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The study of self esteem among volunteer and non volunteer in sport

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The purpose of this research was the study of self esteem among volunteer and non volunteer in sport. The method of research was descriptive and we used field method for collecting questionnaire. The statistical populations of this research were volunteer and non volunteer students in sport associations of Iran Universities which were selected based on cluster sampling method, 252 persons (120 volunteer and 132 non volunteer) from 10 universities as statistical sample of research. Cooper Smith Questionnaire was used for collecting self esteem data. This questionnaire includes family, social, educational and general self esteem factors. The content and face validity of this questionnaire was confirmed by a group of sport management professors. In order to calculate the reliability of self esteem questionnaire was used from test-retest method and its reliability was obtained. For comparison of self esteem different dimensions between volunteers and non volunteers was used from Mann Whitney U test and comparison of self esteem was used from independent t test. The results of this research indicated that there is significant difference between self esteem and educational self esteem of volunteer and non volunteers in <0.01 level and between general, family and social self esteem of volunteer and non volunteers in <0.05 level. From between self esteem dimension, the average of family self esteem of volunteers and non volunteers ranged 0.76±0.21 and 0.7±0.22 were higher than other dimensions. From results of research can use for more attracting of students to volunteering ; since high self esteem can be reason of self-belief and advancement in all of life dimensions and this research has been indicated that this item in volunteers is more than non volunteers.
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International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences
© 2013 Available online at www.irjabs.com
ISSN 2251-838X / Vol, 4 (2): 286-290
Science Explorer Publications
The study of self esteem among volunteer and non
volunteer in sport
Reza Andam1, Asieh Ghorbanian Rajabi2, Nooshin Benar3, Seied Shahoo Hosseini4
1. Ph.D Shahrood University of Technology, Iran
2. Master science, Shomal university, Iran
3. Ph.DGuilan university ,Iran
4. Master science, Shomal university, Iran
Corresponding Author email: reza.andam@gmail.com
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this research was the study of self esteem among volunteer and non
volunteer in sport. The method of research was descriptive and we used field method for collecting
questionnaire. The statistical populations of this research were volunteer and non volunteer students
in sport associations of Iran Universities which were selected based on cluster sampling method, 252
persons (120 volunteer and 132 non volunteer) from 10 universities as statistical sample of research.
Cooper Smith Questionnaire was used for collecting self esteem data. This questionnaire includes
family, social, educational and general self esteem factors. The content and face validity of this
questionnaire was confirmed by a group of sport management professors. In order to calculate the
reliability of self esteem questionnaire was used from test-retest method and its reliability was
obtained. For comparison of self esteem different dimensions between volunteers and non
volunteers was used from Mann Whitney U test and comparison of self esteem was used from
independent t test. The results of this research indicated that there is significant difference between
self esteem and educational self esteem of volunteer and non volunteers in <0.01 level and
between general, family and social self esteem of volunteer and non volunteers in <0.05 level.
From between self esteem dimension, the average of family self esteem of volunteers and non
volunteers ranged 0.76±0.21 and 0.7±0.22 were higher than other dimensions. From results of
research can use for more attracting of students to volunteering ; since high self esteem can be
reason of self- belief and advancement in all of life dimensions and this research has been indicated
that this item in volunteers is more than non volunteers.
Key words: Family self-esteem, Sport volunteer, Student.
INTRODUCTION
Volunteerism, after economic revolution of 1970, which highlighted welfare limitations and the
importance of relationship and exploration of social activities field between private and public section, became
important (Barker et al., 2005). Today, volunteerism in most societies plays an important role. Since these
forces act as one of three groups which constitute human resource, not including them in non-profit
organizations, lead these organizations to premature elimination or even prevent their establishment (Handy
and Cnann, 2007). Based on statistics of 2001- 2003, in six developed countries (Japan, Australia, England,
Canada, Germany and US), total percentage of adults who regularly participate in volunteering activities is
between 25%-48% of these countries population (Park, 2002).
Many governments to avoid expensive costs of employees’ wages, like to develop this kind of
organizations, since by using volunteer forces, the need for employing official forces decreases and this leads to
economizing human resource. Today, government is not active in every fields and a group of people and some
groups act themselves to satisfy their needs and establish volunteering organizations (Barker et al., 2005).
