participants. Compared to the cognitive-neutral condition, participants with ABI in the DT condition performed worse on memory and executive tasks (but not on attention tasks). These effects were mediated by negative emotions. There was no increase in performance in the stereotype lift condition compared to the DT condition. Conclusions: This study showed that DT can aggravate the cognitive difficulties of people with ABI during neuropsychological assessment. The mediating role of negative emotions and the selective impact of DT on tasks that rely heavily on executive functioning are discussed in the light of the stereotype threat model.
... Because both real and imagined social presence influence consumer behaviors (Argo et al., 2005), researchers can prime stereotype threat outside of face-to-face contexts using social cues (Nguyen and Ryan, 2008). For example, Aronson et al. (1999) had participants read articles about how Asians were better at math than Caucasians and Lee et al. (2011) added mathematical symbols to a brochure to increase math stereotype threat among women. Without these primes, stereotype threat is naturally low outside of face-to-face contexts. ...
It is unclear why customers perceive some salespeople to be helpful and others to be threatening. Salesperson stereotypes are often considered negative and threatening; however, salesperson stereotypes may also be positive and professional. Based on the concepts of stereotype threat and compound stereotyping, this research proposes that customers form opinions about the threat posed by specific salespeople based on: (1) the extent to which they feel threatened by stereotypical salespeople in an industry, (i.e., stereotype threat), and then (2) the degree to which the salesperson's appearance matches customer stereotypes about salespeople for that industry. Salesperson stereotypes are viewed negatively when they elicit a stereotype threat in customers and viewed positively when they do not. This research investigates an alterable appearance characteristic, salesperson attire, and a fixed demographic characteristic, salesperson gender, using three experimental studies and a field study. When salespeople belong to a demographic that is considered threatening to a particular customer, they can wear less formal attire to avoid stereotype threat. When salespeople are not considered threatening, they should conform to salesperson stereotypes of professionalism.
... Tutkimuksessa on käynyt ilmi myös, että stereotypiauhka liittyy nimenomaan suoritustilanteessa esiintyviin vihjeisiin, jolloin enemmistöryhmän jäsenkin voi kärsiä stereotypiauhasta. Vaikka euroopanamerikkalaiset miesopiskelijat ovat stereotyyppisesti hyviä matematiikassa, heidän matematiikan koesuorituksensa huononee, kun heille kerrotaan, että heidän suoritustaan verrataan aasialais-amerikkalaisten opiskelijoiden (jotka stereotyyppisesti ovat vieläkin parempia matematiikassa) suoritukseen (Aronson, Lustina, Good & Keough, 1999). Euroopanamerikkalaiset miehet myös suoriutuvat huonommin urheilussa, jos heidän suoritusta kerrotaan verrattavan afrikanamerikkalaisten opiskelijoiden (jotka stereotyyppisesti ovat hyviä urheilijoita) tuloksiin (ks. ...