As volunteers, by their presence in sport organizations, make many economic and non-economic
benefits for the organizations (Bennett and Barkensjo, 2005), they benefit from these profits too. Kemp (2002)
studied the learning process of Olympic volunteers and showed that volunteers by doing voluntary activities,
became familiar with new concepts and gained experience, improved their social skills and understood more the
role of sport (Grube and Piliavin, 2000). Volunteer`s participation in pro-social activities, builds social relations
and makes the volunteer to acquire new science and improves his/her skills and leads to increase in different
social and psychological cases (Beerli et al., 2002). Voluntary process, discusses about volunteers` personal
characteristics, their motivations and the ways for maintaining them and emphasizes social and environmental
Intl. Res. J. Appl. Basic. Sci. Vol., 4 (2), 286-290, 2013
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factors such as social protection or protective atmosphere, needs and motivations, both social and
psychological, characteristic attitudes, and situational factors which explain volunteerism (Penner, 2004).
Since studies emphasize the mutual relationship between characteristic features and voluntary
features, addressing characteristic features of volunteers, is one of the most important issues in this field
(Matsuba and Hart, 2007). Since voluntary forces in sport organizations, particularly studentship sport
associations from different parts of the country with different cultures, volunteer to work in this organization, they
should be kept in the organizations by knowing their characteristic features and using them fitted to their abilities
and characteristic features and be satisfied; since studies show that although voluntary organizations are
increasing in number, in comparison, the process of increasing the number of those who volunteer, is
decreasing (Bennett and Barkensjo, 2005).
One of the issues that can cause positive experiences for the volunteers and attract them to continue
their activities is increasing job satisfaction and self-esteem. One may volunteer because of sensitivity of
presence in voluntary activities, social responsibility and/or altruistic reasons. There are evidences that show
people volunteer because of getting job experience and socio-psychological (egoistic) reasons (Bennett and
Barkensjo., 2005; King et al., 1970). Egoistic motivations include: getting job experience, finding new friends,
and increasing self-esteem and the sense of belonging (Bennett and Barkensjo, 2005).
Mayer, Fraccastoro, McNacy, who studied the relationship between organizational self-esteem ( the
measure that members of the organization believe that can meet their needs by participating in roles which
constitute organizations` content )and different motivations of volunteer members of US Cancer association,
show that those with high organizational self-esteem, spend more days and time for voluntary activities (Mayer
et al., 2007).
Park, studied the impact of voluntary activities on middle-aged volunteers` quality of life and showed
that there was a correlation between volunteers` self-esteem, the level of voluntary activity and their quality of
life, besides, self-esteem was the most important factor which affected middle-aged women`s quality of life
(Park., 2002).
Dreger & Johnson and Farhadi who compared personal characteristics of volunteers and non-
volunteers, showed that volunteers had more self-esteem than non-volunteers (Farhadi ., 2004; Dreger,
Johnson., 2007).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The present study is descriptive and field research. Statistical population of this study in volunteers`
section is all the students who are the members of university sport associations, and non-voluntary section
include all students who are not members of sport associations who study second semester in public
universities. Statistical sample of this study in volunteers section include all students who are the members of
sport association in 10 universities who are selected by random clustered method from different geographical
regions (North, East, West, North East, North West, South East, and central). 132 non-volunteer students who
were not voluntarily active in these 10 universities are randomly selected as non-volunteer students’ sample.
A two-part questionnaire was used for data collection, which in the first part, the questions were about
volunteers` and non-volunteers` demographical information including age, gender and their experience in
participating voluntary activities, their sport history. Second part of the questionnaire included Cooper-Smith`s
(1967) adults` self-esteem questionnaire which constituted 58 questions in four dimensions of self-esteem:
educational, family, social, and general and eight lie detecting questions which its validity was confirmed by
sport management experts and its reliability was confirmed by test-retest method among 20 sample members
of the study which gained after 3 weeks. If a tested person gets more than four points in 8 lie detecting
questions, validity of the questionnaire is low and it shows that one who is tested tries to show himself/herself
better than what he/she actually is. In this study, their questionnaires have been excluded so the number of
distributed questionnaires is not equaled to that of analyzed.