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Tässä selvityksessä tarkastellaan syrjinnän vastaisen pedagogiikan keinoja ja käytäntöjä. Syrjinnän vastaisella pedagogiikalla tarkoitetaan selvityksessä niitä pedagogisia keinoja, joilla voidaan ehkäistä erilaisia syrjinnän muotoja. Opettajilla ja koululaitoksella on käytettävissään runsaasti tällaisia keinoja mutta tässä selvityksessä keskitytään oppimistilanteiden yhdenvertaisuuden lisäämiseen sekä ryhmienvälisiä suhteita edistämään pyrkiviin interventioihin. Näitä keinoja tarkastellaan kriittisesti tutkimuskirjallisuuden valossa ja pohditaan niiden soveltuvuutta eri syrjintäperusteilla tapahtuvan syrjinnän ehkäisemiseksi kouluissa. Rajaukseen on päädytty, koska tutkimukseen perustuvaa tietoa syrjinnän vastaisesta pedagogiikasta ja sen tehokkuudesta on suhteellisen vähän mutta sitä löytyy eniten nimenomaan oppimistilanteiden yhdenvertaisuuden lisäämisestä ja ryhmienvälisiä suhteita edistämään pyrkivistä interventioista. Muiden keinojen vaikutuksia ei ole juurikaan tutkittu. Vain tutkimus voi luoda riittävän tieteellisen pohjan, jonka perusteella voidaan kehittää koulun roolia syrjinnän ehkäisyssä ja syrjinnän vastaisen pedagogiikan keinojen hyödyntäjänä. Interventioiden tieteellisen arvioinnin valossa tarkastellaan myös joukkoa sellaisia syrjinnän vastaisen pedagogiikan keinoja, joita käytetään Suomen kouluissa. Käytössä olevat keinot näyttäisivät tarkastelun perusteella painottavan tietoa ja valistusta ryhmienvälisen kontaktin sijaan. Pelkkä tiedon lisääminen ei kuitenkaan välttämättä vähennä ennakkoluuloja ja esitetty tieto saattaa pahimmassa tapauksessa jopa kääntyä tarkoitustaan vastaan vahvistaen ja uusintaen olemassa olevia stereotypioita. Tietoa ja valistusta tarjoavia interventioita hyödynnettäessä onkin tärkeää huomioida niihin liittyvät haasteet. Kontaktiin perustuvien interventioiden on todettu parantavan ryhmienvälisiä suhteita, mutta kontaktia ei käytössä olevissa keinoissa juuri hyödynnetty. Kontaktiin perustuvia interventioita olisikin aihetta kehitellä ja hyödyntää nykyistä enemmän myös suomalaisissa kouluissa. Kehittelyssä ja hyödyntämisessä tulee kuitenkin huomioida kontaktiin perustuviin interventioihin liittyvät rajoitukset ja haasteet, esimerkiksi sitä, etteivät ne aina sovellu näkymättömiksi jäävien syrjintäperusteiden kohdalla. Kontaktin onnistumisen kannalta on lisäksi tärkeää, että sekä tovereilta että koulun henkilökunnalta saatu normatiivinen vaikutus edistää myönteisten ryhmäsuhteiden muodostumista. Oppimistilanteiden yhdenvertaisuutta voidaan edistää myös varsin pienillä teoilla. Esimerkiksi vähemmistöjen näkyvyyden lisääminen oppimateriaaleissa olisi yksinkertainen yhdenvertaisuutta lisäävä interventio. Myös syrjinnän vastaisen pedagogiikan keinojen huolelliseen suunnitteluun ja luotettavaan arviointiin tulisi kiinnittää nykyistä enemmän huomiota. Suunnitteluvaiheessa on tärkeää pohtia muun muassa sitä, kenelle keino on suunnattu, missä ympäristössä, mikä on ryhmienvälisten suhteiden historia ja nykytila, mitä halutaan käsitellä ja mihin tällä pyritään. Vaikutusten selvittämiseksi keinoja tulisi arvioida tieteellisin menetelmin. Syrjinnän vastaisen pedagogiikan keinoja olisikin tärkeää tutkia lisää ja myös suomalaisessa kouluympäristössä. On kuitenkin muistettava, ettei mikään syrjinnän vastaisen pedagogiikan keino ole tehokas sinällään, vaan sen tekevät tehokkaaksi keinon hyödyntäjät. Opettajien koulutuksen merkitys on hyvien ryhmienvälisten suhteiden kannalta keskeistä. Olisi lisäksi tärkeää, että koulun normit tukisivat sekä syrjinnän vastaisen pedagogiikan keinojen suunnittelua ja käyttöä että syrjinnän seurantaa.
... Last, students were asked to write a letter to a future student at their university who doubted their belonging during the transition to college. These "saying-isbelieving" exercises place students in the role of benefactors not beneficiaries and encourage them to connect the core message to their lives and to internalize it, amplifying its impact (40)(41)(42)(43). The randomized control group completed similar activities, but the content focused on study skills not belonging [see the Supplementary Materials; (26)]. ...
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Broad-access institutions play a democratizing role in American society, opening doors to many who might not otherwise pursue college. Yet these institutions struggle with persistence and completion. Do feelings of nonbelonging play a role, particularly for students from groups historically disadvantaged in higher education? Is belonging relevant to students’ persistence—even when they form the numerical majority, as at many broad-access institutions? We evaluated a randomized intervention aimed at bolstering first-year students’ sense of belonging at a broad-access university ( N = 1,063). The intervention increased the likelihood that racial-ethnic minority and first-generation students maintained continuous enrollment over the next two academic years relative to multiple control groups. This two-year gain in persistence was mediated by greater feelings of social and academic fit one-year post-intervention. Results suggest that efforts to address belonging concerns at broad-access, majority-minority institutions can improve core academic outcomes for historically disadvantaged students at institutions designed to increase college accessibility.
... From an STT perspective, intersectionality raises concerns about "double jeopardy" such that two (or more) identities are imperiled at once (Beal, 2008). People often have multiple identities (e.g., Peter, a white American), so it is possible that even groups not generally stigmatized (e.g., Caucasian men) are susceptible to stereotype threat if one part of their identity (e.g., race) is associated with doing poorly on a task (e.g., math test) compared to others (e.g., Asian men; Aronson et al., 1999). ...
Article
Stereotype threat theory (STT), which seeks to understand intergroup differences in socioeconomic outcomes, has attracted considerable attention since its inception. With the goal of advancing conversation about the usefulness of STT in organizational settings, and to extend discussions on theory assessment, we evaluate STT as a “good” theory for organizational research using a three-pronged (i.e., 3E) theory assessment framework: experience, explain, and establish. Our critical analysis reveals areas where STT has made progress and where gaps remain to be addressed. The systematic approach we pursue allows for a rigorous articulation of the 3E framework for future theory assessment work as well as helps to suggest ways for improving upon and extending STT research in new directions.
... class activities, job interviews and public speeches) in which behavior is evaluated (Aronson and McGlone, 2009;Bergeron et al., 2006). Language-related stereotypes may also activate stereotype threat (Montes-Alcal a, 2009), and people may feel less intelligent (Lindemann, 2002), incompetent (Boyd, 2003), or poor performers in school (Aronson et al., 1999;Steele, 1997). We argue that ICSE could also be seen as an evaluative social context. ...
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Purpose – Language plays an important role in a successful service exchange, but it can become a source of discrimination if one party is a non-native speaker in the host country. This study examines the linguistic racism that non-native customers experience in Inter Culture Service Encounters (ICSEs) and delve into factors that contribute to the underlying psychological responses and the behavioral outcomes. Design/methodology/approach – A phenomenological approach was used where 16 individuals were interviewed to discover themes through non-native customers' lens using an inductive process. Next, the emerged categories were classified based on extant literature, using a deductive approach. Findings – The findings highlight the role of language varieties as a strong social identity cue for non-native customers where the associated stigma makes them see ICSE as a stereotype threat. Most importantly, these experiences shape their future behavior by avoiding direct interactions with the servers and adopting other service channels. Several ‘social others’ influence this process. Originality/value – This study explores the notion of linguistic racism in an ICSE from a non-native consumers’ lens and thus adds to this under-researched literature. Using a phenomenological approach, we propose a framework focusing on the perception of language-related stigma and discrimination experienced by non-native consumers along with possible behavioral responses.
... Un altro aspetto importante evidenziato è che l'attivazione degli stereotipi non colpisce solo chi ha uno status sociale basso. Aronson (1999) in suo esperimento dove parteciparono uomini, caucasici e asiatici, a cui venne chiesto di svolgere un test di matematica osservò che gli uomini di origine caucasica ebbero risultati inferiori rispetto agli asiatici. Nella fase di debriefing alcuni soggetti spiegarono di essersi sentiti a disagio durante lo svolgimento del questionario a causa della riconosciuta superiorità nell'abilità di calcolo da parte dell'etnia asiatica. ...
... The different results on each dimension of technophobia may be because negative stereotypes often challenge the competence of the stereotyped group. Stereotype threat has consistently been found to arouse various negative perceptions towards oneself, such as frustration (Steele & Aronson, 1995), lack of confidence (Aronson, Lustina, Good, & Keough, 1999) and low self-efficacy (Bandura, 1977). Therefore, it can be argued that age-based stereotype threat among older adults directly affects their fear of personal failure in technology use, which is related to personal competence, rather than fear of negative societal consequences, namely, human vs. machine-ambiguity. ...