RESULTS
In volunteers` section which 120 questionnaires have been distributed, and 95 of them because of
having validity have been analyzed, 68.4% were women, 82% were single, and most of them (47.4%) were
between age of 21-23, and 76.8% of them were studying in sport college. 41.4% of volunteers became familiar
with voluntary activities through university. In non-voluntary section, which 132 questionnaires have been
distributed among them and 122 questionnaires have been analyzed; 56.6% were women and 96% were
single, most of them (45%) were between the age of 18-20, and 32.8% were studying in human science
college. Table 1 shows descriptive statistics and table 2 and 3 illustrates the correlative coefficients of
volunteers` and non-volunteers` different dimensions of self-esteem. There is a significant difference between
Intl. Res. J. Appl. Basic. Sci. Vol., 4 (2), 286-290, 2013
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the priorities of non-volunteers` self-esteem dimensions (<0.01) and its Chi Square rate is 34.51. There is a
link between being volunteer in sport associations and participating in voluntary activities outside the university
(<0.05).
Among those who were participating in voluntary activities outside the university, 51.4% were sport
association volunteers and 48.6% were not active in sport association. 34.2% of volunteers and 30.3% of non-
volunteers were active in voluntary activities outside the university; it means that volunteers in sport association
were more active in voluntary activities outside the university and its Phi Crammer is 0.13. Results related to
study`s hypotheses are shown in tables 4 and 5. Study results which us achieved by using Mann- Whitney U
test show that there is a significant difference between volunteers` educational and social self-esteem and that
of non-volunteers (<0.01) and there is a significant difference between volunteers` family and general self-
esteem and that of non-volunteers. By using t test it is illustrated that there is a significant difference between
volunteer and non-volunteer students` self-esteem (<0.01). There is a significant difference among different
dimensions of volunteers` self-esteem (<0.01) and the Chi Square is 11.8. Also, there is a significant
difference among priorities of different dimensions of volunteers` self-esteem and the Chi Square is 34.51
which are illustrated in tables 6 and 7.
Table1. Descriptive statistics of volunteers` and non-volunteers` self-esteem
volunteer non-volunteer
variables
SD mean SD mean
0.21 0.76 0.22 0.70 family self-esteem
0.22 0.69 0.22 0.59 educational self-esteem
0.22 0.73 0.22 0.65 social self-esteem
0.16 0.71 0.19 0.65 general self-esteem
Table2.Correlation of different dimensions of self-esteem among non-volunteers
variables family
self-esteem
educational
self-esteem
social
self-esteem
general
self-esteem
r p r p r p r p
family self-esteem *0.22 0.015 *0.21 0.017 **0.48 0.001
educational self-esteem **0.41 0.001 **0.57 0.001
social self-esteem **0.51 0.001
general self-esteem
Coefficients (r) and p-values are calculated by Pearson correlation model.
* <0.05
** <0.01
Table3.Correlation of different dimensions of self-esteem among volunteers
variables family
self-esteem
educational
self-esteem
social
self-esteem
general
self-esteem
r p r p r p r p
family self-esteem **0.32 0.001 **0.37 0.001 **0.55 0.001
educational self-esteem **0.35 0.001 **0.62 0.001
social self-esteem **0.62 0.001
general self-esteem
Coefficients (r) and p-values are calculated by Pearson correlation model.
** <0.01
Table3. Mann- Whitney U test for studying the different dimensions of self-esteem of volunteers and non-volunteers
Wilcoxon W Mann- U Whitney Z Sig self-esteem dimension
12398 4895 1.99 0.046 family
12179.5 4676.5 -2.49 0.005 educational
12026.5 4523 -2.81 0.013 social
12369 4866 -2.02 0.043 general
Table4. t-test to study the difference between self-esteem of volunteers and non-volunteers
Upper Lower Std error Mean difference Sig df t F
0.84 0.12 0.18 0.48 0.009 215 2.63 0.126
Using t-test, it is showed that there is a significant difference between volunteers` and non-volunteers` self-esteem
(<0.01).
Study results by Mann-Whitney U test show that there is a significant difference between educational
self-esteem and social self-esteem of volunteers and non-volunteers (<0.01) and there is a significant
difference between general self-esteem and family self-esteem of volunteers and non-volunteers (<0.05).