Article
Intergenerational contact for technology learning frequently transpires in various daily settings of older adults’ lives. However, older adults often hold negative age-based self-stereotype that they are less capable in technology use. Thus, they may experience age-based stereotype threats in such situations, which further induce technophobia. Previous research indicated that positive intergenerational contact can reduce age-based stereotype threat and technophobia among older adults. This research focuses on intergenerational physical proximity, a vital role in structuring intergenerational contact, to investigate how it impacts technophobia via age-based stereotype threat among older adults. In addition, the moderating effect of key attributes of technology—newness and ease of use were explored. A vignette experiment was conducted with a sample of 243 older adults. Results show that more distant intergenerational physical proximity led to lower technophobia-personal failure dimension via more positive self-perception of aging (a manifestation of less age-based stereotype threat) when the technology is of high newness and low ease of use. However, the effect of physical proximity on technophobia was insignificant when the technology is of low newness, or of high newness but high ease of use. The findings of this research can provide detailed and practical suggestions on how to reduce technophobia among older adults through effective intergenerational contact.
... Krauth-Gruber & Ric (2000) did use a positively stereotyped group (young priests), but they were not described in a positive context (stereotype-consistent) that would have matched the positive valence of the stereotype; they were described in the context of committing a violent 62 act (stereotype-inconsistent). In another study, Bless, Schwarz, & Wieland (1996) used a positively stereotyped group (Greenpeace representative) in a positive and stereotype-consistent context (e.g., Greenpeace representatives as being environmentally conscious), but the information about the group was not ambiguous. Given that ambiguity in a stereotype-consistent setting is what deciphers the use of stereotypes, it is important, therefore, to test if this method is also applicable to positively stereotyped groups, such as Asian-Americans (Aronson, Lustina, Good, Keough, Steele, & Brown, 1999;Cheryan & Bodenhausen, 2000). ...
... • Test difficulty -at the limit of participants' ability • Domain identification -participants must be invested in the domain • Stereotype salience -participants must be aware of the stereotype (Aronson et al., 1999) Stereotype threat has been investigated in motor-coordination and sports settings in a number of studies, using tasks ranging from golf putting to basketball shooting (e.g., see Beilock et al., 2006). Given that sport is still considered a male domain (Clément-Guillotin, Chalabaev & Fontayne, 2011), it is unsurprising that the predominant stereotyped group being studied is females (e.g., Beilock & McConnell, 2004). ...
Article
El objetivo de este artículo es comentar cómo se relacionan las tres etapas aceptadas e investigadas del aprendizaje motriz y el concepto de agrupar mentalmente la información para la adquisición y aceleración del proceso de aprendizaje en el tenis. Se hace referencia también a las etapas de aprendizaje, al rol de jugar versus practicar tenis, y a la interacción entre la biomecánica y el aprendizaje motriz. Se proporcionan consejos específicos de entrenamiento.
... La incidencia de este tipo de sesgos es mucho más visible en aquellos entornos laborales homogéneos, como los ligados a la tecnología, donde predomina un ambiente masculinizado, de personas con características similares y supuestamente "representativos" de la mayoría de los hombres que trabajan en dichos ámbitos. como su sentimiento de pertenencia al ámbito donde se comparte este tipo de creencias estereotipadas, y afectan de manera negativa a su rendimiento (Aronson, Steele, Brown, Lustina, Good y Keough, 1999;Shapiro y Williams, 2012). Que las instituciones reconozcan la presencia de este tipo de amenaza es crucial para que empleados, supervisores, proveedores, y otros agentes no los acepten como una práctica normalizada dentro de las mismas. ...
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Este estudio analiza las tres brechas digitales de género, relativas al desigual acceso a las infraestructuras y herramientas digitales; el nivel de competencias digitales y de usos de Internet, que coloca a las mujeres en una posición desfavorable respecto a las oportunidades que ofrecen para el empleo las nuevas herramientas digitales, y la tendencia a colocar a los hombres en el centro de los espacios de participación sociopolítica digital. Además de ello también analiza: - Las transformaciones de la digitalización en el mercado de trabajo: creación y destrucción de empleos e identificación de las competencias profesionales asociadas a dicha digitalización. - Los sesgos de género en la participación y liderazgo vinculados a la inteligencia artificial, el Big Data y el Machine Learning. - Los condicionantes socio­culturales, institucionales y psicosociales que explican la desigual distribución de roles y responsabilidades entre hombres y mujeres, así como algunas de las intervenciones, internacionales y nacionales, llevadas a cabo tanto a nivel educativo como de políticas públicas y empresas en los ámbitos TIC/STEM. http://www.inmujer.gob.es/diseno/novedades/M_MUJERES_Y_DIGITALIZACION_DE_LAS_BRECHAS_A_LOS_ALGORITMOS_04.pdf
... Stereotypes are distorted views of individuals or groups based in generalizations and falsehoods (Steele, 1997). One consequence of negative stereotypes is stereotype threat, feelings of anxiety or fear about con rming a negative stereotype (Aronson, et al., 1999) is can lead to changes in behavior and selfperception. Aronson and Inzlicht (2004) conclude that those who are more prone to stereotype vulnerability, a predisposition to be in uenced by negative stereotypes, may not be able to develop a clear self-concept. ...
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Gender has been shown to impact self-perception which may influence feelings of self-worth and self-concept among the student-athlete population. Within the student-athlete population, a lack of self-concept may impact athletic and athletic performance. This study measured self-perception scores of 306 Division I student- athletes using the Self-Perception Profile for College Students (Harter & Neemann, 2012). Gender differences were reported as the results indicted significant differences in the domains of scholastic competence [F(1, 304) = 28.36, p < .001], intellectual ability [ F(1, 304) = 4.88, p = .028], and athletic competence [F(1, 304) = 10.29, p = .002]. Findings from the present study can assist stakeholders in better understanding and ultimately better assisting the student-athlete population.
... Several studies conducted in North America have also demonstrated negative ST effects on the performance of ethnic minorities on tests of academic ability (Gonzales et al., 2002;Steele & Aronson, 1995). Even White males seem to perform poorly when confronted with the stereotype that Asians are superior in mathematics (Aronson et al., 1999). ST is pervasive in domains where negative stereotypes about a particular group exists. ...
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The present study investigated the theoretical Stereotyping Threatsusceptibility groups proposed by Steele (1997) by using a latent class analysis. 413 undergraduate students from the U.S and Colombia, majoring in various Science Technology Engineering and Math (STEM) and non-STEM disciplines completed a stereotype threat susceptibility measure-- the Social Identities and Attitudes Scale, SIAS (Picho & Brown, 2011). For U.S. women in STEM results indicated the presence of three ST susceptibility profiles (i.e., low and high ST susceptibility classes and a disengaged class) and two variations of an un-identified class in the non-STEM sample. High and low susceptibility to ST classes were found for Colombian women in STEM, while the non-STEM sample yielded disengaged and un-identified classes. In both countries, over 70% of the women in STEM were classified as highly susceptible to ST. This is the first study investigating latent profiles of susceptibility to ST (SST) so additional replication with samples from different populations is strongly recommended. Extensive investigation into latent profiles of ST susceptibility could provide the insight required to develop differentiated ST reduction strategies for students in STEM and non-STEM fields of study
... Women's persistent under-representation in ECE is a combination of two factors: (i) not entering the field; and, (ii) leaving the field. The primary reasons cited in the literature include: unfriendly environments [4][5][6][7][8][9] , dearth of role models [5][6][7][8] , loss-of/lower self-confidence 7 , gender-role socialization 4, 10-11 , undesirable geek culture 4,10 , and stereotypes 4,5,[12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20] . In this paper we focus on three previously published studies that we believe are most germane. ...
... 9 Another finding is that white men may underachieve on math exams when told that their scores would be compared with those of Asian men. 10 Importantly, whites threatened by the Asian math stereotype underperform only if they were very identified with math as integral to their self-identity. In one study, women under stereotype threat had lower leadership aspirations than women who did not experience that threat. ...