Intl. Res. J. Appl. Basic. Sci. Vol., 4 (2), 286-290, 2013
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There is a significant difference among different dimensions of self-esteem of volunteers (<0.01) Chi
Square is 11.8 and there is a significant difference among priorities of different self-esteem dimensions of non-
volunteers (<0.01) Chi Square is 34.51.
Table 5.Ranking of different factors of volunteers` self-esteem based on Friedman test
rank mean dimensions of volunteers` self-esteem
2.83 0.76±0.21 family self-esteem
2.27 0.90±0.22 educational self-esteem
2.58 0.72±0.22 social self-esteem
2.32 0.70±0.16 general self-esteem
Table6. ranking of non-volunteers based on Friedman`s different factors of self-esteem
rank mean
volunteers` self
-esteem dimensions
2.99 0.70±0.22 family self-esteem
2.03 0.59±0.22 educational self-esteem
2.54 0.65±0.22 social self-esteem
2.43 0.65±0.2 general self-esteem
DISCUSSION
Tests show that volunteers` self-esteem is higher than that of non-volunteers. So, it can be said that
volunteers value themselves and their talents more, and one of the reasons that they participate in voluntary
activities, because they believe in their abilities and they believe that they are able to participate in activities
which have no experience in them and become successful, and can use these experiences later. These
findings are consistent with those of King & et al(1970), Leary & et al(1998), Park(2002), Robinson & et
al(2003), Atkins & et al(2005), Dreger & Johnson(2007), Hamm & et al(2008), Cemalcilar(2009) and Farhadi
(2004) (King & et al., 1970; Leary & et al., 1998; Park., 2002; Robinson & et al., 2003; Atkins & et al., 2005;
Dreger & Johnson., 2007; Hamm & et al., 2008; Cemalcilar., 2009; and Farhadi., 2004). They indicated that
volunteers in an activity should reach to a level of personality and self-assurance to be able to tolerate
problems and solve them and know themselves as members of their organizations and do their best to resolve
organizations` defects and shortages.
This issue can have two reasons; voluntary process may have an impact on volunteers` self-esteem or
those who have higher self-esteem tend to participate in voluntary activities. In order to study this cause and
effect in details, volunteers who are new members of sport associations should participate in some
psychological tests. These tests can be taken from those who are about to leave the associations and the
results of pre-tests and post-tests can be compared and their Condition can be anticipated.
There is a significant difference between family self-esteem of volunteers and non-volunteers. Since
family, particularly parents, have an important role in increasing self -confidence and self-esteem of their
children, students who live in families in which these psychological dimensions are developed, have more self-
assurance and have enough self-confidence to become a member in different groups such as sport
associations. Studies show that volunteers` parents` education level is higher than that of non -volunteers` and
usually parents with higher education develop their children`s skills and care more about them.
There is a significant difference between educational self-esteem of volunteers and non-volunteers.
Those who are present in sport associations, because of believing of their abilities in education field and know it
positive, spend time for voluntary activities; besides this voluntary activity makes them to experience more and
get ready for their future job.
There is a significant difference between social self-esteem of volunteers and non-volunteers. Since
those who want to become volunteer in sport associations should have high social relations with athletes and
universities sport managers in order to manage works and remind students and athletes about their duties, they
should have the skill to have social relation with these two groups.
There is a significant difference between general self-esteem of volunteers and non-volunteers. Those
with no experience who enter an organization in which activity is not obligatory and all of its members are
volunteers should have tolerance and high level of self-confidence in order to stay in the organization and not to
get disappointed and frustrated. So, it seems clear that general self-esteem of them is higher than their peers in
the same age who are not volunteers.
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... (Song et al., 2019) Throughout the review, only one study was found specifically related to Muslim students and self-esteem. It was conducted in Iran universities among volunteers and non-volunteers where it was found out that volunteerism is significantly related to self-esteem level (Andam et al., 2013). ...
... In another study, there was a positive and significant correlation between Islamic prayer and wellbeing (Achour et al., 2019) With regards to other Islamic practices, the findings of frequency of reading Quran, frequency of charity, frequency of religious knowledge seeking, and supererogatory fasting were not significantly associated with religiosity in this study, which is opposite with previous studies which reported significant association with self-esteem. (Andam et al., 2013;French et al., 2008;Javanbakht et al., 2010;Z. H. Khan et al., 2018). ...
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