... Following these original stereotype threat studies which were focused on the underperformance of African-American college students, numerous other studies have demonstrated that stereotype threat is a form of identity threat that can be experienced by anyone in a situation in which they are concerned about being judged in terms of a stereotype. Such identity threat has been found to depress the performance of girls in math (Brown & Josephs, 1999;Keller & Dauenheimer, 2003;Spencer, Steele, & Quinn, 1999), working class students in France (Croizet & Claire, 1998), white male math students in the presence of Asian students (Aronson et al., 1999), and white male college athletes compared to their African-American counterparts (Stone, Lynch, Sjomeling, & Darley, 1999). ...
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Este artículo reivindica un enfoque menos directivo de la enseñanza del tenis. Nuestra propuesta didáctica se divide en tres etapas complementarias y progresivas. La primera promueve, en mayor medida, que el niño explore los ambientes de aprendizaje y descubra su motricidad; la segunda es una fase intermedia de gran variedad de práctica en la que el niño experimenta diferentes maneras de actuar y de golpear; y la última está destinada a que cada niño encuentre de forma natural sus propios movimientos y golpes preferidos. Palabras clave: adquisición, enseñanza no directiva, pedagogía no lineal
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Purpose This study aims to introduce the concept of dissociative threat, which is the fear of being associated with an undesirable (dissociative) group as a result of demonstrating ability in a domain that is stereotypically linked to that group. Consumers experiencing dissociative threats use inability signaling as a self-presentational strategy in which they present themselves as lacking ability in the dissociative domain. Design/methodology/approach Five experimental studies were conducted to test whether consumers experience threat in dissociative domains and to examine factors that influence this threat. Findings Results showed that dissociative threat adversely affects consumers’ performance at tasks that require using products linked to dissociative groups. Threatened participants reported intentions to perform poorly and train for a longer time in preparation for such tasks, thus signaling low ability in dissociative domains. Additionally, when participants who were experiencing dissociative threats received confirmation that they lacked ability in that domain, their performance at these tasks improved. Research limitations/implications This study expands the knowledge on strategies, including inability signaling, that consumers use to avoid being linked to dissociative groups. Practical implications The findings suggest to marketers that stereotypes that link their products to certain consumer segments can threaten other consumers. Factors that shape and alleviate this threat are identified, which may help companies who are marketing such products. Originality/value This study extends the current understanding of stereotype threat and proposes a new self-presentational strategy, that has not been documented yet in the literature (i.e. inability signaling), that consumers use to deal with the dissociative threat.
Thesis
Women remain underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, perhaps in part because of the prevalent experience of stereotype threat. Stereotype threat leads to a ruminative cycle of negative thoughts and emotions resulting in decreased performance and motivation. It is expected that adopting a distanced self-perspective can disrupt this ruminative cycle and buffer the downstream negative effects of stereotype threat. Study 1 tests this by asking college women of all majors to adopt a self-distanced perspective while completing a math exam that created stereotype threat. Study 1 suggests that adopting a self-distanced perspective can increase women’s motivation and performance on a math exam. Study 2a aimed to replicate these effects among a sample of women highly invested in the STEM realm and to extend the findings to strength of STEM identity and commitment to future plans in STEM. Generally, adopting a self-distanced perspective led to increases in motivation in both solvable and unsolvable math exam problems, self-reported strength of STEM identity, and commitment to future plans. Study 2b sought to understand how the presence of stereotype threat interacted with self-perspective by examining the motivation and performance of STEM men while utilizing a self-distanced perspective. Contrasting Studies 2a and Study 2b demonstrated that self-distancing influenced motivation only for those experiencing stereotype threat. Study 3 examined the mechanism through which adopting a self-distanced perspective disrupted the ruminative cycle associated with stereotype threat. A thought listing task was utilized to gain insight into the thoughts and feelings women had while adopting different self-perspectives after receiving negative feedback. Women who adopted a self-distanced perspective reported significantly fewer internal and external attributions about the negative feedback they received. Study 4 assessed the influence that adopting a self-distanced perspective can have on protecting available working memory during a recall task. Female college students across all majors who adopted a self-distanced perspective demonstrated increased working memory directly following the self-perspective manipulation. Overall, adopting a self-distanced perspective was found to mitigate many of the negative effects of stereotype threat. Implications for use of self-distancing as a tool to combat stereotype threat are discussed.
Article
In September 25 2015, countries of the world adopted what is now called sustainable development goals (SDG). Each goal has specific targets to be achieved over the next fifteen (15) years. The focus of this paper was on goal five which is targeted at Gender Equity and Women Empowerment. Various factors responsible for gender inequality in Information Technology were investigated in this paper such as poor IT career counselling, technophobia, poor motivation and lack of female mentors, stereotype, competition, female marginalization and bias. A sample size of 245 was derived from the population size of 631 (the number of students in the department of Electrical/Electronic Engineering, Computer Science and Information Management Technology) Likert-5-point structured questionnaire was randomly distributed among these 245 female students in the three departments to ascertain factors affecting female involvement in Information Technology. The response was analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t-test. It was observed that Technophobia and poor motivation as well as bias and marginalization are the major factors affecting the involvement of women in Information Technology. It was also found out that though the percentage of female admitted to study these courses was very low, yet the percentage of passes was higher for females than males as can be seen in the result of 2014/2015 session used for investigation. It is recommended that for Nigeria to meet the sustainable development goal 5, concerted efforts must be made to include more women and girls in Science and Technology Engineering and Management (STEM) courses.
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This longitudinal study examined the role of teacher and student mindset and stereotype threat in the achievement gap between Chinese and Latinx English Learners. Our analytic sample consisted of 858 students ranging from 4th through 8th grade and their teachers (N = 66). This study made use of psychological survey data from students and teachers, as well as state-mandated standardized assessment outcomes for Math and English Language Arts (2017–18 and 2018–19). With hierarchical linear modeling analysis, results showed that student growth mindset was significantly associated with higher school performance and stereotype threat was significantly associated with lower school performance. Teacher growth mindset was also significantly associated with school performance, but differentially by ethnicity and grade. Practical and research implications are discussed.
Chapter
The participation of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has progressed slowly and women are widely underrepresented in higher education and top-ranking positions in many STEM fields (Ceci & Williams, 2007; Ceci, Williams, & Barnett, 2009; Eccles, 2007). As the U.S. faces shortages of trained scientists and engineers, researchers have questioned what contributes to the leaky * Corresponding Author Email: asadbj@umsl.edu. Bettina J. Casad, Abdiel J. Flores, Andrew S. Cheli et al. 2 pipeline or the phenomenon in which women students and employees leave STEM degree programs and careers at a higher rate than men (Hewlett et al., 2008). In this review we argue that interpersonal, institutional, and cultural sexism are major barriers to women's success and advancement in STEM education and careers. Using a social psychological lens, we review relevant theories and research that help explain women's underrepresentation in STEM. In this review, we examine theories and research that elucidate the role of sexism in women's underrepresentation in STEM and how various levels of sexism interact with personal characteristics to predict education and career paths in STEM. The major theoretical frameworks included in this brief review are (1) implicit prejudice, (2) social identity theory, (3) social identity threat, (4) expectancy-value models, (5) implicit intelligence theories, and (6) role theories. We conclude the review with suggestions for interventions to reduce gender gaps in STEM education and careers.
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The ADEA Faculty Diversity Toolkit provides an overview of best practices, strategies and model programs that postsecondary institutions have used to improve the recruitment and retention of historically underrepresented and marginalized faculty. The Toolkit is also meant to assist dental schools and allied programs in evaluating and designing programs to improve their faculty diversity recruitment and retention efforts.
Chapter
While the majority of mental health clinicians are white, our clients increasingly represent more diverse groups. We cannot suppose our clients as being intangible and disentangled from a social context that involves experiences of discrimination, racism, and the feeling of being “other”—a child or an adult who gets the sense they are different and are constantly stereotyped because of being nonwhite or part of other targeted groups. This chapter will focus on traumatic and difficult experiences as a result of discrimination and other hostile encounters. I’ll describe research on the mental health effects of microaggressions and discrimination and discuss stereotype and stereotype threat. Finally, as part of ongoing facilitation of a supportive therapeutic relationship, it’s important that clinicians feel comfortable in talking about differences between themselves and their clients.
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